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1

Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

Weisenberg, Julia

2009-01-01

2

Interpreting ABF - a language for document construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an interpreter for ABF, a language for constructing legal documents. The ABF language defines both commands to develop documents and commands to manipulate those documents. The language has typical programming constructs for sequence, selection, and repetition but also allows the user other capabilities to aid in document construction; the user can modify the program while it is

H. Harr; Martha W. Evens; J. Sprowl

1987-01-01

3

Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

Seal, Brenda C.

2004-01-01

4

25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

2011-04-01

5

25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

2010-04-01

6

Psychological testing of sign language interpreters.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11 held Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) certification. Six formal tests, the Quick Neurological Screening Test-II, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Test of Visual-Motor Skills (TVMS), the d2 Test of Attention, the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), were administered to the interpreters. Average scores were high on most of the tests; differences across the three groups were not statistically significant. Results from only one test, the d2 Test of Attention, were significantly correlated with interpreter level. Comparisons between educational and community interpreters also revealed no differences. Personality traits were widely distributed, but one trait, abstract reasoning, tested extremely high in 18 interpreters. Discussion of the potential implications of these results, particularly for educational interpreters, is offered. PMID:15304401

Seal, Brenda C

2004-01-01

7

Mercury Shopping Cart Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

2006-01-01

8

Language Performance, Context and the Personality of the Interpreter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting is an example of context-bound performance in which the interpreter has a prescribed role in infinitely varied contexts. The use of interpreting to train language students in confident and competent language use in less demanding contexts contributes to the development of both interpersonal skills and the ability to switch language…

Henderson, John

9

Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

Cheatham, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

10

Cart Wheels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

Peck, Edson R.

1978-01-01

11

Incremental Interpretation in Second Language Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which native and non-native readers interpret English sentences incrementally was investigated by examining plausibility effects on reanalysis processes. Experiment 1 required participants to read sentences word by word and to make on-line plausibility judgements. The results showed that natives and non-natives immediately computed…

Williams, John N.

2006-01-01

12

Interpreting Language Arts Research for the Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of the accumulating fund of language-related information available to teachers is the result of several developments: (1) There has been an increase in the amount of available research data; (2) The computer has made possible research previously impossible to design; (3) Data are more readily available through centers with acronymic…

Leeper, Robert R., Ed.

13

Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

2001-01-01

14

Interpreting ABF—a language for document construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an interpreter for ABF, a language for constructing legal documents. The ABF language defines both commands to develop documents and commands to manipulate those documents. The language has typical programming constructs for sequence, selection, and repetition but also allows the user other capabilities to aid in document construction; the user can modify the program while it is

H. Harr; M. W. Evens; J. Sprowl

1987-01-01

15

Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher-order programming languages (i.e., languages in which procedures or labels can occur as values) are usually defined by interpreters that are themselves written in a programming language based on the lambda calculus (i.e., an applicative language such as pure LISP). Examples include McCarthy's definition of LISP, Landin's SECD machine, the Vienna definition of PL\\/I, Reynolds' definitions of GEDANKEN, and recent

John C. Reynolds

1998-01-01

16

Social construction of American sign language--English interpreters.  

PubMed

Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English interpreters, such as learners' age and education and the characteristics of good citizens within the Deaf community. According to the participants, younger students were adept at language acquisition, whereas older learners more readily understood the purpose of lessons. Children of deaf adults were seen as more culturally aware. The participants' beliefs echoed the theories of P. Freire (1970/1970) that educators consider the reality of each student and their praxis and were responsible for facilitating student self-awareness. Important characteristics in the social construction of students included independence, an appropriate attitude, an understanding of Deaf culture, ethical behavior, community involvement, and a willingness to pursue lifelong learning. PMID:18424772

McDermid, Campbell

2009-01-01

17

Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

1997-01-01

18

Interpreting autism: a critique of Davidson on thought and language  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Donald Davidson's account of interpretation purports to be a priori, though I argue that the empirical facts about interpretation, theory of mind, and autism must be considered when examining the merits of Davidson's view. Developmental psychologists have made plausible claims about the existence of some people with autism who use language but who are unable to interpret the minds of others. This empirical claim undermines Davidson's theoretical claims that all speakers must be interpreters of other speakers and that one need not be a speaker in order to be a thinker. The falsity of these theses has consequences for other parts of Davidson's world-view; for example, it undermines his argument against animal thought. Donald Davidson's work on thought and language strikes me as a paradigm example of the limitations of an exclusively conceptual approach to the philosophy of mind. A lack of concern for the claims of experimental psychology can lead one down a path towards developing a philosophical theory of the mind which, though coherent, is disconnected from the world as understood through the sciences. In order to defend the claim that one's theory corresponds to the actual state of affairs in the world, there must be at least some evidence that the world is the way presupposed by the theory. Merely showing that a theory is consistent is not sufficient justification. My concern is that Davidson does not have the strings

Kristin Andrews; Issn -/print/issn -x/online//- Taylor

19

Cable-Dispensing Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

Bredberg, Alan S.

2003-01-01

20

Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

2006-01-01

21

Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I show how a conversational process that takes simple, intuitively meaningful steps may be understood as a sophisticated computation that derives the richly detailed, complex representations implicit in our knowledge of language. To develop the account, I argue that natural language is structured in a way that lets us formalize grammatical…

Stone, Matthew

2004-01-01

22

Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

2010-01-01

23

Wikipedia-based Semantic Interpretation for Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate representation of natural language semantics requires access to vast amounts of common sense and domain-speciflc world knowledge. Prior work in the fleld was based on purely statistical techniques that did not make use of background knowledge, on limited lexicographic knowledge bases such as WordNet, or on huge manual efiorts such as the CYC project. Here we propose a novel

Evgeniy Gabrilovich; Shaul Markovitch

2009-01-01

24

Recognizing & interpreting Indian Sign Language gesture for Human Robot Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel approach towards recognizing of Indian Sign Language (ISL) gestures for Humanoid Robot Interaction (HRI). An extensive approach is being introduced for classification of ISL gesture which imparts an elegant way of interaction between humanoid robot HOAP-2 and human being. ISL gestures are being considered as a communicating agent for humanoid robot which is being used

Anup Nandy; Soumik Mondal; Jay Shankar Prasad; Pavan Chakraborty; G. C. Nandi

2010-01-01

25

Oxen Pulling Cart  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Ox-pulled carts are still used on rural dirt roads in Paraguay. The oxen push against a rough log laid in front of their withers. Large wooden wheels work well on dry roads. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56...

26

Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

2005-01-01

27

An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

28

Interpreting as a Language Teaching Technique. Proceedings of a Conference (University of Salford, England, January 2-5, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers presented at a conference on the use of simultaneous, consecutive, and other forms of interpreting as features of foreign language teaching and learning in British higher education include the following: "Liaison Interpreting as a Communicative Language-Learning Exercise" (H. A. Keith); "Interpreting and Communicating: Problems for the…

Thomas, Noel, Ed.; Towell, Richard, Ed.

29

[Are deaf patients in Germany informed about their legal rights for a sign language interpreter?].  

PubMed

Deaf citizens are confronted with barriers in a health-care system shaped by hearing people. Therefore the German legislature provides a supply with sign language interpreters at the expense of the health insurances. The present study initially examines in how far the deaf are informed about this and use said interpreters. Traditional surveys are based on spoken and written language and therefore are unsuitable for the target audience. Because of this, a cross-sectional online study was performed using sign language videos and visually oriented answers to allow a barrier-free participation. With a multivariate analysis, factors increasing deaf people's risks not to be informed of the supply with interpreters were identified: Of 841 deaf participants, 31.4% were not informed of their rights. 41.3% have experience with an interpreter at the doctor's and report a mainly trouble-free reimbursement of costs. Young and modestly educated deaf have a higher risk of not being informed of the interpreter supply. Further information is necessary to provide equality of opportunities to deaf patients utilising medical benefits. PMID:22275064

Höcker, J T; Letzel, S; Münster, E

2012-12-01

30

Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly…

Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

2006-01-01

31

Deaf Culture and Music: The Role of Sign Language Interpreters within Live Music Performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the notion of music being a part of a deaf individual’s life may seem contradictory, there is evidence that music is and has been a part of many deaf people’s lives. Music is and has been a part of the Deaf culture, including, but not limited to, Deaf musicians, utilizing pianos to teach speech, and sign language interpreters at

Amanda Summers

2012-01-01

32

SDMOQL: An OQL-based Data Mining Query Language for Map Interpretation Tasks  

E-print Network

SDMOQL: An OQL-based Data Mining Query Language for Map Interpretation Tasks Donato Malerba, 70125 Bari, Italy {malerba, appice, vacca}@di.uniba.it Abstract. Spatial data mining denotes. An important application of spatial data mining methods is the extraction of knowledge from a Geographic

Malerba, Donato

33

Inverted Pendulum Cart Assembly Instructions MEM 639 Figure 1. All parts of the cart assembly  

E-print Network

Inverted Pendulum Cart Assembly Instructions ­ MEM 639 Figure 1. All parts of the cart assembly Figure 2. Attaching the pendulum cart to the pivot plate 1. Slide the pendulum cart arm into the opening of the pivot plate. 2. Secure the pendulum cart arm in place by inserting a dowel (4) through the through holes

Oh, Paul

34

fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.  

PubMed

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

2014-07-17

35

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

36

Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

37

Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

Warhol, Larisa

2011-01-01

38

The Impact of Patient Language Proficiency and Interpreter Service Use on the Quality of Psychiatric Care: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of limited English proficiency and use of interpreters on the quality of psychiatric care. Methods A systematic literature search for English-language publications was conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, and CINAHL and by review of the reference lists of included articles and expert sources. Of 321 citations, 26 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria by reporting primary data on the clinical care for psychiatric disorders among patients with limited proficiency in English or in the providers’ language. Results Little systematic research has addressed the impact of language proficiency or interpreter use on the quality of psychiatric care in contemporary US settings. Therefore, the literature to date is insufficient to inform evidence-based guidelines for improving quality of care among patients with limited English proficiency. Nonetheless, evaluation in a patient’s non-primary language can lead to incomplete or distorted mental status assessment whereas assessments conducted via untrained interpreters may contain interpreting errors. Consequences of interpreter errors include clinicians’ failure to identify disordered thought or delusional content. Use of professional interpreters may improve disclosure and attenuate some difficulties. Diagnostic agreement, collaborative treatment planning, and referral for specialty care may be compromised. Conclusions Clinicians should become aware of the types of quality problems that may occur when evaluating patients in a non-primary language or via an interpreter. Given demographic trends in the US, future research should aim to address the deficit in the evidence base to guide clinical practice and policy. PMID:20675834

Bauer, Amy M.; Alegría, Margarita

2010-01-01

39

Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second…

Kwak, Hye-Young

2010-01-01

40

Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2012-01-01

41

Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children  

MedlinePLUS

... 638-2772 • www.cpsc.gov • www.SaferProducts.gov Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to ... are treated in U.S. hospital emergency rooms for falls from shopping carts. Falls from shopping carts are ...

42

Occupational Upper Extremity Symptoms in Sign Language Interpreters: Prevalence and Correlates of Pain, Function, and Work Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive role of work demands, occupational stressors, and ergonomic risk factors in work-related upper extremity (UE) disorders remains unclear. Professional sign language interpreting, which involves exposure of the upper limbs to a combination of potential ergonomic and psychosocial stressors represents a unique occupational group to investigate the multivariate nature of UE disorders. The present study reports data on the

Michael Feuerstein; Ann Marie Carosella; Lolita M. Burrell; Liza Marshall; James Decaro

1997-01-01

43

Nonlinguistic Deficits of Children with Language Disorders Complicate the Interpretation of Their Nonverbal IQ Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administration of nonverbal IQ tests to 12 children with normal language and 12 with language impairments (ages 8-10) revealed that the children with language impairments had lower scores than controls, and that nonlinguistic deficits of children with language impairments adversely affected their responses to specific types of items on nonverbal…

Swisher, Linda; And Others

1994-01-01

44

NaturalLanguage Interpretation in Prolog Bjorn Gamback Jussi Karlgren Christer Samuelsson  

E-print Network

@sics.se Natural Language Processing Group SICS --- Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Box 1263, S--164 28 KISTA, Sweden #12; ii #12; ABSTRACT iii Abstract This booklet introduces natural­language processing­ language processing system is to translate an input utterance stated in a natural language (such as English

Gambäck, Björn

45

Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

Sadler, Karen L.

2009-04-01

46

Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

Mungan, Carl E.

2012-01-01

47

The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

1995-01-01

48

CART (Communication Access Realtime Translation). PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication Access Realtime Translation--(CART)--is the instant translation of the spoken word into English text performed by a CART reporter using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and realtime software. The text is then displayed on a computer monitor or other display device for the student who is deaf or hard of hearing to read. This…

Larson, Judy, Comp.

1999-01-01

49

Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date  

E-print Network

: A motor vehicle that is (i) designed for off road use; (ii) powered by an engine of no more than 25/utility vehicle force a pedestrian off of a sidewalk. Golf carts/utility vehicles shall also afford the rightSUBJECT: Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date: 8-3-10 Policy Number: 4.1.6 Supersedes: EH

Fernandez, Eduardo

50

Transportable X-ray cart  

SciTech Connect

The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

NONE

1995-12-01

51

The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

Logan, Debra M.

2010-01-01

52

Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language  

PubMed Central

Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

Musolino, Julien

2013-01-01

53

The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

2007-01-01

54

Framing and Text Interpretation Across Languages and Cultures: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the reading traditions and practices that influence the interpretation of two text types, academic and general text, by postgraduate students from Thailand and India studying in the areas of business, humanities, engineering/science, and health sciences. Data were collected from case studies conducted at an Australian university.…

Bell, Joyce

2000-01-01

55

Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (ages 4 ; 1 to 6 ; 4) and typically developing (TD) children (ages 3 ; 5 to 6 ; 5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from…

Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

2010-01-01

56

Salience and Context: Interpretation of Metaphorical and Literal Language by Young Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asperger's Syndrome (AS) involves difficulties in social communication but no delays in language or cognitive development. According to the received view, individuals with AS are biased toward the literal and are insensitive to contextual cues. According to the graded salience hypothesis (Giora, 1997, 2003), participants with AS and controls would be sensitive to both context and degree of salience rather

Rachel Giora; Oshrat Gazal; Idit Goldstein; Ofer Fein; Argyris Stringaris

2012-01-01

57

GRAMPS: a graphics language interpreter for real-time, interactive, three-dimensional picture editing and animation  

SciTech Connect

GRAMPS, a graphics language interpreter has been developed in FORTRAN 77 to be used in conjunction with an interactive vector display list processor (Evans and Sutherland Multi-Picture-System). Several of the features of the language make it very useful and convenient for real-time scene construction, manipulation and animation. The GRAMPS language syntax allows natural interaction with scene elements as well as easy, interactive assignment of graphics input devices. GRAMPS facilitates the creation, manipulation and copying of complex nested picture structures. The language has a powerful macro feature that enables new graphics commands to be developed and incorporated interactively. Animation may be achieved in GRAMPS by two different, yet mutually compatible means. Picture structures may contain framed data, which consist of a sequence of fixed objects. These structures may be displayed sequentially to give a traditional frame animation effect. In addition, transformation information on picture structures may be saved at any time in the form of new macro commands that will transform these structures from one saved state to another in a specified number of steps, yielding an interpolated transformation animation effect. An overview of the GRAMPS command structure is given and several examples of application of the language to molecular modeling and animation are presented.

O'Donnell, T.J.; Olson, A.J.

1981-08-01

58

Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy  

E-print Network

Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy Giri Vijayaraghavan-2002. Quality Week 2002 The Bug TaxonomyThe Bug Taxonomy · An outline that categorizes and lists a large number of potential bugs. · The tester who uses the taxonomy can sample from the list, selecting a potential problem

59

Hemispheric asymmetry in interpreting novel literal language: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts of the frontal positivity, we suggest that both frontal positivities reflect learning mechanisms involving prediction based on statistical regularities in language (LH) and world knowledge (RH). PMID:23376053

Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

2013-04-01

60

Environment Programming in CArtAgO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CArtAgO is a platform and infrastructure providing ageneral-purpose programming model for building shared computational worlds - referred here as work environments - that agents, possibly belonging to heterogeneous agent platforms, can exploit to work together inside a Multi-Agent System. Being based on the A&A (Agents and Artifacts) conceptual model, CArtAgO work environments are modelled and engineered interms of set of artifacts programmed by MAS designers, collected in workspaces. From the agent view point, artifacts are first-class entities representing resources and tools that agents can dynamically instantiate, share and use to support their individual and collective activities. After describing the basic motivations behind the approach, the chapter provides an overview of the programming model promoted by CArtAgO for the definition of artifacts (MAS designer’s viewpoint)and for the use of artifacts(agent’s viewpoint), using Jason as reference platform for MAS programming.

Ricci, Alessandro; Piunti, Michele; Viroli, Mirko; Omicini, Andrea

61

A pendulum-driven cart via internal force and static friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a pendulum driven cart is built using Lego robot parts. It consists of a cart with four passive wheels and a pendulum mounted on top of the cart. A DC motor is attached to the hinge joint between the cart and the pendulum which cart swing forward and backward. The cart motion is generated using its internal

Hongyi Li; Katsuhisa Furuta; Felix L. Chernousko

2005-01-01

62

MIT TechTV: Coupled Air Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video displays normal modes in a vibrating system through the motion of air carts connected by springs on an air track. When this system is at resonant frequency, symmetrical patterns called normal modes appear. The normal modes are shown in both driven and undriven cases, and the demonstration is repeated for systems of two, three, and five coupled carts. The video includes a short explanation of the demonstration. See Related Materials for an interactive Java simulation that addresses the same concept. This resource is part of a video demonstration collection created by the Physics Department at MIT.

Technical Services Group @ MIT Physics

2012-07-12

63

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Block on Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to frictional forces between a moving cart and a block sitting on top of the cart. Students are required to determine the maximum acceleration of the system so that the block will not slip. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, including conceptual analysis and a thorough discussion of the properties of both static and kinetic friction. As students set up calculations, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-12

64

Rolling friction on a wheeled laboratory cart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of rolling friction is contrasted with the static or kinetic friction that in general is also present, such as for a cylinder or ball rolling along a horizontal or inclined surface.

Mungan, Carl E.

2012-05-01

65

LivePhoto Physics: Colliding Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is a short Quicktime videos of a cart moving from left to right colliding with a stationary cart. Mass is varied in each video so that three elastic collisions and three inelastic collisions are depicted. This item is designed for computer analysis in introductory physics classrooms. The videos are 10-30 frames in length and may be viewed in step motion or real-time. Position and time data may be measured and collected by using video-analysis software. This item is part of a larger collection of short physics videos developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology Live Photo Physics Project.

2008-08-30

66

Center of Mass of Two Carts with Attached Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A spring that is attached to the ends of two carts. The spring is compressed when the two carts are placed next to each other on a low-friction track. The spring is released such that the two carts are "pushed" apart as shown in the animations (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-14

67

Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.  

PubMed

The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

2002-07-01

68

Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.

2003-01-01

69

The interaction of domain knowledge and linguistic structure in natural language processing: interpreting hypernymic propositions in biomedical text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of semantic propositions in free-text documents such as MEDLINE citations would provide valuable support for biomedical applications, and several approaches to semantic interpretation are being pursued in the biomedical informatics community. In this paper, we describe a methodology for interpreting linguistic structures that encode hypernymic propositions, in which a more specific concept is in a taxonomic relationship with a

Thomas C. Rindflesch; Marcelo Fiszman

2003-01-01

70

CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

2014-01-01

71

Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

72

Effects of Real-Time Captioning and Sign Language Interpreting on the Learning of College Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College personnel are required to provide accommodations for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (D/HoH), but few empirical studies have been conducted on D/HoH students as they learn under the various accommodation conditions (sign language interpreting, SLI, real-time captioning, RTC, and both). Guided by the experiences of students who…

Smith-Pethybridge, Valorie

2009-01-01

73

AbstractMethods and experimental results are presented for interpreting 3D spatial language descriptions used for  

E-print Network

natural language processing (NLP) problem and is limited in addressing the perceptual and cognitive. A spatial language model is proposed, and methods are presented for translating natural spatial language adults also prefer a natural language interface [2] when interacting with robots. In this paper, we

He, Zhihai "Henry"

74

The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

2011-01-01

75

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Linguistics,MEDIA,ENTERTAINMENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Advertising Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Publishing to keep up with developments overseas. INDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE Translation/Interpretation Banking

Kaminsky, Werner

76

On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

?ech, Radek

2014-12-01

77

Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

Scarino, Angela

2013-01-01

78

A Languages for Rules, Another for Symbols: Linguistic Pluralism and Interpretation of Statutes in the Kingdom of Bhutan  

E-print Network

‘Dzongkha’ was still primarily used to denote not the spoken language of Western Bhutan, but the literary exponent thereof, Chöke. Because Chöke was considered the literary form of Dzongkha, the liturgical language and the spoken tongue were... Dzongkha Development Commission, which develops textbooks, works on the compilation of dictionaries and, has the power to introduce neologisms and new spellings. In the standardization of modern Dzongkha, which is based on the cultivated form...

