Sample records for language interpreters cart

  1. Prototyping Symbolic Execution Engines for Interpreted Languages

    E-print Network

    Candea, George

    Prototyping Symbolic Execution Engines for Interpreted Languages Stefan Bucur Ã?cole Polytechnique are written in dynamic interpreted languages like Python. Building a new symbolic execution engine language specifications lead to their implementation in a symbolic execution engine potentially differing

  2. TELEPHONE INTERPRETING LANGUAGE LIST Serbo-Croat

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    TELEPHONE INTERPRETING LANGUAGE LIST Slovak Slovenian Somali Sorani Sotho Spanish Sri Lankan Chaochow Chinese Creole Croatian Czech D Danish Dari Dutch E Egyptian Eritrean Estonian F Fanti Farsi/Persian Korean Kosovan Krio Kurdish Kurmanji The above represent our most commonly requested languages from the 6

  3. Command Language Interpreters February 1993

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    not be construed as a commitment by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT assumes no responsibility.S.A. The following are trademarks of Digitial Equipment Corporation: CDD DECnet VAX DATATRIEVE DECUS VAXcluster DEC Society. #12;#12;1 Introduction Several MDS utilities are based on the same command line interpreter. Many

  4. Plain language for interpreting in consulting rooms.

    PubMed

    Lesch, H M

    2007-12-01

    Intercultural communication is by nature a complex activity. In a multilingual society like ours, it will inevitably surface in the health care sector. The services of an interpreter are often considered to break the impasse in this communication process. The communication problem between the two parties, the service provider and client/patient, is often not simply a matter of language but societal factors of which the liaison interpreter should be aware of also plays a major role for effective extended communication. This article focuses on some of the problems in rendering an oral source text in multilingual and multicultural societies such as South Africa in which there are heterogeneous target audiences for interpreting. It is pointed out that interpreters in such societies must take into account the heterogeneity of the target audiences, or otherwise interpreting will only be symbolic gestures, empty of value, and thus not communicate the message intended. In the process the limitations of the interpreter and how the presence of the interpreter can be facilitated, is also highlighted. PMID:18402423

  5. Language Performance, Context and the Personality of the Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, John

    Interpreting is an example of context-bound performance in which the interpreter has a prescribed role in infinitely varied contexts. The use of interpreting to train language students in confident and competent language use in less demanding contexts contributes to the development of both interpersonal skills and the ability to switch language…

  6. Direction asymmetries in spoken and signed language interpreting*

    PubMed Central

    NICODEMUS, BRENDA; EMMOREY, KAREN

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study (N=1,359) of both unimodal and bimodal interpreters that confirmed these preferences. The L1 to L2 direction preference was stronger for novice than expert bimodal interpreters, while novice and expert unimodal interpreters did not differ from each other. The results indicated that the different direction preferences for bimodal and unimodal interpreters cannot be explained by language production–comprehension asymmetries or by work or training experiences. We suggest that modality and language-specific features of signed languages drive the directionality preferences of bimodal interpreters. Specifically, we propose that fingerspelling, transcoding (literal word-for-word translation), self-monitoring, and consumers’ linguistic variation influence the preference of bimodal interpreters for working into their L2. PMID:23833563

  7. Interpreting Language Arts Research for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents chapters concerning various aspects of research in language arts and implications for language instruction. The works of individuals are mentioned throughout the book, and 1,168 references are included in a list of works cited in the text. The research topics covered involve language development, oral language, listening, the…

  8. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  9. INTERPRETING IMPERATIVE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES IN EXTENSIBLE STYLESHEET LANGUAGE TRANSFORMATIONS (XSLT)

    E-print Network

    Bayram, Zeki

    's browser. The motivation behind rep­ resenting data in XML format was to separate content from presentation in a language can be sent to a Web browser, together with the language processor and data that the program further and develop CDuce which is another XML processing language which implements overloaded opera­ tors

  10. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  11. Interpretation of emotional body language displayed by robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aryel Beck; Antoine Hiolle; Alexandre Mazel; Lola Cañamero

    2010-01-01

    In order for robots to be socially accepted and generate empathy they must display emotions. For robots such as Nao, body language is the best medium available, as they do not have the ability to display facial expressions. Displaying emotional body language that can be interpreted whilst interacting with the robot should greatly improve its acceptance. This research investigates the

  12. Compiler to Interpreter: Experiences with a Distributed Programming Language

    E-print Network

    Olsson, Ron

    the existing compiler to the extent possible as well as to have minimal impact on the run-time system used interpreter, called sri, implements a signi#12;cant subset of the SR language. sri supports all of SR for building sri.) sri uses a naive approach to interpretation: it executes a given SR program directly from

  13. Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

  14. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions).

  15. Figurative Language: Interpretation of Similes and Metaphors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ReadWorks

    2012-03-22

    In this resource, students will interpret the meanings of poems using similes and metaphors. The featured resource in the teacher modeling and guided practice sections utilizes the text Poetry for Young People: Langston Hughes edited by David Roessel and Arnold Rampersad.

  16. A Virtual Interpreter for the Italian Sign Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Lombardo; Fabrizio Nunnari; Rossana Damiano

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we describe a software module for the animation of a virtual interpreter that translates from Italian to the\\u000a Italian Sign Language (LIS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The system we describe takes a ”synthetic” approach to the generation of the sign language, by composing and parametrizing\\u000a pre-captured and hand-animated signs, to adapt them to the context in which they occur.

  17. Interpreting Medicine: Lessons From a Spanish-Language Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients is an act of interpretation: we labor to understand the significance of a particular symptom and, when we have reached a diagnosis, we convert our medical jargon into plain language for the benefit of the patient. Caring for patients of limited English proficiency—a population that needs a very literal form of interpretation—underscores this lesson. Working with predominantly Spanish-speaking patients has shown me the importance of bearing witness to patients’ struggles and has brought me to realize that good physicians must work to forge a common language with all their patients, not only with those who do not speak English. PMID:25201742

  18. Social construction of American sign language--English interpreters.

    PubMed

    McDermid, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English interpreters, such as learners' age and education and the characteristics of good citizens within the Deaf community. According to the participants, younger students were adept at language acquisition, whereas older learners more readily understood the purpose of lessons. Children of deaf adults were seen as more culturally aware. The participants' beliefs echoed the theories of P. Freire (1970/1970) that educators consider the reality of each student and their praxis and were responsible for facilitating student self-awareness. Important characteristics in the social construction of students included independence, an appropriate attitude, an understanding of Deaf culture, ethical behavior, community involvement, and a willingness to pursue lifelong learning. PMID:18424772

  19. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  20. Interpreting Translating and Language Policy. Report to the Language and Society Centre, National Languages Institute of Australia. NLIA Occasional Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    This research report is intended to provide the National Languages Institute of Australia (NLIA) with an overview of the issues demanding attention in the fields of interpreting and translating. While interpreting and translating have received attention in major language policy reports, subsequent language policy implementation has rarely…

  1. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    PubMed Central

    Debevc, Matjaž; Miloševi?, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers’ comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  2. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions.

    PubMed

    Debevc, Matjaž; Miloševi?, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers' comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  3. Roles and responsibilities of the interpreter in interactions with speech-language pathologists, parents, and students.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Henriette W; Quintanar-Sarellana, Rosalinda

    2003-08-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA '97) specify that students must be assessed in their primary language. With the ever-increasing number of diverse languages spoken by students, it is very unlikely that even an English-bilingual speech-language pathologist's other language will match that of a student who is referred for a speech-language assessment. Knowing how to work effectively with an interpreter is, therefore, essential for all speech-language pathologists. This article reviews the process of interpretation during parent conferences and student assessments. It describes the specific roles and responsibilities of the speech-language pathologist-interpreter team, with a focus on the linguistic, cultural, and professional skills that the interpreter should have to ensure a successful outcome. Data obtained from bilingual Spanish/English-speaking speech-language pathologists are provided to confirm and describe some important features desired in an interpreter who collaborates with a speech-language pathologist. Suggestions for training and certifying future interpreters are outlined. Finally, models are presented for successful interactions with interpreters. PMID:14533055

  4. Interpreting "The Signs of Language." A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Peyton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the book that reports the results of research conducted by Edward Klima, Ursula Bellugi, and others. The book aims to show American Sign Language as a true language and to detail the representational devices that the language employs. A chapter by chapter summary of the reported research is given. (PJM)

  5. The work of language interpretation in health care: complex, challenging, exhausting, and often invisible.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Liz; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Estrada, Robin Dawson

    2011-04-01

    The value of qualified language interpretation services for limited-English-proficient patients is gaining increasing recognition by policy makers and researchers in the United States. Yet the actual work experiences of health care interpreters have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the work experiences of formal and informal interpreters (n = 27). The core narrative finding from the interview data was the complex, challenging, exhausting, and often invisible work of language interpretation. Critical examination of health care interpreters' complex work and interactions with patients, providers, and administrators is needed to provide more effective and integrated services for limited-English proficient patients. PMID:21317402

  6. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  7. On Interpreting the Interpreter – Experiences of Language Practitioners Mediating for the TRC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Anthonissen

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the role of the interpreters at the hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in view of a topical question in translation studies. Referring to experiences of simultaneous translating interpreters, the paper highlights a number of characterising features of the interpretation processes at TRC hearings. The problem addressed here relates to how interpreters’ recollections

  8. Incremental interpretation and the role of disfluencies in human language comprehension 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Following a substantial amount of research, language comprehension is now generally regarded as an incremental process in which both linguistic and non-linguistic input is integrated and interpreted as early as possible ...

  9. Little-JIL\\/Juliette: a process definition language and interpreter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron G. Cass; Barbara Staudt Lerner; Stanley M. Sutton Jr.; Eric K. McCall; Alexander E. Wise; Leon J. Osterweil

    2000-01-01

    Little-JIL, a language for programming coordination in processes is an executable, high-level language with a formal (yet graphical) syntax and rigorously defined operational semantics. The central abstraction in Little-JIL is the “step,” which is the focal point for coordination, providing a scoping mechanism for control, data, and exception flow and for agent and resource assignment. Steps are organized into a

  10. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  11. Repo: An Interpreted Language for Exploratory Programming of Highly Interactive, Distributed Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair MacIntyre

    In this paper we present Repo, an interpreted language for exploratory programming of distributed interactive appli- cations. Repo is based on Obliq, a distributed language that supports client-server distribution semantics of all data items (objects, arrays and variables). Repo extends Obliq's type system uniformly so that all its data items can also be distributed with unsynchronized or synchronized replication semantics,

  12. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

  13. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  14. Interpretation of Spatial Language in a Map Navigation Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Levit; Deb Roy

    2007-01-01

    We have developed components of an automated system that understands and follows navigational instructions. The system has prior knowledge of the geometry and landmarks of specific maps. This knowledge is exploited to infer complex paths through maps based on natural language descriptions. The approach is based on an analysis of verbal commands in terms of elementary semantic units that are

  15. Some Aspects of Optimality in Natural Language Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Blutner, Reinhard

    the form of OT as used in phonology, morphology and syntax on the one hand and its form as used in semantics on the other hand. Whereas in the first case OT takes the point of view of the speaker`s (1981) idea of balancing between informativeness and efficiency in natural language processing

  16. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

  17. General Information Shopping Cart Workflow

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    General Information Shopping Cart Workflow Deciding and Assigning Security Roles (S.M.A.R.T.) SAP Browser Settings First-Time Login Procedures Establishing eMarketplace Settings Establishing Shopping Cart Settings: · eCourse · Adobe PDF Job-aid SAP Codes and Descriptions Ship-to Address Codes Shopping Cart

  18. Oxen Pulling Cart

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Ox-pulled carts are still used on rural dirt roads in Paraguay. The oxen push against a rough log laid in front of their withers. Large wooden wheels work well on dry roads. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56...

  19. Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly…

  20. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  1. [If the provision of information runs into the language barrier--about the cooperation with interpreters].

    PubMed

    Sleptsova, M

    2007-10-01

    Communication between professionals and patients from different cultural origin and without knowledge of the professional's language is not possible without the help of interpreters. Their presences however, can have a differential impact upon the quality of the interaction. Non-professional translators (family members, members of hospital staff etc.) can have a negative impact upon medical treatment via false translation, most commonly by the failure to add "creative elements" from their own interpretation to what has been said. As a consequence, using professional interpreters is generally preferred. It has been shown that professional translation improves the quality of treatment and patients' satisfaction with treatment. The proper professionalisation of interpretation is a rather recent development in health care, differentiating between various roles that an interpreter might take. The prominent role of a cultural translator often referred to as "mediation" assumes that the interpreter "mediates" between two different cultures that collide during an encounter. In our experience with Turkish speaking interpreters however, their socio-demographic characteristics (foremost education and social class in Turkey) resemble those of professionals much closer than that of Turkish patients; this the interpreter's position is not in the middle between patient and health care provider but skewed to the latter. Using concrete clinical situations we will recommend a word-by-word translation largely neglecting the role of the cultural mediator. PMID:18214211

  2. Natural language queries: an interpreter for the Italian Language: Unversita di Torino, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Lesmo; Piere Torasso

    1982-01-01

    In the past two years a system has been implemented which accepts as input a query in Italian and produces a representation of the query which is easily interpretable as a sequence of algebraic operations on a relational data base \\/1\\/. The main features of the system can be summarized as:

  3. SQL `a la Carte Toward Tailor-made Data Management

    E-print Network

    Apel, Sven

    SQL `a la Carte ­ Toward Tailor-made Data Management Marko Rosenm¨uller1 , Christian K¨astner1 apel@uni-passau.de, 3 leich@metop.de Abstract: The size of the structured query language (SQL) continuously increases. Extensions of SQL for special domains like stream processing or sensor networks come

  4. Inverted Pendulum Cart Assembly Instructions MEM 639 Figure 1. All parts of the cart assembly

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    Inverted Pendulum Cart Assembly Instructions ­ MEM 639 Figure 1. All parts of the cart assembly Figure 2. Attaching the pendulum cart to the pivot plate 1. Slide the pendulum cart arm into the opening of the pivot plate. 2. Secure the pendulum cart arm in place by inserting a dowel (4) through the through holes

  5. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  6. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  7. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  8. Structural analysis of the CDF transporter cart

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, M.

    1982-11-17

    The transporter cart serves as a dolly to move the large toroids (539 tons) and the Roman arches (600 tons) which are part of the central detector. ANSYS has been used to compute deflections and stresses in this cart.

  9. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  10. Natural-Language Syntax as Procedures for Interpretation: The Dynamics of Ellipsis Construal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempson, Ruth; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Meyer-Viol, Wilfried; Purver, Matthew; White, Graham; Cann, Ronnie

    In this paper we set out the preliminaries needed for a formal theory of context, relative to a linguistic framework in which natural-language syntax is defined as procedures for context-dependent interpretation. Dynamic Syntax provides a formalism where both representations of content and context are defined dynamically and structurally, with time-linear monotonic growth across sequences of partial trees as the core structure-inducing notion. The primary data involve elliptical fragments, as these provide less familiar evidence of the requisite concept of context than anaphora, but equally central. As part of our sketch of the framework, we show how apparent anomalies for a time-linear basis for interpretation can be straightforwardly characterised once we adopt a new perspective on syntax as the dynamics of transitions between parse-states. We then take this as the basis for providing an integrated account of ellipsis construal. And, as a bonus, we will show how this intrinsically dynamic perspective extends in a seamless way to dialogue exchanges with free shifting of role between speaking and hearing (split-utterances). We shall argue that what is required to explain such dialogue phenomena is for contexts, as representations of content, to include not merely partial structures but also the sequence of actions that led to such structures.

  11. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic…

  12. Connecticut Basic Skills Proficiency Test, 1986-87. Mathematics, Basic Writing Skills in the Language Arts, Reading. Summary and Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.

    This booklet interprets and summarizes the results of the Connecticut Statewide Basic Skills Proficiency Test as administered to ninth graders in October, 1986. The test measures basic skills in reading and mathematics, and basic writing skills in the language arts. The test is used to identify students who require further remediation in order to…

  13. Native Language Attrition and Developmental Instability at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Data, Interpretations and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2004-01-01

    Montrul's study is an important contribution to a recently emerged research approach to the study of bilingualism and languages in contact, characterized by its sound theoretical basis and its reliance on data from different--and traditionally non-integrated--domains of language development: bilingual first language acquisition (Muller and Hulk,…

  14. Low-Income Children's Literacy Interpretations in a Skills-Based and a Whole-Language Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny A. Freppon

    1995-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated two groups of low-income, urban children who had whole-language instruction during their kindergarten and first-grade years. These 17 children were studied previously for those 2 years in their separate schools. The current investigation focused on the general academic success of the two groups and on eight, focal learners' interpretations. In one school, a group of children

  15. A framework to aid adoption of automated rehabilitation devices into clinical practice: synthesising and Interpreting Language for Clinical Kinematics (SILCK).

    PubMed

    Cozens, J A; Jackson, T; Henderson, K; Brough, S; Bhakta, B; Makower, S G; van Wijck, F; Smith, C

    2013-06-01

    The Synthesising and Interpreting Language for Clinical Kinematics (SILCK) is an informatic framework for developing software to control automated rehabilitation devices. It aids adoption of devices into rehabilitation practice, by bridging the gap between clinical practice and internal device operation. SILCK defines data entities and processes for capturing clinical observations of patients and their rehabilitation goals in formats which can be used to direct the tailoring of device parameters to the individual patient's needs. PMID:24187222

  16. Interfacing Interpreted and Compiled Languages to Support Applications on a Massively Parallel Network of Workstations (MP-NOW)

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Kepner; Maya Gokhale; Ron Minnich; Aaron Marks; John DeGood

    1999-12-07

    Astronomers are increasingly using Massively Parallel Network of Workstations (MP-NOW) to address their most challenging computing problems. Fully exploiting these systems is made more difficult as more and more modeling and data analysis software is written in interpreted languages (such as IDL, MATLAB, and Mathematica) which do not lend themselves to parallel computing. We present a specific example of a very simple, but generic solution to this problem. Our example uses an interpreted language (IDL) to set up a calculation and then interfaces with a computational kernel written in a compiled language (C). The IDL code then calls the C code as an external library. We have added to the computational kernel an additional layer, which manages multiple copies of the kernel running on a MP-NOW and returns the results back to the interpreted layer. Our implementation uses The Next generation Taskbag (TNT) library developed at Sarnoff to provide an efficient means for implementing task parallelism. A test problem (taken from Astronomy) has been implemented on the Sarnoff Cyclone computer which consists of 160 heterogeneous nodes connected by a ``fat'' tree 100 Mb/s switched Ethernet running the RedHat Linux and FreeBSD operating systems. Our first results in this ongoing project have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach and produced speedups of greater than 50 on 60 processors.

  17. Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    equipment, pedestrian aisles, doorways, intersections, or the normal traffic flow. #12;Toolbox Safety TalkToolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Golf carts are utilized on campus for groundskeepers

  18. CART (Communication Access Realtime Translation). PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Judy, Comp.

    1999-01-01

    Communication Access Realtime Translation--(CART)--is the instant translation of the spoken word into English text performed by a CART reporter using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and realtime software. The text is then displayed on a computer monitor or other display device for the student who is deaf or hard of hearing to read. This…

  19. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  20. Transportable X-ray cart

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

  1. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  2. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  3. Autonomous Shopping Cart Platform for People with Mobility Impairments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Autonomous Shopping Cart Platform for People with Mobility Impairments Luca Marchetti1 and Daniele the problem of designing an autonomous shopping cart. We assume that the shopping cart is set-up on a unicycle exemplified by a mobile robot that follows the user. An autonomous shopping cart is a simple application

  4. Check Eligibility Feature in Your UAccess Shopping Cart

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Using the Check Eligibility Feature in Your UAccess Shopping Cart #12;You can use CHECK ELIGIBILITY to see if the classes in your shopping cart will be successfully processed when your enrollment shopping cart 22, #12;Choose Spring 2011 and then Continue #12;Add classes to your shopping cart

  5. Training Translators and Conference Interpreters. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Wilhelm K.

    An examination of translation and conference interpretation as well-established academic professions focuses on how they should be taught in order to maintain the integrity of the two professions and the highest standards in their exercise. An introductory section answers the question, "Can translation and interpretation be taught?," noting that…

  6. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  7. Fuel-cell-powered golf cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbett, R.E.; McCormick, J.B.; Lynn, D.K.; Kerwin, W.J.; Derouin, C.R.; Salazar, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a battery/fuel-cell-powered golf cart test bed designed to verify computer simulations and to gain operational experience with a fuel cell in a vehicular environment is described. A technically untrained driver can easily operate the golf cart because the motor and fuel cell controllers automatically sense and execute the appropriate on/off sequencing. A voltage imbalance circuit and a throttle compress circuit were developed that are directly applicable to electric vehicles in general.

