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Sample records for language interpreters cart

  1. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  2. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  3. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  4. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  5. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  6. Entropy, Its Language, and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2007-12-01

    The language of entropy is examined for consistency with its mathematics and physics, and for its efficacy as a guide to what entropy means. Do common descriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder understanding? Can the language of entropy be helpful in cases where entropy is not well defined? We argue in favor of the descriptor spreading, which entails space, time, and energy in a fundamental way. This includes spreading of energy spatially during processes and temporal spreading over accessible microstates states in thermodynamic equilibrium. Various examples illustrate the value of the spreading metaphor. To provide further support for this metaphor’s utility, it is shown how a set of reasonable spreading properties can be used to derive the entropy function. A main conclusion is that it is appropriate to view entropy’s symbol S as shorthand for spreading.

  7. PBS: An Economical Natural Language Query Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samstag-Schnock, Uwe; Meadow, Charles T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the design and implementation of PBS (Parsing, Boolean Recognition, Stemming), a software module used in conjunction with an intermediary program to interpret natural language queries used for online database searching. Results of a test of the initial version, which is designed for use with bibliographic files, are reported. (13…

  8. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  9. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  10. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  11. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  12. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  13. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  14. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  15. Interpreting Language Arts Research for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents chapters concerning various aspects of research in language arts and implications for language instruction. The works of individuals are mentioned throughout the book, and 1,168 references are included in a list of works cited in the text. The research topics covered involve language development, oral language, listening, the…

  16. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  17. Sign Language Interpreter Training, Testing, and Accreditation: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina

    2004-01-01

    The article explores sign language interpreter training, testing, and accreditation in three major English-speaking countries, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, by providing an overview of the training and assessment of sign language interpreters in each country. The article highlights the reasons these countries can be…

  18. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  19. The Psychotherapist and the Sign Language Interpreter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT).…

  20. Interpreting Language: An Essential of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegers, J. Conrad, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph points out the difficulties in language development of which teachers should be aware, suggests some methods through which children may be helped to overcome comprehension problems, and presents bibliographies helpful for persons who wish to undertake further reading. Chapters include "Some Possible Origins of the Prevalence of…

  1. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  2. Design and coding considerations of the soil data language interpreter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, V. J.; Kollias, J. G.

    A query language, named Soil Data Language (SDL), for retrieving information from a Soil. Data Bank, is part of the ARSIS (A Relational Soil Information System) system, currently being developed in Greece. The interpreter of the language accepts input programs, expressed as SDL commands, and outputs the requested information. This paper describes design principles employed during the coding of the interpreter of the language. The derived program can be modified to cover eventual alterations to the specifications of language or the content and structure of the data bank. The study may be seen as an initiative to the design of Generalized Soil and Land Information Systems that primarily are concerned with the easy adaptation to a variety of National processing requirements.

  3. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  4. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  5. Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

  6. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  7. Interpreting medicine: lessons from a Spanish-language clinic.

    PubMed

    Brown, Benjamin P

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients is an act of interpretation: we labor to understand the significance of a particular symptom and, when we have reached a diagnosis, we convert our medical jargon into plain language for the benefit of the patient. Caring for patients of limited English proficiency-a population that needs a very literal form of interpretation-underscores this lesson. Working with predominantly Spanish-speaking patients has shown me the importance of bearing witness to patients' struggles and has brought me to realize that good physicians must work to forge a common language with all their patients, not only with those who do not speak English. PMID:25201742

  8. Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

  9. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  10. School Counselor Collaboration with Language Interpreters: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maddux, Cleborne

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase knowledge of current school practices with regard to the use of language interpreters, experiences in collaborative work with interpreters were assessed through a national survey. Outcomes indicated a perceived need for more interpreter assistance, with many indicating a need for full-time language services. Bilingual…

  11. A basic interpretation of the technical language of radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeley, Catherine M.

    2004-09-01

    For the food producer contemplating the purchase of radiation processing equipment the task of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the available technologies, electron beam (E-beam), X-ray and gamma, to determine the best option for their application, is onerous. Not only is the level of investment daunting but also, to be sure of comparing like with like, the evaluator requires a basic understanding of the science underpinning radiation processing. There have been many papers published that provide technical specialists with a rigorous interpretation of this science (In: Gaughran, E.R.L., Goudie, A.J. (Eds.), Technical Developments and Prospects of Sterilization by Ionizing Radiation, International Conference, Vienna. Multiscience Publications Ltd., pp. 145-172). The objective for this paper is to give non-specialists an introduction to the language of radiation processing and to clarify some of the terminology associated with the use of radioactive sources for this application.

  12. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    PubMed Central

    Debevc, Matjaž; Milošević, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers’ comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  13. Emergency-Evacuation Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Otto H.; Owens, Lester J.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed cart designed to remove injured worker from vicinity of hazardous chemical spill. Self-propelled cart enables rescuer to move victim of industrial accident quickly away from toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, carcinogenic, asphyxiating, or extremely cold liquids. Intended for use where too dangerous for ambulances and other vehicles to approach accident site. Constructed of high-strength tubing, rides on bicycle wheels with balloon tires. Rescuer steers cart with handle at rear. Estimated mass of fully equipped vehicle is 650 lb.

  14. Language at work: children's gendered interpretations of occupational titles.

    PubMed

    Liben, Lynn S; Bigler, Rebecca S; Krogh, Holleen R

    2002-01-01

    A large literature has shown that children's beliefs and aspirations about occupations reflect cultural gender stereotypes. One channel that may create or sustain occupational stereotypes is language. Two studies were designed to examine whether children interpret occupational titles as gender specific or gender neutral. In Study 1, children (6- to 11-year-olds, N = 64) were asked directly if various job titles could be used for both men and women doing the job. In Study 2, children (6- to 10-year-olds, N = 51) were shown pictures of men and women engaged in job activities and asked which one(s) showed someone who could be called a(n)__. Titles were linguistically unmarked for gender (e.g., doctor), strongly marked (e.g., policeman), or weakly marked (e.g., postmaster). Marked titles were given in masculine and feminine forms. Findings reinforced past work showing that marked titles are exclusionary, revealed that some children harbor confusions about even unmarked titles, and demonstrated the mediating role of individual differences in attitudes. Implications for the changing lexicon and for educational programs are discussed. PMID:12038553

  15. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  16. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

  17. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  18. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  19. Deriving Meaning through Context: Interpreting Bare Nominals in Second Language Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the second language acquisition of telicity have suggested that learners can use morphosyntactic cues to interpret sentences as telic or atelic even in cases where the cues differ in the first language (L1) and second language (L2) (Slabakova, 2001, 2005; Gabriele, 2008; Kaku et al., 2008a, 2008b). The present study extends…

  20. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  1. First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

  2. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  3. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  4. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvořák, LukáÅ.¡

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  5. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  6. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

  7. American Sign Language-English Interpreting Program Faculty: Characteristics, Tenure Perceptions, and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreting education, which began as a community apprenticeship and vetting process, has within the last several decades moved into higher education. Most recently, the number of baccalaureate-granting ASL-English interpreting programs have continued to increase while the number of associate's degree…

  8. Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

  9. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  10. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

  11. Native language governs interpretation of salient speech sound differences at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christiane; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the first steps infants take in learning their native language is to discover its set of speech-sound categories. This early development is shown when infants begin to lose the ability to differentiate some of the speech sounds their language does not use, while retaining or improving discrimination of language-relevant sounds. However, this aspect of early phonological tuning is not sufficient for language learning. Children must also discover which of the phonetic cues that are used in their language serve to signal lexical distinctions. Phonetic variation that is readily discriminable to all children may indicate two different words in one language but only one word in another. Here, we provide evidence that the language background of 1.5-year-olds affects their interpretation of phonetic variation in word learning, and we show that young children interpret salient phonetic variation in language-specific ways. Three experiments with a total of 104 children compared Dutch- and English-learning 18-month-olds' responses to novel words varying in vowel duration or vowel quality. Dutch learners interpreted vowel duration as lexically contrastive, but English learners did not, in keeping with properties of Dutch and English. Both groups performed equivalently when differentiating words varying in vowel quality. Thus, at one and a half years, children's phonological knowledge already guides their interpretation of salient phonetic variation. We argue that early phonological learning is not just a matter of maintaining the ability to distinguish language-relevant phonetic cues. Learning also requires phonological interpretation at appropriate levels of linguistic analysis. PMID:17911262

  12. Interpreting as a Language Teaching Technique. Proceedings of a Conference (University of Salford, England, January 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Noel, Ed.; Towell, Richard, Ed.