Simoni, Alessandro

2003-01-01

79

Performance Evaluation Model for Buyer-Carts in B2B EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though B2B EC is becoming popular, there have been not so much studies about performance evaluation methodology for B2B systems. In this paper, after analyzing buyer-carts systematically focusing on the buyer's interactional efforts on the typical buying processes of each buyer-cart, we propose a quantitative performance evaluation model. For this, we categorize buyer-carts in B2B EC as s-cart, i-cart,

Gyoo Gun Lim; Jae Kyu Lee

2004-01-01

80

A Supervisory Control Methodology for a New Pneumatic Cart-Seesaw System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mechanical configuration and control environment for a new cart-seesaw system. The system consists of a cart, which slides on the pneumatic rodless cylinder. The rodless cylinder is a double-acting one with carrier bracket on which a cart has been pinion mechanism to tracks. The task of the cart-seesaw system is to bring the cart to from any

J. Lin; J. H. Zhan; J. Chang

2007-01-01

81

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2014-10-01

82

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2012-10-01

83

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2011-10-01

84

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2013-10-01

85

143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

86

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2010-10-01

87

DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

88

VIEW OF TOOL TABLE AND CART, LOCOMOTIVE NO. 18 IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TOOL TABLE AND CART, LOCOMOTIVE NO. 18 IN BACKGROUND (BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE 1920) - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

89

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

90

Research Review: Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 2012 – Neuroscientific studies of intervention for language impairment in children: interpretive and methodological problems  

PubMed Central

Background Our ability to look at structure and function of a living brain has increased exponentially since the early 1970s. Many studies of developmental disorders now routinely include a brain imaging or electrophysiological component. Amid current enthusiasm for applications of neuroscience to educational interventions, we need to pause to consider what neuroimaging data can tell us. Images of brain activity are seductive, and have been used to give credibility to commercial interventions, yet we have only a limited idea of what the brain bases of language disorders are, let alone how to alter them. Scope and findings A review of six studies of neuroimaging correlates of language intervention found recurring methodological problems: lack of an adequate control group, inadequate power, incomplete reporting of data, no correction for multiple comparisons, data dredging and failure to analyse treatment effects appropriately. In addition, there is a tendency to regard neuroimaging data as more meaningful than behavioural data, even though it is behaviour that interventions aim to alter. Conclusion In our current state of knowledge, it would be better to spend research funds doing well-designed trials of behavioural treatment to establish which methods are effective, rather than rushing headlong into functional imaging studies of unproven treatments. PMID:23278309

Bishop, D V M

2013-01-01

91

Figurative Language: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the field of natural language processing has made considerable strides in the automated processing of standard language, figurative (i.e., non-literal) language still causes great difficulty. Normally, when we understand human language we combine the meaning of individual words into larger units in a compositional manner. However, understanding figurative language often involves an interpretive adjustment to individual words. A complete

Les Sikos; Susan Windisch Brown; Albert E. Kim; Laura A. Michaelis; Martha Palmer

92

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Language Analysis Linguistics Diplomacy vacancies. Review special hiring authorizations to be hired and to advance more quickly. Participate, Page 2) AREAS Translation/Interpretation Airline Services Management Booking and Reservations Travel

New Hampshire, University of

93

PRIM versus CART in subgroup discovery: when patience is harmful.  

PubMed

We systematically compare the established algorithms CART (Classification and Regression Trees) and PRIM (Patient Rule Induction Method) in a subgroup discovery task on a large real-world high-dimensional clinical database. Contrary to current conjectures, PRIM's performance was generally inferior to CART's. PRIM often considered "peeling of" a large chunk of data at a value of a relevant discrete ordinal variable unattractive, ultimately missing an important subgroup. This finding has considerable significance in clinical medicine where ordinal scores are ubiquitous. PRIM's utility in clinical databases would increase when global information about (ordinal) variables is better put to use and when the search algorithm keeps track of alternative solutions. PMID:20546937

Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Nannings, Barry; Dongelmans, Dave; Hasman, Arie

2010-10-01

94

Hybrid control for global stabilization of the cart-pendulum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A globally stabilizing controller for the cart–pendulum system is designed in this paper. The design procedure consists of three parts. First, find a neighborhood of the origin in which a locally stabilizing controller can be used. Second, construct a linear controller for the cart subsystem and steer the position and velocity of the cart to the origin. The last part

Jun Zhao; Mark. W. Spong

2001-01-01

95

CART Peptide Is a Potential Endogenous Antioxidant and Preferentially Localized in Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifunctional neuropeptide Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) is secreted from hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland and pancreas. It also can be found in circulatory system. This feature suggests a general role for CART in different cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that CART protects mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cellular proteins and lipids against the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide,

Peizhong Mao; Charles K. Meshul; Philippe Thuillier; Natalie R. S. Goldberg; P. Hemachandra Reddy

2012-01-01

96

Modulation of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) and c-fos expression by several  

E-print Network

Modulation of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) and c-fos expression by several It has been reported that cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides can increase- and amphetamine- regulated transcript (CART) was initially isolated by PCR differential display as an up

Boyer, Edmond

97

An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

Kim, Sung-Ho

98

The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

2004-01-01

99

Acceptance Test Report for Gamma Carts A and B  

SciTech Connect

Report of Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Reports of the hardware and software tests. The objective of the testing was to verify in the shop that the hardware and software operated according to design specifications before field-testing and installation.

FULLER, P.J.

2000-03-16

100

A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

101

22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

102

A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

Theodorsson, Pall

1995-01-01

103

CARTOGRAPHIE ST101CARTOGRAPHIE ST101 CARTE : Reprsentation conventionnelle en  

E-print Network

CARTOGRAPHIE ST101CARTOGRAPHIE ST101 CARTE : Représentation conventionnelle en général plane de la 1728 - 1777 Projection utilisée pour la cartographie précise du territoire français. France recouverte

Demouchy, Sylvie

104

West Valley transfer cart control system design description  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

105

Translation and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

1995-01-01

106

Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

1995-02-01

107

The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

108

Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

1989-08-08

109

Zero-Spring-Rate Mechanism/Air Suspension Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact mechanism suspends articulating flexible structures with minimal constraints. Zero-spring-rate mechanism (ZSRM) air suspension cart used to suspend flexible, "mass-critical" articles like lightweight spacecraft undergoing such large motions as slewing, translation, and telescoping/retraction. Suspends flexible article undergoing large rigid-body motion concurrent with vibratory motion, with minimal interaction between suspended article and suspending hardware. Adaptive to active control, which reduces undesirable effects caused by friction, nonlinearity, and mass coupling. Practical for most suspension applications.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Cooley, Victor M.

1991-01-01

110

B-Cart based Agent System for B2B EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the implementation of agent based B2B e-Commerce, we design the b-Cart based B2B agent framework. B-Cart implies a buyer's shopping cart which a buyer carries to the seller's sites. The prototype agent, named AgentB, is designed to provide an effective architecture for employee's direct desktop purchasing from multiple external seller's e-marketplaces. In this paper, we propose the thirteen

Gyoo Gun Lim; Jae Kyu Lee

111

RoboCart: toward robot-assisted navigation of grocery stores by the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents RoboCart, a proof-of-concept prototype of a robotic shopping assistant for the visually impaired. The purpose of RoboCart is to help visually impaired customers navigate a typical grocery store and carry purchased items. The current hardware and software components of the system are presented. For localization, RoboCart relies on RFID tags deployed at various locations in the store.

Vladimir Kulyukin; Chaitanya Gharpure; John Nicholson

2005-01-01

112

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

113

Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Protects Beta Cells against Glucotoxicity and Increases Cell Proliferation*  

PubMed Central

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55–102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55–102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

2013-01-01

114

UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub-Area Counselor should sign below, indicating agreement about the  

E-print Network

UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan ­ Fall 2010 The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub guarantee= _____semesters Cum GPA = _________ Started MS-Cart/GIS _____________ cum credits = ________ BA 370 (Intro Cart) __________________ Geography 377 (Intro GIS) __________________ Geography 378

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

115

AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

WHITE, D.A.

1999-12-29

116

Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

2010-01-01

117

CBE Portable Wireless Monitoring System (PWMS): UFAD Systems Commissioning Cart Design Specifications and Operating Manual  

E-print Network

PC 8. Test connection with cart laptop VNC viewer; be sure the File TransferFile transfer Cart data acquisition devices WiFi USB NYT Router Internet Analysis computers (LabView) DustBox Wireless network manager UPS CBE Backup PC

Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Anwar, G.

2012-01-01

118

PREDIT 4 GO6 Politiques de transport Bornes, cartes, espaces Dcentralisation l'preuve de la technique -139 -Mars 2012  

E-print Network

(les bornes routières, les cartes magnétiques et les espaces portuaires), on constate que le vocablePREDIT 4 ­ GO6 « Politiques de transport » Bornes, cartes, espaces Décentralisation à l'épreuve de de transport » Bornes, cartes, espaces Décentralisation à l'épreuve de la technique - 140 - Mars 2012

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

120

The Development of Complex Sentence Interpretation in Typically Developing Children Compared with Children with Specific Language Impairments or Early Unilateral Focal Lesions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences "on-line", choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity…

Dick, Frederic; Wulfeck, Beverly; Krupa-Kwiatkowski, Magda; Bates, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

121

La Carte du Ciel, histoire et actualité d'un projet scientifique international  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cet ouvrage collectif analyse la genèse, le déploiement, l'abandon et les résurgences récentes de la Carte du Ciel. Au-delà de son échec avéré, la Carte du Ciel fut en effet le premier projet international astronomique de grande envergure, remarquable notamment par son organisation à l'échelle du globe. Bien plus que par son objet ou les techniques mobilisées pour sa réalisation, c'est par cette vision que la Carte du Ciel ouvre une nouvelle ère pour l'astronomie.

Lamy, J.

2008-06-01

122

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.  

PubMed

Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

2013-01-01

123

STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

1989-01-01

124

La Carte du Ciel et l'ajustement des pratiques (fin XIXe et début XXe siècle)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce chapitre s'intéresse aux modes d'organisation et de coordination qui caractérisent la Carte du Ciel. La standardisation des instruments et la normalisation des pratiques s'opèrent sur un mode directif. Les instances dirigeantes de la Carte du Ciel élaborent des règles très contraignantes pour uniformiser les opérations. Les astronomes doivent donc ajuster les normes édictées à leur expérience d'observateurs. Les débats qui agitent les conférences internationales de la Carte du Ciel réunies à Paris en 1887, 1889 et 1891, permettent d'apaiser les tensions entre prescriptions et pratiques individuelles. De plus, le Bulletin du Comité international permanent pour l'exécution de la Carte du Ciel, véritable forum informel, offre un espace inédit de discussion sur les aménagements à envisager.

Lamy, J.

2008-06-01

125

Methods and Performance of a Three-Dimensional Whole-Core Transport Code DeCART  

Microsoft Academic Search

DeCART is a three-dimensional whole-core transport code capable of performing direct core calculations at power generating conditions without involving a priori homogenized few-group constant generation. In this paper, the methods of DeCART, which are characterized by the planar method of characteristics (MOC) solutions, the cell based coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation, the subgroup method for resonance treatment and subpin

Han Gyu Joo; Jin Young Cho; Kang Seog Kim; Chung Chan Lee; Sung Quun Zee

2004-01-01

126

Using Direct Measurement Video to find the acceleration of a rocket-powered cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video of a student accelerating across a stage on a cart powered by a releasing compressed carbon dioxide from a fire extinguisher can be used to analyze constant acceleration. This video includes a to-scale ruler that students can use to find displacement, as well as a frame counter that can be used to find elapsed time. This lesson is meant to be a direct application of using the kinematic equations to solve for the acceleration of the cart.

Johnson, Rebekah

127

Peripherally injected CCK-8S activates CART positive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus in rats  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been observed in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of CART peptide inhibits food intake in rodents. The aim of the study was to determine whether intraperitoneally (ip) injected CCK-8S affects neuronal activity of PVN-CART neurons. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6 or 10 ?g/kg CCK-8S or 0.15 M NaCl ip (n = 4/group). The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons was determined in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). CCK-8S dose-dependently increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the PVN (mean ± SEM: 102 ± 6 vs. 150 ± 5 neurons/section, p < 0.05) and compared to vehicle treated rats (18 ± 7, p < 0.05 vs. 6 and 10 ?g/kg CCK-8S). CCK-8S at both doses induced an increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the NTS (65 ± 13, p < 0.05, and 182 ± 16, p < 0.05). No effect on the number of c-Fos neurons was observed in the ARC. Immunostaining for CART and c-Fos revealed a dose-dependent increase of activated CART neurons (19 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 7; p < 0.05), only few activated CART neuron were observed in the vehicle group (1 ± 0). The present observation shows that CCK-8S injected ip induces an increase in neuronal activity in PVN-CART neurons and suggests that CART neurons in the PVN may play a role in the mediation of peripheral CCK-8S's anorexigenic effects. PMID:20307613

Noetzel, Steffen; Inhoff, Tobias; Goebel, Miriam; Taché, Yvette; Veh, Rüdiger W.; Bannert, Norbert; Grötzinger, Carsten; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Mönnikes, Hubert; Kobelt, Peter

2014-01-01

128

Differential distribution and energy status-dependent regulation of the four CART neuropeptide genes in the zebrafish brain.  

PubMed

The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide has been implicated in the neural regulation of energy homeostasis across vertebrate phyla. By using gene-specific in situ hybridization, we have mapped the distribution of the four CART mRNAs in the central nervous system of the adult zebrafish. The widespread neuronal expression pattern for CART 2 and 4 suggests a prominent role for the peptide in processing sensory information from diverse modalities including olfactory and visual inputs. In contrast, CART 1 and 3 have a much more restricted distribution, predominantly located in the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (NMLF) and entopeduncular nucleus (EN), respectively. Enrichment of CART 2 and 4 in the preoptic and tuberal areas emphasizes the importance of CART in neuroendocrine functions. Starvation resulted in a significant decrease in CART-positive cells in the nucleus recessus lateralis (NRL) and nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) hypothalamic regions, suggesting a function in energy homeostasis for these neurons. Similarly, the EN emerges as a novel energy status-responsive region. Not only is there abundant and overlapping expression of CART 2, 3, and 4 in the EN, but also starvation induced a decrease in CART-expressing neurons in this region. The cellular resolution mapping of CART mRNA and the response of CART-expressing nuclei to starvation underscores the importance of CART neuropeptide in energy processing. Additionally, the regional and gene-specific responses to energy levels suggest a complex, interactive network whereby the four CART gene products may have nonredundant functions in energy homeostasis. PMID:24374761

Akash, G; Kaniganti, Tarun; Tiwari, Neeraj Kumar; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Ghose, Aurnab

2014-07-01

129

Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

2011-01-01

130

CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 min, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

Hostetler, Caroline M; Kowalczyk, Alex S; Griffin, Luana L; Bales, Karen L

2011-09-26

131

Time optimal control of pendulum-cart system  

SciTech Connect

We consider the synthesis of time optimal control which steers a pendulum hinged to a cart to a given state (e.g., the upright position), starting from arbitrary initial conditions. The control of the pendulum can system has attracted attention of many authors because of its relatively simple structure and at the same time, nontrivial nonlinearity. Various heuristic approaches combined with 1q stabilization in the vicinity of the target state were used to swing the pendulum up to the upright position and to keep it there. However, time-optimality was not achieved. We construct the time optimal control using a sequence of fixed horizon problems in which the norms of terminal states are minimized. The problems with fixed horizons are solved numerically by means of gradient optimization, with gradients determined from the solution of adjoint equations. Due to embedding the synthesis algorithms in the Matlab - Simulink environment, it is possible to track and visualize the control process as well as the results of simulation experiments.

Turnau, A.; Korytowski, A. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland)

1994-12-31

132

Portraits of Scientists: Increase Lapham's Cartes-de-visites Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase Lapham came west to Wisconsin via New York and Kentucky in 1836, and he soon established himself as one of the state's premier experts on the natural history of the Badger State. In fact, he was the state's first scientist, and by the time he died in 1875, he had created the first accurate maps of the state, made investigations into local effigy mounds, and provided his services in a host of different ways to the betterment of Wisconsinites. During these years, he also maintained correspondence with the leading geologists, botanists and other scientists of his day. He kept an album of photographs of these individuals, and this forms the basis of this online collection offered by the Wisconsin Historical Society. Merely by browsing throughout the collection, visitors will be able to view images of noted geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, botanist Asa Gray, and Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz. The collection is rounded out by an essay on these cartes-de-visite and hyper-text links to some of Lapham's seminal works, such as his 1855 book, "The Antiquities of Wisconsin".

133

Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set  

SciTech Connect

The data set containing radiation, meteorological, and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Eberhard, W.L.; Uttal, T.; Clark, K.A.; Cupp, R.E.; Dutton, E.G.; Fedor, L.S.; Intrieri, J.M.; Matrosov, S.Y.; Snider, J.B.; Willis, R.J.

1992-06-01

134

Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

1992-01-01

135

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

136

Interpreting Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

Weymouth, Patricia P.

1986-01-01

137

Les traces matérielles de la Carte du Ciel. Le cas des observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le chapitre évoque les traces matérielles de la Carte du ciel subsistant dans les observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux. Les auteurs examinent d'abord l'opération d'inventaire du patrimoine astronomique entreprise à partir du milieu des années 1990. Ils examinent ensuite les éléments concrets constituant aujourd'hui le patrimoine de la Carte du Ciel : lunettes, abris, accessoires, laboratoires, réseaux, plaques de verre, registres, machines à mesurer les clichés, et cartes.

Le Guet Tully, F.; Davoigneau, J.; Lamy, J.; de La Noë, J.; Rousseau, J.-M.; Sadsaoud, H.

2008-06-01

138

Security bugs in embedded interpreters  

E-print Network

Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

Chen, Haogang

139

Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.

Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.

2010-09-01

140

Both neuropeptide Y knockdown and Y1 receptor inhibition modulate CART-mediated appetite control.  

PubMed

Amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression has been attributed to its inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons in the hypothalamus. This study examined whether hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-containing neurons and NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) were involved in the action of AMPH. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days, and changes in feeding behavior and expression levels of NPY, CART, and POMC were assessed and compared. The results showed that both feeding behavior and NPY expression decreased during AMPH treatment, with the biggest reduction occurring on Day 2. By contrast, the expression of CART and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), a member of the POMC neurotransmission, increased with the maximum response on Day 2, directly opposite to the NPY expression results. The intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY antisense or Y1R inhibitor both modulated AMPH-induced anorexia and the expression levels of MC3R and CART. The results suggest that in the hypothalamus both POMC- and CART-containing neurons participate in regulating NPY-mediated appetite control during AMPH treatment. These results may advance the knowledge of molecular mechanism of anorectic drugs. PMID:25461972

Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Ho, Ying-Jui; Yu, Ching-Han; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih

2015-01-01

141

Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School à la Carte Food Availability*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school à la carte lines for schools’ ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006–May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each school’s à la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered “healthy” (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on à la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of “healthfulness of foods on à la carte lines,” especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive à la carte assessment tool. PMID:19909423

Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

2010-01-01

142

High incidence of intermittent care in HIV-1-infected patients in Curaçao before and after starting cART.  

PubMed

Retention in care is one of the major challenges to scaling up and maximizing the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). High attrition rates have been reported in the Caribbean region, varying from 6% to 23%. We studied the incidence of and risk factors for intermittent care in a cohort of adult HIV-1-positive patients, who entered into care in Curaçao between January 2005 and July 2009. A total of 214 therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients aged 15 years or older, entered HIV care between January 2005 and July 2009. Intermittent care was defined as at least one period of 365 days or longer in which there was no HIV care contact in Curaçao. Cox regression models were used to identify characteristics associated with time to intermittent care. In all, 203 (95%) patients could be classified as having intermittent or continuous care. The incidence of intermittent care before starting cART was 25.4 per 100 person years observation (PYO), whilst it was 6.1 per 100 PYO after starting cART. Being born outside Curaçao was associated with intermittent care before and after starting cART. Time from diagnosis to entry into care was an independent predictor for intermittent care before starting cART. Younger age was independently associated with intermittent care after starting cART. Half of the patients returned to care after intermitting care. Upon returning to care, median CD4 count was 264 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 189-401) for those who intermitted care before starting cART, and 146 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 73-436) in those who intermitted care after starting cART. In conclusion, the incidence of intermitting care is high in Curaçao, especially before starting cART, and intermitting care before starting cART is an independent predictor for starting cART late. PMID:23428308

Hermanides, H S; Holman, R; Gras, L; Winkel, C N; Gerstenbluth, I; de Wolf, F; Duits, A J

2013-01-01

143

Engineering interpretation  

E-print Network

to interpret images using a small amount of edge and corner data. The Archer, Henry Moore. 8­bit greyscale image, 591 KBytes. Artist's line drawing of The Archer. Perhaps 200 bytes of information. Edges, it is important to bear in mind the invari­ able presence of image noise. Consider this signal I

Dyer, Charles R.