  8. Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (ages 4 ; 1 to 6 ; 4) and typically developing (TD) children (ages 3 ; 5 to 6 ; 5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from…

  9. DOI 10.1007/s10701-007-9163-3 Entropy, Its Language, and Interpretation

    E-print Network

    © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract The language of entropy is examined for consistency- scriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder under- standing? Can of disorder, multiplicity, missing information, freedom, mixed- H.S. Leff ( ) Department of Physics

  10. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  11. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  12. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language.

    PubMed

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children's knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  13. Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy

    E-print Network

    Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy Giri Vijayaraghavan-2002. Quality Week 2002 The Bug TaxonomyThe Bug Taxonomy · An outline that categorizes and lists a large number of potential bugs. · The tester who uses the taxonomy can sample from the list, selecting a potential problem

  14. Comparability of Writing Assessment Scores across Languages: Searching for Evidence of Valid Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevigny, Serge; Savard, Denis; Beaudoin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Very few empirically based studies have denied or confirmed the validity of holistic score interpretations and the validity of French-English writing scores comparisons. The present study addresses these important issues. Part I investigates if adjacent holistic scores represent different writing skills. Part II evaluates if variations exposed in…

  15. A pendulum-driven cart via internal force and static friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyi Li; Katsuhisa Furuta; Felix L. Chernousko

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a pendulum driven cart is built using Lego robot parts. It consists of a cart with four passive wheels and a pendulum mounted on top of the cart. A DC motor is attached to the hinge joint between the cart and the pendulum which cart swing forward and backward. The cart motion is generated using its internal

  16. [Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy(CART)].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Akitaka; Gyouda, Yasuaki; Ishiguro, Toshihiko; Matsuzaki, Keisuke; Yoshizawa, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    The cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy(CART)is a useful palliative maneuver in a patient suffering from ascites. I think that home medical care cooperation is essential to diffuse at home CART. PMID:23268893

  17. Final Project: Optimization for Shopping Cart Batch Return Times

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    Final Project: Optimization for Shopping Cart Batch Return Times Adel Amodwala, 997064527 where the shopping carts used to be: You either now have to wait for a cart to return, reduce your shopping list, or be prepared to use your juggling skills. In any case, the main problem you as a customer

  18. Le modle des cartes cognitives contextuelles L. Chauvin D. Genest

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    fonction d'un contexte d'utilisation. Mots-clés : cartes cognitives, contexte, graphes conceptuels AbstractLe modèle des cartes cognitives contextuelles L. Chauvin D. Genest {lionelc modèle des cartes cognitives offre une représen- tation graphique d'un réseau d'influences entre dif

  19. Center of Mass of Two Carts with Attached Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    A spring that is attached to the ends of two carts. The spring is compressed when the two carts are placed next to each other on a low-friction track. The spring is released such that the two carts are "pushed" apart as shown in the animations (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

  20. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

  1. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  2. Relatrio SeCArte 2009 Introduo

    E-print Network

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    Cultura e Arte (SeCArte). Esta proposta insere-se numa visão de universidade culta, ousada, internacionalizada e acadêmica Com a separação da antiga Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão, a Cultura passa a ter uma instancia própria de decisão e execução de políticas culturais para a UFSC. A Cultura e a Arte

  3. Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joelle

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

  4. Analysis of the Samus Collimeter Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-16

    The SAMUS collimator cart is a support for shielding blocks and the vacuum assembly of the Tevatron beam tube as it passes through the D0 End Iron. It slides on linear bearings mounted in the SAMUS toroid as the End Iron moves in and out. There are two collimators designed for the D0 experiment, designated North and South, each identical except for the shimming of the tungsten center blocks, and thereby the relative position of the Tevatron tube. This report contains calculations of the stresses during installation as well as the installed configurations. To support the analysis of the installation case, loads were simulated on the cart held in a mock-up of the lifting fixture.

  5. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bigg

    2008-01-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet

  6. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  7. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  8. From Cars to CartsIncreasing Safety Belt Usage in Shopping Carts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Ferrari; Charles H. Baldwin

    1989-01-01

    A modified reversal\\/ multiple-baseline design across three supermarkets was used to examine the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in increasing the frequency of safety belt usage in shopping carts. Following low baseline rates, safety belt usage increased significantly during a prompt plus personal contact condition at Stores 1 and 2. Safety belt usage then decreased, but remained above baseline levels, in

  9. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  10. CART in the brain of vertebrates: circuits, functions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Nishikant K; Nakhate, Kartik T; Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-04-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) with its wide distribution in the brain of mammals has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Last two decades have witnessed a steady rise in the information on the genes that encode this neuropeptide and regulation of its transcription and translation. CART is highly enriched in the hypothalamic nuclei and its relevance to energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine control has been understood in great details. However, the occurrence of this peptide in a range of diverse circuitries for sensory, motor, vegetative, limbic and higher cortical areas has been confounding. Evidence that CART peptide may have role in addiction, pain, reward, learning and memory, cognition, sleep, reproduction and development, modulation of behavior and regulation of autonomic nervous system are accumulating, but an integration has been missing. A steady stream of papers has been pointing at the therapeutic potentials of CART. The current review is an attempt at piecing together the fragments of available information, and seeks meaning out of the CART elements in their anatomical niche. We try to put together the CART containing neuronal circuitries that have been conclusively demonstrated as well as those which have been proposed, but need confirmation. With a view to finding out the evolutionary antecedents, we visit the CART systems in sub-mammalian vertebrates and seek the answer why the system is shaped the way it is. We enquire into the conservation of the CART system and appreciate its functional diversity across the phyla. PMID:24468550

  11. The roles of working memory, language proficiency, and training in simultaneous interpretation performance: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals 

    E-print Network

    Tzou, Yeh-Zu

    2009-05-15

    many researchers (e.g., Bajo, Padilla, & Padilla, 2000; Christoffels, De Groot, & Waldorp, 2003) have found to be associated with performance in simultaneous interpretation. Working memory, as it relates to interpreting, refers to the ability... syllables or words, the interpreters outperformed the other groups (e.g. Bajo et al., 2000; Padilla, Bajo, Ca?as, & Padilla, 1995; Padilla, Bajo, & Macizo, 2005). The condition of articulatory suppression poses difficulty in verbal recall tasks mainly...

  12. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, C.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part à la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions à la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'à ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

  13. Reflexes of Mental Architecture in Second-Language Acquisition: The Interpretation of "Combien" Extractions in English-French Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Sprouse, Rex A.; Swanson, Kimberly A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of an empirical study of the interpretation of left branch "combien" (how many) extractions in English-French interlanguage. Results show that knowledge of the interpretation of left-branch "combien" extraction is detectable in English-French interlanguage. (Author/VWL)

  14. "Shopping Cart Appointment" is when you can begin adding courses to

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    "Shopping Cart Appointment" is when you can begin adding courses to your SHOPPING CART ONLY. You can click "ADD CLASSES" to add courses to your shopping cart in preparation for your Enrolment. You can click "SELECT CLASS" to add the course and class section to your shopping cart #12;If

  15. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  16. Translation and Interpretation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahan, Elizabeth Welt

    1978-01-01

    Three techniques used in the training of translators and interpreters at the Monterey Institute which may be suitable for advanced language study are conceptualization, stylistic transposition, and sight translation. Language students may acquire the cultural and social ambiance of the target language through such training. (SW)

  17. Subject Pronoun and Article Omissions in the Speech of Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Phonological Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    1994-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their normally developing (ND) peers imitated proper nouns, the pronouns "he" and "you," and the article "the" in subject phrases. Both groups showed significantly more omissions of the function words than the proper nouns. A phonological explanation of subject article and pronoun omission is…

  18. AbstractMethods and experimental results are presented for interpreting 3D spatial language descriptions used for

    E-print Network

    He, Zhihai "Henry"

    descriptions used for human to robot communication in a fetch task. The work is based on human subject trials is 85%. I. INTRODUCTION A growing elderly population and shortages of healthcare staff have adults also prefer a natural language interface [2] when interacting with robots. In this paper, we

  19. On the Simultaneous Interpretation of Real World Image Sequences and their Natural Language Description: The System Soccer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth André; Gerd Herzog; Thomas Rist

    1988-01-01

    The aim of previous attempts at connecting vision systems and natural lan- guage systems has been to provide a retrospective descripti on of the analysed image sequence. The step from such an a posterioriapproach towards simultane- ous natural language description reveals a problem which has not yet been dealt with in generation systems. Automatic generation of simultaneous descriptions calls for

  20. Quantum Interpretations

    E-print Network

    A. R. P. Rau

    2006-06-03

    Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such as the many worlds interpretation or specify a central role for consciousness or neural microstructures. The simple, but basic, acceptance that what is meant by the state of a physical system is different in quantum physics from what it is in classical physics goes a long way in explaining its seeming peculiarities.

  1. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...6175 Section 868.6175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...emergency cart is a device intended to store and transport resuscitation...

  2. VIEW OF TOOL TABLE AND CART, LOCOMOTIVE NO. 18 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TOOL TABLE AND CART, LOCOMOTIVE NO. 18 IN BACKGROUND (BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE 1920) - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  3. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Optimum distribution of concrete carts between blocks being simultaneously concreted

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. É. Kazantsev; V. I. Teleshev; K. I. Astakhova

    1979-01-01

    Conclusions  \\u000a1. \\u000aThe incorrect distribution of concrete carts between blocks being simultaneously concreted affects, to a certain degree, the efficiency of the batch plant's technical productivity. This distribution is frequently made by the volitional method; this results in the appearance of excessive concrete carts in the system on the one hand, and in the incomplete loading of plant capacity on

  5. Translation and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

  6. Is Language Education? or Is Education Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfit, Christopher

    This paper outlines the teaching and research program in language and education at the University of Southampton (England) and examines problem areas found in the combination of language and education, including confusion in interpretation of textual material by students. Language and education often involves language teaching, but not language

  7. Research Review: Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 2012 – Neuroscientific studies of intervention for language impairment in children: interpretive and methodological problems

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D V M

    2013-01-01

    Background Our ability to look at structure and function of a living brain has increased exponentially since the early 1970s. Many studies of developmental disorders now routinely include a brain imaging or electrophysiological component. Amid current enthusiasm for applications of neuroscience to educational interventions, we need to pause to consider what neuroimaging data can tell us. Images of brain activity are seductive, and have been used to give credibility to commercial interventions, yet we have only a limited idea of what the brain bases of language disorders are, let alone how to alter them. Scope and findings A review of six studies of neuroimaging correlates of language intervention found recurring methodological problems: lack of an adequate control group, inadequate power, incomplete reporting of data, no correction for multiple comparisons, data dredging and failure to analyse treatment effects appropriately. In addition, there is a tendency to regard neuroimaging data as more meaningful than behavioural data, even though it is behaviour that interventions aim to alter. Conclusion In our current state of knowledge, it would be better to spend research funds doing well-designed trials of behavioural treatment to establish which methods are effective, rather than rushing headlong into functional imaging studies of unproven treatments. PMID:23278309

  8. Biomechanical analysis of transporting loads with a large four-wheel cart

    E-print Network

    Abell, David Wayne

    1997-01-01

    a waste management company were used for this experiment. The carts included 2, 3, and 4 cubic meter metal front end loader (FEL) waste carts and 2 and 3 cubic meter plastic FEL waste carts. The carts were tested on both a smooth level concrete... (see Appendix B). me ta ra One metal and one plastic four-wheel 3 cubic meter front end loading (FEL) waste cart used by a waste management company were used in this experiment. The carts were pulled on a smooth concrete surface with all four wheels...

  9. Help Shopping Cart Contact Site Map Member Login Logout Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Help Shopping Cart Contact Site Map Member Login Logout Mission History Membership Annual Report Members Only Member Login Shopping Cart Contact Site Map Home ©2002 American Forest & Paper Association

  10. Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigné, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

  11. Hybrid control for global stabilization of the cart-pendulum system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhao; Mark. W. Spong

    2001-01-01

    A globally stabilizing controller for the cart–pendulum system is designed in this paper. The design procedure consists of three parts. First, find a neighborhood of the origin in which a locally stabilizing controller can be used. Second, construct a linear controller for the cart subsystem and steer the position and velocity of the cart to the origin. The last part

  12. Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System

    E-print Network

    Zenkov, Dmitry

    Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System Anthony M. Bloch. In this paper the method of controlled Lagrangians is applied to the discrete cart-pendulum system. This study out the matching procedure explicitly for the discrete cart-pendulum system and prove that we can

  13. Source: Golf Cart Manufacturer's Operators Manual; NC Fire Prevention Code Section 309 Safety News Alert

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Source: Golf Cart Manufacturer's Operators Manual; NC Fire Prevention Code Section 309 Safety News Alert Golf Carts ­ Prevent Fire Hazards Fire UNC Chapel Hill ­ July 7, 2014 General Combustible. Minimally, a 5 pound ABC fire extinguisher must be provided within 20 feet of where golf carts are stored

  14. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment.

  15. A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorsson, Pall

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

  16. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  17. A Modified Laptop Program: Putting the Carts in the Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Michael M.; Ross, Steven M.; Wan, Weiping; Potter, Allison; Wilson, Yola

    2004-01-01

    Four fifth grade classrooms embarked on a modified ubiquitous computing initiative in Fall 2003. Two 15-computer wireless laptop carts were shared among the four classrooms in an effort to integrate technology across the curriculum and affect change in student learning and teacher pedagogy. This initiative?in contrast to other 1:1 programs and…

  18. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  19. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...cart is a device intended to store and transport resuscitation supplies for...

  20. Biomechanical and psychophysical evaluation of using a two-wheel cart to transport loads over a curb 

    E-print Network

    King, Rebecca Lynn

    1997-01-01

    was comfortable having on the cart to tilt the cart back and to move the cart over the curb without excessive strain. The maximum weight to tilt back the cart was 225.8 kg (500 lb), and the minimum was 158.8 kg (350.1 lb). The average weight of the load the worker...

  1. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  2. Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1989-08-08

    This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

  3. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  4. Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jongh, Elena M.

    For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

  5. Differential expression of CART in feeding and reward circuits in binge eating rat model.

    PubMed

    Bharne, Ashish P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-09-15

    Binge eating (BE) disrupts feeding and subverts reward mechanism. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) mediates satiety as well as reward, its role in BE justifies investigation. To induce BE, rats were provided restricted access to high fat sweet palatable diet (HFSPD) for a period of 4 weeks. Immunoreactivity profile of the CART elements, and accompanying neuroplastic changes were studied in satiety- and reward-regulating brain nuclei. Further, we investigated the effects of CART, CART-antibody or rimonabant on the intake of normal chow or HFSPD. Rats fed on HFSPD showed development of BE-like phenotype as reflected by significant consumption of HFSPD in short time frame, suggestive of dysregulated satiety mechanisms. At the mid-point during BE, CART-immunoreactivity was significantly increased in hypothalamic arcuate (ARC), lateral (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT). However, for next 22-h post-binge time-period, the animals showed no interest in food, and low CART expression. Pre-binge treatment with rimonabant, a drug recommended for the treatment of BE, produced anorexia, increased CART expression in ARC and LH, but not in AcbSh and PVT. Higher dose of CART was required to produce anorexia in binged rats. While neuronal tracing studies confirmed CART fiber connectivity from ARC and LH to AcbSh, increase in CART and synaptophysin immunostaining in this pathway in BE rats suggested strengthening of the CART connectivity. We conclude that CART bearing ARC-LH-PVT-AcbSh reward circuit may override the satiety signaling in ARC-PVN pathway in BE rats. PMID:26008155

  6. Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

  7. Reduced ethanol consumption and preference in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Armando G; Nguyen, Chinh T Q; Ahmadi-Tehrani, Dara; Morrisett, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Several studies have characterized the role of CART in addiction to psychostimulants, but few have examined the role of CART in alcohol use disorders including alcoholism. The current study utilized a CART knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the role of CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol appetitive behaviors between CART wild type (WT) and KO mice. The mice were presented with an ethanol solution (3%-21%) and water, each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of quinine (bitter) and saccharin (sweet) solutions was measured following the ethanol preference tests. In addition, ethanol metabolism rates and ethanol sensitivity were compared between genotypes. CART KO mice consumed and preferred ethanol less than their WT counterparts in both sexes. This genotype effect could not be attributed to differences in bitter or sweet taste perception or ethanol metabolism rates. There was also no difference in ethanol sensitivity in male mice; however, CART KO female mice showed a greater ethanol sensitivity than the WT females. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors and as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and abstinence enhancement. PMID:22823101

  8. UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub-Area Counselor should sign below, indicating agreement about the

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan ­ Fall 2010 The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub guarantee= _____semesters Cum GPA = _________ Started MS-Cart/GIS _____________ cum credits = ________ BA 370 (Intro Cart) __________________ Geography 377 (Intro GIS) __________________ Geography 378

  9. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  10. An Interpretive Case Study of Stakeholders' Perceptions on the Enrollment and Progression of African American Students in High School Foreign Language Courses 

    E-print Network

    Schoener III, Herbert

    2012-10-19

    to such discussions in addressing the achievement gaps that exist in our public schools, although Foreign Language holds significant influence on both students' high school and post-secondary academic trajectories. Throughout the state of Texas, it has been found...

  11. Using Interpreters and Translators To Meet the Needs of Handicapped Language Minority Students and Their Families. Program Information Guide Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradd, Sandra H.; Wilen, Diane K.

    The need is discussed for the services of trained interpreters and translators in the school setting for oral and written communications between limited-English-speaking (LEP) students with special needs and English-speaking personnel. The purpose of this guide is: (1) to highlight the type of background and experience required of interpreters and…

  12. Security bugs in embedded interpreters

    E-print Network

    Chen, Haogang

    Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

  13. Telesynergy v3 AnthroCart Setup Instructions

    Cancer.gov

    Document # 300-5141-00 Step 8 Install all six Castor Inserts into the Base Tube and secure with one Castor Screw per Insert. Push the Castors, (locking ones in front) into the Castor Inserts. Step 9 Place the Base Tube Assembly (from Step 8) onto the Vertical Legs of the Shelf Assembly (from Step 7). Attach the Base Tube to the Legs using a total of four Base Tube Screws. TIGHTEN ALL SCREWS. Step 10 Carefully, rotate your Cart over onto the Castors.

  14. Photography and labour history of astrometry: The Carte du Ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, Charlotte

    The Carte du Ciel, launched in 1887 by Paris Observatory director E. Mouchez, was a significant impetus to the institutionalisation of photographic astrometry internationally. The adoption of mechanical means of representation, meant to increase speed and precision in the recording of data, brought with it unsuspected social and material changes, however. Great numbers of unskilled workers, mostly women, were recruited to treat the growing amounts of information supplied by the plates; while the mechanisation of work led to an ever greater standardisation of practices, thus giving the new astrometry a distinctly `industrial' flavour.