    Papers presented at a conference on the use of simultaneous, consecutive, and other forms of interpreting as features of foreign language teaching and learning in British higher education include the following: "Liaison Interpreting as a Communicative Language-Learning Exercise" (H. A. Keith); "Interpreting and Communicating: Problems for the…

  13. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  14. Shielding Yourself from the Perils of Empathy: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the psychological mechanisms of empathy with specific reference to sign language interpreters. It stresses that one must achieve a healthy balance of empathizing enough while shielding oneself from its perils to work effectively and ethically with a member of a minority group such as the deaf community. (Contains references.)…

  15. Your Case Will Now Be Heard: Sign Language Interpreters as Problematic Accommodations in Legal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Jeremy L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were…

  16. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  17. Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2014-01-01

    The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

  18. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  19. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

  20. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  1. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  2. Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that of hearing peers who saw lectures without any support services. Experiment 2 compared interpreting and two forms of real-time text, C-Print and Communication Access Real-Time Translation, at immediate testing and after a 1-week delay (with study notes). No significant differences among support services were obtained at either testing. Experiment 3 also failed to reveal significant effects at immediate or delayed testing in a comparison of real-time text, direct (signed) instruction, and both. Experiment 4 found no significant differences between interpreting and interpreting plus real-time text on the learning of either new words or the content of television programs. Alternative accounts of the observed pattern of results are considered, but it is concluded that neither sign language interpreting nor real-time text have any inherent, generalized advantage over the other in supporting deaf students in secondary or postsecondary settings. Providing deaf students with both services simultaneously does not appear to provide any generalized benefit, at least for the kinds of materials utilized here. PMID:16928778

  3. Your case will now be heard: sign language interpreters as problematic accommodations in legal interactions.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Jeremy L

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were problematic. Three major themes emerged from the informants' narratives: difficulty obtaining the desired accommodation, dealing with a problematic accommodation, and enduring a partial accommodation. These findings suggest that accommodations involving sign language interpreters are not neutral and transparent and that they often have tangible effects on the experiences of and outcomes for deaf persons in the context of dealing with legal matters. Deaf people have very little control over the accommodation they receive and yet are held fully responsible for ensuring its efficacy. These results are discussed in relation to policies and procedures for ensuring that deaf persons have full access in their interactions with American legal institutions. PMID:17595172

  4. Assessing the Level of Performance of Sign Language Interpreters from Impaired Hearing Students' Perspectives at Public and Private Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanikat, Feryal Abdel-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the level of performance of sign language interpreters in both public and private Jordanian universities, as well as to recognize the effect of the study variables specifically gender and qualifications for acoustically disabled and interpreter, and the experience of the interpreter on the level of the performance…

  5. 77 FR 12055 - Comment Sought on Petition for Declaratory Ruling Interpreting the Definition of “Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) and other ``small-cell solutions.'' Petitioner states that in operating... and Other ``Small-Cell'' Solutions AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by email: FCC504@fcc.gov or phone:...

  6. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  7. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  8. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  9. On Interpretative Experiences: Unconcious-to-Unconcious Communication Through Reverie, Language, and the Setting.

    PubMed

    Quagelli, Luca; Solano, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation has been looked upon for decades as the analyst's central tool to promote transformation, and it was intended as a synonym for making the unconscious conscious. Nowadays, work with patients with unrepresented mental areas has become more common and the classical conceptualizations require broadening. Reflecting and retrieving the original acceptations of Freud's word Deutung, we suggest the existence of "unconscious-to-unconscious" communications that we shall call "interpretative experiences," which can promote transformation through nonverbal communicative modes, thus getting in touch with more primitive mental functioning. Drawing on case material, we discuss the transformative function of reverie, language, and the setting within the framework of the post-Kleinian and French psychoanalytic model. PMID:27042980

  10. The rain-powered cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2016-09-01

    A frictionless cart in the shape of a right triangle (with the vertical side forward) is elastically impacted by vertically falling raindrops. The speed of the cart as a function of time can be analytically deduced as an exercise in the use of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. A characteristic time defines the approach to a terminal speed which is a sizeable fraction of the speed of the rain. The treatment is accessible to a student in a calculus-based mechanics course.

  11. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  12. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic…

  13. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  14. Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Karen L.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

  15. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  16. Validity of the KABC-II Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix: A Comparison of Native English Speakers and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deth, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) when applied to scores from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (KABC-II; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004). Data were analyzed from the KABC-II standardization sample as well as…

  17. La Interpretacion Consecutiva y la Ensenanza Avanzada de Idiomas (Delayed Interpretation and Advanced Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of interpretation. The importance of delayed interpretation, as opposed to simultaneous interpretation, is stressed, because of the emphasis on semantic meaning. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  18. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period. PMID:15830245

  19. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Erika

    2012-01-01

    On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

  20. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  1. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  2. Native Language Attrition and Developmental Instability at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Data, Interpretations and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2004-01-01

    Montrul's study is an important contribution to a recently emerged research approach to the study of bilingualism and languages in contact, characterized by its sound theoretical basis and its reliance on data from different--and traditionally non-integrated--domains of language development: bilingual first language acquisition (Muller and Hulk,…

  3. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  4. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  5. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  6. Facilitation of Language Acquisition Viewed through an Interpretative Lens: The Role of Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Melanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    A paradigm is the conceptual framework or lens one uses to view reality. The field of speech-language pathology is traditionally rooted in the empirical paradigm, which believes that language can be fragmented into isolated skills and taught in a hierarchal fashion. This belief has resulted in service delivery models that remove students from…

  7. Research on Language Intervention for Disadvantaged Children: Rationale, Results, and Recommendations. Interpretive Study I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Vernon C.; Mery, Michael

    This paper on intervention research critically reviews evaluations of experimental procedures designed to effect changes in the language development of disadvantaged children. It includes a summary of intervention projects and survey of present knowledge and theory about language which constitute the rationale for such projects. Specific…

  8. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  9. Transportable X-ray cart

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

  10. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  11. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  12. Elementary Teachers' Use of Language to Label and Interpret Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how three teachers of upper elementary students used science vocabulary in their lessons. The data revealed that teachers used vocabulary to label science phenomena and interpret scientific concepts for students. The practice of labeling was used more extensively than interpreting. Teachers did not help their…

  13. Linguistic complex networks: Rationale, application, interpretation, and directions. Reply to comments on "Approaching human language with complex networks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jin; Liu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Amid the enthusiasm for real-world networks of the new millennium, the enquiry into linguistic networks is flourishing not only as a productive branch of the new networks science but also as a promising approach to linguistic research. Although the complex network approach constitutes a potential opportunity to make linguistics a science, the world of linguistics seems unprepared to embrace it. For one thing, linguistics has been largely unaffected by quantitative methods. Those who are accustomed to qualitative linguistic methods may find it hard to appreciate the application of quantitative properties of language such as frequency and length, not to mention quantitative properties of language modeled as networks. With this in mind, in our review [1] we restrict ourselves to the basics of complex networks and the new insights into human language with the application of complex networks. For another, while breaking new grounds and posing new challenges for linguistics, the complex network approach to human language as a new tradition of linguistic research is faced with challenges and unsolved issues of its own. It is no surprise that the comments on our review, especially their skepticism and suggestions, focus on various different aspects of the complex network approach to human language. We are grateful to all the insightful and penetrating comments, which, together with our review, mark a significant impetus to linguistic research from the complex network approach. In this reply, we would like to address four major issues of the complex network approach to human language, namely, a) its theoretical rationale, b) its application in linguistic research, c) interpretation of the results, and d) directions of future research.

  14. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  15. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-Speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether (i) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and (ii) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM)…

  16. Enhancing the Interpretability of the Overall Results of an International Test of English-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…

  17. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  18. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  19. Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying, Ed.; Zhao, Wei, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    As an area of research that continues to develop, the study of linguistics worldwide presents the opportunity for the improvement of cross-cultural communication through education and research. Language educators are charged with the task of instructing students to effectively communicate across cultures in a multi-lingual world. The…

  20. The Role of University Students' Attitude towards Turkish Language Lesson in Interpreting Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytan, Necmi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to measure the effect of students' reading strategies and attitudes towards Turkish language on reading habits. 323 first grade students receiving education in 2014-2015 semester in International Antalya University located at the center of Antalya were involved in the study. As the method, relational screening model was…

  1. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  2. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  3. A framework to identify the costs of providing language interpretation services.