144

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2011 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

145

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2003 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

146

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2006 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

147

AERI downwelling infrared radiance observations and calculations: case studies from the 1997 DOE ARM CART Water Vapor Intensive Operations Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1997 Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Water Vapor Intensive Operations Period (WVIOP) was conducted September 15-October 5, 1997 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (SGP-CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The goals of the WVIOP were to optimize the capabilities of CART instrumentation for characterizing atmospheric water vapor and construction of an

P. F. W. van Delst; D. C. Tobin; H. E. Revercomb; R. O. Knuteson

1998-01-01

148

Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of

Lenka Maletínská; Jana Maixnerová; Resha Matyšková; Renata Haugvicová; Zdeno Pirník; Alexander Kiss; Blanka Železná

2008-01-01

149

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

150

Volunteer Community Language Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

151

Energy and passivity based control of the double inverted pendulum on a cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the design of a nonlinear controller for the double inverted pendulum (DIP), a system consisting of two inverted pendulums mounted on a cart. The swingup controller bringing the pendulums from any initial position to the unstable up-up position is designed based on passivity properties and energy shaping. While the swingup controller drives the DIP into a region

Wei Zhong; Helmut Rock

2001-01-01

152

MOBILE AGENTS | | | |DS HOME ARCHIVES ABOUT US SUBSCRIBE |SEARCH CART August 2002  

E-print Network

MOBILE AGENTS | | | |DS HOME ARCHIVES ABOUT US SUBSCRIBE |SEARCH CART August 2002 Back to Article Future Directions for Mobile Agent Research David Kotz, Robert Gray, and Daniela Rus Dartmouth College· he field of mobile agents should shift its emphasis toward mobile code, in all its forms, rather than

Kotz, David

153

One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

Wee, Loo Kang

2012-01-01

154

Connecting your Mobile Shopping Cart to the Internet-of-Things  

E-print Network

and the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) raisewhich is representati a growing interest for the retail inConnecting your Mobile Shopping Cart to the Internet-of-Things Nicolas Petitprez, Romain Rouvoy of the Internet-of-Things by adopting the REST architectural style and semantic web standards to navigate product

Boyer, Edmond

155

Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System  

E-print Network

. In this paper the method of controlled Lagrangians is applied to the discrete cart-pendulum system. This study controllers for mechanical systems. The paper is organized as follows: In Sections II and III we review discrete mechanics and the method of con- trolled Lagrangians for stabilization of (relative) equilibria

Zenkov, Dmitry

156

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience.  

PubMed

While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community resilience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention. PMID:24187884

Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Neas, Barbara R; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Van Horn, Richard L

2013-01-01

157

CART DIAGNOSIS OF WATERSHED IMPAIRMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many factors ( stressors ) can lead to increased concentrations of nutrients and sediments, and these factors change across watersheds. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a statistical approach that can be used to "diagnose" which factors are important stressors on a pe...

158

SURVEY OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE CONTAMINATION OF NEST RUN EGG CARTS IN SHELL EGG PROCESSING FACILITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enterobacteriaceae are frequent contaminants of food and several members of this bacterial family are human pathogens. High levels in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs ...

159

West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

160

A CART Based Mechanism for Collision Detection in IEEE 802.11  

E-print Network

A CART Based Mechanism for Collision Detection in IEEE 802.11 Muhammad Naveed Aman and Biplab control (MAC) protocols such as IEEE 802.11. In particular, such mechanisms affect the backoff mechanism Networks, Collision Detection, IEEE 802.11, Local Area Networks. I. INTRODUCCION L uso de tecnologías

Sikdar, Biplab

161

Sequential Composition for Navigating a Nonholonomic Cart in the Presence of Obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we consider the problem of safely steering a planar nonholonomic cart around obstacles to reach a goal state. We achieve this by the decomposition of the free workspace into triangular tori and generation of local smooth feedback laws that drive the robot from one cell to an adjoining cell. These control laws exploit the fact that for

Vinutha Kallem; Adam T. Komoroski; Vijay Kumar

2011-01-01

162

CART attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress response induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion through upregulating BDNF synthesis and secretion.  

PubMed

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), a neuropeptide, has shown strong neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report a new effect of CART on ER stress which is induced by cerebral I/R in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured cortical neurons, as well as a new functionality of BDNF in the neuroprotection by CART against the ER stress in cerebral I/R. The results showed that CART was effective in reducing the neuronal apoptosis and expression of ER stress markers (GRP78, CHOP and cleaved caspase12), and increasing the BDNF expression in I/R injury rat cortex both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the effects of CART on ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis and ER stress were suppressed by tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) IgG, whereas the effects of CART on BDNF transcription, synthesis and secretion were abolished by CREB siRNA. This work suggests that CART is functional in inhibiting the cerebral I/R-induced ER stress and neuronal apoptosis by facilitating the transcription, synthesis and secretion of BDNF in a CREB-dependent way. PMID:23770418

Qiu, Bin; Hu, Shengdi; Liu, Libing; Chen, Man; Wang, Lai; Zeng, Xianwei; Zhu, Shigong

2013-07-12

163

Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Signaling within the Paraventricular Thalamus Modulates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been demonstrated to play a role in regulating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of various drugs of abuse. A recent study demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of CART negatively modulates reinstatement of alcohol seeking, however, the site(s) of action remains unclear. We investigated the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) as a potential site of relapse-relevant CART signaling, as this region is known to receive dense innervation from CART-containing hypothalamic cells and to project to a number of regions known to be involved in mediating reinstatement, including the nucleus accumbens (NAC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Methodology/Principal Findings Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine before being extinguished to a set criterion. One day following extinction, animals received intra-PVT infusions of saline, tetrodotoxin (TTX; 2.5 ng), CART (0.625 µg or 2.5 µg) or no injection, followed by a cocaine prime (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Animals were then tested under extinction conditions for one hour. Treatment with either TTX or CART resulted in a significant attenuation of drug-seeking behaviour following cocaine-prime, with the 2.5 µg dose of CART having the greatest effect. This effect was specific to the PVT region, as misplaced injections of both TTX and CART resulted in responding that was identical to controls. Conclusions/Significance We show for the first time that CART signaling within the PVT acts to inhibit drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking behaviour, presumably by negatively modulating PVT efferents that are important for drug seeking, including the NAC, mPFC and BLA. In this way, we identify a possible target for future pharmacological interventions designed to suppress drug seeking. PMID:20886038

James, Morgan H.; Charnley, Janine L.; Jones, Emma; Levi, Emily M.; Yeoh, Jiann Wei; Flynn, Jamie R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Dayas, Christopher V.

2010-01-01

164

Discourse coherence and gesture interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In face-to-face conversation, communicators orchestrate multimodal contributions that meaning- fully combine the linguistic resources of spoken language and the visuo-spatial affordances of gesture. In this paper, we characterise this meaningful combination in terms of the COHERENCE of gesture and speech. Descriptive analyses illustrate the diverse ways gesture interpretation can supplement and extend the interpretation of prior gestures and accompanying speech.

Alex Lascarides; Matthew Stone

2009-01-01

165

Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

166

Orexigenic effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) after injection into hypothalamic nuclei in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.  

PubMed

1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the orexigenic effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide on feeding regulation following its injection into discrete nuclei of the hypothalamus. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley diabetic rats were injected with 0.06 or 0.2 nmol CART (55-102) or an equal volume of saline into various hypothalamic areas and food intake was then measured 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after injection. Changes in hypothalamic CART mRNA expression in response to dietary intervention (2 weeks feeding of a high-fat diet) were assessed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Possible interactions between neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were evaluated in an in vitro hypothalamic explant system. Neuropeptide immunoreactivities (IR) were determined using radioimmunoassays (RIAs). 3. At 0.2 nmol, CART (55-102) significantly increased feeding in fasted diabetic rats after injection into the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Injection of 0.2 nmol CART (55-102) into the ARC of satiated diabetic rats also increased food intake that was similar in both magnitude and time-course to the response seen in fasted diabetic rats. Food intake in diabetic rats on a high-fat diet was clearly increased after injection of 0.2 nmol CART (55-102) into the ARC, as was CART mRNA expression. Incubation of hypothalamic explants with 0.4, 4 and 40 nmol/L CART (55-102) for 45 min significantly increased NPY IR, whereas exposure of explants to 4 nmol/L CART (55-102) increased AGRP IR and CRH IR. None of the concentrations of CART (55-102) tested had any effect on ?-MSH IR. 4. Together, these data provide further evidence that hypothalamic CART has an orexigenic effect, which, in the ARC, may stimulate the release of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides. PMID:20626417

Hou, Jun; Zheng, De-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Yin; Zhou, Shi-Wen

2010-10-01

167

A new discrete mechanics approach to swing-up control of the cart-pendulum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a new swing-up control method for the cart-pendulum system via discrete mechanics. The swing-up control law consists of two parts: the swing-up stage and the stabilization one. In the swing-up stage, we use a controller based on a discrete Lyapunov function and it can swing up the pendulum. Then, in the stabilization stage, we utilize a stabilizing controller based on the linearized system and discrete-time optimal regulator theory. In addition, transformation methods from discrete control inputs into continuous zero-order hold inputs are introduced. From some simulation results, we can confirm that the cart-pendulum system is swung up and stabilized by our new method.

Kai, Tatsuya; Bito, Kensuke

2014-01-01

168

GENE POOL -El joc de cartes de l'ADN per Mark Goadrich  

E-print Network

GENE POOL - El joc de cartes de l'ADN per Mark Goadrich http://games.goadrich.com Instruccions 2 bases de la vostra mà, per modificar i reordenar una seqüència d'ADN comuna. Només vosaltres coneixeu) i només la fareu pública quan hagueu aconseguit la seqüència d'ADN correcta. Durant el joc anireu

Goadrich, Mark

169

Practical Swing-up Control System Design of Cart-type Double Inverted Pendulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an RTLinux-based swing-up control system design of a cart-type double inverted pendulum experimental setup. First, 4 steps control strategy for the inverted pendulum system is introduced. Second, for real-time application of the system, RTLinux-based control of first step and second step is mainly concerned, where the proposed control scheme swings up the first pendulum with controlling the

Akira Inoue; Mingcong Deng; Tomohiko Tanabe

2006-01-01

170

TD-TP Lithosphre Carte reprsente les terrains les plus anciens au contact du basalte  

E-print Network

TD-TP Lithosphère Carte représente les terrains les plus anciens au contact du basalte #12;Age de la mise en place des basaltes de la croûte océanique. Le trait rouge sombre indique la position donné de la plaque sera donné par l'âge du sédiment les plus ancien au contact du basalte. C'est celui

Demouchy, Sylvie

171

Interpreting uncertainty terms.  

PubMed

Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

Holtgraves, Thomas

2014-08-01

172

Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

Hahn, Andrew S.

2012-01-01

173

Development of prognostic indicators using Classification And Regression Trees (CART) for survival  

PubMed Central

The development of an accurate prognosis is an integral component of treatment planning in the practice of periodontics. Prior work has evaluated the validity of using various clinical measured parameters for assigning periodontal prognosis as well as for predicting tooth survival and change in clinical conditions over time. We critically review the application of multivariate Classification And Regression Trees (CART) for survival in developing evidence-based periodontal prognostic indicators. We focus attention on two distinct methods of multivariate CART for survival: the marginal goodness-of-fit approach, and the multivariate exponential approach. A number of common clinical measures have been found to be significantly associated with tooth loss from periodontal disease, including furcation involvement, probing depth, mobility, crown-to-root ratio, and oral hygiene. However, the inter-relationships among these measures, as well as the relevance of other clinical measures to tooth loss from periodontal disease (such as bruxism, family history of periodontal disease, and overall bone loss), remain less clear. While inferences drawn from any single current study are necessarily limited, the application of new approaches in epidemiologic analyses to periodontal prognosis, such as CART for survival, should yield important insights into our understanding, and treatment, of periodontal diseases. PMID:22133372

Nunn, Martha E.; Fan, Juanjuan; Su, Xiaogang; McGuire, Michael K.

2014-01-01

174

Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

175

Foreign Languages and Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation…

Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

1974-01-01

176

Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

Björkman, Beyza

2014-01-01

177

A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

Robison, Arch Douglas

1987-01-01

178

Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Opportunities  

E-print Network

Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Opportunities in Intelligent Transportation Barbara Di Eugenio Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago #12;Di Eugenio NLP Natural Language Processing Natural Language Processing (NLP) encompasses all computational aspects regarding the interpretation

Illinois at Chicago, University of

179

Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs? — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates.

180

Chronic central infusion of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART 55-102): effects on body weight homeostasis in lean and high-fat-fed obese rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is expressed within hypothalamic nuclei implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour. It is up-regulated by leptin, and CART-derived peptides acutely inhibit food intake.OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to assess the long-term effects of central CART administration on food intake, body weight, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, free fatty acids and triglycerides,

F Rohner-Jeanrenaud; LS Craft; J Bridwell; TM Suter; FC Tinsley; DL Smiley; Burkhart; MA Statnick; ML Heiman; E Ravussin; JF Caro

2002-01-01

181

Integration of stress and leptin signaling by CART producing neurons in the rodent midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus  

PubMed Central

Leptin targets the brain to regulate feeding, neuroendocrine function and metabolism. The leptin receptor is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the centrally projecting Edinger–Westphal nucleus (EWcp), a region implicated in the stress response and in various aspects of stress-related behaviors. We hypothesized that the stress response by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-producing EWcp-neurons would depend on the animal’s energy state. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of changes in energy state (mimicked by low, normal and high leptin levels, which were achieved by 24 h fasting, normal chow and leptin injection, respectively) on the response of CART neurons in the EWcp of rats subjected or not to acute restraint stress. Our data show that leptin treatment alone significantly increases CART mRNA expression in the rat EWcp and that in leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice, the number of CART producing neurons in this nucleus is reduced. This suggests that leptin has a stimulatory effect on the production of CART in the EWcp under non-stressed condition. Under stressed condition, however, leptin blunts stress-induced activation of EWcp neurons and decreases their CART mRNA expression. Interestingly, fasting, does not influence the stress-induced activation of EWcp-neurons, and specifically EWcp-CART neurons are not activated. These results suggest that the stress response by the EWcp depends to some degree on the animal’s energy state, a mechanism that may contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between obesity and stress. PMID:24624061

Xu, Lu; Janssen, Donny; van der Knaap, Noortje; Roubos, Eric W.; Leshan, Rebecca L.; Myers, Martin G.; Gaszner, Balázs; Kozicz, Tamás

2014-01-01

182

Bounded Functional Interpretation Fernando Ferreira a,1  

E-print Network

Introduction In 1958 Kurt G¨odel presented an interpretation of Heyting Arithmetic HA into a quantifier assignment of formulas. In contrast with G¨odel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation, the new interpre of first-order arithmetic to quantifier-free formulas of the language of T. G¨odel's so-called functional

Oliva, Paulo

183

Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal

Julie C. Sedivy; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Craig G. Chambers; Gregory N. Carlson

1999-01-01

184

Influence of the Biosphere on Precipitation: July 1995 Studies with the ARM-CART Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ensemble sets of simulation experiments were conducted with a single column model (SCM) using the Goddard GEOS II GCM physics containing a recent version of the Cumulus Scheme (McRAS) and a biosphere based land-fluxes scheme (SSiB). The study used the 18 July to 5 August 1995 ARM-CART (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Test-bed) data, which was collected at the ARM-CART site in the mid-western United States and analyzed for single column modeling (SCM) studies. The new findings affirm the earlier findings that the vegetation, which increases the solar energy absorption at the surface together with soil and soil-moisture dependent processes, which modulate the surface, fluxes (particularly evapotranspiration) together help to increase the local rainfall. In addition, the results also show that for the particular study period roughly 50% of the increased evaporation over the ARM-CART site would be converted into rainfall with the Column, while the remainder would be advected out to the large-scale. Notwithstanding the limitations of only one-way interaction (i.e., the large-scale influencing the regional physics and not vice versa), the current SCM simulations show a very robust relationship. The evaporation-precipitation relationship turns out to be independent of the soil types, and soil moisture; however, it is weakly dependent on the vegetation cover because of its surface-albedo effect. Clearly, these inferences are prone to weaknesses of the SCM physics, the assumptions of the large-scale being unaffected by gridscale (SCM-scale) changes in moist processes, and other limitations of the evaluation procedures.

Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, D. M.; Walker, G. K.; Koster, Randal D.

2000-01-01

185

STS-113 Astronaut Herrington Moves CETA Cart in Second Scheduled Space Walk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, the delivery of the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington, is shown anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the ISS's Canadarm2, as he moves the CETA cart during the mission's second scheduled space walk. The final major task of the space walk was the relocation of the CETA cart from the Port One (P1) to the Starboard One (S1) Truss, which will allow the Mobile Transporter to move along the P1 to assist in upcoming assembly missions. The space walk lasted 6 hours, 10 minutes.

2002-01-01

186

Adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding control for the double-pendulum-and-cart system.  

PubMed

In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding controller (AFSSSC) is proposed for the swing-up and position controls of a double-pendulum-and-cart system. The proposed AFSSSC consists of a fuzzy switching controller (FSC), an adaptive fuzzy swing-up controller (FSUC), and an adaptive hybrid fuzzy sliding controller (HFSC). To simplify the design of the adaptive HFSC, the double-pendulum-and-cart system is reformulated as a double-pendulum and a cart subsystem with matched time-varying uncertainties. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is provided to learn the parameters of the output fuzzy sets for the adaptive HFSC. The FSC is designed to smoothly switch between the adaptive FSUC and the adaptive HFSC. Moreover, the sliding mode and the stability of the fuzzy sliding control systems are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFSSSC. PMID:19661002

Tao, Chin Wang; Taur, Jinshiuh; Chang, J H; Su, Shun-Feng

2010-02-01

187

Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased…

Wilder, Amanda J.

2012-01-01

188

Les cartes auto-organisatrices de Kohonen applique l'tude des communauts de micro-algues des cours d'eau  

E-print Network

Les cartes auto-organisatrices de Kohonen appliquée à l'étude des communautés de micro-algues des, Cartes auto-organisatrices de Kohonen, Bioindication. Les diatomées sont des algues microscopiques libres

Boyer, Edmond

189

Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week an...

190

Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which\\u000a is based on the ?-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based\\u000a formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular for the analysis of functional and object-oriented languages.\\u000a \\u000a The first step of the development is an analysis

René Rydhof Hansen; Jacob Grydholt Jensen; Flemming Nielson; Hanne Riis Nielson

1999-01-01

191

A comparative study of CART and PTM for modelling water age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CART (Constituent-oriented age and residence time theory) and PTM (Particle-tracking method) are two widely used numerical methods to calculate water age. These two methods are essentially equivalent in theory but their results may be different in practice. The difference of the two methods was evaluated by applying them to calculate water age in an idealized one-dimensional domain. The model results by the two methods are consistent with each other in the case with either spatially uniform flow field or spatially uniform diffusion coefficient. If we allow the spatial variation in horizontal diffusion, a term called pseudo displacement arising from the spatial variation of diffusion coefficient likely plays an important role for the PTM to obtain accurate water age. In particular, if the water particle is released at a place where the diffusion is not the weakest, the water age calculated by the PTM without pseudo displacement is much larger than that by the CART. This suggests that the pseudo displacement cannot be neglected in the PTM to calculate water age in a realistic ocean. As an example, we present its potential importance in the Bohai Sea where the diffusion coefficient varies spatially and greatly.

Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Xinyu; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Huiwang

2015-02-01

192

A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data  

SciTech Connect

Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01

193

Shark Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch and observe skulls of sharks and rays to learn about their diversity (over 400 species of sharks alone!). Background information is provided about the types and functions of shark teeth. Additional information is provided about specific types of sharks: Great White, Bull Shark, Mako Shark, Zebra Shark, and Rays. The goal of the activity is to make sharks better understood and appreciated.

2012-06-26

194

As a condition for the issuance of a disability cart permit for your cart, which you have been approved for to accommodate your mobility transport needs, and for any subsequent renewals or extensions of  

E-print Network

Exclusion Zone as illustrated on the Pedestrian Zone Access map. 2) Do NOT park within the No Parking Zones policy established under the Stanford University Pedestrian Zone policy. If you violate any one or more as illustrated on the Pedestrian Zone Access map. 3) Do NOT park your cart in any landscaped or bark area

Raymond, Jennifer L.

195

JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

196

CART and MARS For an example, take the STAT 100 students' data (N = 136), and try to predict BMI  

E-print Network

CART and MARS For an example, take the STAT 100 students' data (N = 136), and try to predict BMI from Height and Weight. The exact formula is BMI = 703 pounds (inches)2 , so what is of interest BMI ~ Height+Weight,data=survey98) bmitree node), split, n, deviance, yval * denotes terminal node

Zeng, Donglin

197

"It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

Young, Susan

2004-01-01

198

Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)  

PubMed Central

Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine exposure shifts aPVT neurons to a more excitable state (TF). We propose that the capacity of CART to reduce excitatory drive to this population balances the enhanced aPVT excitability to restore the net output of this region in the reward-seeking pathway. This is in line with previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in addiction. PMID:25309361

Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H.; Graham, Brett A.; Dayas, Christopher V.