  15. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  16. Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Induction Motors Using Motor Current Signature Analysis and a Hybrid FMM–CART Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjeevan Seera; Chee Peng Lim; Dahaman Ishak; Harapajan Singh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to detect and classify comprehensive fault conditions of induction motors using a hybrid fuzzy min–max (FMM) neural network and classification and regression tree (CART) is proposed. The hybrid model, known as FMM–CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. A series of real experiments is

  17. PeopleSoft My Planner Announcement Faculty/Staff New PeopleSoft Feature Available Advisee Planner, Shopping Cart

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Planner, Shopping Cart and Course History On April 30, 2014, a new PeopleSoft feature entitled "My Planner, organize these courses into terms, and then select these courses into their enrollment Shopping Cart Advisees are preparing to take in their Shopping Cart! Can't make changes, though...these pages are view

  18. Demographic and Financial Characteristics of School Districts with Low and High à la Carte Sales in Rural Kansas Public Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole L. Nollen; Kim S. Kimminau; Niaman Nazir

    2011-01-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools—foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program—can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary

  19. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  20. Interpreting the Impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test on Second Language Students within an Argument-Based Validation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Kane's (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading…

  1. The Development of Complex Sentence Interpretation in Typically Developing Children Compared with Children with Specific Language Impairments or Early Unilateral Focal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Frederic; Wulfeck, Beverly; Krupa-Kwiatkowski, Magda; Bates, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences "on-line", choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity…

  2. Kim, Su Nam and Timothy Baldwin (2013) A Lexical Semantic Approach to Interpreting and Bracketing English Noun Compounds, Natural Language Engineering 19(3), pp. 385-407.

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    noun [juice] is made of N1 = the modifier [apple]), we would expect the unseen NC orange juice to have as "components". NC semantic relations are notoriously nuanced in nature; for example, apple juice is interpreted as "juice made from apple(s)" while the superficially highly- similar morning juice means "juice (drunk

  3. Modeling of the b-Cart Based Agent System in B2B EC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyoo Gun Lim; Soo-hyun Park; Jinhwa Kim

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a In B2B EC area, the need for agent based system for desktop purchasing is increasing. To simulate agent based B2B e-Commerce,\\u000a we model the b-cart based B2B agent framework. B-cart implies a buyer’s shopping cart which a buyer carries to the seller’s\\u000a sites. The modeled system is designed to provide an effective architecture for employee’s direct desktop purchasing from external

  4. Biomechanical analysis of transporting loads with a large four-wheel cart 

    E-print Network

    Abell, David Wayne

    1997-01-01

    handling (MMH) jobs. The work routine of refuse collectors often involves the manual handling of materials utilizing large four-wheel carts weighing as much as 635 kg (1400 lb. ) fully loaded. So it is not unexpected to see a high prevalence... in the carts used by refuge workers to be approximately 317, 5 kg (700 lb). A 1991 study showed that pulling a cart resulted in higher loads on the lower back than pushing one (Lee, Chaffin, Herrin, Waikar, 1991). A 1987 study by Chaffin on MMH and low...

  5. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  6. Policy Name: Golf Carts in Tunnels Originating/Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    and Safety. Rules of Operation 1. Pedestrians and persons using wheelchairs or other assistive devices have is secured and exits are not blocked. 8. Drivers will not permit passengers to stand on a moving cart

  7. Using Direct Measurement Video to find the acceleration of a rocket-powered cart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rebekah Johnson

    A video of a student accelerating across a stage on a cart powered by a releasing compressed carbon dioxide from a fire extinguisher can be used to analyze constant acceleration. This video includes a to-scale ruler that students can use to find displacement, as well as a frame counter that can be used to find elapsed time. This lesson is meant to be a direct application of using the kinematic equations to solve for the acceleration of the cart.

  8. Comportements perceptifs d'acteurs virtuels autonomes : une application des cartes cognitives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Tisseau; Marc Parenthoën; Cedric Buche; Patrick Reignier

    2005-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ. Nous nous intéressons ici aux comportements perceptifs d'acteurs virtuels autonomes. Ces comportements doivent déterminer leurs réponses, en fonction des stimulus externes, mais aussi en fonction d'émotions internes. Nous proposons de décrire de tels comportements émo- tionnels à l'aide de cartes cognitives floues où ces états internes sont explicitement repré- sentés. Nous détaillons comment les cartes cognitives floues permettent la

  9. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). ?² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. PMID:21616201

  10. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  11. Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

  12. Iterative design and evaluation of new prone carts for individuals with SCDs: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Malassigné, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Cors, Mark W; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Schnurr, Emil Sam; Amerson, Thomas L

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes a series of projects funded since 1992 to address the compelling need to improve the quality of life for persons with spinal cord dysfunctions who use prone carts. Specifically, Veterans Services Organization, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), and the VA Rehabilitation Research and Development funded studies to develop new consumer-driven designs for prone carts. Using an iterative approach, this team of clinicians and designers (1) evaluated existing prone carts; (2) designed a new manual prone cart; (3) designed a new motorized prone cart, including a standing model; and (4) are collaborating with manufacturers to market and commercialize the new prone carts. Prototypes were developed at the Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design with the assistance of Ortho-Kinetics, Inc., and Everest & Jennings and were clinically evaluated at two Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (Tampa and Milwaukee) with patients and caregivers and for compliance with applicable ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for electric wheelchair standards. PMID:11930905

  13. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  14. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-01-27

    Shop test of the sludge mobilization cart system to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

  15. Spending at mobile fruit and vegetable carts and using SNAP benefits to pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  16. Spending at Mobile Fruit and Vegetable Carts and Using SNAP Benefits to Pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M.; Abrams, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  17. Post-Soviet Language Policy and the Language Utilization Patterns of Kyivan Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Camelot Ann

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of language policy in Ukraine on language utilization patterns of school children in Kyiv. Using quantitative data from student responses to a questionnaire focusing on subject background, native and home language, including reported usage of interactive and interpretive language, examines the extent to which language shift or…

  18. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  19. SDL: A Surface Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maple, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

  20. Leveraging Virtual Learning Environments for Training Interpreter Trainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARBARA MOSER-MERCER; KILIAN G. SEEBER

    While the demand for conference interpreters in traditional language combinations (the more widely used languages) is decreasing, the need for experts in less widely used languages is rapidly increasing with each enlargement of the EU. Post-war peace-keeping operations as well as war- crime tribunals have also increased the need for high-level interpreters in languages hitherto not used in the international

  1. Miscommunication in Interpreted Classroom Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a consumer's viewpoint of problems inherent in the use of interpretation to get deaf class members into the stream of vocally expressed communication, focusing on the kinds of misunderstandings that can arise when one language is expressed in the three dimensions of space and the other has only the dimensions of speech. (38 references)…

  2. Planning a School for Translators and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, David L.

    1975-01-01

    This article outlines guidelines for designing a school for translators and interpreters, the main points being selection of languages to be taught, curriculum planning, selection of qualified teachers and size of the student body. (CLK)

  3. Dealing with Interpretation Errors in Tutorial Dialogue. 

    E-print Network

    Dzikovska, Myroslava; Callaway, Charles; Farrow, Elaine; Moore, Johanna D.; Steinhauser, Natalie; Campbell, Gwendolyn

    We describe an approach to dealing with interpretation errors in a tutorial dialogue system. Allowing students to provide explanations and generate contentful talk can be helpful for learning, but the language that ...

  4. Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Megari, Kalliopi; Kosmidis, Mary H; Apostolidou, Maria; Takou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n = 15) outperformed the control group (n = 35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n = 15) approached, but did not reach, statistical significance. Our findings suggest that, while proficiency in a foreign language may enhance fluency and working memory skills, simultaneous interpreters have semantic processing and working memory capacities greater than those expected from mere proficiency in a foreign language. PMID:22436006

  5. Chronic Intracerebroventricular Administration of Recombinant CART(42–89) Peptide Inhibits Food Intake and Causes Weight Loss in Lean and Obese Zucker (fa\\/fa) Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Larsen; Niels Vrang; Poul Christian Petersen; Peter Kristensen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Hypothalamic neuropeptide CART (cocaineamphetamine-regulated transcript) is a leptin-dependent endogenous satiety factor in the rat, and single central injections of recombinant CART(42–89) lowers food intake in rats and mice. To assess the potential role of CART as a long-term regulator of food intake, we investigated the effects of continuous infusion of recombinant CART(42–89) on food consumption and body weight.Research Methods

  6. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  7. Cocaine-Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Acts in the Central Nervous System to Inhibit Gastric Acid Secretion via Brain Corticotropin-Releasing Factor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOSHIKATSU OKUMURA; HIROTO YAMADA; WATARU MOTOMURA; YUTAKA KOHGO

    2000-01-01

    Recent study has indicated that cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic chemical in the brain. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that CART may act in the central nervous system to alter gastric function. Food consumption, gastric acid secretion, and gastric emptying were measured after injection of CART into the cerebrospinal fluid in 24-h fasted Sprague Dawley rats.

  8. IFT 1065 Demonstration 12 1. On distribue une main de poker (5 cartes) tiree d'un jeu normal de 52 cartes (il y a 13

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    distinctes contenant au moins 3 ? b) Combien y a-t-il de mains distinctes contenant au moins 3 cartes de la. Combien de cha^ines de 17 bits contiennent exactement 5 z´eros et d´ebutent ou se ter- minent par 2 z´eros graphe G est dessin´e ci-dessous) : a) G est hamiltonien. b) G est eul´erien. c) G est planaire. d) Cette

  9. Weird Languages (1) For Software Studies

    E-print Network

    Mateas, Michael

    Weird Languages (1) For Software Studies Michael Mateas, michaelm@cc.gatech.edu Programming the interpreters and compilers that implement the language. In the field of weird languages, also known as esoteric. Weird programming languages are not designed for any real-world application or normal educational use

  10. Translators and Interpreters: Professionals or Shoemakers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viaggio, Sergio

    Translators and interpreters are not currently trained as professionals, but taught a "do-as-I-do" system inherited from the medieval guilds. Most are self-made, having acquired technique and applied it to languages already known. However, there is now enough known about mediated interlingual communication to teach translators and interpreters how…

  11. Interpreting Nominal Compounds for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, L. S.; Croft, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of nominal compounds in the context of natural language processing for information retrieval. Knowledge-intensive algorithms that can successfully interpret compounds found in technical documents are described, and experiments are reported that indicate these algorithms may be unnecessary for improving retrieval…

  12. Bounded Functional Interpretation Fernando Ferreira a,1

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Paulo

    Introduction In 1958 Kurt G¨odel presented an interpretation of Heyting Arithmetic HA into a quantifier assignment of formulas. In contrast with G¨odel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation, the new interpre of first-order arithmetic to quantifier-free formulas of the language of T. G¨odel's so-called functional

  13. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

  14. Redirection of genetically engineered CAR-T cells using bifunctional small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soo; Ma, Jennifer S Y; Yun, Hwayoung; Cao, Yu; Kim, Ji Young; Chi, Victor; Wang, Danling; Woods, Ashley; Sherwood, Lance; Caballero, Dawna; Gonzalez, Jose; Schultz, Peter G; Young, Travis S; Kim, Chan Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells (CAR-Ts) provide a potent antitumor response and have become a promising treatment option for cancer. However, despite their efficacy, CAR-T cells are associated with significant safety challenges related to the inability to control their activation and expansion and terminate their response. Herein, we demonstrate that a bifunctional small molecule "switch" consisting of folate conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (folate-FITC) can redirect and regulate FITC-specific CAR-T cell activity toward folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing tumor cells. This system was shown to be highly cytotoxic to FR-positive cells with no activity against FR-negative cells, demonstrating the specificity of redirection by folate-FITC. Anti-FITC-CAR-T cell activation and proliferation was strictly dependent on the presence of both folate-FITC and FR-positive cells and was dose titratable with folate-FITC switch. This novel treatment paradigm may ultimately lead to increased safety for CAR-T cell immunotherapy. PMID:25692571

  15. A car transportation system by multiple mobile robots - iCART

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Endo; Kenji Hirose; Yasuhisa Hirata; Kazuhiro Kosuge; Takashi Kanbayashi; Mitsukazu Oomoto; Kei Akune; Hiroyuki Arai; Hiroyuki Shinoduka; Kouki Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new car transportation system referred to as iCART(intelligent cooperative autonomous robot transporters). This system consists of two robots for the car transportation. Each robot is controlled by using a decentralized control algorithm for transporting the car in coordination. A trajectory for transporting the car is given to one of robots, and another robot estimates

  16. L'UTILISATION DES CARTES PERFORES POUR L'ANALYSE POLLINIQUE DES MIELS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    spectres polliniques. ' I,e système que nous avons étudié est celui des cartes perforables sur toute leur perforations) nous les enregistrons tout d'abord dans un cahier, ce qui permet de leur attribuer un numéro d faire une perforation ronde de 1,5 mm de diamètre au moyen d'un poin- çon. On dispose d'une table de

  17. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  18. A bedside food cart as an alternate food service for acute and palliative oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Pietersma, Patti; Follett-Bick, Sandra; Wilkinson, Brenda; Guebert, Nancy; Fisher, Kim; Pereira, Jose

    2003-09-01

    Patients with advanced cancer experience various problems with eating, and their meals should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Two methods of food service were compared in a shared acute oncology/palliative care unit; an electrical food cart allowing patients to select their food types and portions at the bedside, and a traditional food tray delivery service that relied on meals being prepared in a centralized kitchen and then delivered by tray. Over a 10-day period, lunch meals were delivered by food cart and supper meals via food trays. Twenty-seven out of 32 patients participated in the trial. Patients significantly preferred the food cart to the trays with respect to the timing and appeal of the meal, appropriateness of food types and food portions and the variety of the food choices. A food cart as used in this trial provides a more flexible and appropriate method of food delivery to in-patients in the oncology and palliative unit. Further studies should examine whether this translates to improved caloric intake and quality of life parameters. PMID:12883966

  19. TD-TP Lithosphre Carte reprsente les terrains les plus anciens au contact du basalte

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    TD-TP Lithosphère Carte représente les terrains les plus anciens au contact du basalte #12;Age de la mise en place des basaltes de la croûte océanique. Le trait rouge sombre indique la position donné de la plaque sera donné par l'âge du sédiment les plus ancien au contact du basalte. C'est celui

  20. Mechatronics 2: Part 1 Motorized Winch-and-Cart Copyright 2011 by Paul Oh

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    Mechatronics 2: Part 1 ­ Motorized Winch-and-Cart Copyright 2011 by Paul Oh Hands-on Lab NXT Motor with torque. The net effect is a hands-on lab to appreciate DC motor performance. Many mechatronic systems. The mass can then suspend from the desk. rgm = #12;Mechatronics 2: Part 1 ­ Motorized Winch

  1. Modeler le territoire : les ingnieurs des ponts et leurs usages de la carte

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeler le territoire : les ingénieurs des ponts et leurs usages de la carte (fin xviiie ­ début tout le bien que les mathématiques analytiques ont amené aux élèves ingénieurs des Ponts et Chaussées Ponts et Chaussées. D'un seul coup, ou presque, le fossé avec l'École du génie de Mézières, à la

  2. Connecting your Mobile Shopping Cart to the Internet-of-Things

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Connecting your Mobile Shopping Cart to the Internet-of-Things Nicolas Petitprez, Romain Rouvoy of the Internet-of-Things by adopting the REST architectural style and semantic web standards to navigate product-centered platform lever- aging online shopping. MACCHIATO integrates the principles of the Internet-of-Things hal

  3. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  4. Energy and passivity based control of the double inverted pendulum on a cart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhong; Helmut Rock

    2001-01-01

    The paper considers the design of a nonlinear controller for the double inverted pendulum (DIP), a system consisting of two inverted pendulums mounted on a cart. The swingup controller bringing the pendulums from any initial position to the unstable up-up position is designed based on passivity properties and energy shaping. While the swingup controller drives the DIP into a region

  5. Nouvelles prcisions sur la carte gntique du systme de groupes sanguins B des bovins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    B, recombinaison, carte génétique. Summary Additional data on the genetic map of the B system of cattle blood groups Eleven additional cases of recombination within the B blood group system have been localisation in the map of the system, of the genetic deter- minants of factors PH P2, Ol, E'1, P2, F20, BG2K

  6. Automata for Agent Low Level Language Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frantisek Zboril jr.; Pavel Spacil

    2009-01-01

    Agent platforms are usually strongly bounded with the hardware on which the agent works. Although the FIPA specifications declare what all should be part of such a platform, in some situation the agents are considered to be at bit lower level than the usual artificial agents are. In this text we present architecture of a system that works with an

  7. Liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand in response to liver metastases in mice and inhibit the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CEA CAR-T.

    PubMed

    Burga, Rachel A; Thorn, Mitchell; Point, Gary R; Guha, Prajna; Nguyen, Cang T; Licata, Lauren A; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Ayala, Alfred; Joseph Espat, N; Junghans, Richard P; Katz, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell (CAR-T) technology, a promising immunotherapeutic tool, has not been applied specifically to treat liver metastases (LM). While CAR-T delivery to LM can be optimized by regional intrahepatic infusion, we propose that liver CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (L-MDSC) will inhibit the efficacy of CAR-T in the intrahepatic space. We studied anti-CEA CAR-T in a murine model of CEA+ LM and identified mechanisms through which L-MDSC expand and inhibit CAR-T function. We established CEA+ LM in mice and studied purified L-MDSC and responses to treatment with intrahepatic anti-CEA CAR-T infusions. L-MDSC expanded threefold in response to LM, and their expansion was dependent on GM-CSF, which was produced by tumor cells. L-MDSC utilized PD-L1 to suppress anti-tumor responses through engagement of PD-1 on CAR-T. GM-CSF, in cooperation with STAT3, promoted L-MDSC PD-L1 expression. CAR-T efficacy was rescued when mice received CAR-T in combination with MDSC depletion, GM-CSF neutralization to prevent MDSC expansion, or PD-L1 blockade. As L-MDSC suppressed anti-CEA CAR-T, infusion of anti-CEA CAR-T in tandem with agents targeting L-MDSC is a rational strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:25850344

  8. Implementation of a National Endorsement System for Interpreter Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Marina L.

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project designed to promote higher standards for Sign Language interpreter preparations programs and to provide an opportunity for such programs to engage in self-examination. The project field-tested a set of program standards and a program self-study process with five Sign Language interpreter…

  9. Programming Language Description Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Mosses

    \\u000a Since the middle of the twentieth century, hundreds of programming languages have been designed and implemented – and new\\u000a ones are continually emerging. The syntax of a programming language can usually be described quite precisely and efficiently\\u000a using formal grammars. However, the formal description of its semantics is much more challenging. Language designers, implementers\\u000a and programmers commonly regard formal semantic

  10. Monad transformers and modular interpreters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak; Mark P. Jones

    1995-01-01

    We show how a set of building blocks can be used to construct programming language interpreters, and present implementations of such building blocks capable of supporting many commonly known features, including simple expressions, three different function call mechanisms (call-by-name, call-by-value and lazy evaluation), references and assignment, nondeterminism, first-class continuations, and program tracing.The underlying mechanism of our system is monad transformers,

  11. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  12. A coordinated control algorithm based on the caster-like motion for a car transportation system iCART

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Endo; Kenji Hirose; Yasuhisa Hirata; Kazuhiro Kosuge; Yusuke Sugahara; Kouki Suzuki; Kazunori Murakami; Kenichi Nakamura; Masaki Nakanishi; Takashi Kanbayashi

    2009-01-01

    The car transportation system, which termed as iCART (intelligent cooperative autonomous robot transporters), is developed for handling the car in the narrow space, substituting the parking and unmanning the transportation of cars. iCART is composed of two robots and these robots transport the car in coordination based on a leader-follower type distributed motion control algorithm. To avoid damaging the surface

  13. Region- and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA in rat hypothalamic nuclei induced by forced swim stress

    PubMed Central

    Balkan, Burcu; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O.; Keser, Aysegul; Kuhar, Michael J.; Pogun, Sakire

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that these nuclei regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system activity, and feeding behavior. Our previous studies showed that forced swim stress augmented CART peptide expression significantly in whole hypothalamus of male rats. In another study, forced swim stress increased the number of CART-immunoreactive cells in female PVN, whereas no effect was observed in male PVN or in the ARC nucleus of either sex. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of forced swim stress on CART mRNA expression in PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei in both male and female rats. Twelve male (stressed and controls, n=6 each) and 12 female (stressed and controls, n=6 each) Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Control animals were only handled, whereas forced swim stress procedure was applied to the stressed groups. Brains were dissected and brain sections containing PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei were prepared. CART mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization. In male rats, forced swim stress upregulated CART mRNA expression in DMH and downregulated it in the ARC. In female rats, forced swim stress increased CART mRNA expression in PVN and DMH, whereas a decrease was observed in the ARC nucleus. Our results show that forced swim stress elicits region and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA expression in rat hypothalamus that may help explain some of the effects of stress. PMID:22960117

  14. Common Proper Motion Visual Double Stars in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gavras; D. Sinachopoulos; C. Ducourant; J. L. Lecampion

    2011-01-01

    We present a preliminary version of CPMDS, a new catalogue of Northern common proper motion visual double stars. All these stars are laying in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone +11°<=delta<=+18°. We applied a statistical hypothesis t-test in the proper motions of the components. The proper motions used in our list were adopted from the Bordeaux proper motion catalogue PM2000.