    PubMed

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Gazelle, G Scott; Khaliif, Mursal; Arocha, Izabel S; Hacker, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The availability of language services for patients with limited English proficiency has become a standard of care in the United States. Finding the resources to pay for language programs is challenging for providers, payers, and policymakers. There is no federal payment policy and states are developing policies using different methodologies for determining costs and reimbursement rates. This paper establishes a conceptual framework that identifies program costs, can be used across health care entities, and can be understood by administrators, researchers, and policymakers to guide research and analysis and establish a common ground for informed strategic discussion of payment and reimbursement policy. Using case study methods, a framework was established to identify costs and included determining the perspective of the cost analysis as well as distinguishing between the financial accounting costs (direct, indirect, and overhead costs) and the economic opportunity and subsequent utilization costs. PMID:21551931

  4. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

  5. Comparability of Writing Assessment Scores across Languages: Searching for Evidence of Valid Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevigny, Serge; Savard, Denis; Beaudoin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Very few empirically based studies have denied or confirmed the validity of holistic score interpretations and the validity of French-English writing scores comparisons. The present study addresses these important issues. Part I investigates if adjacent holistic scores represent different writing skills. Part II evaluates if variations exposed in…

  6. Teachers' Pets II--Circling Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes a demonstration which illustrates that a body moving with constant speed can be accelerating. The students ride in a circle on a cart made with plywood and roller skates and equipped with bubble accelerometers. (MLH)

  7. Fuel-cell-powered golf cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbett, R.E.; McCormick, J.B.; Lynn, D.K.; Kerwin, W.J.; Derouin, C.R.; Salazar, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a battery/fuel-cell-powered golf cart test bed designed to verify computer simulations and to gain operational experience with a fuel cell in a vehicular environment is described. A technically untrained driver can easily operate the golf cart because the motor and fuel cell controllers automatically sense and execute the appropriate on/off sequencing. A voltage imbalance circuit and a throttle compress circuit were developed that are directly applicable to electric vehicles in general.

  8. Appetite regulation in Schizothorax prenanti by three CART genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dengyue; Wei, Rongbin; Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuanbing; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has received much attention as mediators of appetite regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of CART in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. In this study, three distinct CARTs were cloned from the Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Real-time quantitative PCR were applied to characterize the tissue distribution and appetite regulatory effects of CARTs in S. prenanti. The S. prenanti CART-1, CART-2 and CART-3 full-length cDNA sequences were 597 bp, 694 bp and 749 bp in length, encoding the peptides of 125, 120 and 104 amino acid residues, respectively. All the S. prenanti CARTs consisted of three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the high mRNA levels of S. prenanti CART-1 were observed in the telencephalon and eye, followed by the hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and mesencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-2 mRNA was mainly found in the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, telencephalon and myelencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-3 mRNA was widely distributed among the tissues, with the high levels in the hypothalamus and foregut. In the periprandial experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were highly elevated after a meal, suggesting that CARTs are postprandial satiety signals. In the fasting experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions decreased after fasting and increased after refeeding, suggesting that CARTs might be involved in regulation of appetite in the S. prenanti. PMID:26316039

  9. Prediction of radiation levels in residences: A methodological comparison of CART (Classification and Regression Tree Analysis) and conventional regression

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, I.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, trace and toxic substance concentrations frequently have very highly skewed distributions ranging over one or more orders of magnitude, and prediction by conventional regression is often poor. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) is an alternative in such contexts. To compare the techniques, two Pennsylvania data sets and three independent variables are used: house radon progeny (RnD) and gamma levels as predicted by construction characteristics in 1330 houses; and {approximately}200 house radon (Rn) measurements as predicted by topographic parameters. CART may identify structural variables of interest not identified by conventional regression, and vice versa, but in general the regression models are similar. CART has major advantages in dealing with other common characteristics of environmental data sets, such as missing values, continuous variables requiring transformations, and large sets of potential independent variables. CART is most useful in the identification and screening of independent variables, greatly reducing the need for cross-tabulations and nested breakdown analyses. There is no need to discard cases with missing values for the independent variables because surrogate variables are intrinsic to CART. The tree-structured approach is also independent of the scale on which the independent variables are measured, so that transformations are unnecessary. CART identifies important interactions as well as main effects. The major advantages of CART appear to be in exploring data. Once the important variables are identified, conventional regressions seem to lead to results similar but more interpretable by most audiences. 12 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether 1) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and 2) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM) subjects supports a particular theoretical account of anaphora. Fifty-four native-Russian-speaking children (age M = 7;6, SD = 1;9) were tested on a picture selection task. Children with DLD (n=18) underperformed overall, but displayed similar patterns to the typically developing (TD) group with respect to the extra difficulty of the ECM relative to the transitive and ECM pronouns relative to all other conditions. However, whereas pronouns were more difficult than reflexives for the TD children, this effect was not significant for the DLD group, whose reduced accuracy on reflexives washed out the effect of pronouns in that group. These results are consistent with performance-level vulnerability in DLD, arguably related to weaknesses in lexical processing and with the Reflexivity framework of Binding phenomena. PMID:26640354

  11. CART peptide diurnal variations in blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Vicentic, Aleksandra

    2006-08-01

    The central role of CART peptide in feeding, drug abuse and stress has been widely researched however, CART's role in the peripheral system are less explored. CART peptide is present in a variety of peripheral tissues including sympathetic ganglion neurons, adrenal glands, gut, pancreas and blood. Studies that examined circulating CART demonstrated that the active fragment with a molecular weight of CART55-102 is present in the blood of rats and rhesus macaques. Interestingly, CART expression in these species exhibits a distinctive diurnal rhythm which correlates with the respective daily rhythms of corticosterone and feeding. In the rat, adrenalectomy significantly reduces blood CART levels and abolishes its daily rhythm while corticosterone replacement reinstates CART expression to control levels. In addition, direct administration of corticosterone significantly increases CART blood levels while administration of corticosterone synthesis blocker metyrapone, inhibits CART blood levels. These data suggest that the adrenal gland could be a source of blood CART and that glucocorticoids may play a role in the generation of CART's diurnal rhythm. Moreover, fuel availability may be important in the control of CART levels and its daily rhythm, since 24 h food restriction alters CART levels and abolishes its rhythm. In addition to blood, both CART peptide and mRNA exhibit food-dependent diurnal rhythm in discrete rat brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hypothalamus. Altogether, these findings suggest that CART is influenced by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal interactions and that it may play a role in multiple physiological processes possibly involving feeding, stress, reward and motivation. PMID:16697078

  12. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  13. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  14. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

  15. Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

    This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

  16. Constant Acceleration: Experiments with a Fan-Driven Dynamics Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the rebuilding of a Project Physics fan cart on a PASCO dynamics cart chassis for achieving greatly reduced frictional forces. Suggests four experiments for the rebuilt cart: (1) acceleration on a level track, (2) initial negative velocity, (3) different masses and different forces, and (4) inclines. (MVL)

  17. Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joelle

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

  18. Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.

    PubMed

    Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

    2002-07-01

    The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

  19. Uses and Interpretations of Non-Word Repetition Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairments (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Evans, Julia L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The non-word repetition task (NRT) has gained wide acceptance in describing language acquisition in both children with normal language development (NL) and children with specific language impairments (SLI). This task has gained wide acceptance because it so closely matches the phonological component of word learning, and correlates…

  20. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART): A New Statewide Autism Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    GERBER, ALAN; MORROW, ERIC M.; SHEINKOPF, STEPHEN J.; ANDERS, THOMAS

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interaction, language and repetitive behaviors. The need for services is rising sharply as the number of children identified with autism increases. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) was founded in 2009 with the goal of increasing communication among autism researchers throughout the state and improving treatment for children with autism. RI-CART members have several exciting projects in progress, with its larger aim being the creation of a statewide research registry. A statewide registry would benefit research in Rhode Island and allow for larger collaborations nationally. PMID:24791265

  1. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART): a new statewide autism collaborative.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Alan; Morrow, Eric; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Anders, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interaction, language and repetitive behaviors. The need for services is rising sharply as the number of children identified with autism increases. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) was founded in 2009 with the goal of increasing communication among autism researchers throughout the state and improving treatment for children with autism. RI-CART members have several exciting projects in progress, with its larger aim being the creation of a statewide research registry. A statewide registry would benefit research in Rhode Island and allow for larger collaborations nationally. PMID:24791265

  2. Analysis of the Samus Collimeter Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-16

    The SAMUS collimator cart is a support for shielding blocks and the vacuum assembly of the Tevatron beam tube as it passes through the D0 End Iron. It slides on linear bearings mounted in the SAMUS toroid as the End Iron moves in and out. There are two collimators designed for the D0 experiment, designated North and South, each identical except for the shimming of the tungsten center blocks, and thereby the relative position of the Tevatron tube. This report contains calculations of the stresses during installation as well as the installed configurations. To support the analysis of the installation case, loads were simulated on the cart held in a mock-up of the lifting fixture.