2014-01-01

199

Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

1998-01-01

200

Monocytes as Regulators of Inflammation and HIV-Related Comorbidities during cART  

PubMed Central

Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) extends the lifespan and the quality of life for HIV-infected persons but does not completely eliminate chronic immune activation and inflammation. The low level of chronic immune activation persisting during cART-treated HIV infection is associated with the development of diseases which usually occur in the elderly. Although T-cell activation has been extensively examined in the context of cART-treated HIV infection, monocyte activation is only beginning to be recognized as an important source of inflammation in this context. Here we examine markers and sources of monocyte activation during cART-treated HIV infection and discuss the role of monocytes during cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and innate immune aging. PMID:25025081

Anzinger, Joshua J.; Butterfield, Tiffany R.; Angelovich, Thomas A.; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Palmer, Clovis S.

2014-01-01

201

Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

Zelizer, Barbie

1993-01-01

202

Data Acquisition Interpretation  

E-print Network

Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Virgin River DCIP Report Justin Granek1 1 Report #12;Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Outline 1 Data Acquisition Location Survey Specications 2 Inversion Data Errors DCIP2D DCIP3D 3 Interpretation Correlations Snowbird Tectonic

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

203

Rating evidence in treatment guidelines: a case example of when to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive asymptomatic persons.  

PubMed

Guidelines for the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in those living with HIV are provided by several national and international treatment guidelines committees. Following recent changes to some of these guidelines, there is now considerable variation between the guidelines in terms of the recommendations for initiation of cART among asymptomatic individuals with high (>350 cells/µl) CD4 cell counts. In this review we compare the schemes used for rating evidence by the various committees and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence for initiating cART at higher CD4 cell counts. PMID:24179998

Sabin, Caroline A; Cooper, David A; Collins, Simon; Schechter, Mauro

2013-07-31

204

Language Death or Language Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disappearing and no longer used languages in anthropomorphic metaphors "language death" and "language suicide." Three stages in the disappearance of several specific languages are described. Ultimately, the direct cause of "language suicide" is not disappearance of rules but disappearance of speakers; parents stop teaching the…

Denison, Norman

1977-01-01

205

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

206

Computer-interpretable Guideline Formalisms  

PubMed Central

Implementing Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) in active computer-based decision support systems promises to improve the acceptance and application of guidelines in daily practice. The model and underlying language are the core characteristics of every CIG approach. However, currently no standard model or language has been accepted by the CIG community. This aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of well-known approaches and to formulate a set of (minimal) requirements that can be used in the process of developing new CIG approaches or improving existing ones. It presents five CIG approaches (the Arden Syntax, GLIF, PROforma, Asbru and EON), followed by a general discussion of the strong points of each approach as well as their implications for future research. PMID:18806319

CLERCQ, Paul DE; KAISER, Katharina; HASMAN, Arie

2010-01-01

207

Identifying Depiction in American Sign Language Presentations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines depiction in American Sign Language (ASL) presentations. The impetus for this study came from my work as an instructor in an interpreter education program. The majority of ASL/English interpreters are second language learners of ASL, and many of them find some features of ASL challenging to learn. These features are…

Thumann, Mary Agnes

2010-01-01

208

Interpreting Technical Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpreting Technical Drawings introduces students to the various sources of information found within technical drawings and provides practice interpreting various projections. After completing this module, students should be able to identify orthographic, isometric, and sectional views and interpret key information on technical drawings. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-08-11

209

The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

2011-01-01

210

Retrograde study of CART- or NPY-neuronal projection from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus to the dorsal raphe and/or the locus coeruleus in the rat.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to reveal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)- or neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neuronal projections from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) to the dorsal raphe (DR) and/or the locus coeruleus (LC) in the rat. Our results demonstrated that CART or NPY axon terminals formed close appositions to the neuronal profiles in the DR and the LC. Thus, arcuate sections were immunostained for the CART or NPY after the injections of green RetroBeads(™) into the DR and red tracer into the LC (or vice versa). First, retrogradely-labeled CART cells were mainly observed in the lateral Arc without colchicine. Of the total population of arcuate CART neurons, DR- and LC-projecting cells were 5.7% ± 0.9% and 6.6% ± 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a subset (3.3% ± 0.7%) of CART neurons provided divergent axon collaterals to the DR and the LC. Second, retrogradely-labeled NPY cells were observed in lateral or ventral borders of the medial Arc only after colchicine injection. Of the entire NPY cell population, DR- and LC-projecting neurons were 1.5% ± 0.3% and 1.3% ± 0.3%, respectively. Only a scanty proportion (0.1% ± 0.0%) sent axon collaterals to the DR and the LC. These observations suggested that arcuate CART or NPY system might have a potential influence on the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, modulating their roles in feeding, nociception, emotional behaviors, arousal, and stress responses. Furthermore, a portion of arcuate CART neurons (along with only a few NPY cells) sending divergent axon collaterals to the DR/LC might have a simultaneous (and possibly more efficient) way to exert their specific influences on the monoaminergic nuclei. PMID:23628478

Yoon, Ye S; Lee, Ji S; Lee, Hyun S

2013-06-26

211

CarteM.Barazani(CRFJ),C.Parizot(IREMAM).Source:Cartography:OCHAInformatio C I S J O R D A N I E  

E-print Network

©CarteM.Barazani(CRFJ),C.Parizot(IREMAM).Source:Cartography:OCHAInformatio C I S J O R D A N I E I lequel l'Autorité palestinienne peut se déplacer armée Rues principales #12;©CarteM.Barazani(CRFJ)etC.Parizot(IREMAM).Source-Cartography. Barazani (CRFJ) et C. Parizot (IREMAM). Source - Cartographie: Ocha Information Management Unit, juin 2009

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Implementation of Raman lidar for profiling of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols at the SGP CART site  

SciTech Connect

There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the SGP CART (southern great plains cloud and radiation testbed) site. Research conducted at several laboratories, including our own collaboration in a previous ARM Instrument Development Project, has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We are currently building a ruggedized Raman lidar system that will reside permanently at the CART site, and that is computer-automated to minimize requirements for operator interaction. In addition to profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar will provide quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Bisson, S.E.; Blair, F.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Melfi, S.H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ferrare, R.A. [Hughes STX Corp., Lanham, MD (United States)

1994-05-01

213

CARTS A LA LOI D'OHM PRSENTS PAR DES COUCHES MINCES D'ARSENIURE DE GALLIUM  

E-print Network

108 A. �CARTS A LA LOI D'OHM PR�SENT�S PAR DES COUCHES MINCES D'ARSENIURE DE GALLIUM Par S validité de la loi d'Ohm, pour des couches minces d'arséniure de gallium portées à différentes températures, for different temperatures of gallium arsenide thin films, versus applied electrical field. The validity

Boyer, Edmond

214

Effects of pushing height on trunk posture and trunk muscle activity when a cart suddenly starts or stops moving.  

PubMed

Unexpected sudden (un)loading of the trunk may induce inadequate responses of trunk muscles and uncontrolled trunk motion. These unexpected perturbations may occur in pushing tasks, when the cart suddenly starts moving (unloading) or is blocked by an obstacle (loading). In pushing, handle height affects the user's working posture, which may influence trunk muscle activity and trunk movement in response to the perturbation. Eleven healthy male subjects pushed a 200 kg cart with handles at shoulder and hip height in a start condition (sudden release of brakes) and a stop condition (bumping into an obstacle). Before the perturbation, the baseline of the trunk inclination, internal moment and trunk extensor muscle activity were significantly higher when pushing at hip height than at shoulder height. After the perturbation, the changes in trunk inclination and internal moment were significantly larger when pushing at shoulder height than at hip height in both conditions. The opposite directions of changes in trunk inclination and internal moment suggest that the unexpected perturbations caused uncontrolled trunk motion. Pushing at shoulder height may impose a high risk of low-back injury due to the low trunk stiffness and large involuntary trunk motion occurring after carts suddenly move or stop. PMID:22317202

Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

2012-01-01

215

A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

216

Kinesin-5/Eg5 is important for transport of CARTS from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface  

PubMed Central

Here we report that the kinesin-5 motor Klp61F, which is known for its role in bipolar spindle formation in mitosis, is required for protein transport from the Golgi complex to the cell surface in Drosophila S2 cells. Disrupting the function of its mammalian orthologue, Eg5, in HeLa cells inhibited secretion of a protein called pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) but, surprisingly, not the trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) to the cell surface. We have previously reported that PAUF is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface in specific carriers called CARTS that exclude VSV-G. Inhibition of Eg5 function did not affect the biogenesis of CARTS; however, their migration was delayed and they accumulated near the Golgi complex. Altogether, our findings reveal a surprising new role of Eg5 in nonmitotic cells in the facilitation of the transport of specific carriers, CARTS, from the TGN to the cell surface. PMID:23857769

Villeneuve, Julien; van Galen, Josse; Cruz-Garcia, David; Tagaya, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

217

Language Adaptation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At certain points in their historical development, languages are not adequately equipped to serve their societies and do not offer certain communicative functions. Political and cultural domination can influence the language community to adopt a foreign language for higher communication, leaving the vernacular underdeveloped for those…

Coulmas, Florian

218

Channeling language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of Wendy Sandler & Diane Lillo-Martin. (2006). Sign Language and Linguistic Universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xxi + 547 pp. Trevor Johnston & Adam Schembri. (2007). Australian Sign Language: An Introduction to Sign Language Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xiv + 323 pp.

Richard P. Meier

2008-01-01

219

Endangered Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

Hale, Ken; And Others

1992-01-01

220

Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1985-01-01

221

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six-months beginning on July 1, 1993, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides a planning focus for the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the current plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six-months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

222

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

223

Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-01

224

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-01-01

225

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-07-01

226

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-01-01

227

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-07-01

228

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

1997-08-28

229

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1993-12-01

230

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-01-01

231

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-07-01

232

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

1999-03-10

233

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-07-01

234

The Potsdam plates of the Carte du Ciel project: I. Present inventory and plate catalogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an inventory of the Carte du Ciel (CdC) plates stored in the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam. The Potsdam CdC zone (+32° to +39°) was divided into 1232 areas and about 2200 plates from the first and second epochs were obtained within the framework of the CdC project. At present, only 977 plates (45% of all) are stored in AIP, the others got lost during the Second World War. The plates for the first epoch measurements had been obtained during the period 1893 May-1900 February. The plates for the second epoch (1913 August-1924 February) can be separated into two time intervals according to the observer and the observing method used: from 1913 August till 1914 July, and from 1916 February to 1924 February. The present work aims to provide online access to the plate information, given in the plate catalogue and is the first step to online access to the plate images digitized with flatbed scanners.

Tsvetkova, K.; Tsvetkov, M.; Böhm, P.; Steinmetz, M.; Dick, W. R.

2009-10-01

235

Equilibrium cycle pin by pin transport depletion calculations with DeCART  

SciTech Connect

As the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has matured it has become more important to utilize more advanced simulation methods. The work reported here was performed as part of the AFCI fellowship program to develop and demonstrate the capability of performing high fidelity equilibrium cycle calculations. As part of the work here, a new multi-cycle analysis capability was implemented in the DeCART code which included modifying the depletion modules to perform nuclide decay calculations, implementing an assembly shuffling pattern description, and modifying iteration schemes. During the work, stability issues were uncovered with respect to converging simultaneously the neutron flux, isotopics, and fluid density and temperature distributions in 3-D. Relaxation factors were implemented which considerably improved the stability of the convergence. To demonstrate the capability two core designs were utilized, a reference UOX core and a CORAIL core. Full core equilibrium cycle calculations were performed on both cores and the discharge isotopics were compared. From this comparison it was noted that the improved modeling capability was not drastically different in its prediction of the discharge isotopics when compared to 2-D single assembly or 2-D core models. For fissile isotopes such as U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 the relative differences were 1.91%, 1.88%, and 0.59%), respectively. While this difference may not seem large it translates to mass differences on the order of tens of grams per assembly, which may be significant for the purposes of accounting of special nuclear material. (authors)

Kochunas, B.; Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Taiwo, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01

236

Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

2015-01-01

237

Generating Alternatives: Interpreting Focus in Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates a class of context-dependent expressions--focus-sensitive particles--as a way of addressing how language users draw on contextual information to interpret expressions whose meanings are underdetermined by their forms. While the problem of context dependence has been widely studied, the question of precisely what…

Kim, Christina S.

2012-01-01

238

Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

Hyams, Nina

2007-01-01

239

Theory Interpretations in PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

240

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

Whittier, Mrs.

2010-01-28

241

Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian-White Relations on the Early American Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, while interpreters of American Indian languages in French territories served merely as translators of language, interpreters in British North America were often field representatives of the colonies, serving as messengers and diplomatic agents to Indian tribes. Includes many anecdotes about Indian and White interpreters. Contains 35…

Kawashima, Yasuhide

1989-01-01

242

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

1994-01-01

243

CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression  

PubMed Central

Introduction A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. Methods From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naïve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm3 according to baseline CD4 cell count. Results A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3–96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2–46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130–336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. Results are presented in the Table 1. Conclusions This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naïve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts. PMID:25393990

Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Ménard, Amélie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-François

2014-01-01

244

Analysis of sequence variability in the pig CART gene and association of polymorphism with fatness traits in a F2 population.  

PubMed

CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in appetite control and energy homeostasis. It can inhibit food intake and reduce body weight that have received much attention, but a direct and comprehensive relationship with pigs differing in fatness which could be applied to breeding well has not been established. This study aims to search for polymorphism within the porcine CART gene and evaluate the effect of specific genotypes with regards to an association with fatness traits in a F2 population consisting of 230 individuals. Screening of 2264 bp DNA fragment covering the entire CART gene revealed 29 mutations and four indels (insertion or a deletion), in which four unlinked SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) could be digested by enzymes and subsequently genotyped in two purebreds and a F2 population. Landrace (lean-type), one of purebreds, presented significantly higher CART expression level than Lantang (obese-type) in most tissues studied. Association analysis revealed that three SNPs (T415C, C640T and C847T) displayed significantly association (p < 0.05) with fatness traits. Additionally, they are in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. Western blotting experiments on these three SNPs loci revealed difference in CART expression among individuals with different genotypes, and the individuals with lower average live backfat thickness (BFAW) expressed CART protein at a bit higher level than others. Our study screened and mapped the genetic variations in the porcine CART gene, and confirmed three functional SNPs which are promising molecular markers for pig production traits. PMID:24830562

Zhu, Xiaoping; Mo, Delin; Wang, Chong; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Jiaqi; Ling, Fei; Chen, Yaosheng

2014-08-01

245

Wold Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be exposed to a number of different languages through the viewing of the following websites. HELLO! BONJOUR! SABAAI-DII! HOLA! DZIEN DOBRY! BUON GIORNO! KONNICHI WA! ZDRAVSTVUITE! At the following website look up words and find their translation into other languages. The New Logos Dictionary Browse though this next website and see how to express some things in American Sign Language. ASL Explore how to say ...

M. Schroeder

2007-10-12

246

A Topological Constraint Language with Component Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A topological constraint language is a formal language whose variables range over certain subsets of topological spaces, and whose nonlogical primitives are interpreted as topological relations and functions taking these subsets as arguments. Thus, topological constraint languages typically allow us to make assertions such as “region V1 touches the boundary of region V2”, “region V3 is connected” or “region V4

Ian Pratt-hartmann

2002-01-01

247

Problems of a Theory of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of fashioning a theory of language fall into two broad areas: (1) the neurophysiological correlates of language behavior are still little understood, and (2) the enormous amount of data on language behavior that has been gathered by researchers is subject to varying and differing interpretations. In spite of these problems, the…

Nolte, Edward O.

248

QUANTIFYING HYDROMETEOR ADVECTION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FRACTION OVER THE SGP CART SITE  

SciTech Connect

A single column model (SCM) is, in essence, an isolated grid column of a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, SCMs have rather demanding input data requirements, but do not suffer from problems associated with balance of a GCM. Among the initial conditions that must be used to describe the initial state of the SCM column are the vertical profile of the horizontal wind components and the vertical profiles of cloud water and ice. In addition, the large-scale divergence and advective tendencies of cloud water and ice must be supplied as external parameters. Finally, the liquid and ice cloud amount as a function of height within the SCM column are required for model evaluation. The scale of the SCM column over which the initial conditions, external parameters, and model evaluation fields must apply is relatively large ({approximately}300 km). To quantify atmospheric structure on this scale, the ARM SGP CART site is located within the NOAA wind profiler network and has boundary and extended measurement facilities in an area compatible with the scale requirements of SCMs. Over an area this size, however, there is often rich mesoscale structure. This mesoscale variability creates a sampling problem that can thwart even the most sophisticated attempts to quantify the initial conditions and external parameters, and to evaluate model performance. There are two approaches that can be used to quantify the time varying quantities required for SCMs: objective analysis and data assimilation. The latter relies on products produced for operational forecasting, while the former involves methods that can be used to combine measurements from various sources to produce synoptic descriptions of the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic fields. Since data assimilation from operational models introduces the uncertainty of the parameterizations used in the models, most of the focus in the SCM effort has been on developing objective analysis techniques.

MILLER,M.; VERLINDE,J.

1998-03-23

249

An Analyst's Assistant for the Interpretation of Vehicle Track Data  

E-print Network

This report describes the Analyst's Assistant, a software system for language-interactive, collaborative user-system interpretation of events, specifically targeting vehicle events that can be recognized on the basis of ...

Borchardt, Gary

2014-10-08

250

Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature in the area of language brokering. Language brokers are children of immigrant families who translate and interpret for their parents and other individuals. Results suggest that language brokers possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for their role as the family's translator and interpreter

Morales, Alejandro; Hanson, William E.

2005-01-01

251

Space languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

Hays, Dan

1987-01-01

252

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

253

Language Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collaborative project started by a language enthusiast that not only aims to help language learners, but also to "provide a window into the culture of the people who speak those languages." So how does the site accomplish this feat? It provides interactive language lessons, quizzes, and texts that allow the language learner to hear the word or text pronounced by fluent, often native, speakers. The sound quality is high, and by simply scrolling over any of the pictures in categories as diverse as the alphabet, weather, insects, and money, visitors will hear the word read pronounced. Thirteen languages are offered, including "Vietnamese", "Arabic", "German", "Hindi" and "Hebrew", with the most fully realized lessons for "English", "French" and "Spanish". However, the collaborative nature of the site should soon fill out the lessons of the other languages, because the "Collaborate/Volunteer" section of the site shows the many contributions volunteers can make, such as "Translating", "Suggesting Words/Phrases" or Contribute Your Voice". As the content of the site continues to expand, visitors can sign up for the "Newsletter" to be notified when major new content for a specific language has been added.

254

Language Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This history of the language laboratory and the factors influencing its growth are briefly traced. Materials and equipment are described, and the problems involved in a laboratory operation are indicated. Also considered is the use of the language laboratory as a teaching machine and as a research device for education in general. A bibliography…

Mathieu, Gustave

1962-01-01

255

Aladdin: an assembly language assertion-driven debugging interpreter  

E-print Network

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Hardin, David Alan

2012-06-07

256

Understanding quantifiers and scope interpretations in a second language  

E-print Network

?A.:/K@9AbC)685dUS14\\BcHklWXfg7_YP !"#$%RH6('C9,->*+2D1/.?@4;0=EcG:\\53N7BDA6)?:.7EHG`5K4]d\\a1Yc^SQU8PXh... to this article benefits you. 2012 ?!"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\] !"#$%S^6(8*,=+D?'&-2>/@)EOAG:5@K(0+CDB:)?OP1478EHRcW_U][GaXfgb`hiZ !"#$%SR*K(,-'=2>B9/0@+`O6HCD;5...

Li, Yan

2012-01-01

257

The Extensibility of an Interpreted Language Using Plugin Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic geometry software (DGS) are computer programs that allow one to create and manipulate geometrical drawings. They are mostly used in teaching and studying geometry. However, DGS can also be used to develop interactive drawings not directly related to geometry. Examples include teaching materials for numerical mathematics at secondary school and university levels, or interactive mathematical games for elementary school children. Such applications often surpass the intended purposes of the DGS and may require complicated programming on behalf of the user. In this paper we present a simple plug-in model which enables easy development and deployment of interactive GUI components for "Geometrijica", a DGS we are developing on Silverlight.