  15. Integrating classification and regression tree (CART) with GIS for assessment of heavy metals pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Cheng; Xiuying Zhang; Ke Wang; Xuelong Dai

    2009-01-01

    The classification and regression tree (CART) model integrated with geographical information systems and the assessment of\\u000a heavy-metals pollution system was developed to assess the heavy metals pollution in Fuyang, Zhejiang, China. The integration\\u000a of the decision tree model with ArcGIS Engine 9 using a COM implementation in Microsoft® Visual Basic 6.0 provided an approach\\u000a for assessing the spatial distribution of

  16. A preliminary passive surveillance of clinical diseases of cart pulling camels in Faisalabad metropolis (Pakistan)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghulam Muhammad; Abdul Jabbar; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Athar; Muhammad Saqib

    2006-01-01

    We identified clinical disorders of all 200 city-dwelling cart pulling male camels attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during a 7-year period (1993–1999). Data were collected prospectively on a predesigned form and collated. Diagnoses of different diseases\\/disorders were based on clinical examination supplemented with relevant laboratory tests. A total of 463 entries of 34 different clinical

  17. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Shaw, J D; Sheppard, M; Harrison, M A

    2009-10-01

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to the plant on carts to be processed. Two plants in the southeastern United States were sampled. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n=25/visit). A 12x12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated using violet red bile glucose agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There was 100% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae at plant A with an average 3.8 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Plant B had 90% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae with an average 3.2 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Two randomly selected isolates from each positive sample were recultured 3 times to increase the likelihood of clonality and were then identified biochemically. Of the 124 isolates analyzed, genera identified were Citrobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Hafnia spp., Kluyvera spp., Leclercia spp., and Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp. was the only non-Enterobacteriaceae identified by our methods. This work demonstrates that nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:19762864

  18. GENE POOL -El joc de cartes de l'ADN per Mark Goadrich

    E-print Network

    Goadrich, Mark

    GENE POOL - El joc de cartes de l'ADN per Mark Goadrich http://games.goadrich.com Instruccions 2 bases de la vostra mà, per modificar i reordenar una seqüència d'ADN comuna. Només vosaltres coneixeu) i només la fareu pública quan hagueu aconseguit la seqüència d'ADN correcta. Durant el joc anireu

  19. Argumentation: The Language of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, the role of language in the science curriculum has become prominent in science education literature. From a constructivist perspective, language mediates social interaction and meaning is constructed as learners interpret and reinterpret events through the lens of prior knowledge. This perspective applied to the science…

  20. Design of the CART data system for the US Department of Energy's ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Campbell, A.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Edwards, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Kanciruk, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Tichler, J.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a major atmospheric research effort to reduce the uncertainties found in general circulation and other models due to the effects of clouds and radiation. The objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and testing parameterizations of the processes for use in atmospheric models. This experimental testbed, known as the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART), will include a complex data system, the CART Data Environment (CDE). The major functions of the CDE will be to: acquire environments from instruments and external data sources; perform quality assessments of the data streams; create data streams of known quality to be used as model input compared to model output; execute the models and capture their predictions; and make data streams associated with model tests available to ARM investigators in near real-time. The CDE will also be expected to capture ancillary information ( meta-data'') associated with the data streams, provide data management facilities for design of ARM experiments, and provide for archival data storage. The first section of this paper presents background information on CART. Next the process for the functional design of the system is described, the functional requirements summarized, and the conceptual architecture of the CDE is presented. Finally, the status of the CDE design activities is summarized, and major technical challenges are discussed.

  1. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis of Endometrial Carcinoma: Seeing the Forest for the Trees

    PubMed Central

    Barlin, Joyce N.; Zhou, Qin; St. Clair, Caryn M.; Iasonos, Alexia; Soslow, Robert A.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Hensley, Martee L.; Leitao, Mario M.; Barakat, Richard R.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate which clinicopathologic factors influenced overall survival (OS) in endometrial carcinoma and to determine if the surgical effort to assess para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LNs) at initial staging surgery impacts OS. Methods All patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer from 1/1993-12/2011 who had LNs excised were included. PALN assessment was defined by the identification of one or more PALNs on final pathology. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess the effect of PALNs on OS. A form of recursive partitioning called classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was implemented. Variables included: age, stage, tumor subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, total LNs removed, evaluation of PALNs, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results The cohort included 1920 patients, with a median age of 62 years. The median number of LNs removed was 16 (range, 1-99). The removal of PALNs was not associated with OS (P=0.450). Using the CART hierarchically, stage I vs. stages II-IV and grade 1-2 vs. grade 3 emerged as predictors of OS. If the tree was allowed to grow, further branching was based on age and myometrial invasion. Total number of LNs removed and assessment of PALNs as defined in this study were not predictive of OS. Conclusion This innovative CART analysis emphasized the importance of proper stage assignment and a binary grading system in impacting OS. Notably, the total number of LNs removed and specific evaluation of PALNs as defined in this study were not important predictors of OS. PMID:23774300

  2. Maturational Constraints and First Language Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the…

  3. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

  4. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  5. Growth of Internet Use by Language Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidelman, Carolyn G.

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a survey showing increased use of the Internet by language professionals (e.g., language teachers, translators, interpreters). Results of the survey show a qualitative improvement in the Internet for information retrieval, teaching, and idea exchange. If K-12 foreign-language teachers receive appropriate equipment and training,…

  6. The Psychology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjeldergaard, Paul M.

    1961-01-01

    This review of professional literature on the psychology of language summarizes and interprets selected books and articles published during the period 1957-60. The literature, selected on the basis of importance and applicability to education, is considered under the following headings: theories, research techniques, verbal learning, and…

  7. Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Alejandro; Hanson, William E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature in the area of language brokering. Language brokers are children of immigrant families who translate and interpret for their parents and other individuals. Results suggest that language brokers possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for their role as the family's translator and interpreter

  8. Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    2003-01-01

    Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

  9. Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian-White Relations on the Early American Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawashima, Yasuhide

    1989-01-01

    Argues that, while interpreters of American Indian languages in French territories served merely as translators of language, interpreters in British North America were often field representatives of the colonies, serving as messengers and diplomatic agents to Indian tribes. Includes many anecdotes about Indian and White interpreters. Contains 35…

  10. Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters’ Roles and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. PMID:22857777

  11. The interpretation of disjunction in universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Child and adult speakers of English have different ideas of what 'or' means in ordinary statements of the form 'A or B'. Even more far-reaching differences between children and adults are found in other languages. This tells us that young children do not learn what 'or' means by watching how adults use 'or'. An alternative is to suppose that children draw upon a priori knowledge of the meaning of 'or'. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that all languages adopt the same meaning of 'or' in certain structures. For example, statements of the form 'not S[A or B]' have the same meanings in all languages, and disjunctive statements receive a uniform interpretation in sentences that contain certain focus expressions, such as English 'only'. These observations are relevant for the long-standing "nature versus nurture" controversy. A linguistic property that (a) emerges in child language without decisive evidence from experience, and (b) is common to all human languages, is a likely candidate for innate specification. Experience matters, of course. As child speakers grow up, they eventually learn to use 'or' in the same way as adults do. But, based on findings from child language and cross-linguistic research, it looks like certain aspects of language, including the interpretation of disjunction, are part of the human genome. PMID:18561548

  12. An Avatar-based Interface for the Italian Sign Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Lombardo; Cristina Battaglino; Rossana Damiano; Fabrizio Nunnari

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a virtual interpreter of the Italian sign language (Italian Sign Language, LIS). developed as part of the on-going ATLAS project, on the automatic translation from Italian to Italian Sign Language. The translation system communicates with the user through a virtual signer: the system takes as input a formal representation of a sign language sentence and

  13. Virologic and Immunologic Response to cART by HIV-1 Subtype in the CASCADE Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Bucher, Heiner C.; Zangerle, Robert; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Kucherer, Claudia; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare rates of virologic response and CD4 changes after combination antiretroviral (cART) initiation in individuals infected with B and specific non-B HIV subtypes. Methods Using CASCADE data we analyzed HIV-RNA and CD4 counts for persons infected ?1996, ?15 years of age. We used survival and longitudinal modeling to estimate probabilities of virologic response (confirmed HIV-RNA <500 c/ml), and failure (HIV-RNA>500 c/ml at 6 months or ?1000 c/ml following response) and CD4 increase after cART initiation. Results 2003 (1706 B, 142 CRF02_AG, 55 A, 53 C, 47 CRF01_AE) seroconverters were included in analysis. There was no evidence of subtype effect overall for response or failure (p?=?0.075 and 0.317, respectively) although there was a suggestion that those infected with subtypes CRF01_AE and A responded sooner than those with subtype B infection [HR (95% CI):1.37 (1.01–1.86) and 1.29 (0.96–1.72), respectively]. Rates of CD4 increase were similar in all subtypes except subtype A, which tended to have lower initial, but faster long-term, increases. Conclusions Virologic and immunologic response to cART was similar across all studied subtypes but statistical power was limited by the rarity of some non-B subtypes. Current antiretroviral agents seem to have similar efficacy in subtype B and most widely encountered non-B infections in high-income countries. PMID:23936260

  14. Common Proper Motion Visual Double Stars in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavras, P.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Ducourant, C.; Lecampion, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    We present a preliminary version of CPMDS, a new catalogue of Northern common proper motion visual double stars. All these stars are laying in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone +11°<=?<=+18°. We applied a statistical hypothesis t-test in the proper motions of the components. The proper motions used in our list were adopted from the Bordeaux proper motion catalogue PM2000. We detected 2831 new common proper motion double stars covering about 6% of the sky. This new catalogue is a large contribution to the small list of known common proper motion double stars.

  15. Some Reflections on Task-Based Language Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems in task-based language assessment, including the definition and sampling of tasks, generalizations across tasks, interpretations about broad ability and language use domains, and the notion of task difficulty. (Author/VWL)

  16. The role of interpreters in inclusive classrooms.

    PubMed

    Antia, S D; Kreimeyer, K H

    2001-10-01

    The roles of interpreters in an inclusive classroom were examined through a qualitative, 3-year case study of three interpreters in an inclusive school. Interviews were conducted with interpreters, classroom teachers, special education teachers, and administrators. The interview data were supplemented with observations and field notes. Results indicate that in addition to sign interpreting between American Sign Language and speech, the interpreters clarified teacher directions, facilitated peer interaction, tutored the deaf children, and kept the teachers and special educators informed of the deaf children's progress. The interpreter/aides and the classroom teachers preferred this full-participant interpreter role, while the special educators and administrators preferred a translator role. Classroom teachers were more comfortable with full-time interpreters who knew the classroom routine, while the special educators and administrators feared that full-time interpreters fostered child and teacher dependence. These issues are discussed in terms of congruence with the Registry of Interpreters code of ethics and how integration of young children might be best facilitated. PMID:11816860

  17. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  18. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  19. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

  20. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

  1. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  2. Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased…

  3. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    PubMed Central

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  4. A new approach to the reduction of ``Carte du Ciel'' plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Hiesgen, M.; Brosche, P.

    1998-03-01

    A new procedure for the reduction of ``Carte du Ciel'' plates is presented. A typical ``Carte du Ciel'' plate corresponding to the Bordeaux zone has been taken as an example. It shows triple exposures for each object and the modeling of the data has been performed by means of a non-linear least squares fitting of the sum of three bivariate Gaussian distributions. A number of solutions for the problems present in this kind of plates (optical aberrations, adjacency photographic effects, presence of grid lines, emulsion saturation) have been investigated. An internal accuracy of 0farcs 1 in x and y was obtained for the position of each of the individual exposures. The external reduction to a catalogue led to results with an accuracy of 0farcs 16 in x and 0farcs 13 in y for the mean position of the three exposures. A photometric calibration has also been performed and magnitudes were determined with an accuracy of 0.09 m.

  5. Evaluation of alternative model selection criteria in the analysis of unimodal response curves using CART

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Miller, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated CART performance with a unimodal response curve for one continuous response and four continuous explanatory variables, where two variables were important (ie directly related to the response) and the other two were not. We explored performance under three relationship strengths and two explanatory variable conditions: equal importance and one variable four times as important as the other. We compared CART variable selection performance using three tree-selection rules ('minimum risk', 'minimum risk complexity', 'one standard error') to stepwise polynomial ordinary least squares (OLS) under four sample size conditions. The one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity methods performed about as well as stepwise OLS with large sample sizes when the relationship was strong. With weaker relationships, equally important explanatory variables and larger sample sizes, the one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity rules performed better than stepwise OLS. With weaker relationships and explanatory variables of unequal importance, tree-structured methods did not perform as well as stepwise OLS. Comparing performance within tree-structured methods, with a strong relationship and equally important explanatory variables, the one-standard-error-rule was more likely to choose the correct model than were the other tree-selection rules 1) with weaker relationships and equally important explanatory variables; and 2) under all relationship strengths when explanatory variables were of unequal importance and sample sizes were lower.

  6. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  7. A Functional Schematic Interpreter: an environment for Model Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Addis; J. J. Townsend Addis

    1998-01-01

    There are two major reasons for the value of a functional schematic interpreter as a new programming language for constructing models. These reasons are the capacity of a functional language to express knowledge that has a formal representation on a computer and the rich informal semantics that can be attached to a set of diagrams (a schema). It is this

  8. 34 CFR 300.34 - Related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...sign language transliteration and interpreting services, and transcription services, such as communication access real-time translation (CART), C-Print, and TypeWell; and (ii) Special interpreting services for children who are...

  9. 34 CFR 300.34 - Related services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...sign language transliteration and interpreting services, and transcription services, such as communication access real-time translation (CART), C-Print, and TypeWell; and (ii) Special interpreting services for children who are...

  10. Whale Cart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aquarium of the Pacific

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners interact with whale artifacts such as replicas of skulls, bones, teeth, and baleen (hair-like plates that form a feeding filter). Guiding questions help learners differentiate between toothed whales and baleen whales, including what they eat, how they breathe, and how humans are connected to them. Background information is provided about many of the details of how whales survive, including hunting and pollution problems caused by humans ("Save the whales!"). This activity is written to be used in a museum or aquarium, but could be used for general background information about whales, or in conjunction with a field trip.

  11. Shark Cart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aquarium of the Pacific

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners touch and observe skulls of sharks and rays to learn about their diversity (over 400 species of sharks alone!). Background information is provided about the types and functions of shark teeth. Additional information is provided about specific types of sharks: Great White, Bull Shark, Mako Shark, Zebra Shark, and Rays. The goal of the activity is to make sharks better understood and appreciated.

  12. Advanced LanguageLanguageLanguageLanguage TechnologiesTechnologiesTechnologiesTechnologies

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, Toma?

    ((statistical Natural Language Processingstatistical Natural Language Processing)) #12;3 Characteristics of a1 Advanced LanguageLanguageLanguageLanguage Technologies · History · Slovene language corpora #12;2 A corpusA corpus isis:: a large collection of textsa large

  13. Symbols and Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Drouhard; Anne R. Teppo

    Algebraic symbols are investigated from both a linguistic and a semiotic perspective. In the first part of the chapter, a\\u000a theoretical framework is presented based on Frege’s notions of sense and denotation and language aspects of the algebraic symbol system that affect how individuals read collections of symbols are discussed. The chapter then focuses on the interpretative nature of assigning

  14. Le Haut-Jura en hiver. Cartes postales et construction de Utinam (4), 2000, p. 166-201

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -201 avec J. ­C. Sevin "N'est-ce pas leur bêtise propre que de photographier la terre ? Cela leur vient de découverte. Ils se sont mis alors à photographier leur pays..." Dialogues entre deux Nyangatom, (cité par S'un mouvement de reconnaissance des régions et "pays"5 qu'accompagne l'essor de l'activité touristique. La carte

  15. Biomechanical and psychophysical evaluation of using a two-wheel cart to transport loads over a curb

    E-print Network

    King, Rebecca Lynn

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a standard two-wheel cart to transport loads over a curb. This was done through biomechanical (static and dynamic) and psychophysical evaluations of industrial males. The biomechanical study (n=4...

  16. Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchor, Rosemary Laura

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

  17. Shared Brokering: The Development of a Nurse\\/Interpreter Partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Labun

    1999-01-01

    In North America, health care providers are facing an increasingly complex health care system with an increasingly culturally diverse client population. Therefore, it is imperative that care providers are able to work with interpreters who are able to interpret both language and culture. A grounded theory study of nurses' experiences (N = 27) in working with Vietnamese clients provided evidence

  18. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  19. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/?L and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ?500/?L), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ?500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/?L at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  20. Language Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulay, Heidi; And Others

    In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

  1. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  2. Stabilization of an inverted pendulum-cart system by fractional PI-state feedback.

    PubMed

    Bettayeb, M; Boussalem, C; Mansouri, R; Al-Saggaf, U M

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with pole placement PI-state feedback controller design to control an integer order system. The fractional aspect of the control law is introduced by a dynamic state feedback as u(t)=K(p)x(t)+K(I)I(?)(x(t)). The closed loop characteristic polynomial is thus fractional for which the roots are complex to calculate. The proposed method allows us to decompose this polynomial into a first order fractional polynomial and an integer order polynomial of order n-1 (n being the order of the integer system). This new stabilization control algorithm is applied for an inverted pendulum-cart test-bed, and the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control are examined by experiments. PMID:24315056

  3. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (? 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  4. Usability evaluation of mobile medical treatment carts: another explanation by information engineers.

    PubMed

    Chien, Tsan-Nan; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Ying-Pei; Chen, Sao-Jie; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare services integration is a critical task as it attempts to reform the user practices. In response to the request of facilities upgrade, we perform a usability evaluation of the mobile medical treatment carts (MMTC) installed in the Emergency Medicine Department of our healthcare enterprise. A survey conducted in August 2006 identified that our experimental area needs some improvements to support the MMTC adoption. For example, the MMTC can accompany with several popular nursing care items. Follow-up several undertaken investigations indicated that our expectation of the MMTC solution had been reached. Given the evident heterogeneity of viewpoints, it is imperative for a healthcare enterprise to broadly ascertain the requirements of end users before investing in any information technologies. PMID:20852921

  5. The Linguistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Ishikawa, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    About twenty years ago, we proposed the mathematical formulation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and further, we concluded that Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and EPR-paradox are not contradictory. This is true, however we now think that we should have argued about it under a certain firm interpretation of quantum mechanics. Recently we proposed the linguistic quantum interpretation (called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as a kind of metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical systems but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., the philosophy of quantum mechanics, in other words, quantum philosophy). In fact, we can consider that traditional philosophies have progressed toward quantum philosophy. In this paper, we first review the linguistic quantum interpretation, and further, clarify the relation between EPR-paradox and Heisenberg's uncertainty...