  3. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  4. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  5. On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čech, Radek

    2014-12-01

    After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

  6. CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, G.; Jones, D.; Hubert, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Kuhar, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing and functions of CART peptides, but additional studies aimed at elucidating the physiological effects of the peptides and at characterizing the CART receptor(s) are needed to take advantage of possible therapeutic applications. PMID:18802445

  7. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  8. Effects of language concordance and interpreter use on therapeutic alliance in Spanish-speaking integrated behavioral health care patients.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Bianca T; Bridges, Ana J; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Ojeda, Carlos A; Hernandez Rodriguez, Juventino; Gomez, Debbie

    2016-02-01

    The discrepancy between the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and the availability of bilingual providers creates a barrier to accessing quality mental health care. Use of interpreters provides one strategy for overcoming this linguistic barrier; however, concerns about whether sessions with interpreters, versus bilingual providers, impede therapeutic alliance remain. The current study explored associations between the use of interpreters and therapeutic alliance in a sample of 458 Spanish-speaking patients seen for integrated behavioral health visits at primary care clinics. Patients completed a brief (4 item) therapeutic alliance scale at their behavioral health appointment. In addition, to supplement the quantitative study data, a pilot study of 30 qualitative interviews was conducted with a new sample of 10 Spanish-speaking patients, 10 behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and 10 trained interpreters. Quantitative results showed that interpreter use did not relate to therapeutic alliance, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. However, qualitative interviews suggested major themes regarding the relative benefits and challenges of using interpreters for patients, interpreters, and BHCs. In interviews, patients expressed a strong preference for bilingual providers. Benefits included greater privacy, sense of trust, and accuracy of communication. However, in their absence, interpreters were seen as increasing access to services and facilitating communication with providers, thereby addressing the behavioral health needs of patients with limited English proficiency. BHCs and interpreters emphasized the importance of interpreter training and a good collaborative relationship with interpreters to minimize negative effects on the quality of care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26349073

  9. Use of Semantic Information to Interpret Thematic Information for Real-Time Sentence Comprehension in an SOV Language

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Takahashi, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, sentence comprehension in languages other than European languages has been investigated from a cross-linguistic perspective. In this paper, we examine whether and how animacy-related semantic information is used for real-time sentence comprehension in a SOV word order language (i.e., Japanese). Twenty-three Japanese native speakers participated in this study. They read semantically reversible and non-reversible sentences with canonical word order, and those with scrambled word order. In our results, the second argument position in reversible sentences took longer to read than that in non-reversible sentences, indicating that animacy information is used in second argument processing. In contrast, for the predicate position, there was no difference in reading times, suggesting that animacy information is NOT used in the predicate position. These results are discussed using the sentence comprehension models of an SOV word order language. PMID:23409134

  10. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  11. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  12. Shoulder joint loading and posture during medicine cart pushing task.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; Boyer, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Excessive physical loads and awkward shoulder postures during pushing and pulling are risk factors for shoulder pain. Pushing a medicine cart is a major component of a work shift for nurses and medical assistants in hospitals and other health care facilities. A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of common factors (e.g., lane congestion, cart load stability, floor surface friction) on shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle of participants during cart pushing. Participants pushed a medicine cart on straight tracks and turning around right-angle corners. Peak shoulder joint moments reached 25.1 Nm, 20.3 Nm, and 26.8 Nm for initial, transition, and turning phases of the pushing tasks, indicating that shoulder joint loading while pushing a medical cart is comparable to levels previously reported from heavy manual activities encountered in industry (e.g., garbage collection). Also, except for user experience, all other main study factors, including congestion level, cart load stability, location of transition strip, shoulder tendency, surface friction, and handedness, significantly influenced shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle. The findings provide a better understanding of shoulder exposures associated with medicine cart operations and may be helpful in designing and optimizing the physical environment where medicine carts are used. PMID:23767931

  13. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26965523

  14. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  15. Understanding the Home Language and Literacy Environments of Head Start Families: Testing the Family Literacy Survey and Interpreting Its Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of Head Start children's home literacy environments and the associations between these resources and children's early-language and literacy skills. At the beginning of the preschool year, families of 302 children completed the Family Literacy Survey. In general, Head Start families reported providing a…

  16. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  17. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  18. Neural Dynamics of Animacy Processing in Language Comprehension: ERP Evidence from the Interpretation of Classifier-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yaxu; Zhang, Jinlu; Min, Baoquan

    2012-01-01

    An event-related potential experiment was conducted to investigate the temporal neural dynamics of animacy processing in the interpretation of classifier-noun combinations. Participants read sentences that had a non-canonical structure, "object noun" + "subject noun" + "verb" + "numeral-classifier" + "adjective". The object noun and its classifier…

  19. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  20. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  3. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. PMID:27067907

  4. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2012-03-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analyzed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artifact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in introductory physics laboratory.

  6. The retarding force on a fan-cart reversing direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analysed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artefact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in the introductory physics laboratory.

  7. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART. PMID:21785720

  8. Enhancing the Interpretation of a Norm-Referenced Second-Language Test through Criterion Referencing: A Research Assessment of Experience in the TOEIC Testing Context. TOEIC Research Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    This study was undertaken to develop guidelines for making interpretive inferences from scores on the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC), a norm-referenced test of English-language listening comprehension (LC) and reading (R) skills, about level of ability to use English in face-to-face conversation, indexed by performance in…

  9. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  10. Object Transportation by Two Mobile Robots with Hand Carts.

    PubMed

    Sakuyama, Takuya; Figueroa Heredia, Jorge David; Ogata, Taiki; Hara, Tatsunori; Ota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology by which two small mobile robots can grasp, lift, and transport large objects using hand carts. The specific problems involve generating robot actions and determining the hand cart positions to achieve the stable loading of objects onto the carts. These problems are solved using nonlinear optimization, and we propose an algorithm for generating robot actions. The proposed method was verified through simulations and experiments using actual devices in a real environment. The proposed method could reduce the number of robots required to transport large objects with 50-60%. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of this task in real environments where errors occur in robot sensing and movement. PMID:27433499

  11. Object Transportation by Two Mobile Robots with Hand Carts

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tatsunori

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology by which two small mobile robots can grasp, lift, and transport large objects using hand carts. The specific problems involve generating robot actions and determining the hand cart positions to achieve the stable loading of objects onto the carts. These problems are solved using nonlinear optimization, and we propose an algorithm for generating robot actions. The proposed method was verified through simulations and experiments using actual devices in a real environment. The proposed method could reduce the number of robots required to transport large objects with 50–60%. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of this task in real environments where errors occur in robot sensing and movement. PMID:27433499

  12. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  13. Interdisciplinary development of an ergonomic prone mobility cart.

    PubMed

    Brose, Steven W; Kilbane, Martin J; Harpster, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Steven J; Ho, Chester; Gustafson, Ken J

    2016-01-01

    Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in Veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure during sitting. An innovative, iterative design process was undertaken to improve prone cart design for persons with spinal cord injury and pressure ulceration. Further investigation of ways to improve prone carts is warranted to enhance the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers. PMID:27533301

  14. An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Ho

    Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

  15. The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

  16. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigné, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

  18. Art on a Cart: A National Mixed Methods Investigation of Elementary Art Teacher Experiences and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, Heidi K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the practice of elementary art teachers who utilize carts for the delivery of art lessons; to understand how the art on a cart practice influences art educators' approaches to curriculum development and instruction; and to identify challenges, benefits, and best practices. The practice of art on a cart is defined as the…

  19. A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorsson, Pall

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

  20. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  1. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  2. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  3. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  4. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  5. The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Vicentic, Aleksandra; Jones, Douglas C

    2007-02-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in feeding, drug reward, stress, cardiovascular function, and bone remodeling. CART peptides are abundant but discretely distributed in the brain, pituitary and adrenal glands, pancreas, and gut. High expression of CART in discrete hypothalamic nuclei associated with feeding has led to behavioral and pharmacological studies that strongly support an anorectic action of CART in feeding. Subsequent studies on humans and transgenic animals provide additional evidence that CART is important in the regulation of appetite as mutations in the CART gene are linked to eating disorders, including obesity and anorexia. The expression of CART in the mesolimbic dopamine circuit has lead to functional studies demonstrating CART's psychostimulant-like effects on locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in rats. These and other findings demonstrated that CART modulates mesolimbic dopamine systems and affects psychostimulant-induced reward and reinforcing behaviors. The link between CART and psychostimulants was substantiated by demonstrating alterations of the CART system in human cocaine addicts. CART seems to regulate the mesolimbic dopamine system, which serves as a common mechanism of action for both feeding and addiction. Indeed, recent studies that demonstrated CART projections from specific hypothalamic areas associated with feeding to specific mesolimbic areas linked to reward/motivation behaviors provide evidence that CART may be an important connection between food- and drug-related rewards. Given the enormous public health burden of both obesity and drug addiction, future studies exploring the pharmacotherapies targeting CART peptide represent an exciting and challenging research area. PMID:16840648