Herceg, Dorde; Radakovi?, Davorka

2011-09-01

258

Parsing as search: an easy-to-understand RTN interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing laboratory assignments on natural language processing in an introductory AI course is difficult. One reason is that the interpreter that applies a grammar to input is often a complex, hard to understand system. One is forced either to treat the interpreter as a black box, restricting students to extending the grammar that it applies, or to spend an inordinate

Robert M. Harlan; David M. Patrone

1993-01-01

259

Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

Funston, Richard

260

Verbal Memory during Simultaneous Interpretation: Effects of Phonological Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a group of advanced student interpreters, recall of short stories after simultaneous interpretation from their first (L1) into their second (L2) language, and vice versa, was significantly worse than recall of similar stories after listening. Memory span for digits presented in L1 and L2 was significantly poorer following simultaneous…

Daro, Valeria; Fabbro, Franco

1994-01-01

261

Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…

Seah, Lay Hoon

2013-01-01

262

Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

Leung, Janny

2012-01-01

263

Web image interpretation: semi-supervised mining annotated words  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image is worth of thousand words. Automatic Web image annotation is a practical and effective way for both Web image retrieval and image understanding. However, current annotation techniques are very difficult to get natural language interpretation for images such as ldquopandas eat bamboordquo. In this paper, we proposed an approach to interpret image semantics through semi-supervised mining annotated words.

Fei Wu; Dingyin Xia; Yueting Zhuang; Hanwang Zhang; Wenhao Liu

2009-01-01

264

Hospitals as interpretation systems.  

PubMed Central

In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

1991-01-01

265

Proliferative Hypothalamic Neurospheres Express NPY, AGRP, POMC, CART and Orexin-A and Differentiate to Functional Neurons  

PubMed Central

Some pathological conditions with feeding pattern alterations, including obesity and Huntington disease (HD) are associated with hypothalamic dysfunction and neuronal cell death. Additionally, the hypothalamus is a neurogenic region with the constitutive capacity to generate new cells of neuronal lineage, in adult rodents. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the expression of feeding-related neuropeptides in hypothalamic progenitor cells and their capacity to differentiate to functional neurons which have been described to be affected by hypothalamic dysfunction. Our study shows that hypothalamic progenitor cells from rat embryos grow as floating neurospheres and express the feeding-related neuropeptides Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP), Pro-OpioMelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript (CART) and Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1. Moreover the relative mRNA expression of NPY and POMC increases during the expansion of hypothalamic neurospheres in proliferative conditions. Mature neurons were obtained from the differentiation of hypothalamic progenitor cells including NPY, AGRP, POMC, CART and Orexin-A positive neurons. Furthermore the relative mRNA expression of NPY, CART and Orexin-A increases after the differentiation of hypothalamic neurospheres. Similarly to the adult hypothalamic neurons the neurospheres-derived neurons express the glutamate transporter EAAT3. The orexigenic and anorexigenic phenotype of these neurons was identified by functional response to ghrelin and leptin hormones, respectively. This work demonstrates the presence of appetite-related neuropeptides in hypothalamic progenitor cells and neurons obtained from the differentiation of hypothalamic neurospheres, including the neuronal phenotypes that have been described by others as being affected by hypothalamic neurodegeneration. These in vitro models can be used to study hypothalamic progenitor cells aiming a therapeutic intervention to mitigate feeding dysfunction that are associated with hypothalamic neurodegeneration. PMID:21589937

Sousa-Ferreira, Lígia; Álvaro, Ana Rita; Aveleira, Célia; Santana, Magda; Brandão, Inês; Kügler, Sebastian; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

2011-01-01

266

T-Cell Phenotypes, Apoptosis and Inflammation in HIV+ Patients on Virologically Effective cART with Early Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective We investigated the potential relationship between T-cell phenotype, inflammation, endotoxemia, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a cohort of HIV-positive patients undergoing long-term virologically suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Design We studied 163 patients receiving virologically suppressive cART. Methods We measured IMT (carotid ultrasound); CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38, CD45R0), differentiation (CD127), apoptosis (CD95), and senescence (CD28, CD57) (flow cytometry); plasma sCD14, IL-6, TNF- ?, sVCAM-1, hs-CRP, anti-CMV IgG (ELISA); LPS (LAL). The results were compared by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests, and factors associated with IMT were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients, 112 demonstrated normal IMT (nIMT), whereas 51 (31.3%) had pathological IMT (pIMT: ?1 mm). Of the patients with pIMT, 22 demonstrated an increased IMT (iIMT), and 29 were shown to have plaques. These patient groups had comparable nadir and current CD4+, VLs and total length of time on cART. Despite similar proportions of CD38-expressing CD8+ cells (p?=?.95), pIMT patients exhibited higher activated memory CD8+CD38+CD45R0+ cells (p?=?.038) and apoptotic CD4+CD95+ (p?=?.01) and CD8+CD95+ cells (p?=?.003). In comparison to nIMT patients, iIMT patients tended to have lower numbers of early differentiated CD28+CD57? memory CD4+ (p?=?.048) and CD28–CD57?CD8+ cells (p?=?.006), both of which are associated with a higher proliferative potential. Despite no differences in plasma LPS levels, pIMT patients showed significantly higher circulating levels of sCD14 than did nIMT patients (p?=?.046). No differences in anti-CMV IgG was shown. Although circulating levels of sCD14 seemed to be associated with a risk of ATS in an unadjusted analysis, this effect was lost after adjusting for classical cardiovascular predictors. Conclusions Despite the provision of full viral suppression by cART, a hyperactivated, pro-apoptotic T-cell profile characterizes HIV-infected patients with early vascular damage, for whom the potential contribution of subclinical endotoxemia and anti-CMV immunity should be investigated further. PMID:23029393

Suardi, Elisa; Barassi, Alessandra; Cerrone, Maddalena; Martínez, Javier Sánchez; Bai, Francesca; D’Eril, Gian Vico Melzi; Monforte, Antonella D’Arminio; Marchetti, Giulia

2012-01-01

267

Single-Mode Vibration Suppression for a BEAM-MASS-CART System Using Input Preshaping with a Robust Internal-Loop Compensator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, single-mode vibration suppression of an elastic beam fixed on a moving cart and carrying a concentrated or moving mass is considered. A modified pulse sequence method with robust internal-loop compensator (RIC) is proposed to suppress single-mode residual vibration and to get accurate positioning of the beam-mass-cart system. The performance of the proposed input preshaping method is compared with that of the previous ones by both numerical simulations and experiments. Using the proposed method, it is possible to suppress initial vibration of the beam-mass-cart system carrying a concentrated mass. Accurate PTP positioning of the moving mass without residual vibration is also obtained experimentally by modifying the proposed pulse sequence method. Finally, the proposed input preshaping method is applied to the system for following square trajectories of the moving mass without residual vibration

PARK, S.; KIM, B. K.; YOUM, Y.

2001-04-01

268

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

269

Fractal interpretation of intermittency  

SciTech Connect

Implication of intermittency in high-energy collisions is first discussed. Then follows a description of the fractal interpretation of intermittency. A basic quantity with asymptotic fractal behavior is introduced. It is then shown how the factorial moments and the G moments can be expressed in terms of it. The relationship between the intermittency indices and the fractal indices is made explicit.

Hwa, R.C.

1991-12-01

270

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

271

Listening and Message Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

Edwards, Renee

2011-01-01

272

Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

2001-01-01

273

Shakespeare's Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

Flowers, Ms.

2009-10-21

274

Overweight in Adolescence Can Be Predicted at Age 6 Years: A CART Analysis in German Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine, whether overweight in adolescents can be predicted from the body mass index (BMI) category, at the age of 6, the mother's education level and mother's obesity and to quantify the proportion of overweight at the age of 14 that can be explained by these predictors. Method Pooled data from three German cohorts providing anthropometric and other relevant data to a total of 1 287 children. We used a classification and regression tree (CART) approach to identify the contribution of BMI category at the age of 6 (obese: BMI>97th percentile (P97); overweight: P90P90) at the age of 14. Results While 4.8% [95%CI: 3.2;7.0] of 651 boys and 4.1% [95%CI: 2.6;6.2] of 636 girls with a BMIP97 (similar results for girls). BMI?P75 at the age of 6 explained 63.5% [95%CI: 51.1;74.5]) and 72.0% [95%CI: 60.4;81.8] of overweight/obesity at the age of 14 in boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Overweight/obesity in adolescence can be predicted by BMI category at the age of 6 allowing for parent counselling or risk guided interventions in children with BMI?P75, who accounted for >2/3 of overweight/obesity in adolescents. PMID:24676281

Riedel, Christina; von Kries, Rüdiger; Buyken, Anette E.; Diethelm, Katharina; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra

2014-01-01

275

Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) represses cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) transcription and antagonizes cAMP-response element-binding protein signaling through a dual NRSE mechanism.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide plays a pivotal role in neuroprotection against stroke-related brain injury. However, the regulatory mechanism on CART transcription, especially the repression mechanism, is not fully understood. Here, we show that the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSF, also known as REST) represses CART expression through direct binding to two NRSF-binding elements (NRSEs) in the CART promoter and intron 1 (named pNRSE and iNRSE, respectively). EMSA show that NRSF binds to pNRSE and iNRSE directly in vitro. ChIP assays show that NRSF recruits differential co-repressor complexes including CoREST and HDAC1 to these NRSEs. The presence of both NRSEs is required for efficient repression of CART transcription as indicated by reporter gene assays. NRSF overexpression antagonizes forskolin-mediated up-regulation of CART mRNA and protein. Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) enhances NRSF mRNA levels and then NRSF antagonizes the CREB signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death. Depletion of NRSF in combination with forskolin treatment increases neuronal survival after ischemic insult. These findings reveal a novel dual NRSE mechanism by which NRSF represses CART expression and suggest that NRSF may serve as a therapeutic target for stroke treatment. PMID:23086924

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Sihan; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Yinxiang; Zhang, Bowen; Liu, Qingbin; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Li, Yanhua; Pei, Xuetao

2012-12-14

276

Object schemas for grounding language in a responsive robot  

E-print Network

An approach is introduced for physically grounded natural language interpretation by robots that reacts appropriately to unanticipated physical changes in the environment and dynamically assimilates new information pertinent ...

Hsiao, Kai-yuh

277

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Regression Tree (CART) applications for the indirect estimation of unsaturated soil shear strength parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shear strength parameters of soil (cohesion and angle of internal friction) are quite essential in solving many civil engineering problems. In order to determine these parameters, laboratory tests are used. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Regression Tree (CART) techniques for the indirect estimation of these parameters. Four different models, considering different combinations of 6 inputs, such as gravel %, sand %, silt %, clay %, dry density, and plasticity index, were investigated to evaluate the degree of their effects on the prediction of shear parameters. A performance evaluation was carried out using Correlation Coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error measures. It was observed that for the prediction of friction angle, the performance of both the techniques is about the same. However, for the prediction of cohesion, the ANN technique performs better than the CART technique. It was further observed that the model considering all of the 6 input soil parameters is the most appropriate model for the prediction of shear parameters. Also, connection weight and bias analyses of the best neural network (i.e., 6/2/2) were attempted using Connection Weight, Garson, and proposed Weight-bias approaches to characterize the influence of input variables on shear strength parameters. It was observed that the Connection Weight Approach provides the best overall methodology for accurately quantifying variable importance, and should be favored over the other approaches examined in this study.

Kanungo, D. P.; Sharma, Shaifaly; Pain, Anindya

2014-09-01

278

Game semantics and linear CPS interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a semantic analysis of the “linearly used continuation-passing interpretation” of functional languages, based on game semantics. This consists of a category of games with a coherence condition on moves—yielding a fully complete model of an affine-type theory—and a syntax-independent and full embedding of a category of Hyland–Ong\\/Nickau-style “well-bracketed” games into it. We show that this embedding corresponds precisely

Jim Laird

2005-01-01

279

Putting the Cart before the Horse: Interrogating Media Literacy Education in School English Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In response to the changing demands of new times, media literacy has been incorporated into the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore. Although media literacy is mentioned in the syllabus, what this term means needs more clarification. What is clear from the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore is the…

Tan Lee Wee, Lynde

2010-01-01

280

A Functional Schematic Interpreter: an environment for Model Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two major reasons for the value of a functional schematic interpreter as a new programming language for constructing models. These reasons are the capacity of a functional language to express knowledge that has a formal representation on a computer and the rich informal semantics that can be attached to a set of diagrams (a schema). It is this

T. R. Addis; J. J. Townsend Addis

1998-01-01

281

Mediated generalization and the interpretation of verbal behavior: I. Prolegomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an attempt to extend the objective principles derived from conditioned response experimentation to certain aspects of linguistic behavior, and to show how such an interpretation of language behavior throws light on other psychological phenomena in which language plays an important role. A review is given of the experimental work on generalization or irradiation of conditioned responses, followed by

C. N. Cofer

1942-01-01

282

Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

2009-01-01

283

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

284

Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

1990-05-01

285

Software development without languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

Osborne, Haywood S.

1988-01-01

286

Implementation of a structured English query language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relational model of data, the XRM Relational Memory System, and the SEQUEL language have been covered in previous papers and are reviewed. SEQUEL is a relational data sublanguage intended for ad hoc interactive problem solving by non-computer specialists. A version of SEQUEL that has been implemented in a prototype interpreter is described. The interpreter is designed to minimize the

Morton M. Astrahan; Donald D. Chamberlin

1975-01-01

287

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

2011-05-18

288

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Paul Morris

289

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

290

Sign Language From the Space Station - Duration: 5:50.  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

291

Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates) and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor) were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis. PMID:24723947

Sharma, Prannda; Satorius, Ashley E.; Raff, Marika R.; Rivera, Adriana; Newton, Duane W.; Younger, John G.

2014-01-01

292

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

293

Modern Language Association Language map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on information from the United States Census 2000 long form, the Modern Language Association has crated this important interactive map that allows users to see where the speakers of thirty-seven languages reside throughout the country. The map allows visitors the option to toggle certain themes (such as rivers, lakes, and highways) and to look through the numbers of speakers by zip code, town, city, or county. Visitors can also look at data at the state level, and they can also print out their own customized maps as well. Users of the site can also generate interactive maps for two languages in the same state, or compare the concentration of the same language in two states. If all of this seems a bit overwhelming, visitors can also take an online tour of the site's features. This site will be of great interest both to linguists and to those interested in learning about the spatial distribution of the languages spoken across the United States.

294

Human Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you put an English speaker, a Mandarin Chinese speaker, and a Swahili speaker in the same room, chances are they'd have trouble communicating. But according to one scientific theory, they're really all speaking the same language.

Science Update;

2004-04-19

295

Working Effectively with Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, so early childhood educators are often among the first to work with families whose primary languages are other than English. Many parents, guardians, and family members do speak English but not fluently enough to feel comfortable communicating with teachers or administrators. When educators and…

Cellitti, Anarella

2010-01-01

296

L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20 kg standard meal cart (L: 0.5m × W: 0.3 m × H: 0.92 m) loaded with extra 20 kg and 40 kg, respectively on two different surfaces (carpet and linoleum) and at three floor inclinations (-2°, 0° and +2°). Two force transducers were mounted as handles. Two-dimensional movement analysis was performed and a 4D WATBAK modelling tool was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected. PMID:24552608

Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

2014-07-01

297

Localisation 2D d'un mobile sur une carte numrique prcise Ahmed SELLOUM, Eric LE CARPENTIER, David BTAILLE, Franois PEYRET,  

E-print Network

Localisation 2D d'un mobile sur une carte numérique précise Ahmed SELLOUM, Eric LE CARPENTIER (ahmed.selloum|david.betaille|francois.peyret)@lcpc.fr Eric.Le-Carpentier@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Résumé Challenge, exploration lunaire...). Ces techniques mettent en correspondancedes primitives extraites d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

The impact of type of manual medication cart filling method on the frequency of medication administration errors: A prospective before and after study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe medication cart can be filled using an automated system or a manual method and when using a manual method the medication can be arranged either by round time or by medication name. For the manual methods, it is hypothesized that the latter method would result in a lower frequency of medication administration errors because nurses are forced to read

Anneliene M. Schimmel; Matthijs L. Becker; Tilly van den Bout; Katja Taxis; Patricia M. L. A. van den Bemt

2011-01-01

299

Interpretation of Conventional Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

300

Interpreting Paleoenvironments with Microfossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is constructed to help students gain a better understanding of how scientists can use foraminifera to interpret past environments. Specifically, they will have the opportunity to understand one of the basic tenets of geology: the present is the key to the past, a principle otherwise known as uniformitarianism. Objectives include: distinguishing between planktonic, benthic, hyaline, porcelaneous, and agglutinated foraminifera, calculating the proportion of planktonic specimens in a sample, establishing the species diversity of a sample, establishing the shell-type ratio of a sample, and reconstructing the environment of deposition of the sample.

Culver, Stephen

301

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

302

Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

Ferrari, Pier Luigi

2004-01-01

303

Chamorro Reference Grammar. Pali Language Texts: Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…

Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.

304

Culture and Language: The Black American Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The express focus of this book is primarily on black American language. However, it is asserted, a comprehensive interpretation of this language requires an understanding of its social and cultural context. This book reviews the various ways in which the black experience in the United States has been treated in social science. It points out a…

Hall, William S.; Freedle, Roy O.

305

SSML: A speech synthesis markup language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Speech Synthesis Markup Language, SSML, which has been designedas a platform independent interface standard for speech synthesis systems. The paper discussesthe need for standardisation in speech synthesizers and how this will help builders of systemsmake better use of synthesis. The SGML based markup language is then discussed, and detailsof the Edinburgh SSML interpreter are given as

Paul Taylor; Amy Isard

1997-01-01

306

Astronomy in my shopping cart: Today I bought some asteroids, hundreds of black holes and three Solar Systems!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we will present a pilot project that will be tested and developed throughout 2007/08 in advance of the International Year of Astronomy. Why "putting astronomy in the shopping cart"? The aim of the project is to publicise astrophysics at a popular level, choosing a place that best matches the meaning of the word `popular': the shopping mall. With this project we want to arouse consumer interest in science, making use of the supermarket inside any shopping mall: a place people are familiar with and where they find common consumer goods. The final purpose is to give our science consumer the chance to bring home shopping bags filled not only with consumer goods, but also with a piece of knowledge about astronomy, astrophysics and the way astronomers work and think to understand the Universe and its phenomena.

Boccato, C.; Lazzaretto, E.

2008-06-01

307

Swing-up and Stabilization Control of a Cart-Pendulum System via Energy Control and Controlled Lagrangian Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a swing-up and stabilization problem of a cart-pendulum system using energy control and controlled Lagrangian methods. A common strategy for this problem is to switch two controllers for swing-up and stabilization according to the angle of the pendulum. In most cases, control performance greatly depends on the switching angle, and choice of a bad angle cannot even stand the pendulum upward. Thus, a lot of trial and error is necessary to find effective switching angles. To release us from the difficulty in choosing the switching angle, this paper proposes a robust control method to assist our choice based on controlled Lagrangian and energy control methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed combination methods can effectively swing up and stabilize the pendulum, whereas existing methods cannot.

Sakurama, Kazunori; Hara, Satoshi; Nakano, Kazushi

308

Integral backstepping sliding mode control for underactuated systems: swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System.  

PubMed

In this paper an integral backstepping sliding mode controller is proposed for controlling underactuated systems. A feedback control law is designed based on backstepping algorithm and a sliding surface is introduced in the final stage of the algorithm. The backstepping algorithm makes the controller immune to matched and mismatched uncertainties and the sliding mode control provides robustness. The proposed controller ensures asymptotic stability. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared against a coupled sliding mode controller for swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System. Simulation results show that the proposed integral backstepping sliding mode controller is able to reject both matched and mismatched uncertainties with a chattering free control law, while utilizing less control effort than the sliding mode controller. PMID:23932857

Adhikary, Nabanita; Mahanta, Chitralekha

2013-11-01

309

Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

Windley, Phillip J.

1990-01-01

310

Provider-Interpreter Collaboration in Bilingual Health Care: Competitions of Control over Interpreter-Mediated Interactions  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examines (a) providers’ and interpreters’ perception of their competition in controlling the content and process of provider-patient interactions, and (b) the challenges to providers’ and interpreters’ collaboration in bilingual health care. Methods I recruited 26 professional medical interpreters from 17 languages and 39 providers from 5 specialties to participate in in-depth interviews and focus groups. Grounded theory was used for data analysis to develop themes in areas where providers and interpreters compete and assert their expertise. Results Providers and interpreters experience conflicts over their expertise and authority due to their practice in (a) adopting different speech conventions, (b) controlling the other’s narratives, and (c) overstepping expertise and role boundaries. Conclusion A successful bilingual medical encounter is dependent on the interpreters’ and providers’ ability (a) to understand, communicate, and negotiate their and others’ communicative strategies/goals and (b) be adaptive of and responsive to others’ management of the communicative process. Practice Implication Authority in bilingual health care should not be established through pre-existing categories or expertise but negotiated and coordinated during the interactive process, which would allow individuals to be adaptive to the issues emerged in the communicative process. PMID:19356880

Hsieh, Elaine

2009-01-01

311

CART and GSFC raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, we have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), we have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and ,daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, we derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. We also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S(sub a) (i.e. 'lidar ratio'). Furthermore, we use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

Ferrare, R. A.; Turner, D. D.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Schwenner, G.; Evans, K. D.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Tooman, T.

1998-01-01

312

Prediction of Oncotype DX and TAILORx risk categories using histopathological and immunohistochemical markers by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.  