  6. Development of Sentence Interpretation Strategies by Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thal, Donna J.; Flores, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Examined use of word order and animacy for interpretation of sentences by typically-developing and language delayed children. Results indicate that typically-developing 2-year-olds use neither cue consistently to interpret sentences; typically-developing 2.5-year-olds used a coalition of word order and animacy cues; and language-delayed…

  7. Assessment and improvement of the 2D/1D method stability in DeCART

    SciTech Connect

    Stimpson, S.; Young, M.; Collins, B.; Kelley, B.; Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of ongoing work with Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the 2D/1D code, DeCART, has demonstrated some of the advantages of the 2D/1D method with respect to realistic, full-core analysis, particularly over explicit 3D transport methods, which generally have higher memory and computation requirements. The 2D/1D method performs 2D-radial transport sweeps coupled with ID-axial diffusion calculations to provide a full 3D simulation. DeCART employs the 2D method of characteristics for the radial sweeps and ID one-node nodal diffusion for the axial sweeps, coupling the two methods with transverse leakages to ensure a more consistent representation of the transport equation. It has been observed that refinement of the axial plane thickness leads to instabilities in the calculation scheme. This work assesses the sources of these instabilities and the approaches to improve them, especially with respect to negative scattering cross sections and the tightness of the 2D-radial/ID-axial coupling schemes. Fourier analyses show that the existing iteration scheme is not unconditionally stable, suggesting a tighter coupling scheme is required. For this reason 3D-CMFD has been implemented, among other developments, to ensure more stable calculation. A matrix of test cases has been used to assess the convergence, with the primary parameter being the axial plane thickness, which has been refined down to 1 cm. These cases demonstrate the issues observed and how the modification improve the stability. However, it is apparent that more work is necessary to ensure unconditional stability. (authors)

  8. Language Ideology and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    An examination of the language-related educational policies of South Asia, and particularly of India, finds that language policies among colonial administrators and the native elite for over a century has left a deep imprint on contemporary language ideologies of different nations. The discussion begins with a look at the Indian dual education…

  9. Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

  10. Culture and Language: The Black American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William S.; Freedle, Roy O.

    The express focus of this book is primarily on black American language. However, it is asserted, a comprehensive interpretation of this language requires an understanding of its social and cultural context. This book reviews the various ways in which the black experience in the United States has been treated in social science. It points out a…

  11. STRUCTURE PLUS MEANING EQUALS LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELASCO, SIMON

    TRUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CAN BE ACHIEVED ONLY BY THE INTERNALIZATION OF THE ENTIRE GRAMMAR OF THE TARGET LANGUAGE PLUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. ADHERENCE TO EITHER OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT UNDERLIE TODAY'S AUDIOLINGUALLY-ORIENTED PROGRAMS WILL LEAD STUDENTS TO NOTHING MORE THAN A LEARNING PLATEAU.…

  12. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  13. Ontology Language Integration: A Constructive Approach

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    even more impor- tant than in other information systems. In this context the "semantic web" [Berners-Lee Berners-Lee, the semantic web requires a set of languages of in- creasing expressiveness and anyone can to interpret the knowledge acquired through the semantic web. 2 Language Construction In the words of Tim

  14. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  15. Scheme: an interpreter for extended lambda calculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Sussman; G. L. Steele

    1975-01-01

    Abstract. Inspired by ACTORS [7, 17], we have implemented an interpreter for a LISP-like language, SCHEME, based on the lambda calculus [2], but extended for side effects, multiprocessing, and process synchronization. The purpose of this implementation,is tutorial. We wish to: 1. alleviate the confusion caused by Micro-PLANNER, CONNIVER, etc., by clarifying the embedding of non-recursive control structures in a recursive

  16. Matching the Oral and Written Language Skills of Bilingual Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Therese; Burns, Bobby C.

    1994-01-01

    Bilingual students who choose to study their native language in school have unique needs. Once they have been identified and placed in a special class for native speakers, these children must learn to match their familiar verbal language with the less familiar written language. By becoming translators and interpreters for the school, writing for…

  17. Toward a Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a sociocognitive perspective on second language acquisition, proposed as an alternative to the cognitivism pervading the field. Describes the cognitive nature of language and its acquisition, focusing on recent developments in connectionism. Introduces sociocognitive views of language and posits a social interpretation of connectionism…

  18. Understanding Neural Computation in Terms of Pattern Languages Pter Andrs

    E-print Network

    Andras, Peter

    Understanding Neural Computation in Terms of Pattern Languages Péter András School of Computing of activity patterns. Recently the pattern languages were proposed as an interpretation and analysis tool of the neural system, and how neural information processing may be done in terms of pattern languages. I

  19. Language and Literacy Development in Prelingually-Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to address the issue of language development in hearing impaired children. It argues that interpreters, teachers or peers can provide deaf children with language exposure so that they can acquire their native languages more easily. It also argues that the provision of a developmentally appropriate print-rich environments is the…

  20. EVALUATING THE CHILD'S LANGUAGE COMPETENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIMA, URSULA BELLUGI

    LANGUAGE ABILITY IS ESSENTIAL TO A CHILD'S SUCCESS IN SCHOOL, AND THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF COMMUNICATION IS THE CHILD'S ABILITY TO PUT WORDS TOGETHER IN MEANINGFUL PATTERNS. THE ABILITY OF ADULTS TO GIVE AN INTERPRETATION TO NONSENSE LIKE "JABBERWOCKY" DEPENDS ON THE SYNTACTIC CUES GIVEN BY RELATIONAL WORDS AND WORD ORDER. IN ORDER TO FIND OUT…

  1. Database semantics for natural language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Hausser

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a formal 'fragment' of database semantics as a declarative model of a cognitive agent. It is called a SLIM machine and functionally integrates the procedures of natural language interpretation, conceptualization, and production as well as query and inference. Each of these functions is illustrated explicitly by a corresponding LA-grammar. In addition, a control structure based on the

  2. Figurative Language

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Devitry

    2010-03-12

    Writers use figurative language to create images in the minds of readers. Explore the following information and complete the activities to master the art of figurative language! Figurative Language contains images created by comparing unlike items to make things clear to the reader or listener. It is not meant to be taken literally. If I say my pillow is a fluffy cloud, I'm comparing my pillow to a cloud, but it's ...

  3. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  4. Patient Satisfaction with Different Interpreting Methods: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Jennifer; Shapiro, Ephraim; Abramson, David; Motola, Ivette; Shield, David C.; Changrani, Jyotsna

    2007-01-01

    Background Growth of the foreign-born population in the U.S. has led to increasing numbers of limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients. Innovative medical interpreting strategies, including remote simultaneous medical interpreting (RSMI), have arisen to address the language barrier. This study evaluates the impact of interpreting method on patient satisfaction. Methods 1,276 English-, Spanish-, Mandarin-, and Cantonese-speaking patients attending the primary care clinic and emergency department of a large New York City municipal hospital were screened for enrollment in a randomized controlled trial. Language-discordant patients were randomized to RSMI or usual and customary (U&C) interpreting. Patients with language-concordant providers received usual care. Demographic and patient satisfaction questionnaires were administered to all participants. Results 541 patients were language-concordant with their providers and not randomized; 371 were randomized to RSMI, 167 of whom were exposed to RSMI; and 364 were randomized to U&C, 198 of whom were exposed to U&C. Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely than those with U&C to think doctors treated them with respect (RSMI 71%, U&C 64%, p?interpreting method protected their privacy (RSMI 51%, U&C 38%, p?interpretation reported less comprehension and satisfaction than patients in language-concordant encounters. Conclusions While not a substitute for language-concordant providers, RSMI can improve patient satisfaction and privacy among LEP patients. Implementing RSMI should be considered an important component of a multipronged approach to addressing language barriers in health care. PMID:17957417

  5. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. PMID:25526839

  6. Analyzing Stores and References in a Parallel Symbolic Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Jagannathan

    1994-01-01

    We describe an analysis of a parallel language in which processescommunicate via first-class mutable shared locations.The sequential core of the language defines a higher-orderstrict functional language with list data structures. The parallelextensions permit processes and shared locations to bedynamically created; synchronization among processes occursexclusively via shared locations.The analysis is defined by an abstract interpretation on thislanguage. The interpretation is efficient

  7. Towards Modular Interpretive Decompilation of Low-Level Code to Prolog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Gomez-Zamalloa; Elvira Albert; German Puebla

    2009-01-01

    Decompiling low-level code to a high-level intermediate representation facilitates the development of an- alyzers, model checkers, etc. which reason about properties of the low-level code (e.g., bytecode, .NET). Interpretive decompilation consists in partially evaluating an interpreter for the low-level language (writ- ten in the high-level language) w.r.t. the code to be decompiled. There have been proofs-of-concept that interpretive decompilation is

  8. BBC: Languages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Learning Zone of BBC Education Online (first discussed in the {May 5, 1995 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1995/scout-950505.html}) offers an excellent resource for learning languages online. The multimedia BBC Education - Languages site provides an interactive learning experience, combining audio clips, video clips, Shockwave games, transcripts, and glossaries for beginning and intermediate level autodidacts studying French, German, Italian, or Spanish. The site also includes a collection of annotated language learning links and an online brochure listing resources that support BBC language learning programs. Users running Windows 95 may download a variety of multimedia lessons (self-extracting executables) for French, German, and Spanish.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  10. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2014-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  11. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  12. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  13. Generic command interpreter for robot controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, J.

    1991-04-09

    Generic command interpreter programs have been written for robot controllers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Each interpreter program resides on a robot controller and interfaces the controller with a supervisory program on another (host) computer. We call these interpreter programs monitors because they wait, monitoring a communication line, for commands from the supervisory program. These monitors are designed to interface with the object-oriented software structure of the supervisory programs. The functions of the monitor programs are written in each robot controller's native language but reflect the object-oriented functions of the supervisory programs. These functions and other specifics of the monitor programs written for three different robots at SNL will be discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  14. STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Law Enforcement Journalism/Broadcasting FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Federal government organizations including: Overseas aid agencies Intelligence and law enforcement agencies: Federal Bureau of Investigation Central Intelligence Agency Drug Enforcement Administration Department of State Homeland Security

  15. Culture, Language, and Literacy: The Effects of Child Brokering on Language Minority Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Lucy; McQuillan, Jeff

    Three studies of language brokering among linguistic minority (LM) children are reviewed and discussed. In child language brokering, children act as linguistic mediators, not translators or interpreters, for their limited-English-proficient parents and relatives. The purpose of the studies was to describe brokering in LM communities and to examine…

  16. Approaches to Language Testing. Advances in Language Testing Series: 2. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This volume, one in a series on modern language testing, collects four essays dealing with current approaches to lanquage testing. The introduction traces the development of language testing theory and examines the role of linguistics in this area. "The Psycholinguistic Basis," by E. Ingram, discusses some interpretations of the term…

  17. Double Trouble, and Three Is a Crowd: Languages in Education and Official Languages in Vanuatu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the official system of trilingualism and the dual-language education system in Vanuatu, suggesting that these place enormous strains on Vanuatu's infrastructure. Appropriate multilingual development for the future requires that fundamental issues of constitutional interpretation and definition of language policy be resolved. (Author/VWL)

  18. The Potsdam plates of the Carte du Ciel project: I. Present inventory and plate catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, K.; Tsvetkov, M.; Böhm, P.; Steinmetz, M.; Dick, W. R.

    2009-10-01

    We present an inventory of the Carte du Ciel (CdC) plates stored in the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam. The Potsdam CdC zone (+32° to +39°) was divided into 1232 areas and about 2200 plates from the first and second epochs were obtained within the framework of the CdC project. At present, only 977 plates (45% of all) are stored in AIP, the others got lost during the Second World War. The plates for the first epoch measurements had been obtained during the period 1893 May-1900 February. The plates for the second epoch (1913 August-1924 February) can be separated into two time intervals according to the observer and the observing method used: from 1913 August till 1914 July, and from 1916 February to 1924 February. The present work aims to provide online access to the plate information, given in the plate catalogue and is the first step to online access to the plate images digitized with flatbed scanners.

  19. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six-months beginning on July 1, 1993, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides a planning focus for the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the current plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six-months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Equilibrium cycle pin by pin transport depletion calculations with DeCART

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, B.; Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Taiwo, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has matured it has become more important to utilize more advanced simulation methods. The work reported here was performed as part of the AFCI fellowship program to develop and demonstrate the capability of performing high fidelity equilibrium cycle calculations. As part of the work here, a new multi-cycle analysis capability was implemented in the DeCART code which included modifying the depletion modules to perform nuclide decay calculations, implementing an assembly shuffling pattern description, and modifying iteration schemes. During the work, stability issues were uncovered with respect to converging simultaneously the neutron flux, isotopics, and fluid density and temperature distributions in 3-D. Relaxation factors were implemented which considerably improved the stability of the convergence. To demonstrate the capability two core designs were utilized, a reference UOX core and a CORAIL core. Full core equilibrium cycle calculations were performed on both cores and the discharge isotopics were compared. From this comparison it was noted that the improved modeling capability was not drastically different in its prediction of the discharge isotopics when compared to 2-D single assembly or 2-D core models. For fissile isotopes such as U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 the relative differences were 1.91%, 1.88%, and 0.59%), respectively. While this difference may not seem large it translates to mass differences on the order of tens of grams per assembly, which may be significant for the purposes of accounting of special nuclear material. (authors)

  2. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  4. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  5. 'À la carte' peptide shuttles: tools to increase their passage across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Guixer, Bernat; Arranz-Gibert, Pol; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest

    2014-07-01

    Noninvasive methods for efficient drug delivery to the brain is an unmet need. Molecular access to the brain is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) established by the endothelial cells of brain vessels. Passive diffusion is one of the main mechanisms that organic compounds use to travel through these endothelial cells. This passage across the BBB is determined mainly by certain physicochemical properties of the molecule such as lipophilicity, size, and the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. One emerging strategy to facilitate the passage of organic compounds across the BBB is the use of peptide shuttles.1 In using this approach the permeability in front the BBB is, clearly, determined by the combined physicochemical properties of both the cargo and the shuttle. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of variations of one of the more efficient peptide shuttles, (N-MePhe)n . These include diverse structural features such as various backbone stereochemistries or the presence of non-natural amino acids, including halogenated residues. In several cases, we assessed the BBB permeability of both the shuttles alone and linked to a few cargos. Our results show how factors such as stereochemistry or halogen content influences the passage across the BBB and, more importantly, opens the way to a strategy of peptide shuttles 'à la carte', in which a particular fine-tuned shuttle is used for each specific cargo. PMID:24665021

  6. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  7. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  8. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  9. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  10. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  11. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  12. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  13. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  14. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language…

  15. Co-activation of syntax in bilingual language production.

    PubMed

    Hatzidaki, Anna; Branigan, Holly P; Pickering, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    We report four experiments that examined whether bilinguals' production of one language is affected by the syntactic properties of their other language. Greek-English and English-Greek highly proficient fluent bilinguals produced sentence completions following subject nouns whose translation had either the same or different number. We manipulated whether participants produced completions in the same language as the subject (the source language; one-language production) or the other language (the non-source language; two-language production), and whether they used only one language or both languages within the experimental session. The results demonstrated that the grammar systems of both languages were activated during both one-language and two-language production. The effects of the non-source language were particularly enhanced in two-language utterances, when both languages were used in the experiment, and when it was the bilinguals' native language. We interpret our results in terms of a model of bilingual sentence production. PMID:21093856

  16. Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives CD4 cell count and plasma viral load are well known predictors of AIDS and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This study investigated, in patients treated for at least 3 years, the respective prognostic importance of values measured at cART initiation, and 6 and 36 months later, for AIDS and death. Methods Patients from 15 HIV cohorts included in the ART Cohort Collaboration, aged at least 16 years, antiretroviral-naive when they started cART and followed for at least 36 months after start of cART were eligible. Results Among 14 208 patients, the median CD4 cell counts at 0, 6 and 36 months were 210, 320 and 450 cells/µl, respectively, and 78% of patients achieved viral load less than 500 copies/ml at 6 months. In models adjusted for characteristics at cART initiation and for values at all time points, values at 36 months were the strongest predictors of subsequent rates of AIDS and death. Although CD4 cell count and viral load at cART initiation were no longer prognostic of AIDS or of death after 36 months, viral load at 6 months and change in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months were prognostic for rates of AIDS from 36 months. Conclusions Although current values of CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA are the most important prognostic factors for subsequent AIDS and death rates in HIV-1-infected patients treated with cART, changes in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months and the value of 6-month HIV-1 RNA are also prognostic for AIDS. PMID:19779320

  17. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  18. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  19. A Reduction Model For Parallel Interpretation Of Logic Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Wang

    1987-04-01

    Applicative models of computation based on applicative languages have, in recent years, received considerable attention as an attractive alternative to the Von Neumann model. Prolog is a high level applicative language. Its execution is conceptually an AND-OR tree search based on resolution proof procedure. This paper presents a reduction model for parallel interpretation of applicative languages such as Prolog, LISP. Reduction semantics of logic programs is analysed. A new classification of proposed models for parallel execution of logic programs is also given.

  20. Programs for Training Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. programs for training interpreters for individuals with deafness. Schools are listed by state and include director and degree information. (Author/CR)

  1. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  2. 77 FR 43567 - Medical Area Body Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...08-59; FCC 12-54] Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications...issues related to the designation of Medical Body Area Network (``MBAN'') coordinator...accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by...

  3. Working Effectively with Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellitti, Anarella

    2010-01-01

    The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, so early childhood educators are often among the first to work with families whose primary languages are other than English. Many parents, guardians, and family members do speak English but not fluently enough to feel comfortable communicating with teachers or administrators. When educators and…

  4. Image Interpretation General Information

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    and GIS Lab · Statistik und Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung · Thematische Kartografie ! · Language: English · students are expected to take notes where required Useful books · one copy is available at IGP, but cannot be taken away · it may be a good idea to own at least one of these full text online! #12;General

  5. Image Interpretation General Information

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    and GIS Lab · Statistik und Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung · Thematische Kartografie · Language: English · students are expected to take notes where required Useful books · one copy is available at IGP, but cannot be taken away · it may be a good idea to own at least one of these full text online! #12;General

  6. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  7. T-Cell Phenotypes, Apoptosis and Inflammation in HIV+ Patients on Virologically Effective cART with Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Suardi, Elisa; Barassi, Alessandra; Cerrone, Maddalena; Martínez, Javier Sánchez; Bai, Francesca; D’Eril, Gian Vico Melzi; Monforte, Antonella D’Arminio; Marchetti, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the potential relationship between T-cell phenotype, inflammation, endotoxemia, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a cohort of HIV-positive patients undergoing long-term virologically suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Design We studied 163 patients receiving virologically suppressive cART. Methods We measured IMT (carotid ultrasound); CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38, CD45R0), differentiation (CD127), apoptosis (CD95), and senescence (CD28, CD57) (flow cytometry); plasma sCD14, IL-6, TNF- ?, sVCAM-1, hs-CRP, anti-CMV IgG (ELISA); LPS (LAL). The results were compared by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests, and factors associated with IMT were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients, 112 demonstrated normal IMT (nIMT), whereas 51 (31.3%) had pathological IMT (pIMT: ?1 mm). Of the patients with pIMT, 22 demonstrated an increased IMT (iIMT), and 29 were shown to have plaques. These patient groups had comparable nadir and current CD4+, VLs and total length of time on cART. Despite similar proportions of CD38-expressing CD8+ cells (p?=?.95), pIMT patients exhibited higher activated memory CD8+CD38+CD45R0+ cells (p?=?.038) and apoptotic CD4+CD95+ (p?=?.01) and CD8+CD95+ cells (p?=?.003). In comparison to nIMT patients, iIMT patients tended to have lower numbers of early differentiated CD28+CD57? memory CD4+ (p?=?.048) and CD28–CD57?CD8+ cells (p?=?.006), both of which are associated with a higher proliferative potential. Despite no differences in plasma LPS levels, pIMT patients showed significantly higher circulating levels of sCD14 than did nIMT patients (p?=?.046). No differences in anti-CMV IgG was shown. Although circulating levels of sCD14 seemed to be associated with a risk of ATS in an unadjusted analysis, this effect was lost after adjusting for classical cardiovascular predictors. Conclusions Despite the provision of full viral suppression by cART, a hyperactivated, pro-apoptotic T-cell profile characterizes HIV-infected patients with early vascular damage, for whom the potential contribution of subclinical endotoxemia and anti-CMV immunity should be investigated further. PMID:23029393

  8. Bilingual Encounters: Spanish-English Medical and Legal Dialogues. A Practical Resource for Educators and Students of Interpreting. Interpreting and Translation Publications Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Sandra

    Thirty-eight dialogues are presented, each illustrating a common, real-life interpreting situation involving medical and/or legal issues and terminology. Each involves both Spanish and English languages, and the situations are specific to New South Wales, Australia. They are designed to be used as a resource in teaching interpreting. The…

  9. Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

  10. Training the Professional Interpreter for the Commercial and Legal Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eleonora K.