  6. Unique responses of midbrain CART neurons in macaques to ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Lima, F B; Henderson, J A; Reddy, A P; Tokuyama, Y; Hubert, G W; Kuhar, M J; Bethea, C L

    2008-08-28

    CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is a neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological processes, such as response to psychostimulants, food intake, depressive diseases and neuroprotection. It is robustly expressed in the brain, mainly in regions that control emotional and stress responses and it is regulated by estrogen in the hypothalamus. There is a distinct population of CART neurons located in the vicinity of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain that also colocalize urocortin-1. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the distribution of CART immunoreactive neurons in the monkey midbrain, 2) to examine the effects of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) on midbrain CART mRNA and peptide expression and 3) to determine whether midbrain CART neurons contain steroid receptors. Adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were spayed and either treated with placebo (OVX), estrogen alone (E), progesterone alone (P) or E+P. Animals were prepared (a) for RNA extraction followed by microarray analysis and quantitative (q) RT-PCR (n=3/group); (b) for immunohistochemical analysis of CART and CART+tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), CART+estrogen receptors (ER) or CART+progesterone receptors (n=5/group) and (c) for Western blots (n=3/group). Both E- and E+P-administration decreased CART gene expression on the microarray and with qRT-PCR. Stereological analysis of CART immunostaining at five levels of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus indicated little effect of E or E+P administration on the area of CART immunostaining. However, P administration increased CART-immunopositive area in comparison to the OVX control group with Student's t-test, but not with ANOVA. CART 55-102 detection on Western blot was unchanged by hormone administration. ERbeta and PR were detected in CART neurons and CART fibers appeared to innervate TPH-positive serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe. In summary, E decreased CART mRNA, but this effect did not translate to the

  7. Wind Tunnel Model Support Cart with Telescoping Mast and Cable Yaw Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Monroe, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    The 14-by-22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center uses model carts to support and position models in the test section. The carts are portable through the use of air bearings and can be moved from the test to the Model Prep Area (MPA) to change models in preparation for a new test. This paper describes the design of a new model cart that is three feet shorter than existing carts. This will eliminate clearance problems when moving the model and cart from the MPA to the test section.

  8. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  9. Effect of CART in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus on feeding and uncoupling protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Billington, C J; Levine, A S; Kotz, C M

    2000-09-28

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) decreases feeding and body weight after ventricular injection. CART mRNA and peptide are found in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The purpose of the present study was to determine effects of PVN-injected CART on feeding and thermogenic capacity. PVN-injected CART (55-102, 100 pmol) significantly decreased NPY-induced feeding at 1, 2 and 4 h, but did not significantly affect deprivation-induced feeding. CART induced gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), UCP2, and UCP3 in brown and white adipose tissue and biceps femoris muscle respectively. These results indicate the PVN as a specific site of CART action, and suggest that CART in the PVN may have an important influence on energy metabolism. PMID:11043558

  10. Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1989-08-08

    This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

  11. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

    2011-10-01

    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

  12. Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

  13. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  14. Factors affecting minimum push and pull forces of manual carts.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisawi, K W; Kerk, C J; Congleton, J J; Amendola, A A; Jenkins, O C; Gaines, W

    1999-06-01

    The minimum forces needed to manually push or pull a 4-wheel cart of differing weights with similar wheel sizes from a stationary state were measured on four floor materials under different conditions of wheel width, diameter, and orientation. Cart load was increased from 0 to 181.4 kg in increments of 36.3 kg. The floor materials were smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet. Two wheel widths were tested: 25 and 38 mm. Wheel diameters were 51, 102, and 153 mm. Wheel orientation was tested at four levels: F0R0 (all four wheels aligned in the forward direction), F0R90 (the two front wheels, the wheels furthest from the cart handle, aligned in the forward direction and the two rear wheels, the wheels closest to the cart handle, aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction), F90R0 (the two front wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction and the two rear wheels aligned in the forward direction), and F90R90 (all four wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction). Wheel width did not have a significant effect on the minimum push/pull forces. The minimum push/pull forces were linearly proportional to cart weight, and inversely proportional to wheel diameter. The coefficients of rolling friction were estimated as 2.2, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.5 mm for hard rubber wheels rolling on smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet floors, respectively. The effect of wheel orientation was not consistent over the tested conditions, but, in general, the smallest minimum push/pull forces were measured with all four wheels aligned in the forward direction, whereas the largest minimum push/pull forces were measured when all four wheels were aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction. There was no significant difference between the push and pull forces when all four wheels were aligned in the forward direction. PMID:10327087

  15. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  16. Online motor fault detection and diagnosis using a hybrid FMM-CART model.

    PubMed

    Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, a hybrid model combining the fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and the classification and regression tree (CART) for online motor detection and diagnosis tasks is described. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed FMM-CART model, an evaluation with a benchmark data set pertaining to electrical motor bearing faults is first conducted. The results obtained are equivalent to those reported in the literature. Then, a laboratory experiment for detecting and diagnosing eccentricity faults in an induction motor is performed. In addition to producing accurate results, useful rules in the form of a decision tree are extracted to provide explanation and justification for the predictions from FMM-CART. The experimental outcome positively shows the potential of FMM-CART in undertaking online motor fault detection and diagnosis tasks. PMID:24807956

  17. Nicotine regulates cocaine-amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (Cart) in the mesocorticolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Ugur, Muzeyyen; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Balkan, Burcu

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are intensely expressed in the brain regions comprising mesocorticolimbic system. Studies suggest that CART peptides may have a role in the regulation of reward circuitry. The present study aimed to examine the effect of nicotine on CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three different doses of nicotine (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg free base) were injected subcutaneously for 5 days, and on day 6, rats were decapitated following a challenge dose. CART mRNA and peptide levels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (DST), amygdala (AMG), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western Blot analysis, respectively. In the mPFC, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine, decreased CART peptide levels whereas there was no effect on CART mRNA levels. In the VTA, a down-regulation of CART peptide expression was observed with 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Conversely, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine increased CART mRNA levels in the AMG without affecting the CART peptide expression. Nicotine did not regulate CART mRNA or CART peptide expression in the NAc, DST, and LHA. We conclude that nicotine regulates CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system and this regulation may play an important role in nicotine reward. Synapse 70:283-292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990424

  18. Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

    2014-03-01

    While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

  19. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Protects Beta Cells against Glucotoxicity and Increases Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55–102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55–102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  20. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and increases cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55-102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55-102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  1. Reduced ethanol consumption and preference in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Armando G; Nguyen, Chinh T Q; Ahmadi-Tehrani, Dara; Morrisett, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Several studies have characterized the role of CART in addiction to psychostimulants, but few have examined the role of CART in alcohol use disorders including alcoholism. The current study utilized a CART knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the role of CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol appetitive behaviors between CART wild type (WT) and KO mice. The mice were presented with an ethanol solution (3%-21%) and water, each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of quinine (bitter) and saccharin (sweet) solutions was measured following the ethanol preference tests. In addition, ethanol metabolism rates and ethanol sensitivity were compared between genotypes. CART KO mice consumed and preferred ethanol less than their WT counterparts in both sexes. This genotype effect could not be attributed to differences in bitter or sweet taste perception or ethanol metabolism rates. There was also no difference in ethanol sensitivity in male mice; however, CART KO female mice showed a greater ethanol sensitivity than the WT females. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors and as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and abstinence enhancement. PMID:22823101

  2. CryoCart Restoration and Vacuum Pipe Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaidez, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    first completed at the component level. During this process, the igniter of the main engine and the RCS thrusters will be tested under a vacuum. To complete the testing of the components, the test setup first needed to be finalized. The CryoCart is being used to feed the propellants to the test article. The CryoCart is a movable test set-up that was developed in 2009 to provide a mobile platform for testing oxygen/methane systems with hot-fire capability up to 100 lbf. The CryoCart consists of three different systems: Oxygen, Methane, and liquid Nitrogen. The Oxygen and Methane systems are placed into two different carts while the liquid nitrogen system is mainly located in the methane cart. Over the years, the CryoCart has been utilized for different projects and has undergone deterioration. For this reason, a new phase has been developed to rebuild it to working conditions once again. During my internship, I was aiding in the construction and restoration of the CryoCart. In the initial stages of the process, I updated the fluid and electrical schematics for the oxygen, methane, and test article systems. The original CryoCart consisted of an electrical panel that utilized electromechanical relays and a terminal to drive the igniter power and signal, as well as the main fuel and oxygen valves. This electrical panel connected to the CryoCart through various wire harnesses that could be found exiting from the CryoCart. First, it was determined how these harnesses connected to the electromechanical relays so that they worked correctly. Once the electrical system was understood, an alternative for the electromechanical relays and the Molex connectors used throughout the system was sought since these components can often prove to be unreliable. Solid State relays and MIL connectors were purchased to serve as replacements. Upon arrival of the parts, crimping and wiring was completed to install the new solid state relays and MIL connectors. During the replacement of the relays

  3. Investigation report on golf cart fire at the U.S. DOE Pinellas Plant on May 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the results of an accident investigation of a golf cart fire that occurred May 11, 1993, at the Pinellas Plant. The direct cause of the fire was determined to be excessive heat generation in the cart`s resistor coil box. The current flow creating the excessive heat was caused by the defeat of cart safety systems and a partially depressed accelerator pedal. The root cause of the fire is inadequate training of golf cart operators. Recommendations to prevent further recurrence of this type of accident include operator training and golf cart inspections.