PubMed

Oncotype DX is an RT-PCR assay used to predict which patients with ER-positive node-negative (NN) disease will benefit from chemotherapy. Each patient is stratified into a risk category based on a recurrence score (RS) and the TAILORx trial is determining the benefit of chemotherapy for patients with mid-range RSs. We tested if Oncotype DX and TAILORx risk categories could be predicted by standard pathological features and protein markers corresponding to 10 genes in the assay (ER, PR, Ki67, HER2, BCL2, CD68, Aurora A kinase, survivin, cyclin B1 and BAG1) on 52 patients who enrolled on TAILORx. Immunohistochemistry for the protein markers was performed on whole tissue sections. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis correctly classified 69% of cases into Oncotype DX risk categories based on the expression of PR, survivin and nuclear pleomorphism. All tumours with PR staining (Allred score ? 2) and marked nuclear pleomorphism were in the high-risk category. No case with PR <2, low survivin (? 15.5%) and nuclear pleomorphism <3 was high-risk. Similarly, 77% of cases were correctly classified into TAILORx categories based on nuclear pleomorphism, survivin, BAG1 and cyclin B1. Ki67 was the only variable that predicted the absolute RS with a cut-off for positivity of 15% (p = 0.003). In conclusion, CART revealed key predictors including proliferation markers, PR and nuclear pleomorphism that correctly classified over two thirds of ER-positive NN cancers into Oncotype DX and TAILORx risk categories. These variables could be used as an alternative to the RT-PCR assay to reduce the number of patients requiring Oncotype DX testing. PMID:23643806

Ingoldsby, Helen; Webber, Mark; Wall, Deirdre; Scarrott, Carl; Newell, John; Callagy, Grace

2013-10-01

313

CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies  

SciTech Connect

The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1998-04-01

314

Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.

Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.

2004-01-01

315

Interpretation of genetic variants.  

PubMed

Sequencing of the human genome and introduction of clinical next-generation sequencing enable discovery of all DNA variants carried by an individual. Variants may be solely responsible for disease, may contribute to disease, or may have no influence on the development of disease. Interpreting the effect of these variants upon disease is a major challenge for medicine. Although the process is still evolving, certain methods are useful in discriminating the effect of variants upon phenotype. These methods have been employed to the greatest extent in Mendelian disorders where deleterious changes in one gene can cause disease. Here, we briefly review the relative merits of these methods, with emphasis on using a comprehensive approach modelled after the analysis of variants that causes cystic fibrosis. PMID:24343785

Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R

2014-03-01

316

3-D Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

Moore, Gregory F.

2009-05-01

317

Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

Vanezis, P

2001-01-01

318

La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

Drallny, Ines

1987-01-01

319

Incremental natural language processing for HRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots that interact with humans face-to-face using natu- ral language need to be responsive to the way humans use language in those situations. We propose a psychologically- inspired natural language processing system for robots which performs incremental semantic interpretation of spoken ut- terances, integrating tightly with the robot's perceptual and motor systems. Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.2.7 (Computing Methodologies): Artificial

Timothy Brick; Matthias Scheutz

2007-01-01

320

Jeu de cartes or Jeu Descartes: Business Cards in a French Course for the Professions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of French business cards in a college-level French language and culture course for professionals. Among other assignments, students were each given a different card and asked to speak about the design of their card, the business represented, idiomatic expressions and historical allusions on the card, and the use of…

Gegerias, Mary

321

Language ProgramsEnglish Language Programs English Language Programs  

E-print Network

with exceptional students and professionals from all over the world who wish to learn English as a second languageEnglish Language ProgramsEnglish Language Programs #12;English Language Programs "Never leave for a variety of reasons. We believe that learning a second language works best in a nurturing environment

Plotkin, Joshua B.

322

Appropriate use of medical interpreters.  

PubMed

More than 25 million Americans speak English "less than very well," according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act mandates that interpreter services be provided for patients with limited English proficiency who need this service, despite the lack of reimbursement in most states. Professional interpreters are superior to the usual practice of using ad hoc interpreters (i.e., family, friends, or untrained staff). Untrained interpreters are more likely to make errors, violate confidentiality, and increase the risk of poor outcomes. Children should never be used as interpreters except in emergencies. When using an interpreter, the clinician should address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient. Statements should be short, and the discussion should be limited to three major points. In addition to acting as a conduit for the discussion, the interpreter may serve as a cultural liaison between the physician and patient. When a bilingual clinician or a professional interpreter is not available, phone interpretation services or trained bilingual staff members are reasonable alternatives. The use of professional interpreters (in person or via telephone) increases patient satisfaction, improves adherence and outcomes, and reduces adverse events, thus limiting malpractice risk. PMID:25369625

Juckett, Gregory; Unger, Kendra

2014-10-01

323

Are Good Intentions Good Enough?: Informed Consent Without Trained Interpreters  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the informed consent process when trained language interpreters are unavailable. Background Ensuring sufficient patient understanding for informed consent is especially challenging for patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP). While US law requires provision of competent translation for LEP patients, such services are commonly unavailable. Design and Participants Qualitative data was collected in 8 prenatal genetics clinics in Texas, including interviews and observations with 16 clinicians, and 30 Latina patients. Using content analysis techniques, we examined whether the basic criteria for informed consent (voluntariness, discussion of alternatives, adequate information, and competence) were evident for each of these patients, contrasting LEP patients with patients not needing an interpreter. We present case examples of difficulties related to each of these criteria, and compare informed consent scores for consultations requiring interpretation and those which did not. Results We describe multiple communication problems related to the use of untrained interpreters, or reliance on clinicians’ own limited Spanish. These LEP patients appear to be consistently disadvantaged in each of the criteria we examined, and informed consent scores were notably lower for consultations which occurred across a language barrier. Conclusions In the absence of adequate Spanish interpretation, it was uncertain whether these LEP patients were provided the quality and content of information needed to assure that they are genuinely informed. We offer some low-cost practice suggestions that might mitigate these problems, and improve the quality of language interpretation, which is essential to assuring informed choice in health care for LEP patients. PMID:17443367

de Voogd, Katherine B.

2007-01-01

324

Interpreting Interpretation in Psychoanalysis: Freud, Klein, and Lacan.  

E-print Network

??This theoretical dissertation examines psychoanalytic interpretation through a critical textual analysis of primary texts by Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein, and Jacques Lacan. Chapter One presents… (more)

Harper, Lynn Christine

2006-01-01

325

Physical Propositions and Quantum Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The word proposition is used in physics with different meanings, which must be distinguished to avoid interpretational problems. We construct two languages ? * ( x) and ?( x) with classical set-theoretical semantics which allow us to illustrate those meanings and to show that the non-Boolean lattice of propositions of quantum logic (QL) can be obtained by selecting a subset of p-testable propositions within the Boolean lattice of all propositions associated with sentences of ?( x). Yet, the aforesaid semantics is incompatible with the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) because of known no-go theorems. But if one accepts our criticism of these theorems and the ensuing SR (semantic realism) interpretation of QM, the incompatibility disappears, and the classical and quantum notions of truth can coexist, since they refer to different metalinguistic concepts ( truth and verifiability according to QM, respectively). Moreover one can construct a quantum language ? TQ ( x) whose Lindenbaum Tarski algebra is isomorphic to QL, the sentences of which state (testable) properties of individual samples of physical systems, while standard QL does not bear this interpretation.

Garola, Claudio

2008-01-01

326

Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

327

American Sign Language  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections, and Deafness American Sign Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

328

Fundamentals of interpretation in echocardiography  

SciTech Connect

This illustrated book provides familiarity with the many clinical, physical, and electronic factors that bear on echocardiographic interpretation. Physical and clinical principles are integrated with considerations of anatomy and physiology to address interpretive problems. This approach yields, for example, sections on the physics and electronics of M-mode, cross sectional, and Doppler systems which are informal, full of echocardiagrams, virtually devoid of mathematics, and rigorously related to common issues faced by echocardiograph interpreters.

Harrigan, P.; Lee, R.M.

1985-01-01

329

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

330

Learning Speech Translation from Interpretation.  

E-print Network

??This thesis introduces methods to directly train speech translation systems on audio recordings of interpreter-mediated communication. By employing unsupervised and lightly supervised training techniques, the… (more)

Paulik, Matthias

2010-01-01

331

Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurementsÃ?  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

Dr. Sergey Matrosov

2010-12-15

332

L'opération de la Carte du Ciel dans les contextes institutionnel et technique de l'astronomie française à la fin du XIXe siècle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce chapitre analyse le contexte institutionnel français dans lequel naît la Carte du Ciel. Dans les années 1880, le régime républicain réorganise totalement la recherche astronomique. À Paris, l'instrumentation est totalement renouvelée sous l'impulsion de Maurice Loewy. En province, les efforts de décentralisation permettent un accroissement significatif des arsenaux techniques de Marseille et Toulouse, ainsi que l'édification des établissements de Besançon, Lyon et Bordeaux. À Alger, la station astronomique créée sous le second Empire est transformée en un observatoire particulièrement dynamique grâce à l'implication de Charles Trépied. Ce panorama des établissements astronomiques permet de cerner les enjeux institutionnels et scientifiques qui concourent à l'engagement des observatoires de Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Alger dans l'entreprise de la Carte du Ciel.

Le Guet Tully, F.; Sadsaoud, H.; de La Noë, J.

2008-06-01

333

Genome-wide identification of new Wnt/?-catenin target genes in the human genome using CART method  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of in silico predictions for understanding cellular processes is now widely accepted, and a variety of algorithms useful for studying different biological features have been designed. In particular, the prediction of cis regulatory modules in non-coding human genome regions represents a major challenge for understanding gene regulation in several diseases. Recently, studies of the Wnt signaling pathway revealed a connection with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. In this article, we construct a classification tool that uses the transcription factor binding site motifs composition of some gene promoters to identify new Wnt/?-catenin pathway target genes potentially involved in brain diseases. Results In this study, we propose 89 new Wnt/?-catenin pathway target genes predicted in silico by using a method based on multiple Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. We used as decision variables the presence of transcription factor binding site motifs in the upstream region of each gene. This prediction was validated by RT-qPCR in a sample of 9 genes. As expected, LEF1, a member of the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor family (TCF/LEF1), was relevant for the classification algorithm and, remarkably, other factors related directly or indirectly to the inflammatory response and amyloidogenic processes also appeared to be relevant for the classification. Among the 89 new Wnt/?-catenin pathway targets, we found a group expressed in brain tissue that could be involved in diverse responses to neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease (AD). These genes represent new candidates to protect cells against amyloid ? toxicity, in agreement with the proposed neuroprotective role of the Wnt signaling pathway. Conclusions Our multiple CART strategy proved to be an effective tool to identify new Wnt/?-catenin pathway targets based on the study of their regulatory regions in the human genome. In particular, several of these genes represent a new group of transcriptional dependent targets of the canonical Wnt pathway. The functions of these genes indicate that they are involved in pathophysiology related to Alzheimer's disease or other brain disorders. PMID:20515496

2010-01-01

334

Changes in First-Line cART Regimens and Short-Term Clinical Outcome between 1996 and 2010 in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objectives Document progress in HIV-treatment in the Netherlands since 1996 by reviewing changing patterns of cART use and relating those to trends in patients' short-term clinical outcomes between 1996 and 2010. Design and Methods 1996–2010 data from 10,278 patients in the Dutch ATHENA national observational cohort were analysed. The annual number of patients starting a type of regimen was quantified. Trends in the following outcomes were described: i) recovery of 150 CD4 cells/mm3 within 12 months of starting cART; ii) achieving viral load (VL) suppression ?1,000 copies/ml within 12 months of starting cART; iii) switching from first-line to second-line regimen within three years of starting treatment; and iv) all-cause mortality rate per 100 person-years within three years of starting treatment. Results Between 1996 and 2010, first-line regimens changed from lamivudine/zidovudine-based or lamivudine/stavudine-based regimens with unboosted-PIs to tenofovir with either emtricitabine or lamivudine with NNRTIs. Mortality rates did not change significantly over time. VL suppression and CD4 recovery improved over time, and the incidence of switching due to virological failure and toxicity more than halved between 1996 and 2010. These effects appear to be related to the use of new regimens rather than improvements in clinical care. Conclusion The use of first-line cART in the Netherlands closely follows changes in guidelines, to the benefit of patients. While there was no significant improvement in mortality, newer drugs with better tolerability and simpler dosing resulted in improved immunological and virological recovery and reduced incidences of switching due to toxicity and virological failure. PMID:24098764

Smit, Mikaela; Smit, Colette; Geerlings, Suzanne; Gras, Luuk; Brinkman, Kees; Hallett, Timothy B.; de Wolf, Frank

2013-01-01

335

The Unmet Need for Interpreting Provision in UK Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background With increasing globalisation, the challenges of providing accessible and safe healthcare to all are great. Studies show that there are substantial numbers of people who are not fluent in English to a level where they can make best use of health services. We examined how health professionals manage language barriers in a consultation. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional study in 41 UK general practices . Health professionals completed a proforma for a randomly allocated consultation session. Seventy-seven (63%) practitioners responded, from 41(59%) practices. From 1008 consultations, 555 involved patients who did not have English as a first language; 710 took place in English; 222 were in other languages, the practitioner either communicating with the patient in their own language/using an alternative language. Seven consultations were in a mixture of English/patient's own language. Patients' first languages numbered 37 (apart from English), in contrast to health practitioners, who declared at least a basic level of proficiency in 22 languages other than English. The practitioner's reported proficiency in the language used was at a basic level in 24 consultations, whereas in 21, they reported having no proficiency at all. In 57 consultations, a relative/friend interpreted and in 6, a bilingual member of staff/community worker was used. Only in 6 cases was a professional interpreter booked. The main limitation was that only one random session was selected and assessment of patient/professional fluency in English was subjective. Conclusions It would appear that professional interpreters are under-used in relation to the need for them, with bilingual staff/family and friends being used commonly. In many cases where the patient spoke little/no English, the practitioner consulted in the patient's language but this approach was also used where reported practitioner proficiency was low. Further research in different setting is needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:21695146

Gill, Paramjit S.; Beavan, Jacqueline; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

2011-01-01

336

78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-10-31

337

78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-01-08

338

78 FR 10582 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-02-14

339

78 FR 74056 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-12-10

340

77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2012-08-31

341

78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-09-26

342

77 FR 62479 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2012-10-15

343

78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-04-23

344

77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2012-12-18

345

78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-03-15

346

78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

2013-05-23

347

75 FR 8070 - Closed Auction of Broadcast Construction Permits Scheduled for July 20, 2010; Auction 88...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by e-mail...Mid-America Radio Group Inc. MTD, Inc. Music Express Broadcasting, Corp. Music Ministries, Inc. Oxford Radio Inc. Peace...

2010-02-23

348

Virtual Machine Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

2005-01-01

349

Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program  

SciTech Connect

Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

Ferrare, Richard A.

2002-08-19

350

Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history  

PubMed Central

Background Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222), an internet sample (n=123), and psychiatric outpatients (n=30). Results The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted. PMID:23580403

Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Lanius, Ruth A.

2013-01-01

351

A planning language for activity scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

1991-01-01

352

CAN WE INTERPRET IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOR?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to some theories of interpretation, it is difficult to explain and predict irrational behavior in intentional terms because irrational behavior does not support the ascription of intentional states with determinate content. In this paper I challenge this claim by offering a general diagnosis of those cases in which behavior, rational or not, resists interpretation. I argue that indeterminacy of

Lisa Bortolotti

2004-01-01

353

Judging Dramatic Interpretation: Textual Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent growth in popularity among college students of dramatic interpretation in forensic competition justifies an examination of textual considerations and resultant criteria important to the evaluation of dramatic literature. The first considerations of the student contemplating the dramatic interpretation event are the selection of material…

Manchester, Bruce B.

354

Interpretation and Change in Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the function of interpretation in counseling independent of its theoretical content. Reviews theory and research to yield three contrasting models of the function of interpretation in the change process. Discusses the relative merits of the three models of change and their implications for research. (Author)

Claiborn, Charles D.

1982-01-01

355

Remote sensing and image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

356

Curriculum Guide for Interpreter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a curriculum guide for the training of interpreters for the deaf consisting of 15 sections to be used as individual units or comprising a two part, 1 year course. The full course uses the text, Interpreting for Deaf People, as a guide and includes laboratory and practicum experiences. Curriculum guidelines include specific aims such…

Sternberg, Martin L. A.; And Others

357

Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

1993-01-01

358

Interpretation Bias and Social Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially anxious (SA) individuals interpret ambiguous social events negatively. It is not clear, however, whether this bias is due to general distress (e.g., depression and general anxiety) or level of social anxiety. In the current study we conducted two experiments examining interpretation bias in SA individuals using videos. Each video involved an actor or actress who approached the camera and

Nader Amir; Courtney Beard; Emily Bower

2005-01-01

359

Language and Literacy Development in Prelingually-Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to address the issue of language development in hearing impaired children. It argues that interpreters, teachers or peers can provide deaf children with language exposure so that they can acquire their native languages more easily. It also argues that the provision of a developmentally appropriate print-rich environments is the…

Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2008-01-01

360

Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2010-01-01

361

Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning Raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART Raman lidar  

SciTech Connect

Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warning scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

Whiteman, D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Turner, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1998-04-01

362

Polymorphisms of the cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene and their association with reproductive traits in Chinese goats.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms of the CART gene were investigated by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 540 samples from 10 goat breeds. Ten novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms as well as three microsatellites were detected; a mutation, 77T ? C, led to an amino acid change (Leu ? Ser). Associations between polymorphic loci and reproductive traits were analyzed in Chuandong White, Guizhou White and Gulin Ma breeds. Mutation at position 524 had no significant effect on litter size in these three goat breeds. The polymorphism 539C ? A differed significantly among the three breeds (P < 0.05); C(7)T(8)/C(9)T(8) at 939 was associated with larger litter size (P < 0.05) than genotypes C(7)T(8)/C(7)T(8) and C(7)T(8)/C(8)T(8). No significant association of birth weight was found with gene variation (524C ? T, 539C ? A and 939 CnTn). These findings could be valuable for marker-assisted selection for goat breeding. PMID:21523652

Wang, P Q; Deng, L M; Zhang, B Y; Chu, M X; Hou, J Z

2011-01-01

363

Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

1998-01-01

364

Peircean Interpretation of Postmodern Architecture  

E-print Network

reflecting the woven tendency of philosophy such as enlightenment and counter- enlightenment movement. This dissertation research focuses on architectural language theory which maintains a tight relationship with the philosophy of language. Postmodern...

Takahashi, Iwao

2013-12-11

365

Documenting Endangered Languages  

NSF Publications Database

... Advisory 05-011Documenting Endangered Languages Documenting endangered languages. Credit and ... archived as part of their new Documenting Endangered Languages (DEL) awards program. Reporters are ...

366

Training the Professional Interpreter for the Commercial and Legal Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States has been training interpreters only in the recent past, but the American penchant for technology has furthered the profession as a whole. Benchmarks in this process include machines introduced at the 1936 Paris World Fair and the Nuremberg trials, establishment of the United Nations, language services, development of the Division…

Adams, Eleonora K.

367

English/Japanese Professional Interpretation: Its Linguistic and Conceptual Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of simultaneous interpretation from Japanese to English focused on problems inherent in simultaneous language processing. Data were drawn from a discussion session at an international conference of physicians concerning nuclear war. Transcription of the Japanese source text (romanized), English product, and a gloss of lexical equivalents…

Ishikawa, Luli

1995-01-01

368

Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

1991-01-01

369

ELM Branches Out! A Language and Life Skill Competency Based Curriculum Integrated with MELT Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adult education curriculum integrating language and life skills instruction for students of English as a Second Language, based on the English Language Matrix (ELM) model, is presented. The curriculum is designed to meet the adult language learner's life competency needs, integrating communicative language skills of listening, interpreting…

Bell, Eleanora S.; Evans, Twila S.

370

Once a Broker, Always a Broker: Non-Professional Interpreting as Identity Accomplishment in Multigenerational Italian-English Bilingual Family Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores interpreting in three-generational Italian-English bilingual families as a complex language brokering activity. Recent studies approach non-professional interpreting as language brokering in which bilinguals (often children) interpret for non-bilinguals (adults) in institutional settings (Hall 2004; Valdes 2003). These studies…

Del Torto, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

371

The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

Ellis, Nick C.

2008-01-01

372

Modularity and locality in interpretation  

E-print Network

This thesis will argue for four broad claims: (1) That local contexts are needed for a descriptively adequate theory of linguistic interpretation, (2) That presupposition accommodation is made with respect to a set of ...