    The United States has been training interpreters only in the recent past, but the American penchant for technology has furthered the profession as a whole. Benchmarks in this process include machines introduced at the 1936 Paris World Fair and the Nuremberg trials, establishment of the United Nations, language services, development of the Division…

  11. The Application of Contrastive Linguistics in Training Translators/Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziahosseiny, Seid M.

    It is suggested that contrastive linguistics, the systematic comparison of two languages, be considered in the preparation of instructional materials and as a choice of teaching methods and techniques for training tranlators and interpreters. The contrastive analysis hypothesis suggests that the major source of errors committed by learners of a…

  12. Tutorial to Locales and Locale Interpretation Clemens Ballarin

    E-print Network

    Dougherty, Daniel J.

    Tutorial to Locales and Locale Interpretation Clemens Ballarin Abstract Locales are Isabelle design and implementation of locales have evolved consider- ably since Kamm¨uller did his initial experiments. Today, locales are a simple yet powerful extension of the Isar proof language. The present

  13. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  14. Editing, Visualizing, and Implementing Signal Interpreted Petri Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Frey; Mark Minas; Lehrstuhl für Programmiersprachen

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a new tool for editing, vi- sualizing, and implementing Signal Interpreted Petri Nets (SIPNs). SIPNs are used to formally specify control algo- rithms for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). The presented tool allows to automatically transform a graph- ically edited SIPN into PLC code using the standardized PLC language Instruction List. The tool was implemented using

  15. Domain-Independent Discourse Ontology for Utterance Interpretation and Generation in Human-Computer Dialogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Popescu; Jean Caelen; Corneliu Burileanu

    This paper is concerned with the design, development and usage of a domain- and language-independent discourse ontol- ogy, useful for utterance interpretation and generation in service- oriented human-computer dialogue. Although the syntagm \\

  16. Interpreting St. Clair's Comanche Texts: Objective Case Marking and 'Same Subject' Dependent Clauses

    E-print Network

    Armagost, James L.

    1990-01-01

    St. Clair's Comanche texts, collected in 1902, appear to exhibit a very uncharacteristic form of objective case marking along with 'same subject' dependent clause types unknown elsewhere in the language. Proper interpretation ...

  17. Modern Language Association Language map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drawing on information from the United States Census 2000 long form, the Modern Language Association has crated this important interactive map that allows users to see where the speakers of thirty-seven languages reside throughout the country. The map allows visitors the option to toggle certain themes (such as rivers, lakes, and highways) and to look through the numbers of speakers by zip code, town, city, or county. Visitors can also look at data at the state level, and they can also print out their own customized maps as well. Users of the site can also generate interactive maps for two languages in the same state, or compare the concentration of the same language in two states. If all of this seems a bit overwhelming, visitors can also take an online tour of the site's features. This site will be of great interest both to linguists and to those interested in learning about the spatial distribution of the languages spoken across the United States.

  18. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  19. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  20. Classificação geométrica de galáxias bianeladas através do metódo CART (Classification And Regression Trees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormeño, M. I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Cavada, G.

    2003-08-01

    A importância deste trabalho deve-se à seleção de objetos ainda não tratados particularmente como uma família e ao emprego de procedimento estatístico robusto que não precisa de pressupostos ou condições de contorno. Contribui, assim, ao melhor entendimento do cenário das Galáxias Aneladas do diagrama de Hubble via classificação e estudo de subclasses. Selecionaram-se 100 galáxias possuidoras de dois anéis do Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies compilado por Ronald Buta, de modo a construir uma amostra completa em termos de conhecimento dos semi-eixos dos anéis interno e externo projetados no plano do céu. Visando uma possível classificação destas galáxias aneladas normais em famílias de acordo com as características geométricas dos anéis, empregou-se primeiramente a Análise de Aglomerados (ferramenta de classificação: medições de semelhança em um espaço bidimensional) para explorar a possível existência de famílias. As variáveis analisadas foram: os diâmetros interiores menores d(I) e maiores D(I), os diâmetros exteriores menores d(E) e maiores D(E), e os ângulos de inclinação dos semi-eixos maiores interiores q(I) e exteriores q(E) dos anéis. Como metodologia de discriminação, empregou-se a construção de Árvores de Classificação. As árvores de classificação constituem um método de discriminação alternativo aos modelos clássicos, tais como a Análise Discriminante e a Regressão Logística, onde uma base de dados é dividida em partições (subgrupos) da árvore por ação de um predictor (variável específica). Os pacotes estatísticos utilizados para o processamento da informação foram: SAS versão 8.0 (Statistical Analisys System) e CART versão 3.6.3. Esta análise estatística sugere a existência de três possíveis famílias de galáxias bianeladas, com base apenas na geometria dos anéis. Como forma exploratória inicial deste resultado, a construção de um diagrama BT (magnitude total) versus o índice de cor (B-R), mostra que os três grupos distribuem-se de forma praticamente contínua, porém discriminadas entre si, ocupando três regiões distintas. A classe 3, por exemplo, é geralmente a mais azul, sendo a Classe 1 a mais avermelhada.

  1. Political Cartoon Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the uses of political cartoons in the classroom, and presents a list of skills which must be acquired by students to allow them to master cartoon interpretation. Illustrates how to recognize the use of caricature and identify symbolism and includes a bibliography of political cartoon sources and uses. (GEA)

  2. Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Ward, Koren

    1 TENS Text Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory University of Wollongong TENS Text and delivering the text data to the user by electrically stimulating the fingers. Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong #12;2 The TENS Unit Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong

  3. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  4. Interpretable and flexible technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bøgh Andersen; Frederik Bajers

    in recent years, dynamic properties of technical systems have attracted attention. A changing environment requires technical systems that can be adapted to new conditions. With an in- creased rate of change comes a demand for interpretability of technical systems in terms of business processes, since one cannot change what one does not understand. The paper presents a theory that emphasize

  5. Interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Omnès

    1987-01-01

    New axioms are proposed for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. They rest on a kind of calculus allowing to select meaningful physical statements and giving rules to check a given physical reasoning containing implications. Measurement theory is reformulated. Laboratoire associé au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  6. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  7. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  8. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  9. FOIL—a file-oriented interpretive language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Hesselbart

    1968-01-01

    In the summer of 1967 a project was begun at The University of Michigan to provide users of a general- purpose, time-sharing system with the capability for exploring conversational uses of computers for instruction. The idea for the project developed from the interest of faculty members in a number of subject areas who wished to develop conversational programs and investigate

  10. Aladdin: an assembly language assertion-driven debugging interpreter 

    E-print Network

    Hardin, David Alan

    1977-01-01

    status-sensing instruction, an arithmetic result-sensing in. truc- tion or the BSZ(decrement snd skip if sero) and ISZ( increment and skip if zero) instructions. What this means, is that except for the JNP and JSR, all the NOVA instructions can... program symbols, as well as octal and decimal constants, in the address calculations. In addition to main memory, it is also possible to examine/modify all the accumulators, the carry flag and a number of special registers (e. g. , symbol table pointer...

  11. Astrometry with "Carte du Ciel" plates, San Fernando zone. II. CdC-SF: a precise proper motion catalogue

    E-print Network

    Vicente, Belen; Garzon, Francisco; Girard, Terrence M

    2009-01-01

    The historic plates of the "Carte du Ciel", an international cooperative project launched in 1887, offer valuable first-epoch material for the determination of absolute proper motions. We present the CdC-SF, an astrometric catalogue of positions and proper motions derived from the "Carte du Ciel" plates of the San Fernando zone, photographic material with a mean epoch of 1901.4 and a limiting magnitude of V~16, covering the declination range of -10deg < declination < -2deg. Digitization has been made using a conventional flatbed scanner. Special techniques have been developed to handle the combination of plate material and the large distortion introduced by the scanner. The equatorial coordinates are on the ICRS defined by Tycho-2, and proper motions are derived using UCAC2 as second-epoch positions. The result is a catalogue with positions and proper motions for 560000 stars, covering 1080 degrees squared. The mean positional uncertainty is 0.20" (0.12" for well-measured stars) and the proper-motion un...

  12. Human Language

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-04-19

    If you put an English speaker, a Mandarin Chinese speaker, and a Swahili speaker in the same room, chances are they'd have trouble communicating. But according to one scientific theory, they're really all speaking the same language.

  13. Body language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Pollard

    1993-01-01

    ’Body language’ acquires the status of a problem worth discussing only when the translation difficulties it causes are fairly extensive, as they are in (student) translations from the Chinese in Hong Kong. In order for a problem of this type to be extensive, the source culture has to stand in an exotic relationship to the receptor culture. The source of

  14. Planning Micro-Level Language Education Reform in New Diaspora Sites: Two-Way Immersion Education in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla; Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Discontinuities are often found between top-down language education policies and local language policy enactments, as de facto language policymaking results from stakeholders' negotiation and interpretation of policy mandates. Teachers occupy a particular role in the execution of language education policies, as they are the "final arbiters" of…

  15. Initiation of an Academic Program Designed To Prepare Students for a Career in Translating and Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    Suggestions are given for structuring an eight-semester undergraduate foreign language major with a specialization in translating and interpreting from the target language into English. The program includes three training stages: theoretical training in the discipline, practice in the discipline, and expansion of general knowledge. Course topics…

  16. A Method to Resolve Ambiguity of Interpretation of English Sentences for Intelligent English Learning Support Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenobu KUNICHIKA; Minoru HONDA; Tsukasa HIRASHIMA; Akira TAKEUCHI

    This paper presents a method of ambiguity resolution for natural language processing in intelligent English learning support systems. Ambiguity of interpretation of sentences is one of the most important problems for intelligent language learning support systems which allow learners input composed sentences freely. Our system has a question and answer function which asks learners the contents of a story. Our

  17. Language Effects in Trilinguals: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Xavier; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Pu, He; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded during the visual presentation of words in the three languages of French-English-Spanish trilinguals. Participants monitored a mixed list of unrelated non-cognate words in the three languages while performing a semantic categorization task. Words in L1 generated earlier N400 peak amplitudes than both L2 and L3 words, which peaked together. On the other hand, L2 and L3 words did differ significantly in terms of N400 amplitude, with L3 words generating greater mean amplitudes compared with L2 words. We interpret the effects of peak N400 latency as reflecting the special status of the L1 relative to later acquired languages, rather than proficiency in that language per se. On the other hand, the mean amplitude difference between L2 and L3 is thought to reflect different levels of fluency in these two languages. PMID:23133428

  18. First language attrition and syntactic subjects : a study of Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian intermediate and advanced speakers in Dutch 

    E-print Network

    Beganovic, Jasminka

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the nature of second language induced first language attrition in the distribution and interpretation of overt and postverbal subjects in Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian (S/C/B). Data are collected ...

  19. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  20. National Association for Interpretation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

  1. Interpreting Geologic Sections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Morris

    Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

  2. Interpreting Deer Harvest Records.

    E-print Network

    Guynn, Dwight E.

    1984-01-01

    I Texas A&M versity System Agricultural Extension Service Zerle L. Carpenter. Director College Station B-1486 People Helping People Interpreting Deer Harvest Records LIB ARY Dwight f. Guynn* JUN 11 1985 Deer harvest records... are extremely important to proper deer herd man- agement. Because deer are difficult to observe and cannot be handled regularly like livestock, records are one of the few means available to determine deer herd . health, nutrition levels, trends...

  3. The Semantics of MALLETAn Agent Teamwork Encoding Language

    E-print Network

    The Semantics of MALLET­An Agent Teamwork Encoding Language Xiaocong Fan1 , John Yen1 , Michael S-oriented agent programming language for specifying teamwork knowledge and behaviors; one interpreter of MALLET has already been implemented in the CAST (Collaborative Agents for Simulating Teamwork) system

  4. The concurrent logic programming language CP: Definition and operational semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay A. Saraswat

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we present some of the control constructs of the language CP, which is based on a concurrent interpretation of Horn logic programming. We present a formal structural operational semantics and relate the meaning of programs in this language to the underlying (pure) Horn clause axioms.

  5. Ethnolinguistically Relevant Pedagogy: Empowering English Language Learners in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Columna, Luis; Hodge, Samuel R.; Mansilla, Patricia Martinez de la Vega

    2013-01-01

    People from diverse cultures interpret languages and gestures differently (Columna & Lieberman, 2011). It is not surprising, therefore, that communication differences may have negative implications for teachers and English language learners in K-12 physical education environments. To address this issue, we advocate preparing physical education…

  6. Generating Natural Language Description of Human Behavior from Video Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuhiro Kojimat; Masao Izumit; Takeshi Tamurat; Kunio Fukunagat

    2000-01-01

    In visual surveillance applications, it is becoming popular to perceive video images and to interpret them using natural language concepts. We propose an approach to generating a natural language description of human behavior appearing in real video images. First, a head region of a human, on behalf of the whole body, is extracted from each frame. Using a model based

  7. Language Contact Outcomes as the Result of Bilingual Optimization Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muysken, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper sketches a comprehensive framework for modeling and interpreting language contact phenomena, with speakers' bilingual strategies in specific scenarios of language contact as its point of departure. Bilingual strategies are conditioned by social factors, processing constraints of speakers' bilingual competence, and perceived…

  8. Plurilingual Ethos: A Peep into the Sociology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, Lachman M.

    1998-01-01

    Issues in the study of bilingualism and multilingualism in India and Pakistan are examined, including the delineation of linguistic boundaries, defining a society that is multicultural and yet has developed a "communication ethos" based on a core of common experience, the difficulty in interpreting language role and defining language usage in a…

  9. Interfacing the Experimenter to the Computer: Languages for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ronald W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    An examination and comparison of the computer languages which behavioral scientists are most likely to use: SCAT, INTERACT, SKED, OS/8 Fortran IV, RT11/Fortran, RSX-11M, Data General's Real-Time; Disk Operating System and its Fortran, and interpretative Languages. (EH)

  10. LITTLE LANGUAGES: LITTLE MAINTENANCE? 1 Little Languages

    E-print Network

    Klint, Paul

    LITTLE LANGUAGES: LITTLE MAINTENANCE? 1 Little Languages: Little Maintenance? ARIE VAN DEURSEN CWI Amsterdam, The Netherlands ABSTRACT So-called little, or domain-specific languages (DSLs), have of Software Maintenance, volume 10, 1998. 1 Introduction Little languages, tailored towards the specific needs

  11. Language Tests as Language Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2007-01-01

    This paper contextualizes language tests in relation to educational and national language policies by demonstrating how these language measures may be used as mechanisms for affecting "de facto" language policies. This phenomenon is of special relevance given current controversies in nation states between multilingual and multicultural realities…

  12. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language…

  13. Language and imagery: effects of language modality

    E-print Network

    Vigliocco, Gabriella

    , signed languages, created in space using the signer's body and perceived visually, exploit the potentialLanguage and imagery: effects of language modality Gabriella Vigliocco1,*, David P. Vinson1 , Tyron, Gower Street, London WC1H 0AP, UK 2 Department of Language and Communication Science, City University

  14. English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    , Learning and Equity) will report to Academic Board at regular intervals on the English language developmentEnglish Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This policy sets out UTS's requirements for, and expectations of, UTS students' English language proficiency at admission and during

  15. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  16. "Good Teaching for All Students?": Sheltered Instruction Programming in Washington State Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Crissa; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    Many in the field of language policy have called for studies that connect policy texts at the macro level with their interpretations in districts, schools, and classrooms at the micro level. The purpose of this study is to trace Washington's educational language policy through the layers of interpretation to educational practice to see how…

  17. Paru dans Modernit : la nouvelle carte du temps (ds. F. Ascher et F. Godard), Paris, l'Aube, 2003, pp. 155-167.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Paru dans Modernité : la nouvelle carte du temps (éds. F. Ascher et F. Godard), Paris, l'être ici et ailleurs en même temps. Mais ce désir d'ubiquité n'avait jusqu'alors trouvé d'autre réalisation'être immédiatement, par l'écoute, la voix et bientôt le regard, dans deux endroits en même temps. Un espace sans

  18. The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

    2000-04-04

    Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

  19. L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts.

    PubMed

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20 kg standard meal cart (L: 0.5m × W: 0.3 m × H: 0.92 m) loaded with extra 20 kg and 40 kg, respectively on two different surfaces (carpet and linoleum) and at three floor inclinations (-2°, 0° and +2°). Two force transducers were mounted as handles. Two-dimensional movement analysis was performed and a 4D WATBAK modelling tool was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected. PMID:24552608

  20. Calibrated Peer Review for Interpreting Linear Regression Parameters: Results from a Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Felicity B.; Jenkins, Sarah; Hoverman, Verna

    2010-01-01

    Biostatistics is traditionally a difficult subject for students to learn. While the mathematical aspects are challenging, it can also be demanding for students to learn the exact language to use to correctly interpret statistical results. In particular, correctly interpreting the parameters from linear regression is both a vital tool and a…

  1. Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

  2. Adolescent ESL Students' Interpretation and Appreciation of Literary Texts: A Case Study of Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Margaret; Marshall, Sondra

    2008-01-01

    This study explores how, using a multimodal approach to integrating language and content teaching, high school students with limited English proficiency can be supported to engage in rich, complex interpretations of literary works in English and to realize their interpretations linguistically in written academic discourse. Findings suggest that a…

  3. Feature-based Encoding and Querying Language Resources with Character Semantics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baden Hughes; Dafydd Gibbon; Thorsten Trippel

    In this paper we discuss the explicit representation of character features pertaining to written language resources, which we argue are critically necessary in the long term of archiving language data. Much focus on the creation of language resources and their associated preservation is at the level of the corpus itself; however it is generally accepted that long term interpretation of

  4. Experto Credite: Views and Experiences of Accredited Bilinguals on Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the questionnaire responses of Australians (N=145) who were accredited as translators and interpreters for both their native and a second language yielded information regarding reasons for second language acquisition, time to achieve mastery, strategies for second language learning, and reasons for seeking accreditation. (CB)

  5. Language Equality in International Cooperation. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Ralph; Mandel, Mark

    The policies of the United Nations with regard to the six official languages have left holes in the fabric of international cooperation. Maintaining language services in all six languages has proved to be an impossibility because of the scarcity of trained interpreters and translators between, for instance, Chinese and Arabic. English, French, and…

  6. Language-based earnings differentials on the Swiss labour market: is Italian a liability?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Grin; Claudio Sfreddo

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines wage rate differentials that set off speakers of Italian (Switzerland’s third national language community) from the rest of the population. Although second language skills are used here as control variables, the focus is on agents’ first language, which can be interpreted as a proxy for ethnicity. This paper uses a unique data set, and to our knowledge,

  7. SEMILAR: A Semantic Similarity Toolkit For Assessing Students' Natural Language Inputs

    E-print Network

    Rus, Vasile

    in conversational ITSs. First, there is need for advanced natural language algorithms to interpret the meaning-of-the-art conversational ITSs and in other mainstream natural language processing applications such as Question AnsweringSEMILAR: A Semantic Similarity Toolkit For Assessing Students' Natural Language Inputs Vasile Rus

  8. Which Foreign Languages Should Students Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    1989-01-01

    The economic and political implications of a linguistically incompetent America are far-reaching and frightening. While other nations attain direct access to U.S. information through the public media, Americans need translators and interpreters. Self-interest is also a worthy incentive for choosing and studying foreign languages. Includes 19…

  9. Lost in Translation: The Power of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

  10. Language as Ideology: The American Indian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Frances

    1975-01-01

    Language can act as ideology in 2 possible ways: 1) as a major source and embodiment of a group's world view, sanctioning certain forms of behavior and interpretation; and 2) as a symbol of group identity virtually command a group action. (Author)

  11. Pantomime in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes how, through pantomime, language learners can be encouraged to participate orally in classroom activities without feeling the pressure of having to perform. This technique requires the teacher to act out simple situations before the class while the students work together to interpret his/her gestures. (Author/MES)

  12. Can Body Language Shape Body Image?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Steels; Michael Spranger

    2008-01-01

    One of the central themes in autonomous robot research con- cerns the question how visual images of body movements by others can be interpreted and related to one's own body movements and to language describing these body move- ments. The discovery of mirror neurons has shown that there are brain circuits which become active both in the percep- tion and

  13. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  14. My Favorite Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian Schlosshauer

    \\u000a IT IS NO SECRET that a shut-up-and-calculate mentality pervades classrooms everywhere. How many physics students will ever\\u000a hear their professor mention that there’s such a queer thing as different interpretations of the very theory they’re learning\\u000a about? I have no representative data to answer this question, but I suspect the percentage of such students would hardly exceed\\u000a the single-digit range.