  4. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  5. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  6. CART modulates the effects of levodopa in rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Manoj A; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related disorder characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra (SN). The neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is known to closely interact with the dopamine system and regulate psychomotor activity. We screened the effectiveness of CART in reversing the symptoms of PD in a rat model. PD like condition was induced by administering 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly in the SN of the right side. Fifteen days later, intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with apomorphine hydrochloride to these rats, resulted in contralateral rotations in the rotation test chamber suggesting induction of PD-like symptoms. This action of apomorphine was significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with CART and potentiated by CART antibody. IP treatment with levodopa also produced contralateral rotation in PD induced rats, and showed anti-Parkinson-like action. Prior treatment with CART via ICV route potentiated the anti-Parkinsonian effects of levodopa, while CART antibody produced opposite effects. CART treatment per se, to PD induced rats produced ipsilateral rotations, suggesting that the peptide may promote the endogenous release of dopamine from intact neurons. While CART-immunoreactivity in arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, striatum, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus was reduced in the PD induced rats, levodopa treatment restored the expression of CART-immunoreactivity in these nuclei. These results suggest that endogenous CART might closely interact with the dopamine containing SN-striatal pathway which is known to profoundly influence the motor system. The study underscores the importance of CART as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of PD. PMID:26771081

  7. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  8. National Conversations in the UK: Using a Language-Based Approach to Interpret Three Key Education Policy Documents (2001-2007) from England, Scotland and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Janet; Baird, Adela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three key education policy documents from Scotland, England and Wales in the eight years after devolution. A close textual analysis of the language of each document is undertaken, which is supported by the authors' insider knowledge of these countries. Findings are presented from analysis of a group of selected words, as well…

  9. The Relationship among Beginning and Advanced American Sign Language Students and Credentialed Interpreters across Two Domains of Visual Imagery: Vividness and Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Linda K.

    2010-01-01

    Given the visual-gestural nature of ASL it is reasonable to assume that visualization abilities may be one predictor of aptitude for learning ASL. This study tested a hypothesis that visualization abilities are a foundational aptitude for learning a signed language and that measurements of these skills will increase as students progress from…

  10. Interpreting the Impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test on Second Language Students within an Argument-Based Validation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Kane's (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading…

  11. Development of Electric Cart with Function of Maintaining/Improving Exercise Ability—Part I: Design of the Electric Cart System—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Kiyoshi

    This paper explains the development of a three-wheeled electric cart that not only is a means of transportation, but also provides the driver with a way of getting some physical exercise. Based on an investigation of the physiological decline accompanying aging, pedaling was chosen to implement the function of maintaining or improving physical strength; and an ergonomically designed pedal unit was mounted on a cart. An interface board that handles inputs and outputs was assembled to simplify the design of the system. Finally, a simple bilateral master-slave control system was built to test the cart. Experimental results on a fabricated cart demonstrate the effectiveness of pedaling and the usability of the system structure.

  12. [Localized prostate cancer Focal Therapy: "A la carte" Model].

    PubMed

    Linares Espinós, E; Barret, E; Sivaraman, A; Pérez-Reggeti, J I; Sánchez-Salas, R; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2016-07-01

    Focal therapy has settled as an alternative to radical treatment in selected cases of localized prostate cancer. The selection of patients who are candidates for focal therapy is based on imaging diagnosis relying on multiparametric MRI and image fusion techniques. Thanks to the oncological results and safety profiles of initial series, various energy sources have been developed over the last years. The availability of multiple types of energy sources for focal therapy, commits us to evaluate what type of energy would be the optimal depending on patient's profile and type of lesion. A unique energy for focal therapy would be ideal, but facing the research of the various types of energy we must identify which one is recommended for each lesion. With the experience of our center in different approaches of focal therapy we propose the "A LA CARTE" MODEL based on localization of the lesion. We present the criteria the "a la carte" model is based on, supported by the published evidence on the use of different ablative therapies for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Lesion localization, technical characteristics of each type of energy, patient's profile and secondary effects must be considered in every choice of focal therapy. PMID:27416638

  13. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  14. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship. PMID:23084786

  15. The carcinine transporter CarT is required in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons to sustain histamine recycling

    PubMed Central

    Stenesen, Drew; Moehlman, Andrew T; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic transmission from Drosophila photoreceptors to lamina neurons requires recycling of histamine neurotransmitter. Synaptic histamine is cleared by uptake into glia and conversion into carcinine, which functions as transport metabolite. How carcinine is transported from glia to photoreceptor neurons remains unclear. In a targeted RNAi screen for genes involved in this pathway, we identified carT, which encodes a member of the SLC22A transporter family. CarT expression in photoreceptors is necessary and sufficient for fly vision and behavior. Carcinine accumulates in the lamina of carT flies. Wild-type levels are restored by photoreceptor-specific expression of CarT, and endogenous tagging suggests CarT localizes to synaptic endings. Heterologous expression of CarT in S2 cells is sufficient for carcinine uptake, demonstrating the ability of CarT to utilize carcinine as a transport substrate. Together, our results demonstrate that CarT transports the histamine metabolite carcinine into photoreceptor neurons, thus contributing an essential step to the histamine–carcinine cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10972.001 PMID:26653853

  16. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-12-29

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

  17. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  18. Neurological Response to cART vs. cART plus Integrase Inhibitor and CCR5 Antagonist Initiated during Acute HIV

    PubMed Central

    Valcour, Victor G.; Spudich, Serena S.; Sailasuta, Napapon; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Fletcher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene D. M. B.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Allen, Isabel E.; Adams, Collin L.; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Slike, Bonnie M.; Hellmuth, Joanna M.; Kim, Jerome H.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central nervous system (CNS) outcomes in participants treated during acute HIV infection with standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vs. cART plus integrase inhibitor and CCR5 antagonist (cART+). Design 24-week randomized open-label prospective evaluation. Method Participants were evaluated then randomized to initiate cART (efavirenz, tenofovir, and either emtricitabine or lamivudine) vs. cART+ (cART plus raltegravir and maraviroc) during acute HIV and re-evaluated at 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We examined plasma and CSF cytokines, HIV RNA levels, neurological and neuropsychological findings, and brain MRS across groups and compared to healthy controls. Results At baseline, 62 participants were in Fiebig stages I-V. Randomized groups were similar for mean age (27 vs. 25, p = 0.137), gender (each 94% male), plasma log10 HIV RNA (5.4 vs. 5.6, p = 0.382), CSF log10 HIV RNA (2.35 vs. 3.31, p = 0.561), and estimated duration of HIV (18 vs. 17 days, p = 0.546). Randomized arms did not differ at 24 weeks by any CNS outcome. Combining arms, all measures concurrent with antiretroviral treatment improved, for example, neuropsychological testing (mean NPZ-4 of -0.408 vs. 0.245, p<0.001) and inflammatory markers by MRS (e.g. mean frontal white matter (FWM) choline of 2.92 vs. 2.84, p = 0.045) at baseline and week 24, respectively. Plasma neopterin (p<0.001) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (p = 0.007) remained elevated in participants compared to controls but no statistically significant differences were seen in CSF cytokines compared to controls, despite individual variability among the HIV-infected group. Conclusions A 24-week course of cART+ improved CNS related outcomes, but was not associated with measurable differences compared to standard cART. PMID:26555069

  19. Distribution of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide in mature and developing marsupial brain.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S; Mai, J K

    2010-01-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a neuromodulator involved in feeding, drug reward, stress and cardiovascular function. We have immunohistochemically studied the distribution of the CART peptide in the brains of two adult marsupial species: the brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii) as a representative of polyprotodont marsupials and the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a representative of diprotodont marsupials. We have also examined the distribution of CART during postnatal development in the tammar wallaby. There were similarities and differences both between the two marsupial species and between the marsupials and eutherians in CART distribution. Both marsupials showed immunoreactivity to CART in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, extended amygdala, the supraoptic, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, somatosensory and auditory nuclei of the brainstem, vagal/solitary complex, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus and presumptive presympathetic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla, as has been seen in eutherians. On the other hand, immunoreactivity to CART was weak in or absent from isocortical areas, and immunoreactivity to CART was poor or minimal in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of both species; regions where immunoreactivity to CART is very strong in the brains of eutherians. During development, CART was present at birth (P0) in the lateral trigeminal ganglion, spinal trigeminal tract and the vagal sensorimotor complex, but did not appear in mid- or forebrain regions until much later (from P37). These anatomical findings indicate that although CART is likely to serve very similar functions in both eutherians and marsupials, there are potentially functionally significant differences between the two mammalian groups. PMID:20881368