Singh, Raj, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

373

Car Troubles: An Interpretive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing amount of U.S. surface area being paved increases interpretive opportunities for teaching about the environmental impacts of automobiles. Provides methods and suggestions for educating high school students. Provides several computer graphics. (LZ)

Dawson, Leslie

1995-01-01

374

Arabic-speaking migrants’ experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. Method A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Results Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter’s task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter’s dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter’s qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. Conclusion The study showed that the personal qualities of a good interpreter not only cover language ability but also origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views. Thus, there is need to develop strategies for personalized healthcare in order to avoid inappropriate communication, to satisfy the preferences of the person in need of interpreters and improve the impact of interpretation on the quality of healthcare. PMID:24934755

2014-01-01

375

Invented rule with English language learners.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to utilize an invented rule with English language learners (ELLs) in a clinical setting to determine differences based on language and age of the children. The performance was correlated with teacher reports of strong and weak language learning. Using a within-participants design, ELLs of age three to five were taught to apply a nonsense morpheme to signal a semantic difference. The invented rule was taught and responses were elicited in both English and English with Spanish interpretation. No significant difference for language was identified. Effect sizes for age were large (English, eta = 0.389, and English + Spanish, eta = 0.430) with five-year-old participants more likely to apply the rule to novel stimuli regardless of language. The performance of the majority of the participants correlated with teacher reports. The invented rule may provide a mechanism for assessing processing independent of prior language knowledge. PMID:22690717

Boyer, Valerie E; Martin, Kathryn Y

2012-07-01

376

Accessing university education: perceptions, preferences, and expectations for interpreting by deaf students.  

PubMed

This paper provides a brief review of the history of deaf education in Australia, Australian Sign Language (Auslan), and Auslan interpreting. A panel of Australian deaf university students from diverse linguistic and educational backgrounds provides insights into their perceptions of sign language interpreting provision in university lectures. They commented on their interpreting preferences after viewing two videotaped segments of university lecture interpretation, one demonstrating a predominantly free approach and the other a predominantly literal approach. Expectations of the deaf students were explored in relation to the educational backgrounds and qualifications of university interpreters; comprehension of interpreters is also discussed. Results suggest that the university students preferred interpreters to combine both interpretation styles, switching between literal and free approaches when appropriate. In doing so, students can access lecture content in Auslan while accessing subject-specific terminology or academic language in English. In terms of qualifications, the students advocated for interpreters to have a university qualification in general, especially if they are working in a university context. However, the students also acknowledged that interpreting did not provide them with full access in educational settings. PMID:15304444

Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

2004-01-01

377

Taking medical histories through interpreters: practice in a Nigerian outpatient department.  

PubMed Central

Consultations through interpreters in the medical outpatient department of a Nigerian hospital were tape-recorded. These recordings were translated completely into English and transcribed, and the performance of the interpreters was analysed. The interpreters often did not provide word-for-word translations of what the doctor or patient had said. Some of these deviations were helpful, but others were confusing or incorrect. In particular, interpreters were inclined to conduct much of the consultations themselves. Hospitals using interpreters should ensure that they have no conflicting duties during consultations and that they have some training in language and interpretation. The quality of interpretation should be checked by native-speaking doctors and by using recordings. Doctors using interpreters should try to make sure that everything said is translated and check the patient's answers by asking questions in several ways. PMID:709137

Launer, J

1978-01-01

378

University and College Programs for Personnel in Deafness: Programs for Training Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists community college, college, and university programs for training sign language interpreters. Alphabetized by state, contact information is provided for each program, along with the head of the department and the degrees offered. (CR)

American Annals of the Deaf, 2002

2002-01-01

379

Rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation  

E-print Network

Rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation predictions about such a rational (Bayesian) noisy-channel language comprehender in a sentence comprehen- sion relies on rational statistical inference over a noisy channel. communication | psycholinguistics

Makous, Walter

380

AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES, GERMAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SERIES OF FILMS HAVE BEEN PRODUCED ON AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES. IN THIS MANUAL THE FILM ON GERMAN IS DISCUSSED. THE MANUAL HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO PROVIDE DISCUSSION, INTERPRETATION, CRITICISM, AND A FULL UNDERSTANDING OF THE TECHNIQUES PORTRAYED ON THE SCREEN AND OF THE LEARNING PROCESS AS A WHOLE. THE FILM IS DIVIDED…

CAPRETZ, PIERRE J.

381

A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

382

A Common Language Effect Size Statistic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the shortcomings in interpretability and generalizability of the effect size statistics currently available to researchers can be overcome by a statistic that expresses how often a score sampled from one distribution will be greater than a score sampled from another distribution. The statistic, the common language effect size indicator, is easily calculated from sample means and variances (or

Kenneth O. McGraw; S. P. Wong

1992-01-01

383

Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

Jeon, Mihyon

2008-01-01

384

Language policy and language planning in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the trajectories of language polices in Cyprus and to relate

Xenia Hadjioannou; Stavroula Tsiplakou; Matthias Kappler

2011-01-01

385

Language Variation, Language Change and Perceptual Dialectology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective and objective language data collected in a research project on language variation in north Germany not only reveal information on current linguistic trends in north Germany; they also show how language change in this region is represented in the consciousness of the speakers themselves and described in comments by them. This diachronic…

Gessinger, Joachim

2010-01-01

386

Early weaning is associated with higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expressions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in adulthood.  

PubMed

The interruption of lactation for a short period, without the use of pharmacological substances or maternal separation, causes offspring malnutrition and hypoleptinaemia and programmes for metabolic disorders such as higher body weight and adiposity, hyperphagia, hyperleptinaemia and central leptin resistance in adulthood. Here, in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying the phenotype observed in adult early-weaned (EW) rats, we studied the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in different hypothalamic nuclei by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In the EW group, the teats of lactating rats were blocked with a bandage to interrupt lactation during the last 3 d, while control pups had free access to milk throughout the entire lactation period. At age 180 d, EW offspring showed higher NPY staining in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as NPY protein content (+68 %) in total hypothalamus than control ones. AgRP showed no changes in staining or Western blot. POMC content was not affected; however, its distribution pattern was altered. CART-positive cells of EW offspring had lower immunoreactivity associated with reduced cell number in the PVN and lower protein content ( - 38 %) in total hypothalamus. The present data indicate that precocious weaning can imprint the neuronal circuitry, especially in the PVN, and cause a long-term effect on the expression of specific orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as NPY and CART, that can be caused by leptin resistance and are coherent with the hyperphagia observed in these animals. PMID:22874082

Younes-Rapozo, Viviane; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Barradas, Penha Cristina; Manhães, Alex C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

2012-12-28

387

Interpreting slavery at plantation museums and historic sites  

E-print Network

field notes; documenting what the tour provided, the interpreters body language or oShand remarks, the behavior of the interpreter and other visitors, the setting of the museum, the layout of the grounds, and any other data they felt were pertinent... about the plantations furniture an average of 50 times per site, while slavery, if mentioned at all, is done so three or fewer times per site. Not a single site that fell into this category explained to the visitors the correlation between...

Durden, Amber K

2003-01-01

388

Language Trends 2010 Secondary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

2010-01-01

389

Immigrant Languages in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

390

Inference in `poor` languages  

SciTech Connect

Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

Petrov, S.

1996-10-01

391

Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

392

Engaging Student Interpreters in Vocabulary Building: Web Search with Computer Workbench  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the usefulness of Web portals in a workbench for assisting student interpreters in the search for and collection of vocabulary. The experiment involved a class of fifteen English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student interpreters, who were required to equip themselves with the appropriate English vocabulary to handle an…

Lim, Lily

2014-01-01

393

Distance Learning as an Effective Tool for Medical Interpreting Training in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the need for trained medical interpreters in various local/ethnic languages especially at public health institutions in Turkey, and argues that distance learning would be an effective tool for medical interpreting training, given the particular constraints of the situation. Designed to meet the respective needs of different…

Güven, Mine

2014-01-01

394

Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

2013-01-01

395

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-03

396

Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

López Puga, Jorge

2014-01-01

397

Against many-worlds interpretations  

SciTech Connect

This is a critical review of the literature on many-worlds interpretations, MWI, with arguments drawn partly from earlier critiques. The essential postulates involved in various MWI are extracted, and their consistency with the evident physical world is examined. Arguments are presented against MWI. The relevance of frequency operators o MWI is examined; it is argued that frequency operator theorems do not in themselves provide a probability interpretation for quantum mechanics, and thus neither support existing MWI nor would be useful in constructing new MWI. Comments are made on papers that advocate MWI. It is concluded that no plausible set of axioms exists for an MWI that describes known physics.

Kent, A. (Inst. for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Princeton, NJ (US))

1990-05-10

398

Speech and Language Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Speech and language disorders More information on speech and language disorders ... Return to top More information on Speech and language disorders Explore other publications and websites Aphasia - This ...

399

Multimedia for language learning  

E-print Network

Students studying foreign languages often wish to enjoy authentic foreign-language content - for example, foreign-language videos and comics. Existing means of presenting this content, however, are suboptimal from the ...

Kovács, Géza, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

400

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

401

Building a Language Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some common misconceptions about foreign language learning and the foreign language teaching profession. Lists some basic needs for the profession if language education is to continue to be developed and promoted. (EKN)

Brod, Richard I.

1982-01-01

402

Quantitative Languages KRISHNENDU CHATTERJEE  

E-print Network

Quantitative Languages KRISHNENDU CHATTERJEE IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology of Science and Technology Austria) and EPFL, Switzerland Quantitative generalizations of classical languages) to define several natural classes of quantitative languages over finite and infinite words; in particular

Doyen, Laurent

403

The Language of Language: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of language in general and the study of foreign languages in particular have attracted new interest in academic circles during the past decade. The concepts of the "global village" and "cultural diversity" have become commonplace in the jargon of the 1990s. The development of two new courses at Westminster College (Pennsylvania) have…

Mann, Jesse Thomas

1993-01-01

404

Language Effects in Trilinguals: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

Event-related potentials were recorded during the visual presentation of words in the three languages of French-English-Spanish trilinguals. Participants monitored a mixed list of unrelated non-cognate words in the three languages while performing a semantic categorization task. Words in L1 generated earlier N400 peak amplitudes than both L2 and L3 words, which peaked together. On the other hand, L2 and L3 words did differ significantly in terms of N400 amplitude, with L3 words generating greater mean amplitudes compared with L2 words. We interpret the effects of peak N400 latency as reflecting the special status of the L1 relative to later acquired languages, rather than proficiency in that language per se. On the other hand, the mean amplitude difference between L2 and L3 is thought to reflect different levels of fluency in these two languages. PMID:23133428

Aparicio, Xavier; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Pu, He; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Grainger, Jonathan

2012-01-01

405

Social Research and Scholarly Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines: (1) the relationship between group membership and the production of knowledge; (2) comparative versus non-comparative research; and (3) the structure of data interpretation for Afro-Americans versus Euro-Americans. At issue is the lack of blacks involved in the National Research Council's study of blacks. (PS)

Butler, John Sibley

1987-01-01

406

Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.

2012-01-01

407

Interpretation of the Weyl tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

2013-09-01

408

[Attempt at multidimensional dream interpretation].  

PubMed

The recent developments of depthpsychology and neurophysiology makes a new orientation and interpretation of dreams necessary. Koella for example describes night-mares of persons taking Beta-blockers. Of course, the great ideas of Freud and Adler should be integrated, not abandoned. Most of all influences of biologic factors on quality of dreams should be discussed. PMID:7660671

Bengesser, G

1995-01-01

409

A Interpretation of Polarization Matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon the polar decomposition, this dissertation shows that a general polarization element is equivalent to a diattenuator, followed by a retarder then by a depolarizer. Such a decomposition allows polarization properties, such as diattenuation and retardance, to be extracted from Jones matrices or Mueller matrices. This interpretation scheme is then applied to Mueller matrix spectra for mica and ferroelectric

Shih-Yau Lu

1995-01-01

410

Use and Interpretation of Radar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial from Texas A&M University discusses the basic principles of operation of weather radars, describes how to interpret radar mosaics, and discusses the use of radar in weather forecasting. Students learn the relationship between range and elevation and how to use radar images and mosaics in short-range forecasting.

John Nielsen-Gammon

1996-01-01

411

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

412

Smartberries: Interpreting Erdrich's Love Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of "Love Medicines" interpreted by Hertha D. Sweet Wong who claims that the book's "multiple narrators confound conventional Western expectations of an autonomous protagonist, a dominant narrative voice, and a consistently chronological narrative". "Love Medicine" is a brilliant use of the Western literary tactics that create the…

Treuer, David

2005-01-01

413

Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

Webb, Sandra M.

414

EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

Webb, Sandra M.

415

How to Interpret Circuit Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents an explanation of how to interpret circuit diagrams. Two diagrams show the difference between a "short hand" circuit diagram and a more detailed one. The detailed circuit diagram is useful for those first learning circuits in an effort to eventually understand the "short hand" diagram without difficulty.

Lesurf, Jim

416

Self-reported adherence supports patient preference for the single tablet regimen (STR) in the current cART era  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze self-reported adherence to antiretroviral regimens containing ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), raltegravir, and maraviroc. Methods Overall, 372 consecutive subjects attending a reference center for HIV treatment in Florence, Italy, were enrolled in the study, from December 2010 to January 2012 (mean age 48 years). A self-report questionnaire was filled in. Patients were defined as “non-adherent” if reporting one of the following criteria:<90% of pills taken in the last month, ?1 missed dose in the last week, spontaneous treatment interruptions reported, or refill problems in the last 3 months. Gender, age, CD4, HIV-RNA, years of therapy, and type of antiretroviral regimen were analyzed with respect to adherence. Results At the time of the questionnaire, 89.8% of patients had <50 copies/mL HIV-RNA and 14.2% were on their first combined antiretroviral therapy. 57% of patients were prescribed a regimen containing ritonavir boosted protease inhibitors (boosted PI), 41.7% NNRTI, 17.2% raltegravir, and 4.8% maraviroc; 49.5% of the subjects were on bis-in-die regimens, while 50.5% were on once-daily regimens, with 23.1% of these on the single tablet regimen (STR): tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz. The non-adherence proportion was lower in NNRTI than in boosted-PI treatments (19.4% vs 30.2%), and even lower in STR patients (17.4%). In multivariable logistic regression, patients with the NNRTI regimen (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34–0.94) and the STR (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92) reported lower non-adherence. Efavirenz regimens were also associated with lower non-adherence (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.83), while atazanavir/ritonavir regimens were associated with higher non-adherence. No other relation to specific antiretroviral drugs was found. A higher CD4 count, lower HIV-RNA, and older age were also found to be associated with lower non-adherence, while a longer time on combined antiretroviral therapy was related to higher non-adherence. Conclusion In conclusion, older age, higher CD4 cell counts, lower HIV-RNA viral loads, and the use of STR are all related to lower non-adherence. In particular, the use of STR maintains an advantage in improving adherence with respect to other cARTs, even with the availability of new, well-tolerated antiretroviral drugs and drug classes in recent years.

Sterrantino, G; Santoro, L; Trotta, M; Antinori, A; Bartolozzi, D; Zaccarelli, M

2012-01-01

417

Study of Spatial Configurations of Equipment for Online Sign Interpretation Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design of configurations of videophone equipment aimed at online sign interpretation. We classified interpretation services into three types of situations: on-site interpretation, partial online interpretation, and full online interpretation. For each situation, the spatial configurations of the equipment are considered keeping the issue of nonverbal signals in mind. Simulation experiments of sign interpretation were performed using these spatial configurations and the qualities of the configurations were assessed. The preferred configurations had the common characteristics that the hearing subject could see the face of his/her principal conversation partner, that is, the deaf subject. The results imply that hearing people who do not understand sign language utilize nonverbal signals for facilitating interpreter-mediated conversation.

Nakazono, Kaoru; Tanaka, Saori

418

Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

2002-01-01

419

Processing Natural Language without Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can still create computer programs displaying only the most rudimentary natural language processing capabilities. One of\\u000a the greatest barriers to advanced natural language processing is our inability to overcome the linguistic knowledge acquisition\\u000a bottleneck. In this paper, we describe recent work in a number of areas, including grammar checker development, automatic\\u000a question answering, and language modeling, where state of

Eric Brill

2003-01-01

420

Modeling multiple land use changes using ANN, CART and MARS: Comparing tradeoffs in goodness of fit and explanatory power of data mining tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over half of the earth's terrestrial surface has been modified by humans. This modification is called land use change and its pattern is known to occur in a non-linear way. The land use change modeling community can advance its models using data mining tools. Here, we present three data mining land use change models, one based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), another on Classification And Regression Trees (CART) and another Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). We reconfigured the three data mining models to concurrently simulate multiple land use classes (e.g. agriculture, forest and urban) in South-Eastern Wisconsin (SEWI), USA (time interval 1990-2000) and in Muskegon River Watershed (MRW), Michigan, USA (time interval 1978-1998). We compared the results of the three data mining tools using relative operating characteristic (ROC) and percent correct match (PCM). We found that ANN provided the best accuracy in both areas for three land use classes (e.g. urban, agriculture and forest). In addition, in both regions, CART and MARS both showed that forest gain occurred in areas close to current forests, agriculture patches and away from roads. Urban increased in areas of high urban density, close to roads and in areas with few forests and wetlands. We also found that agriculture gain is more likely for the areas closer to the agriculture and forest patches. Elevation strongly influenced urbanization and forest gain in MRW while it has no effect in SEWI.

Tayyebi, Amin; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

2014-05-01

421

Researcher SPOTLIGHT The University of Maryland Center for Advanced Study of Language (CASL)  

E-print Network

areas of knowledge, but also directly serves the critical needs of the nation. Language Research Priming for Language Analysts Divergent Thinking in Language Analysis and Text Interpretation factors be trained to operate in the thinking patterns of other cultures. For Divergent Thinking in Language Analysis

Yorke, James

422

Second Language Tests for Specific Purpose: How Specific?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses certain problems that can arise with respect to the selection of content in the preparation of a test to measure language proficiency for some specific purpose. Forty employees in a defense plant in Montreal, Canada were interviewed in order to specify language needs, to arrive at a precise interpretation of the required…

Ricciardi, Joseph S.

1981-01-01

423

Understanding and Developing Good Practice: Language Teaching in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new book supports the professional development and training of Modern Languages teachers in higher education. It links insights from pedagogical and applied linguistic research to the practicalities of the undergraduate language syllabus. The aim is to interpret research for the classroom practitioner so that teaching can be based on sound…

Klapper, John

2006-01-01

424

Beach Finds Curiosity Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe hard parts of sea creatures (shells, molts, etc.) to better understand marine environments. A series of questions is provided to help guide learners through observations, and there are suggestions for adapting the questions to fit older and younger audiences. Background information is provided about gastropods (e.g. whelks), mollusks (e.g. clams, mussels, oysters), echinoderms (e.g. sea stars, sand dollars), and crustaceans (e.g. crabs). The activity is written for use in a science museum or aquarium, but could also be used anywhere you can set out the examples and have learners interact with them. You could even adapt the activity for exploring outdoors at a tide pool or similar place.

Virginia Aquarium and Marine Science Center

2009-01-01

425

Using Language Sample Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

2010-01-01

426

Endangered Language Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.

2012-01-01

427

Chaos and language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human language is a complex communication system with unlimited expressibility. Children spontaneously develop a native language by ex- posure to linguistic data from their speech community. Over historical time, languages change dramatically and unpredictably by accumulation of small changes and by interaction with other languages. We have pre- viously developed a mathematical model for the acquisition and evolu- tion of

W. Garrett Mitchener; Martin A. Nowak

2004-01-01

428

Language Testing: New Openings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of articles on second-language testing includes: "The State of Language Testing in the 1990s" (J. Charles Alderson); "The Exercise of Power and Control in the Rhetorics of Testing" (Elana Shohamy); "Institutional and Political Aspects of Language Testing" (Bernard Spolsky); "Language Planning Policy and Development of FL Proficiency…

Huhta, Ari, Ed.; And Others

429

On Explaining Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author's purpose in this article is to discuss the aspects of language (especially the development of language in children) to which biological concepts are most appropriately applied. While results of past studies would seem to show that language development is contingent on specific language training, it is important to distinguish between…

Lenneberg, Eric H.