  15. Gonioscopy: evaluation and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Terry, J E

    1977-11-01

    Gonioscopy is the ocular health examination technique which offers to the practitioner the means to directly study the anterior chamber angle. Its uses are numerous and include glaucoma classification, predilation angle evaluation, and the presence of iris tumors, foreign bodies and anterior synechiae. Since a meaningful gonioscopic examination depends upon the examiner's recognition of the chamber landmarks, a detailed analysis of each structural element is presented. In addition, the techniques for performing gonioscopy with the popular lens types are viewed as is the system for interpretation and recording. PMID:925300

  16. Integral backstepping sliding mode control for underactuated systems: swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Nabanita; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2013-11-01

    In this paper an integral backstepping sliding mode controller is proposed for controlling underactuated systems. A feedback control law is designed based on backstepping algorithm and a sliding surface is introduced in the final stage of the algorithm. The backstepping algorithm makes the controller immune to matched and mismatched uncertainties and the sliding mode control provides robustness. The proposed controller ensures asymptotic stability. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared against a coupled sliding mode controller for swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System. Simulation results show that the proposed integral backstepping sliding mode controller is able to reject both matched and mismatched uncertainties with a chattering free control law, while utilizing less control effort than the sliding mode controller. PMID:23932857

  17. Deep Language and Persistent Culture: Learning to Speak the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Wirtz

    My concern in this paper is to explore how religious practitioners' approaches to learning, using, and interpreting Santería's esoteric ritual language, Lucumí, impact Lucumí's ritual efficacy as the sacred speech of the deities and ancestors. In particular, I wish to argue that distinct interpretive practices, situated in different contexts or deployed by differently situated actors, provide alternate visions of Lucumí's

  18. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  19. Second Language Education Certificate

    E-print Network

    The faculty members in Second Language Education program have earned their degrees from leading universitiesSecond Language Education Certificate Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making language learning an essential ingredient to give you a real

  20. Language Trends 2010 Secondary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

  1. Programming Languages Jens Palsberg

    E-print Network

    Palsberg, Jens

    by being an intermediate layer between high-level languages such as Java, and low-level languagesProgramming Languages Jens Palsberg Purdue University November 27, 2004 1 Introduction The goal of a programming language is to make it easier to build software. A programming language can help make software

  2. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  3. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  4. CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  5. Working with an interpreter in psychiatric assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1990-12-01

    Cross-cultural assessment and care frequently involve cross-language communication via a translator, interpreter, or bilingual worker. A resurgence of immigration, legalization of former illegal migrants, and refugee flight to the United States has increased the need for such special means of communication. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals should develop conceptual models, skills, and experience for conducting cross-language interviews. This article provides information, terminology, and models for one aspect of this special clinical task, i.e., working with translators. PMID:2246648

  6. Dialogue: Interactive Alignment and Its Implications for Language Learning and Language Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.

    This chapter discusses language processing during conversation. In particular, it considers why taking part in a conversation is more straightforward than speaking or listening in isolation. We argue that conversation is easy because speakers and listeners automatically align with each other at different linguistic levels (e.g., sound, grammar, meaning) which leads to alignment at the level of interpretation. This alignment process is reflected in the repetitiveness of dialogue at different levels and occurs both on the basis of local mechanisms of priming and more global mechanisms of routinization. We argue that the latter process may tell us something about both acquisition of language and historical processes of language change.

  7. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  8. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  9. Interpretation of Helioseismic Traveltimes

    E-print Network

    Burston, Raymond; Birch, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    Time-distance helioseismology uses cross-covariances of wave motions on the solar surface to determine the travel times of wave packets moving from one surface location to another. We review the methodology to interpret travel-time measurements in terms of small, localized perturbations to a horizontally homogeneous reference solar model. Using the first Born approximation, we derive and compute 3D travel-time sensitivity (Fr\\'echet) kernels for perturbations in sound-speed, density, pressure, and vector flows. While kernels for sound speed and flows had been computed previously, here we extend the calculation to kernels for density and pressure, hence providing a complete description of the effects of solar dynamics and structure on travel times. We treat three thermodynamic quantities as independent and do not assume hydrostatic equilibrium. We present a convenient approach to computing damped Green's functions using a normal-mode summation. The Green's function must be computed on a wavenumber grid that ha...

  10. Improve MWD data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Santley, D.J.; Ardrey, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) technology is being used today in a broad range of real-time drilling applications. In its infancy, MWD was limited to providing directional survey and steering information. Today, the addition of formation sensors (resistivity, gamma) and drilling efficiency sensors (WOB, torque) has made MWD a much more useful drilling decision tool. In the process, the desirability of combining downhole MWD data with powerful analytical software and interpretive techniques has been recognized by both operators and service companies. However, the usual form in which MWD and wellsite analytical capabilities are combined leaves much to be desired. The most common approach is to incorporate MWD with large-scale computerized mud logging (CML) systems. Essentially, MWD decoding and display equipment is added to existing full-blown CML surface units.

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome: the risk to educational interpreters.

    PubMed

    Stedt, J D

    1989-07-01

    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a problem associated with numbness, burning, tingling, tickling or "pins and needles" sensations in the hand. The syndrome has been linked to occupations that require repetitive pinching and/or repetitive wrist movements, both movements associated with sign language interpreting. Educational interpretors may be particularly at risk and so need accurate information regarding this malady. Without such education, some interpreters will worry needlessly while others delay in seeking essential medical attention. This article profiles groups at high risk for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and identifies surgical and rehabilitative treatments. PMID:2683684

  12. Embodied Language Comprehension Requires an Enactivist Paradigm of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Slors, Marc; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Two recurrent concerns in discussions on an embodied view of cognition are the “necessity question” (i.e., is activation in modality-specific brain areas necessary for language comprehension?) and the “simulation constraint” (i.e., how do we understand language for which we lack the relevant experiences?). In the present paper we argue that the criticisms encountered by the embodied approach hinge on a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. We argue that the data relating sensorimotor activation to language comprehension can best be interpreted as supporting a non-representationalist, enactivist model of language comprehension, according to which language comprehension can be described as procedural knowledge – knowledge how, not knowledge that – that enables us to interact with others in a shared physical world. The enactivist view implies that the activation of modality-specific brain areas during language processing reflects the employment of sensorimotor skills and that language comprehension is a context-bound phenomenon. Importantly, an enactivist view provides an embodied approach of language, while avoiding the problems encountered by a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. PMID:21833288

  13. The Cost-Effectiveness of Early Access to HIV Services and Starting cART in the UK 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Eduard J.; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Sangha, Roshni; Sharott, Peter; Youle, Mike; Baily, Guy; Brettle, Ray; Gompels, Mark; Johnson, Margaret; McCarron, Brendan; Ong, Ed; Pozniak, Anton; Schwenk, Achim; Taylor, Stephen; Walsh, John; Wilkins, Ed; Williams, Ian; Gazzard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Aim To calculate use, cost and cost-effectiveness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting routine treatment and care before starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and PLHIV starting first-line 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PIboosted, comparing PLHIV with CD4?200 cells/mm3 and CD4>200 cells/mm3. Few studies have calculated the use, cost and cost-effectiveness of routine treatment and care before starting cART and starting cART above and below CD4 200 cells/mm3. Methods Use, costs and cost-effectiveness were calculated for PLHIV in routine pre-cART and starting first-line cART, comparing CD4?200 cells/mm3 with CD4>200 cells/mm3 (2008 UK prices). Results cART naïve patients CD4?200 cells/mm3 had an annual cost of £6,407 (95%CI £6,382 to £6,425) PPY compared with £2,758 (95%CI £2,752 to £2,761) PPY for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3; cost per life year gained of pre-cART treatment and care for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3 was £1,776 (cost-saving to £2,752). Annual cost for starting 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PIboosted with CD4?200 cells/mm3 was £12,812 (95%CI £12,685–£12,937) compared with £10,478 (95%CI £10,376–£10,581) for PLHIV with CD4>200 cells/mm3. Cost per additional life-year gained on first-line therapy for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3 was £4639 (£3,967 to £2,960). Conclusion PLHIV starting to use HIV services before CD4?200 cells/mm3 is cost-effective and enables them to be monitored so they start cART with a CD4>200 cells/mm3, which results in better outcomes and is cost-effective. However, 25% of PLHIV accessing services continue to present with CD4?200 cells/mm3. This highlights the need to investigate the cost-effectiveness of testing and early treatment programs for key populations in the UK. PMID:22194795

  14. Emotion simulation during language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Havas, David A; Glenberg, Arthur M; Rinck, Mike

    2007-06-01

    We report a novel finding on the relation of emotion and language. Covert manipulation of emotional facial posture interacts with sentence valence when measuring the amount of time to judge valence (Experiment 1) and sensibility (Experiment 2) of the sentence. In each case, an emotion-sentence compatibility effect is found: Judgment times are faster when facial posture and sentence valence match than when they mismatch. We interpret the finding using a simulation account; that is, emotional systems contribute to language comprehension much as they do in social interaction. Because the effect was not observed on a lexical decision task using emotion-laden words (Experiment 3), we suggest that the emotion simulation affects comprehension processes beyond initial lexical access. PMID:17874584

  15. Translation is not enough. Interpreting in a medical setting.

    PubMed

    Haffner, L

    1992-09-01

    Unique obstacles must be overcome when providing medical care to patients who have an incomplete command of the English language. Serious barriers to effective communication may arise at the exact point where our health care system must succeed or fail. Miscommunication, differences in attitudes about health care, and various other misunderstandings interfere with or frustrate good health care for these patients and their families. Such difficulties are best overcome by the use of a professional interpreter who can ensure good communication between patients and health care professionals. My daily experiences as a professional medical interpreter and translator in Spanish provide insights into the complexities of bilingual and bicultural communication in the hospital setting. Although the examples given relate to Hispanic patients, the lessons learned can be extended to other foreign language patients as well. PMID:1413765

  16. Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

    2000-01-01

    The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

  17. Language Flowering, Language Empowering for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Based upon the view that parents, home visitors, and teachers in early childhood settings need tools for empowering young children to develop language, this paper examines what adults need to know to guide young children's language development and presents 20 suggestions for enhancing language growth. The paper maintains that adults need to know…

  18. The Working Alliance and the Use of Interpreters

    E-print Network

    Ebersole, Judy Lee

    2011-05-31

    . Social workers are taught about both verbal and non-verbal communication. They are taught how to listen, how to attend, and how to use silence. They are also taught other skills, such as how to demonstrate empathy, genuineness, warmth, and acceptance... increases the complexity. Now imagine that A and B speak different languages. Their ability to communicate has become practically non-existent without the introduction of a third party who can help them understand each other. Need for Interpreters...

  19. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  20. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements�

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sergey Matrosov

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  1. Language Ideologies and Standard English Language Policy in Singapore: Responses of a "Designer Immigrant" Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…

  2. Language in the Academy: Cultural Reflexivity and Intercultural Dynamics. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at why issues of language in higher education are routinely marginalised, despite the growing internationalisation of universities. Through analyses of a variety of intercultural encounters, the book highlights the range of interpretative possibilities available for understanding these encounters, and suggests the…

  3. Language Variability: An Analysis of Language Variability and Its Influence upon Special Education Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benmaman, Virginia; Schenck, Susan J.

    This 3-year research project sought to determine whether language differences between Gullah-influenced and English speaking students in Charleston County (South Carolina) influenced test performance and subsequent interpretation of test results. A sample population of 503 educable mentally handicapped, learning disabled, and regular students…

  4. Language Assessment Training in Hong Kong: Implications for Language Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    Despite the call for using assessment to promote effective learning, most language teachers remain underprepared to conduct classroom-based formative assessment and interpret the summative assessment information for improving instruction as well as learning. Drawing upon a survey of programme and government documents, interviews, student…

  5. Relationship between antiretrovirals used as part of a cART regimen and CD4 cell count increases in patients with suppressed viremia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Mocroft; Andrew N Phillips; Bruno Ledergerber; Christine Katlama; Antonio Chiesi; Frank-Detlef Goebel; Brygioa Knysz; Francisco Antunes; Peter Reiss; Jens D Lundgren

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is unknown if the CD4 cell count response differs according to antiretroviral drugs used in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients with maximal virological suppression [viral load (VL) < 50 copies\\/ml]. Objectives: To compare the change in CD4 cell count over consecutive measurements with VL < 50 copies\\/ml at both time-points according to nucleoside backbones and other antiretrovirals

  6. Computerized Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The article describes a computerized language analysis system that produces a detailed description and summary statistics to track language growth within student populations. This microcomputer-based language assessment system simplifies identification of deficits in productive language, enabling the teacher or clinician to spend more time…

  7. Using Language Sample Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…

  8. Teaching Language Through Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Caroline A.

    This article presents a rationale for correlation of science with language instruction, whether English as a second language (ESL) or first language development. Science can provide a conceptual base for vocabulary and syntactic development. Numerous studies indicate that language ability can be significantly increased through participation in…

  9. Microsoft Local Language Program

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Microsoft Local Language Program: A world of possibilities Communicate more © 2009 Microsoft. Discover technology in your own language. With the Local Language Program, Microsoft is helping computer users around the world bridge the digital and language divide to new markets, create customized local

  10. Advanced Language Technologies

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, Toma?

    . Computer processing of natural language 2. Some history 3. Applications 4. Levels of linguistic analysis #12;I. Computer processing of natural language · Computational Linguistics: · a branch of computer/understand language · Natural Language Processing: · a subfield of CL, dealing with specific computational methods

  11. MICHAEL LONG Systematic Language

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    and "pragmatics"--such things as body language and standards of style and polite- ness in a particular languageMICHAEL LONG Systematic Language Proficiency When the United States government grades its employees on language proficiency, it uses a functional scale with five main steps. For example, those judged

  12. Study of Spatial Configurations of Equipment for Online Sign Interpretation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Kaoru; Tanaka, Saori

    This paper discusses the design of configurations of videophone equipment aimed at online sign interpretation. We classified interpretation services into three types of situations: on-site interpretation, partial online interpretation, and full online interpretation. For each situation, the spatial configurations of the equipment are considered keeping the issue of nonverbal signals in mind. Simulation experiments of sign interpretation were performed using these spatial configurations and the qualities of the configurations were assessed. The preferred configurations had the common characteristics that the hearing subject could see the face of his/her principal conversation partner, that is, the deaf subject. The results imply that hearing people who do not understand sign language utilize nonverbal signals for facilitating interpreter-mediated conversation.

  13. Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard A.

    2002-08-19

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

  14. Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Hartstein, Jill; Cullen, Karen W.; Reynolds, Kim D.; Harrell, Joanne; Resnicow, Ken; Kennel, Phyllis

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week and daily during the 6-week intervention. Intervention goals included reducing sizes of sweetened beverages and chips, and increasing the availability of water and reduced-fat/baked chips. Nutrients sold per day were computed and weekly nutrient means per student and per number of items sold were calculated and compared between baseline and week 6. Five schools achieved all goals at 6 weeks. Four schools showed increases in the percentage of kilocalories from protein and decreases in the amount of sweetened beverages sold; five showed substantial increases in water sales. Changes in regular chips varied by school. There were significant changes in energy density of foods sold. School foodservice changes in middle school snack bar/a la carte lines can be implemented and can lead to a reduction in the caloric density of foods purchased. PMID:18156001

  15. Musical Expertise and Second Language Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that musical expertise influences brain organization and brain functions. Moreover, results at the behavioral and neurophysiological levels reveal that musical expertise positively influences several aspects of speech processing, from auditory perception to speech production. In this review, we focus on the main results of the literature that led to the idea that musical expertise may benefit second language acquisition. We discuss several interpretations that may account for the influence of musical expertise on speech processing in native and foreign languages, and we propose new directions for future research. PMID:24961431

  16. Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning Raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Turner, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1998-04-01

    Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warning scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

  17. Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

    1998-01-01

    Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

  18. Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  19. INTERPRETIVE HEATBUGS: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. MELLARKOD; D. L. SALLACH

    Agent-based modeling has been proven to be an effective strategy for expressing social behavior. In order to extend the veracity of social models and capture related phenomena, we introduce the concept of interpretive mechanisms in social agents. The central concept is to allow an agent to view others and the environment through his own interpretation of events and situations. There

  20. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  1. Processing Natural Language without Natural Language Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Brill

    2003-01-01

    We can still create computer programs displaying only the most rudimentary natural language processing capabilities. One of\\u000a the greatest barriers to advanced natural language processing is our inability to overcome the linguistic knowledge acquisition\\u000a bottleneck. In this paper, we describe recent work in a number of areas, including grammar checker development, automatic\\u000a question answering, and language modeling, where state of

  2. Need, Availability, and Quality of Interpreter Services among Publicly Insured Latino, Hmong, and Somali Individuals in Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan D. Shippee; Jessie Kemmick Pintor; Donna D. McAlpine; Timothy J. Beebe

    2012-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is a common barrier that negatively affects access to health care and quality of care. Prior studies have examined interpreter services as a means of ameliorating LEP, but have focused on Spanish-language services, largely overlooking comparisons with other, less-established ethnic groups. Furthermore, few if any studies have assessed the quality of interpreter services provided. Data come

  3. Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful. PMID:20537266

  4. Evaluation of Primary/Preferred Language Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Linh M.; Singh, Simple D.; Buchanan, Natasha; Phillips, Joan L; Cerlach, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to primary/preferred language and interpreter-use data collection practices in hospitals, clinics, and outpatient settings to assess its completeness and quality. In January 2011, Embase (Ovid), MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched for eligible studies. Primary and secondary inclusion criteria were applied to selected eligible articles. This extensive literature search yielded 768 articles after duplicates were removed. After primary and secondary inclusion criteria were applied, 28 eligible articles remained for data abstraction. All 28 articles in this review reported collecting primary/preferred language data, but only 18% (5/28) collected information on interpreter use. This review revealed that there remains variability in the way that primary/preferred language and interpreter use data are collected; all studies used various methodologies for evaluating and abstracting these data. Likewise, the sources from which the data were abstracted differed. PMID:23443456

  5. DTL: a language to assist cardiologists in improving classification algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kors, J A; Kamp, D M; Henkemans, D P; van Bemmel, J H

    1991-06-01

    Heuristic classifiers, e.g., for diagnostic classification of the electrocardiogram, can be very complex. The development and refinement of such classifiers is cumbersome and time-consuming. Generally, it requires a computer expert to implement the cardiologist's diagnostic reasoning into computer language. The average cardiologist, however, is not able to verify whether his intentions have been properly realized and perform as he hoped for. But also for the initiated, it often remains obscure how a particular result was reached by a complex classification program. An environment is presented which solves these problems. The environment consists of a language, DTL (Decision Tree Language), that allows cardiologists to express their classification algorithms in a way that is familiar to them, and an interpreter and translator for that language. The considerations in the design of DTL are described and the structure and capabilities of the interpreter and translator are discussed. PMID:1914455

  6. Satisfaction with methods of spanish interpretation in an ambulatory care clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kuo; Mark J. Fagan

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the utilization of various methods of language interpretation by Spanish-speaking patients in an academic medical\\u000a clinic and to determine patients’ and physicians’ satisfaction with these methods.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS: Survey administered to medical residents and Spanish-speaking patients asking about their experience and satisfaction with\\u000a various methods of language interpretation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MAIN RESULTS: Both patients and residents had the highest level

  7. The Role of the First Language in Second Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, Thomas A.; Lee-Thompson, Li-Chun

    2001-01-01

    Explores the question of when second language readers use their first language cognitive resources and how this cognitive use of the first language helps them comprehend a second language text. (Author/VWL)

  8. Taxonomy of XML Schema Languages Using Formal Language Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Murata; Dongwon Lee; Murali Mani

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of regular tree languages, we present a formal framework for XML schema languages. This framework helps to describe, compare, and implement such schema languages. Our main results are as follows: (1) four classes of tree languages, namely \\

  9. The Systemic Thinking in the passage from the arithmetic language to the algebraic language with use of mediator software Excel (in the children of 9-10 years)

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    145 The Systemic Thinking in the passage from the arithmetic language to the algebraic language 1.0 THE SYSTEMIC THINKING The phrase "Systemic Thinking" stands for a way to interpret the reality fields. Thinking in terms of systems has different advantages: · It allows us to face complex problems

  10. Interpreters in cross-cultural interviews: a three-way coconstruction of data.

    PubMed

    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth; Dahlberg, Karin

    2013-02-01

    Our focus in this article is research interviews that involve two languages. We present an epistemological and methodological analysis of the meaning of qualitative interviewing with an interpreter. The results of the analysis show that such interviewing is not simply exchanging words between two languages, but means understanding, grasping the essential meanings of the spoken words, which requires an interpreter to bridge the different horizons of understanding. Consequently, a research interview including an interpreter means a three-way coconstruction of data. We suggest that interpreters be thoroughly introduced into the research process and research interview technique, that they take part in the preparations for the interview event, and evaluate the translation process with the researcher and informant after the interview. PMID:23258420

  11. A Visual Communication Language for Crisis Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siska Fitrianie; Leon J. M. Rothkrantz

    In crisis situations, decision-making capabilities rely on reports from all parties involved. For achieving the necessary capabilities of crisis technology, a communication-interface pro- totype representing concepts and ideas has been developed. To support language-independent communication and to reduce the ambiguity and multitude of semantic interpretation of human observers' reports, the messages are constructed using a spatial arrangement of visual symbols.