  20. CART peptide and opioid addiction: Expression changes in male rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bakhtazad, A; Vousooghi, N; Garmabi, B; Zarrindast, M R

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies have shown the prominence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants. The data regarding the effects of different stages of opioid addiction on CART expression and the interconnection between CART and opioids are not much available. Here we have studied the changes in the expression level of CART mRNA and protein in various parts of the brain reward pathway in different stages of opioid addiction. Groups of male rats received acute low-dose (10mg/kg), acute high-dose (80mg/kg) and chronic escalating doses of morphine. In addition, withdrawal and abstinence states were evaluated after injection of naloxone (1mg/kg) and long-term maintenance of addicted animals, respectively. Expression of CART mRNA in the brain was measured by real-time PCR method. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein level. CART mRNA and protein were both up-regulated in high-dose morphine-administered animals and also in the withdrawal group in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the addicted group, CART mRNA and protein were both down-regulated in NAc and striatum. In the abstinent group, CART mRNA was down-regulated in NAc. In the hippocampus, the only observed change was the up-regulation of CART mRNA in the withdrawal group. We suggest that the modulatory role of CART peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of opioids weakens when opioids are used for a long time and is stimulated when acute stress such as naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome or acute high-dose administration of morphine occurs to the animal. PMID:26955782

  1. The Interpretation of Pronouns in Spanish Language Acquisition and Breakdown: Evidence for the "Principle B Delay" as a Non-Unitary Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baauw, Sergio; Cuetos, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that English and Dutch children often allow pronouns to refer to local ccommanding antecedents, the so-called Principle B Delay. A similar observation has been made for English agrammatics. This phenomenon, which we call the Pronoun Interpretation Problem (PIP), has been argued to be due to children's and agrammatics' difficulties…

  2. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  3. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  4. Ethnography of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David Cassels

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical conceptualizations of language policy have grown increasingly rich, empirical data that test these models are less common. Further, there is little methodological guidance for those who wish to do research on language policy interpretation and appropriation. The ethnography of language policy is proposed as a method which makes…

  5. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  6. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  7. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  8. [Neuro-AIDS in the cART era].

    PubMed

    Arendt, G; Nolting, T

    2012-08-01

    After the introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection in 1996 (highly active antiretroviral therapy = HAART, nowadays called combination antiretroviral therapy = cART), a steady decline in infection associated complications had been expected, especially with respect to central and peripheral nervous system manifestations. Until the beginning of the new millenium this hope came in fact true, but since then there has been a slow, but constant rise in the prevalence, and later on also in the incidence of directly virus-associated neurological complications in HIV infected patients. HIV-associated diseases that neurologists might see in their routine work include HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and its precursor stages, HIV-associated myelopathy, HIV-associated polyneuropathies and myopathies as well as the opportunistic brain infections and immune reconstitution phenomena (IRIS). This article describes practical diagnostic procedures according to the guidelines of the German Neurological Society and the respective therapeutic options. PMID:22895840

  9. CART III: improved camouflage assessment using moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Honke, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2009-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007 and SPIE 2008 [1], [2]). It works with visual-optical, infrared and SAR image sequences. The system comprises a semi-automatic annotation functionality for marking target objects (ground truth generation) including a propagation of those markings over the image sequence for static as well as moving scene objects, where the recording camera may be static or moving. The marked image regions are evaluated by applying user-defined feature extractors, which can easily be defined and integrated into the system via a generic software interface. This article presents further systematic enhancements made in the recent year and addresses particularly the task of the detection of moving vehicles by latest image exploitation methods for objective camouflage assessment in these cases. As a main topic, the loop was closed between the two natural opposites of reconnaissance and camouflage, which was realized by incorporating ATD (Automatic Target Detection) algorithms into the computer aided camouflage assessment. Since object (and sensor) movement is an important feature for many applications, different image-based MTI (Moving Target Indication) algorithms were included in the CART system, which rely on changes in the image plane from an image to the successive one (after camera movements are automatically compensated). Additionally, the MTI outputs over time are combined in a certain way which we call "snail track" algorithm. The results show that their output provides a valuable measurement for the conspicuity of moving objects and therefore is an ideal component in the camouflage assessment. It is shown that image-based MTI improvements lead to improvements in the camouflage assessment process.

  10. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  11. Identification and differential distribution of CART in the small intestine depending on the diet.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, I; Olkowski, B; Szczotka-Bochniarz, A

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and locating cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the small intestine of broilers in relation to the diet. The feeding regime of the chicks was based on diets largely consisting of maize and one of four protein sources: post-extraction soya bean meal (SBM) or non-GM seed meal - meal from traditional variety of soy seeds Glicine max (FFS) and meal from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius (LA) and Lupinus luteus L (LY). The presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactive (CART-IR) in the wall of the small intestine of the chicks was determined on the basis of staining patterns produced by the immunohistochemical method (IHC). CART-IR structures were found in the myenteric plexus (MP), submucosus plexus (SP), in endomucosal fibres, and fibres innervating miocytes and blood vessels in the muscularis membrane and adipocytes of the white adipose tissue (WAT) located on the perimeter of the serous membrane and single cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Based on microscopic observation and result analysis, the lowest number of CART-IR structures was identified in the group that was fed the SBM-based diet. This study confirms previous observations concerning CART distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animal and broadens current knowledge by inclusion of chicken in the list of CART-positive species. Moreover, this work provides evidence that dietary composition can be a factor that stimulates post-prandial CART secretion in intestinal nerve structures. PMID:24797515

  12. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  13. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  14. STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  15. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  16. STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  17. Exchange cart and par level supply distribution systems: form follows function.

    PubMed

    Perrin, R A

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the various types of distribution systems, such as exchange cart, par level, and just-in-time, to assist material managers in controlling costs and maximizing patient care. PMID:10131700

  18. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

  19. Analysis of Maryland Poisoning Deaths Using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pamer, Carol; Serpi, Tracey; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Our study is a cross-sectional analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths for years 2003 and 2004. We used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology to classify 1,204 Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths as either unintentional or suicidal poisonings. The predictive ability of the selected set of variables (i.e., poisoned in the home or workplace, location type where poisoned, place of death, poison type, victim race and age, year of death) was extremely good. Of the 301 test cases, only eight were misclassified by the CART regression tree. Of 1,204 undetermined intent poisoning deaths, CART classified 903 as suicides and 301 as unintentional deaths. The major strength of our study is the use of CART to differentiate with a high degree of accuracy between unintentional and suicidal poisoning deaths among Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths. PMID:18999168

  20. CART mRNA expression in rat monkey and human brain: relevance to cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Fagergren, Pernilla; Hurd, Yasmin

    2007-09-10

    The neuropeptide CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is suggested to be regulated by psychostimulant administration. We review here the localization of CART mRNA expression in the human brain and its possible relevance to human cocaine abuse. Except for strong hypothalamic expression, the CART transcript is predominately expressed in target regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, such as the nucleus accumbens shell, amygdala complex, extended amygdala and orbitofrontal, enthorhinal and piriform cortices. The discrete limbic localization strongly implies involvement in reward and reinforcement behaviors. We therefore examined CART mRNA expression in both Sprague Dawley rats and Rhesus monkeys that had self-administered cocaine. Cocaine self-administration in the rat (1.5 mg/kg/inj, on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement for 1 week) and monkey (0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg/inj on a fixed 3 min interval schedule of reinforcement for 5 or 100 days) did not alter transcript levels in CART expressing nucleus accumbens (monkey not studied), amygdala nuclei or cortical areas. However, in the monkey sublenticular extended amygdala, low dose cocaine self-administration resulted in increased CART transcript levels after both 5 and 100 days of self-administration, whereas no difference was found after high dose self-administration. In conclusion, we found no substantial alterations CART mRNA expression during cocaine self-administration, but this neuropeptide has the anatomical and functional potential to modulate brain areas relevant for cocaine abuse. Further studies are needed to evaluate the involvement of CART in other components of the cocaine abuse cycle. PMID:17631364

  1. Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

  2. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; An, Futing; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Borycz, Janusz; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to β-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA-seq screen for photoreceptor cell-enriched transporters, we identified CG9317, an SLC22 transporter family protein, and named it CarT (Carcinine Transporter). S2 cells that express CarT are able to take up carcinine in vitro. In the compound eye, CarT is exclusively localized to photoreceptor terminals. Null mutations of cart alter the content of histamine and its metabolites. Moreover, null cart mutants are defective in photoreceptor synaptic transmission and lack phototaxis. These findings reveal that CarT is required for histamine recycling at histaminergic photoreceptors and provide evidence for a CarT-dependent neurotransmitter trafficking pathway between glial cells and photoreceptor terminals. PMID:26713872

  3. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C.; Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B.