1969-01-01

430

Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text presents an introduction to sociolinguistics for second language teachers, focusing on social dimensions of language likely to be of interest to this group. The first group of chapters addresses the manner in which the larger social and political context affects language broadly: "Language Attitudes, Motivation, and Standards" (Mary…

McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

431

Second Language Education Certificate  

E-print Network

-world, competitive edge. www.uwindsor.ca/languages English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers are in high demand million people currently speak English as their second language and approximately 1 billion more while observing and teaching classes of English as a second language. Excellent Student Support

432

A Certified JavaScript Interpreter Martin Bodin1 & Alan Schmitt2  

E-print Network

A Certified JavaScript Interpreter Martin Bodin1 & Alan Schmitt2 1: Projet Celtique, Inria Rennes-Atlantique alan.schmitt@inria.fr Introduction The JavaScript language was initially developed for web pages], or LLVM assembly [Zak11]). In some sense, JavaScript has become the assembly language of the web, as most

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Interpretation of English Multiple Wh-Questions by Japanese Speakers: A Missing Uninterpretable Feature Account  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent work by Tsimpli (2003) and Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou (to appear) an explicit claim is made about the nature of end-state grammars in older second language (L2) learners: uninterpretable syntactic features that have not been selected during first language (L1) acquisition will not be available for L2 grammar construction. Interpretable…

Hawkins, Roger; Hattori, Hajime

2006-01-01

434

A Context-Based Free Text Interpreter XIAOSHAN PAN AND FRANZ J. KURFESS  

E-print Network

of tracking the contextual meaning of words and phrases during (and after) the development of an ontology text, text interpretation, Natural Language Understanding, ontology, context model, meaning representation, Link Grammar, WordNet 1. Introduction 1.1. Research Question and Motivation Natural language

Stanford University

435

Godel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad  

E-print Network

interpretations In 1958, Kurt G¨odel published in the journal Dialectica an interpretation of intuitionisticCHAPTER VI G¨odel's Functional ("Dialectica") Interpretation Jeremy Avigad Department of Philosophy to be known as G¨odel's functional or Dialectica interpretation. When combined with G¨odel's double

Avigad, Jeremy

436

Language and Linguistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may be a universal human attribute, language is hardly simple. For decades, linguistsâ main task was to track and record languages. But, like so many areas of science, the field of linguistics has evolved dramatically over the past 50 years or so. This special report touches on nearly all of these areas by answering questions such as: How does language develop and change? Can the language apparatus be "seen" in the brain? Does it matter if a language disappears? What exactly is a dialect? How can sign language help us to understand languages in general?

437

Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

Phipps, Alison

2011-01-01

438

Language and communication What is language?  

E-print Network

· Common ground What is language · Language is the most complex form of communication used by any animal · Allows the transmission of culture ­ Permits us to teach others ­ The ratchet effect (Tomasello) · Each not speak in complete sentences · We rarely say what we mean literally ­ Previous cartoon is an example

Pillow, Jonathan

439

SOME THOUGHTS ON LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGE PROCESSES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE DEFINITION OF THE WORD "LANGUAGE" CAN BE LIMITED TO MEAN "A VOCAL AND AUDITORY MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, WHICH WORKS BY THE SYMBOLIC PROCESS, WHICH HAS A COMPLEX STRUCTURE, AND WHICH IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING SO LONG AS IT REMAINS IN USE." THERE ARE SIX IMPLICATIONS OF THIS DEFINITION--(1) ALTHOUGH LANGUAGE IS PRIMARILY AUDITORY AND VOCAL, IT CAN…

CASSIDY, FREDERIC G.

440

Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' first and target language are often used by both teachers and students during instruction in the foreign language classroom (Levine, 2011). In this study, the frequency of and reasons for students' and teachers' use of English or Spanish were analyzed using video recordings of 40 class sessions taught by eight randomly…

Thompson, Gregory L.; Harrison, Katie

2014-01-01

441

Interpreting T-X Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short problem set works well as a group activity that can be completed in class. The purpose of the exercise is for students to begin to think about T-X phase diagrams and how they are interpreted. Along the way, students learn that text book authors sometimes make mistakes. The figure in the handout is from Winter's Petrology. But, Winter goofed and left some reactions off of the phase diagram.

Perkins, Dexter

442

Interpreting the Benchmark Comparisons Report  

E-print Network

are not included. Mean The mean is the weighted arithmetic average of student level benchmark scores. Bar ChartsInterpreting the Benchmark Comparisons Report Class Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c Mean a Sig b Effect Size c First-Year 51.6 .05 50.4 * .14 51.8 .04 Senior 55.9 -.01 55.6 .02 55

Rhode Island, University of

443

Operational interpretations of quantum discord  

SciTech Connect

Quantum discord quantifies nonclassical correlations beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum-state-merging protocol. We further relate the asymmetry of quantum discord with the performance imbalance in quantum state merging and dense coding.

Cavalcanti, D.; Modi, K. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Aolita, L. [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Boixo, S. [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Piani, M. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Winter, A. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

2011-03-15

444

Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

445

Probabilistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on Born's 1926 papers and von Neumann's formal account of quantum\\u000a mechanics in ? Hilbert space. According to Max Born (1882–1970), the quantum mechanical ? wave function ? does not have any\\u000a direct physical meaning, whereas its square ???2 is a probability [1] ? Born rule, probability in quantum mechanics. According to

Brigitte Falkenburg; Peter Mittelstaedt

446

Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

Omnes, R. (Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite de Paris XI, Batiment 211, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France))

1992-04-01

447

"Good Teaching for All Students?": Sheltered Instruction Programming in Washington State Language Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many in the field of language policy have called for studies that connect policy texts at the macro level with their interpretations in districts, schools, and classrooms at the micro level. The purpose of this study is to trace Washington's educational language policy through the layers of interpretation to educational practice to see how…

Stephens, Crissa; Johnson, David Cassels

2015-01-01

448

A Language Typology in Anaphoric Dependency: Evidence from Chinese, English, Japanese, Icelandic, and Korean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the Prominence Hierarchy in Kim (1998, 2000a, 2000b) that were proposed to compute a different degree of preference when there is more than one option for anaphor interpretations. Employing the parameterized definition of a potential anaphor in a given language, this paper extends its basic spirit to interpretations of anaphors in other languages such as English, Icelandic,

Soo-Yeon Kim

449

Competition between Word Order and Case-Marking in Interpreting Grammatical Relations: A Case Study in Multilingual Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines strategies multilingual children use to interpret grammatical relations, focusing on their two primary languages, Lajamanu Warlpiri and Light Warlpiri. Both languages use mixed systems for indicating grammatical relations. In both languages ergative-absolutive case-marking indicates core arguments, but to different extents in…

O'Shannessy, Carmel

2011-01-01

450

Language and Communication in Cross-Cultural Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language and communication are the bedrock of qualitative enquiry. Language is a fundamental tool through which qualitative\\u000a researchers seek to understand human behaviour, social processes and the cultural meanings that inscribe human behaviour.\\u000a However, when conducting cross-cultural research, issues of language and communication become more complex and often require\\u000a the assistance of interpreters\\/translators as “cultural brokers”. Cross-cultural research poses numerous

Monique M. Hennink

451

BEYSIK: Language description and handbook for programmers (system for the collective use of the Institute of Space Research, Academy of Sciences USSR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BASIC algorithmic language is described, and a guide is presented for the programmer using the language interpreter. The high-level algorithm BASIC is a problem-oriented programming language intended for solution of computational and engineering problems.

Orlov, I. G.

1979-01-01

452

Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

Lin, Li-Ching

2013-01-01

453

Dialogue: Interactive Alignment and Its Implications for Language Learning and Language Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter discusses language processing during conversation. In particular, it considers why taking part in a conversation is more straightforward than speaking or listening in isolation. We argue that conversation is easy because speakers and listeners automatically align with each other at different linguistic levels (e.g., sound, grammar, meaning) which leads to alignment at the level of interpretation. This alignment process is reflected in the repetitiveness of dialogue at different levels and occurs both on the basis of local mechanisms of priming and more global mechanisms of routinization. We argue that the latter process may tell us something about both acquisition of language and historical processes of language change.

Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.

454

Close Reading: A Cautionary Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementation of Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts across most of the United States has yielded the rapid creation of new, interconnected literacy assessments, curriculum guidelines, instructional materials, teacher preparation programs, teacher evaluation systems, and professional development. This essay explores two…

Hinchman, Kathleen A.; Moore, David W.

2013-01-01

455

An Interpretation of Quantum Logic  

E-print Network

It is argued that the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics is in conflict with the objective existence of space-time, and suggested that kets are labels which name real states of matter but do not directly describe them. Position is a relationship between particles which necessarily contains uncertainty. The principle of superposition is seen as a definitional truism in the naming of states. The description of space in quantum logic resolves the measurement problem of quantum mechanics and related paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat by attributing the collapse of the wave function to information.

Charles Francis

2014-05-11

456

Musical Expertise and Second Language Learning  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research. PMID:24961431

Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

2013-01-01

457

Metaphor and Universal Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

Blown, Eric; And Others

1990-01-01

458

Preschool Language Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... improve and enhance their language skills. They help parents understand how to work with their children at home and in every day activities. The Preferred Practice Patterns for the Profession of Speech-Language Pathology includes sections ...

459

AHSGE Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice with figurative language. Navigate through these activities at your own pace! Analogy Quick Review Simile Mini Lesson and Practice Drag and Drop Metaphors Figurative Speech Hangman Personification B-Ball Personification Quiz Personification Practice Figurative Language Baseball ...

Ufomadu, Ms.

2013-06-14

460

Language disorder - children  

MedlinePLUS

... disorders are rarely caused by a lack of intelligence. Language disorders are different than delayed language. With ... also recommended because of the possibility of related emotional or behavioral problems.

461

Situating language and consciousness  

E-print Network

Language and consciousness enrich our lives. But they are rare commodities; most creatures are language-less and unconscious. This dissertation is about the conditions that distinguish the haves from the have-nots. The ...

Almotahari, Mahrad

2011-01-01

462

The Rudiments of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the question of whether nonhuman species, such as apes, possess rudimentary language, focusing on the ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Noam Chomsky in regard to the development of oral language in young children and apes. (51 references) (MDM)

Canfield, John V.

1995-01-01

463

Foreign Languages and Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrary to the assumption that jobs for language specialists are few and limited in scope, there are jobs for people with language skills, but as a supplement to other technical, business, or professional skills. (Author)

Honig, Lucille T.; Brod, Richard I.

1974-01-01

464

India: Languages and Scripts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students and aficionados of Indian languages and scripts will thoroughly enjoy this useful metasite maintained by Yashwant K. Malaiya of Colorado State University. A Computer Science professor, Maliaya offers this site as a labor of love, to the benefit of interested users everywhere. Visitors will find overviews and resources devoted to the language and script of the major languages spoken in South Asia. Additional sections include the evolution of Brahmi Script; digitized Manuscript Images; Calligraphy, Bijaksharas, and Yantras; and Classical Languages and Texts.

465

False memory in bilinguals: does switching languages increase false memories?  

PubMed

People often receive and recount information in different languages. This experiment examined the impact of switching languages on false recall, recognition, and recognition confidence. We presented Spanish-English bilinguals with 10 lists of words associated to a critical non-presented lure, either in English or in Spanish. Each list was followed by free recall either in English or in Spanish. The final stage was a recognition test in either language. Results showed a higher proportion of veridical and false recall in English, the more dominant language, than in Spanish, the native language. Noncritical intrusions were equivalent in both languages. More importantly, false recall, false recognition, and false recognition confidence were higher across languages than within languages. The results are examined in relation to current research and interpretations of bilingual false memory. PMID:19353928

Marmolejo, Gloria; Diliberto-Macaluso, Kristen A; Altarriba, Jean Ette

2009-01-01

466

When interpretation masquerades as explanation.  

PubMed

The principal goal of the clinical interpretation (and of the larger clinical narrative) is to bring about insight and change in the patient, and not to present a reasoned argument that relies on public data and shared rules of evidence and logic. When the clinical account is transposed to the public domain and presented as a form of explanation, it is no longer designed for the benefit of one individual but must now be accessible to all. We are still under the shadow of Freud's five famous cases which are literary landmarks of exposition and persuasion. As a result, we are less sensitive to what happens when interpretations are substituted for explanations. The time has come to develop a new genre and a new mode of clinical reporting that would allow the reader to participate in the argument, allow him to evaluate the proposed links between evidence and conclusion (instead of relying on the authority of the analyst-author), and open up the clinical report to the possibilities of refutation, disconfirmation, and falsification. PMID:3519739

Spence, D P

1986-01-01

467

Digital Language Death  

PubMed Central

Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

Kornai, András

2013-01-01

468

The Language Teacher, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These issues of "The Language Teacher" examine second language learning issues in Japan, focusing on such topics as the following: language educators and labor law; using videofeedback to nurture self-monitoring skills; learning diaries in learner training; English for special learners; developing listening subskills with trivia; attitude and…

Swanson, Malcolm, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

469

Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

2012-01-01

470

Language-Spread Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language-spread policy (LSP) is policy promulgated by groups seeking to spread their languages to speakers or communicative domains. LSP can be internal or external, overt or disguised, and related in different ways to national policy. Intent may be to increase native-language advantage in international communication, disseminate ideology, create…

Ammon, Ulrich

1997-01-01

471

documentation of endangered languages  

E-print Network

hal-00447503,version1-15Jan2010 #12;1 INTRODUCTION A great many minority languages are disappearing. One critical reason for the high level of endangerment of many minority languages, or because of feelings of inferiority about speaking a minority language); the availability of education only

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

472

Language Contact: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

Thomason, Sarah G.

473

Language, Gesture, and Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign Language

Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

474

Motives for Language Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers considers processes involved in language change and issues of how they can be modeled and studied. After "Introduction" (Raymond Hickey), there are 15 papers in 6 parts. Part 1, "The Phenomenon of Language Change," includes: (1) "On Change in 'E-language'" (Peter Matthews); and (2) "Formal and Functional Motivation for…

Hickey, Raymond, Ed.

475

Supplemental Language Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Supplemental Language Study Group (SLSG) program at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, Colorado) is described. The program was developed following a student's expression of interest in learning "exotic" languages unavailable in the standard foreign language curriculum at the university. This student-run club offers several weekly…

Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

476

Kyrgyz Language Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language manual for Kyrgyz was designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Kyrgyzstan. It begins with a brief introduction to the Kyrgyz language, stressing the points at which the Kyrgyz system differs from English, and outlining the Kyrgyz sound system. It then presents 15 topical lessons, each containing…

Abylkasymova, Mairam, Comp.; Jumabaeva, Gulaim, Comp.

477

Language Policy in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

2012-01-01

478

Why Language Learning Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most education systems prepare their students to function in the national language and at least one additional language. However, only one-third of U.S. elementary schools offer students language-learning opportunities. Multilingual societies have competitive advantages over monolingual societies in international trade. Ameliorative steps are…

Met, Myriam

2001-01-01

479

TU Darmstadt Language Policy  

E-print Network

their soft skills. One way to do this is by receiving extra credit for language competencies. TU Darmstadt acknowledges that competence in foreign languages and intercultural skills are vital pre-requisites to success conducted in German, the following language requirements apply: 1. Listening and speaking skills in German

Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

480

The Learning of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current thinking of specialists in the study of language learning provides the basis of this book. The 12 chapters of the book and their authors are as follows: 1. Introduction--Charles A. Ferguson; 2. The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child--Martin D. S. Braine; 3. Development of Native Language Skills beyond the Early Years--John B.…

Reed, Carroll E., Ed.

481

Language, Schools and Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of language in education is examined, and the ways in which recent research helps in the understanding of classroom language are explored. The relevance of such research to practicing teachers as well as to sociologists is also discussed. The volume is divided into nine chapters: (1) "Why Is Language Important in Education?"; (2) "Some…

Stubbs, Michael

482

Digital systems design language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

Shiva, S. G.

1979-01-01

483

Teaching Language, Teaching Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

1997-01-01

484

Language and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language Learning" (G. Brindley); "Task as a…

Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

485

SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF Leptospira spp. AMONG CART HORSES FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA OF HUMAN LEPTOSPIROSIS IN CURITIBA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cart horses are a re-emerging population employed to carry recyclable material in cities. Methods: Sixty-two horses were sampled in an endemic area of human leptospirosis. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. Results: A seropositivity of 75.8% with serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae in 80.8% of the horses was observed. Blood and urine were qPCR negative. MAT showed positive correlations with rainfall (p = 0.02) and flooding (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although horses may be constantly exposed to Leptospira spp. in the environment mostly because of rainfall and flooding, no leptospiremia or leptospiruria were observed in this study. PMID:25351539

Finger, Mariane Angélica; de Barros, Ivan Roque; Leutenegger, Christian; Estrada, Marko; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Langoni, Hélio; Kikuti, Mariana; Dornbush, Peterson Triches; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

2014-01-01

486

Rich Language Analysis for Counterterrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and relevant intelligence is critical for effective counterterrorism. Too much irrelevant information is as bad or worse than not enough information. Modern computational tools promise to provide better search and summarization capabilities to help analysts filter and select relevant and key information. However, to do this task effectively, such tools must have access to levels of meaning beyond the literal. Terrorists operating in context-rich cultures like fundamentalist Islam use messages with multiple levels of interpretation, which are easily misunderstood by non-insiders. This chapter discusses several kinds of such “encryption” used by terrorists and insurgents in the Arabic language, and how knowledge of such methods can be used to enhance computational text analysis techniques for use in counterterrorism.

Guidère, Mathieu; Howard, Newton; Argamon, Shlomo

487

CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

488

Interpretation and clustering of handwritten student responses  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an interpretation and clustering framework for handwritten student responses on tablet computers. The ink analysis system is able to capture and interpret digital ink strokes for many types of classroom ...

Von Tish, Kelsey Leigh

2012-01-01

489

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2014-01-01

490

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2013-01-01

491

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2012-01-01

492

12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations...handwritten signatures in business, consumer, or...recognized. Generally, an electronic record or signature...interpreted to permit electronic transmissions, communications...and submissions in business, consumer, or...

2011-01-01

493

The Interpreted Executive: Theory, Models, and Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the interpreter's role in international business ventures. Presents descriptive models of the role, highlights major implications executives should consider before hiring an interpreter, and poses research questions based on these implications. (SR)

Sussman, Lyle; Johnson, Denise M.

1993-01-01

494

Sign Language Film List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In learning any language, a good way to hone your listening skills to range of common speakers is by watching movies in the language, and sign language is no exception. Although referring to it as using your listening skills may be a bit of a stretch, viewing different people sign can be good real-life practice in order to learn the nuisances of individuals' "speech." The Sign Language Film List has attempted to compile a complete of a list of films and other works available in American Sign Language, and their efforts should be rewarding to students, speakers and instructors.

Lubotsky, John

2006-11-06

495

Mind and Language Architecture  

PubMed Central

A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

Logan, Robert K

2010-01-01

496

The challenge of communication in interpreted consultations in diabetes care: a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background The experience of diabetes care for individuals from minority ethnic groups, particularly individuals of Bangladeshi origin, shows they are at a significant disadvantage. Aim To identify the challenges of interpreted consultations for healthcare providers and to explain the disadvantage experienced by patients from minority groups who have diabetes. Design and setting Comparison of 12 interpreted consultations with 24 consultations involving fluent English speakers in four primary healthcare centres in Tower Hamlets, east London, UK. Method Content analysis of video recordings of routine diabetes review consultations in primary care, involving 36 patients, nine nurses or healthcare assistants, and six interpreters. Result Interpreted consultations were as long as same-language consultations but patients said less. The incidence of misunderstandings was similar but patients in interpreted consultations asked fewer questions. Indicators of social distance in interpreted consultations included less humour and less discussion of the patient’s feelings or personal circumstances. Patients in interpreted consultations were less likely to raise issues unrelated to diabetes, to discuss their own ideas about health, or to talk about clinical parameters. Providers commonly addressed English-speaking patients directly but usually addressed patients through interpreters using the third person. Interpreters sometimes changed the meaning or did not translate speech, and they added their own comments. Conclusion The findings explain some of the known problems of diabetes care for individuals from ethnic minorities. Effective training for interpreters and care providers is needed to reduce social distance and to facilitate patients’ involvement in self-management. PMID:23561691

Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira

2013-01-01

497

The proposed role of suppression in simultaneous interpretation  

PubMed Central

In this paper we suggest that the cognitive mechanism of suppression attenuates interference in many language comprehension phenomena, and is particularly crucial when comprehension must share processing capacity with other cognitive tasks, as is manifestly the case in simultaneous interpreting. During lexical access, the mechanism of suppression attenuates the interference caused by the activation of other lexical information, such as the inappropriate meanings of homonyms. During anaphoric reference, the mechanism of suppression attenuates the interference caused by the activation of other potential referents. In this way, the referent to which the anaphor does refer becomes the most activated concept. During syntactic parsing, the mechanism of suppression attenuates the interference caused by a previous syntactic form. During metaphor comprehension, the mechanism of suppression attenuates the interference caused by a literal interpretation. During inferencing, the mechanism of suppression attenuates the interference caused by an initial but inappropriate inference. We propose therefore that suppression — a general, cognitive mechanism that attenuates interference — plays a crucial role in language comprehension and simultaneous interpretation.

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Shlesinger, Miriam

2014-01-01

498

Techniques to Enhance Images for Mokkan Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate several methods for enhancing scanned mokkan images to aid archeologists and historians in the interpretation of mokkans. Mokkans are wooden tablets with handwritten characters used in 8th century Japan. Due to damages and natural deterioration, the interpretation of the text on mokkans is difficult even for archeologists and historians. The automatic interpretation of mokkan text

Jun Takakura; Akihito Kitadai; Masaki Nakagawa; Hajime Baba; Akihiro Watanabe

2010-01-01

499

AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION NATIONAL INVENTORY OF LANDSCAPES  

E-print Network

MANUAL FOR AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION IN THE NATIONAL INVENTORY OF LANDSCAPES IN SWEDEN NILS YEAR for aerial photo interpretation 1 www-nils.slu.se SLU, Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics. 901 83 Umeå, Sweden #12;NILS ­ manual for aerial photo interpretation 2 Table of contents 1 About NILS

500

An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

2010-01-01