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  4. Advancing monthly streamflow prediction accuracy of CART models using ensemble learning paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Halil Ibrahim; Karakurt, Onur

    2013-01-01

    SummaryStreamflow forecasting is one of the most important steps in the water resources planning and management. Ensemble techniques such as bagging, boosting and stacking have gained popularity in hydrological forecasting in the recent years. The study investigates the potential usage of two ensemble learning paradigms (i.e., bagging; stochastic gradient boosting) in building classification and regression trees (CARTs) ensembles to advance the streamflow prediction accuracy. The study, initially, investigates the use of classification and regression trees for monthly streamflow forecasting and employs a support vector regression (SVR) model as the benchmark model. The analytic results indicate that CART outperforms SVR in both training and testing phases. Although the obtained results of CART model in training phase are considerable, it is not in testing phase. Thus, to optimize the prediction accuracy of CART for monthly streamflow forecasting, we incorporate bagging and stochastic gradient boosting which are rooted in same philosophy, advancing the prediction accuracy of weak learners. Comparing with the results of bagged regression trees (BRTs) and stochastic gradient boosted regression trees (GBRTs) models possess satisfactory monthly streamflow forecasting performance than CART and SVR models. Overall, it is found that ensemble learning paradigms can remarkably advance the prediction accuracy of CART models in monthly streamflow forecasting.

  5. CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Kowalczyk, Alex S; Griffin, Luana L; Bales, Karen L

    2011-09-26

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 min, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

  6. CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Kowalczyk, Alex S.; Griffin, Luana L.; Bales, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 minutes, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

  7. A Preliminary Study on Interpreting for Emergent Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caitlin; Dicus, Danica

    2015-01-01

    Sign language interpreters work with a variety of consumer populations throughout their careers. One such population, referred to as "emergent signers," consists of consumers who are in the process of learning American Sign Language, and who rely on interpreters during their language acquisition period. A gap in the research is revealed…

  8. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). χ² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. PMID:21616201

  9. Resident selection: are we putting the cart before the horse?

    PubMed

    White, Augustus A

    2002-06-01

    The selection of orthopaedic residents is a formidable task. We must put the horse, namely, the consideration of certain societal goals and responsibilities, before the cart, namely, the selection criteria and processes themselves. The recommendation is that the outcomes of our training programs produce, in addition to excellent clinical orthopaedists, some graduates with competence and talent in contribution to diversity, culturally competent care, assistance with elimination of healthcare disparities, skills in research, talent in leadership, skills in administration, and abilities in education. Once specific outcome goals are identified, efforts can be directed to learning to recognize and evaluate the potentials and success foreshadowing characteristics of applicants that predict, or are associated with, the desired outcome competencies. Traditional screening and selection of applicants based largely on grades, test scores, and election to Alpha Omega Alpha honorary society have certain historically based biases and limitations. The historic ethnocentric impacts on Western medical culture are profound, long-standing, and thoroughly interwoven into the fabric of our profession. It is necessary to substantially change our residency selection if we are to achieve some highly significant humanitarian and pragmatic societal goals. PMID:12011718

  10. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.; Uttal, T.; Clark, K.A.; Cupp, R.E.; Dutton, E.G.; Fedor, L.S.; Intrieri, J.M.; Matrosov, S.Y.; Snider, J.B.; Willis, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological, and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  11. Multidisciplinary approach to converting power chair into motorized prone cart.

    PubMed

    Brose, Steven W; Wali, Eisha

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure from sitting. An innovative, low-cost, multidisciplinary effort was undertaken to maximize quality of life in a veteran with a thoracic-4 level complete spinal cord injury and a stage 4 ischial wound. The person's power wheelchair was converted into a motorized prone cart, allowing navigation of the Department of Veterans Affairs spinal cord injury hospital ward and improved socialization while relieving pressure on the wound. Physical and occupational therapy assisted with the reconfiguration of the power chair and verified safe transfers into the chair and driving of the device. Psychology verified positive psychosocial benefit, while nursing and physician services verified an absence of unwanted pain or skin injury resulting from use of the device. Further investigation of ways to apply this technique is warranted to improve the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers. PMID:25786192

  12. CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2011-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

  13. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  14. Time optimal control of pendulum-cart system

    SciTech Connect

    Turnau, A.; Korytowski, A.

    1994-12-31

    We consider the synthesis of time optimal control which steers a pendulum hinged to a cart to a given state (e.g., the upright position), starting from arbitrary initial conditions. The control of the pendulum can system has attracted attention of many authors because of its relatively simple structure and at the same time, nontrivial nonlinearity. Various heuristic approaches combined with 1q stabilization in the vicinity of the target state were used to swing the pendulum up to the upright position and to keep it there. However, time-optimality was not achieved. We construct the time optimal control using a sequence of fixed horizon problems in which the norms of terminal states are minimized. The problems with fixed horizons are solved numerically by means of gradient optimization, with gradients determined from the solution of adjoint equations. Due to embedding the synthesis algorithms in the Matlab - Simulink environment, it is possible to track and visualize the control process as well as the results of simulation experiments.

  15. CART IV: improving automatic camouflage assessment with assistance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2010-04-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007, SPIE 2008 and SPIE 2009 [1], [2], [3]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors. The conspicuity of camouflaged objects due to their movement can be assessed with a purpose-built processing method named MTI snail track algorithm. This paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses procedures to assist the camouflage assessment of moving objects for image data material with strong noise or image artefacts. This extends the evaluation methods significantly to a broader application range. For example, some noisy infrared image data material can be evaluated for the first time by applying the presented methods which fathom the correlations between camouflage assessment, MTI (moving target indication) and dedicated noise filtering.

  16. Brief History of Canadian ASL-English Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermid, Campbell

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript provides a synopsis of the written history of American Sign Language-English interpreters in Canada and adds to the limited resources available to interpreter educators, to students, and to the field of visual language interpreting. Within a qualitative framework, this review of the literature identified major themes in sign…

  17. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  18. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  19. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  20. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  1. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

  2. Effects of HIV and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) on Cortico-Striatal Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Brier, Matthew R.; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether HIV and cART affect resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) between the striatum and cortical regions. Methods 49 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and 132 HIV infected (HIV+) (65% receiving combination anti-retroviral treatment [cART]) had laboratory studies (current and nadir CD4 T-cell counts, and plasma HIV viral load), neuropsychological performance (NP) testing, and neuroimaging. Rs-fc, which examines the coordination of neural activity in distant brain regions, was used to investigate cortico-striatal functional connections. The effect of cART was assessed comparing HIV+ individuals on cART (HIV+/cART+), and HIV+ individuals not currently receiving cART (HIV+/cART−). Relationships between laboratory tests, cognitive performance, and cART on subcortical-cortical rs-fc were assessed by an analysis of variance. Results HIV+ individuals had lower cortico-striatal functional connectivity than HIV− controls, specifically between the striatum and default mode network (DMN; p <0.001) and ventral attention network (VATT; p <0.001). HIV+/cART+ individuals had higher functional connectivity between the striatum and DMN (p=0.02) and VATT (p = 0.01) compared to HIV+/cART− subjects. Laboratory (current and nadir CD4 T-cell counts, plasma viral load) and NP were not correlated with cortico-striatal rs-fc. Conclusions HIV was associated with disrupted cortico-striatal networks, consistent with HIV’s known impact on subcortical areas. Interestingly, within certain networks HIV+/cART+ individuals had similar rs-fc compared to HIV− controls, suggesting possible improvements in HIV related neural dysfunction due to medications. Rs-fc may be a sensitive biomarker of neural insult and its recovery following cART. Additional studies may show rs-fc has utility in measuring acute inflammation caused by HIV. PMID:25849834

  3. Spending at mobile fruit and vegetable carts and using SNAP benefits to pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  4. Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs?

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew; Shanker, Renee; Jordan, William B

    2011-10-01

    Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates. Some carts sold outside allowed boundaries; a few sold sugary snacks. Vendor locations and their food offerings suggest possible areas for program improvement. PMID:21691925

  5. Spending at Mobile Fruit and Vegetable Carts and Using SNAP Benefits to Pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M.; Abrams, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  6. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  7. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  8. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  9. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  10. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…