  12. Methodological Challenges in Cross-Language Qualitative Research: A Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitative research was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter invisible during the research process supports studies completed by other authors examining this issue. The analysis demonstrated that the criteria produced by this study may provide useful guidelines for evaluating cross-language research and for novice cross-language researchers designing their first studies. Finally, the study also indicates that researchers attempting cross-language studies need to address the methodological issues surrounding language barriers between researchers and participants more systematically. PMID:18789799

  13. The functions of language: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Redhead, Gina; Dunbar, R I M

    2013-01-01

    We test between four separate hypotheses (social gossip, social contracts, mate advertising and factual information exchange) for the function(s) of language using a recall paradigm. Subjects recalled the social content of stories (irrespective of whether this concerned social behavior, defection or romantic events) significantly better than they did ecological information. Recall rates were no better on ecological stories if they involved flamboyant language, suggesting that, if true, Miller's "Scheherazade effect" may not be independent of content. One interpretation of these results might be that language evolved as an all-purpose social tool, and perhaps acquired specialist functions (sexual advertising, contract formation, information exchange) at a later date through conventional evolutionary windows of opportunity. PMID:23945312

  14. Second Language Acquisition and Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1998-01-01

    Language pedagogy (LP) and second language acquisition are two poles of a continuum; one pole includes teaching and teachers, and the other is concerned with learning and learners. There has been contradicting views on SLA and LP's relationship, from no relevance to complete and positive relevance. In this paper, I am trying to tackle this…

  15. Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.; Harrison, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Students' first and target language are often used by both teachers and students during instruction in the foreign language classroom (Levine, 2011). In this study, the frequency of and reasons for students' and teachers' use of English or Spanish were analyzed using video recordings of 40 class sessions taught by eight randomly…

  16. Language Policy and Language Planning in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjioannou, Xenia; Tsiplakou, Stavroula; Kappler, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the…

  17. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language…

  18. Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2011-01-01

    What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

  19. Second Language Acquisition Tactics and Language Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Waldemar

    1983-01-01

    Starting with H.W. Seliger's distinction between second language learning strategies (abstract cognitive functions used to acquire knowledge) and learning tactics (activities learner uses to acquire language), presents the most important tactics and comments on which learner characteristics and teaching methods take advantage of them. Tactics…

  20. Second Language Reading: Reading, Language, and Metacognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Patricia L.

    A study investigated the role of metacognitive skills and the conception of reading in the reading comprehension of adult native speakers of Spanish and English. The study differed from others in its examination of reading conceptions and comprehension in both the first and second languages. Results suggest that both first language reading ability…

  1. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  2. Introduction Discriminative Language Modeling (DLM)

    E-print Network

    Mohri, Mehryar

    Introduction Discriminative Language Modeling (DLM) Discriminative Training of Acoustic Models Discriminative Language and Acoustic Modeling for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Murat Sarac Language and Acoustic Modeling for LVCSR #12;Introduction Discriminative Language Modeling (DLM

  3. Metaphor and Universal Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blown, Eric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to identify elements of universal language and probes the limitations of the communication metaphor. Universal language is discussed in terms of the theory of quantum nonlocality and the implications of this theory for communication with extraterrestrial beings. (PCB)

  4. Using Language Broadcasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brian; Barley, Anthony

    1977-01-01

    Various ways to use foreign language radio broadcasts in comprehension practice, speaking practice, and written work are outlined. BBC and other broadcasts in several languages are listed and annotated as to age level and topics. (CHK)

  5. Expressive language disorder - developmental

    MedlinePLUS

    If you are concerned about a child's language development, have the child tested. ... Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication ... BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  6. Speech and Language Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Disabilities This information in Spanish ( en español ) Speech and language disorders More information on speech and ... for you. Return to top More information on Speech and language disorders Explore other publications and websites ...

  7. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... language difficulties and might potentially allow for early identification and intervention with these children. The NIDCD is ... and disordered processes of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language. Please see the list of ...

  8. Situating language and consciousness

    E-print Network

    Almotahari, Mahrad

    2011-01-01

    Language and consciousness enrich our lives. But they are rare commodities; most creatures are language-less and unconscious. This dissertation is about the conditions that distinguish the haves from the have-nots. The ...

  9. The SETI Interpreter Program (SIP). a Software Package for the SETI Field Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, E. T.; Lokshin, A.

    1983-01-01

    The SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Interpreter Program (SIP) is an interactive software package designed to allow flexible off line processing of the SETI field test data on a PDP 11/44 computer. The user can write and immediately execute complex analysis programs using the compact SIP command language. The software utilized by the SETI Interpreter Program consists of FORTRAN - coded modules that are sequentially installed and executed.

  10. Medical devices; neurological devices; classification of the brain injury adjunctive interpretive electroencephalograph assessment aid. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-03-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the brain injury adjunctive interpretive electroencephalograph assessment aid into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the brain injury adjunctive interpretive electroencephalograph assessment aid's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:25898432

  11. Bayesian Interpretation of Test Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A Bayesian alternative to interpretations based on classical reliability theory is presented. Procedures are detailed for calculation of a posterior score and credible interval with joint consideration of item sample and occasion error. (Author/SLD)

  12. Map Interpretation with Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  14. Interpretive Techniques for Adventure Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Interpretive techniques for encouraging participants to experience a deeper level of environmental growth during outdoor activities include group discussions, creative writing, artistic expression, visualization, sensitization, group activities introducing participants to various aspects of the environment, reflective thinking, the use of…

  15. GAL: General animation language 

    E-print Network

    Page, Gary Eugene

    1972-01-01

    STRUCTURE TABLE, EXAMPLE ENTRIES 11. SCANNER STATE DIAGRAM 12. RECOGNIZER FLOWCHART 13. EXAMPLE DICTIONARY ENTRIES 14. ROTATION ABOUT A REFERENCE POINT 10 18 31 37 50 56 60 77 80 82 83 88 92 103 CNIIPTER I INTRODUCTION Computer an1mation... disc file. The BEFLIX language, as such, 1s divided 1nto two sections: a "scanner language" and a "movie language proper" (13). The "scanner language" consists of instructions for drawing and changing pictures by explicit manipulation of scanners...

  16. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  17. Language Contact: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Sarah G.

    This book surveys situations in which language contact arises and focuses on what happens to the languages themselves: sometimes nothing, sometimes the incorporation of new words, sometimes the spread of new sounds and sentence structures across many languages and wide swathes of territory. It outlines the origins and results of contact-induced…

  18. FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

    E-print Network

    credits in language, literature, or culture, and 4 credits in general linguistics. Faculty At Portland State you will be taught by recognized experts in language, literature, and linguistics. All faculty faculty from all parts of the globe. Study Abroad Students of foreign languages are encouraged to improve

  19. READING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    for the helpful faculty and sta in Reading & Language Arts who have groomed me into the teacher I am today! LaurenREADING & LANGUAGE ARTS SCHOLARSHIPS Learn more at http://soe.syr.edu Margaret J. Early Graduate in English Education, Literacy Education, Reading Education, or Teaching English Language Learners

  20. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING CENTRE

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING CENTRE www.ed.ac.uk/english-language-teaching Student Information About the first UNESCO city of literature. Edinburgh is host to a number of different festivals throughout the University from a variety of backgrounds and from 120 different countries. The English Language Teaching

  1. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  2. The Language Teacher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Malcolm, Ed.; Long, Robert, Ed.

    These issues of "The Language Teacher" examine second language learning issues in Japan, focusing on such topics as the following: language educators and labor law; using videofeedback to nurture self-monitoring skills; learning diaries in learner training; English for special learners; developing listening subskills with trivia; attitude and…

  3. The Learning of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carroll E., Ed.

    Current thinking of specialists in the study of language learning provides the basis of this book. The 12 chapters of the book and their authors are as follows: 1. Introduction--Charles A. Ferguson; 2. The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child--Martin D. S. Braine; 3. Development of Native Language Skills beyond the Early Years--John B.…

  4. ITALIAN LANGUAGE ASSISTANT REQUIREMENTS

    E-print Network

    ITALIAN LANGUAGE ASSISTANT REQUIREMENTS The candidate should have ample knowledge of Italian Culture and a very high level of Italian-Language grammar. He/She should possess native or near in the Italian Studies program. DUTIES · The Italian Language Assistant will work 7 hours per week, scheduled

  5. Cassirer's View of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…

  6. Why Language Learning Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    2001-01-01

    Most education systems prepare their students to function in the national language and at least one additional language. However, only one-third of U.S. elementary schools offer students language-learning opportunities. Multilingual societies have competitive advantages over monolingual societies in international trade. Ameliorative steps are…

  7. Language, Gesture, and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen, Ed.; Reilly, Judy S., Ed.

    A collection of papers addresses a variety of issues regarding the nature and structure of sign language, gesture, and gesture systems. Articles include: "Theoretical Issues Relating Language, Gesture, and Space: An Overview" (Karen Emmorey, Judy S. Reilly); "Real, Surrogate, and Token Space: Grammatical Consequences in ASL American Sign Language

  8. Language Policy in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  9. Language, Culture & Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Nationally, foreign language faculty have been adjusting their curricula to ensure that today's college students know how to use technology to communicate effectively in languages other than their native tongue. Once upon a time, students were considered fluent if they could read, write, speak and aurally comprehend a foreign language. However…

  10. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nason, Gerald, Ed.

    A review of a three-day conference on language teaching policies, methods, instructional materials, and teacher training in Canada is presented in this report. Articles and commentary focus on: (1) Canada's needs in language teaching, (2) language programs in the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union, (3) research in teaching…

  11. Kid's Programming Language (KPL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Schwartz; Jonah Stagner; Walt Morrison; Morrison Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Kid's Programming Language, or KPL. KPL is an integrated development environment (IDE) and programming language which are similar to but greatly simplified from current mainstream IDEs and languages. KPL is educational freeware. KPL was initially targeted at the 10-14 age group, but has proven to be engaging and interesting to beginning programmers and hobbyists of

  12. Kid's programming language (KPL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Schwartz; Jonah Stagner; Walt Morrison

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce Kid's Programming Language, or KPL. KPL is an integrated development environment (IDE) and programming language which are similar to but greatly simplified from current mainstream IDEs and languages. KPL is educational freeware. KPL was initially targeted at the 10-14 age group, but has proven to be engaging and interesting to beginning programmers and hobbyists of

  13. Visibly pushdown languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Alur; P. Madhusudan

    2004-01-01

    We propose the class of visibly pushdown languages as embeddings of context-free languages that is rich enough to model program analysis questions and yet is tractable and robust like the class of regular languages. In our definition, the input symbol determines when the pushdown automaton can push or pop, and thus the stack depth at every position. We show that

  14. Motives for Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Raymond, Ed.

    This collection of papers considers processes involved in language change and issues of how they can be modeled and studied. After "Introduction" (Raymond Hickey), there are 15 papers in 6 parts. Part 1, "The Phenomenon of Language Change," includes: (1) "On Change in 'E-language'" (Peter Matthews); and (2) "Formal and Functional Motivation for…

  15. Advanced Language Technologies

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, Toma?

    Levels of linguistic analysis #12;2 I.I. Computer processing ofComputer processing of natural languagenatural language1 Advanced Language Technologies Information and Communication Technologies Research Area thatthat enablesenables usus toto produce/understandproduce/understand languagelanguage Natural LanguageNatural

  16. Kyrgyz Language Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abylkasymova, Mairam, Comp.; Jumabaeva, Gulaim, Comp.

    The language manual for Kyrgyz was designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Kyrgyzstan. It begins with a brief introduction to the Kyrgyz language, stressing the points at which the Kyrgyz system differs from English, and outlining the Kyrgyz sound system. It then presents 15 topical lessons, each containing…

  17. BENGALI LANGUAGE HANDBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAY, PUNYA SLOKA; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME OF THE LANGUAGE HANDBOOK SERIES IS INTENDED TO SERVE AS AN OUTLINE OF THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THE BENGALI LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY OVER 80 MILLION PEOPLE IN EAST PAKISTAN AND INDIA. IT WAS WRITTEN WITH SEVERAL READERS IN MIND--(1) A LINGUIST INTERESTED IN BENGALI BUT NOT HIMSELF A SPECIALIST IN THE LANGUAGE, (2) AN INTERMEDIATE OR ADVANCED…

  18. Language-Spread Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    Language-spread policy (LSP) is policy promulgated by groups seeking to spread their languages to speakers or communicative domains. LSP can be internal or external, overt or disguised, and related in different ways to national policy. Intent may be to increase native-language advantage in international communication, disseminate ideology, create…

  19. Bourdieu, Language, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on the work of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu with a special focus on issues of language, education and literacy. The essay sketches out Bourdieu's main theoretical ideas with respect to language, and raises a number of issues on classroom language and academic discourse. Bourdieu's approach is considered…

  20. SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship in the Reading & Language Arts Department with preference given to a minority student, a student from a rural, rather than paying for my tuition. I'm so thankful for the helpful faculty and sta in Reading & Language

  1. CONFERENCE ON NEGLECTED LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIFE, AUSTIN E.; NIELSEN, MARION L.

    A CONFERENCE WAS HELD TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STUDY OF LANGUAGES OTHER THAN ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, RUSSIAN, AND SPANISH. DISCUSSIONS WERE CENTERED ON (1) DETERMINING CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF NEGLECTED LANGUAGES WORTHY OF INCREASED STUDY, (2) SELECTING A LIST OF LANGUAGES MEETING THE CRITERIA, (3) A…

  2. OUR UNDERDEVELOPED LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINK, WILLIAM R.

    FOR AMERICA TO ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROBLEMS OF MODERN SOCIETY, IN A WORLD WHERE ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL DEPRIVATION ARE THE NORM, THE SPANISH LANGUAGE MUST BE RECOGNIZED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT, AND POTENTIALLY THE MOST REWARDING, PART OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE CURRICULUM. LANGUAGE PREFERENCES IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE GENERALLY FOLLOWED THE…

  3. American Indian Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leap, William

    Prepared for the National Center for Bilingual Research, the document provides information on the "state of the art" in American Indian language education and presents a full picture of the situation exploring concepts (e.g., self-determination, Indian language diversity) and concerns (e.g., tribal reluctance to see Indian language instruction…

  4. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  5. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  6. Can a Many-Valued Language Functionally Represent its own Semantics? 

    E-print Network

    Ketland, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Tarski’s Indefinability Theorem can be generalized so that it applies to many-valued languages. We introduce a notion of strong semantic self-representation applicable to any (sufficiently rich) interpreted many-valued ...

  7. The Language Situation in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latomaa, Sirkku; Nuolijarvi, Pirkko

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the language situation in Finland, an officially bilingual country in Northern Europe. Presents the language profile of Finland, gives a detailed overview of the spread of all the languages used in the country, focuses on language planning and language policy legislation, discusses the current status of languages spoken in…

  8. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

  9. Language Dominance Testing: Some Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    This paper examines the usage of testing instruments to identify the language and dialect dominance of children. In order not to misuse language assessment tests, a careful distinction must be made between the terms "language proficiency,""language preference," and "relative language proficiency." Differences in the several types of language…

  10. 1 Introduction Since the design of the Icon programming language in the early 1980's, newer languages have incorporated a number

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Mark W.

    - 1 - Abstract 1 Introduction Since the design of the Icon programming language in the early 1980's design. Icon is distributed with a flexible interpreter and run-time system. This flexibility is seen features. In an effort to achieve this goal, we have designed an interpreter for a subset of Icon

  11. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  12. Teaching Receptive Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Grow, Laura; LeBlanc, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Receptive language refers to responding appropriately to another person's spoken language. Most curricula dedicate a proportion of early intervention to developing receptive language skills. The specific terms used to refer to the receptive language programs and the recommendations for teaching such skills vary considerably across the early intervention curricula. The present paper will provide a conceptual analysis of the desired controlling variables for different receptive language programs, teaching recommendations, a brief review of the literature to substantiate the teaching recommendations, and a discussion of the potential negative effects of deviating from the recommendations. PMID:25729507

  13. Natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A K

    1991-09-13

    Natural language processing (NLP) is the study of mathematical and computational modeling of various aspects of language and the development of a wide range of systems. These include spoken language systems that integrate speech and natural language; cooperative interfaces to databases and knowledge bases that model aspects of human-human interaction; multilingual interfaces; machine translation; and message-understanding systems, among others. Research in NLP is highly interdisciplinary, involving concepts in computer science, linguistics, logic, and psychology. NLP has a special role in computer science because many aspects of the field deal with linguistic features of computation and NLP seeks to model language computationally. PMID:17831443

  14. Adult Education and Theological Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Walters, Nicholas, Ed.

    The following chapters are included in this book: "Learning as a Religious Phenomenon?" (Jarvis); "Truth, Belief, and Knowledge" (Clark); "The Authority of the Word" (Ferro); "The Priesthood of the Teacher--Language and the Teaching of the Word" (McCaffry); "Teaching--Catechism, Preaching, and Indoctrination" (Willis); "Meaning, Being, and…

  15. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-06-11

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data. PMID:23716678

  16. Efficacy of WHO recommendation for continued breastfeeding and maternal cART for prevention of perinatal and postnatal HIV transmission in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Ngoma, Mary S; Misir, Amita; Mutale, Wilbroad; Rampakakis, Emmanuoil; Sampalis, John S; Elong, Angela; Chisele, Sam; Mwale, Abel; Mwansa, Jonathan K; Mumba, Scholastica; Chandwe, Mula; Pilon, Richard; Sandstrom, Paul; Wu, Samantha; Yee, Kristen; Silverman, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in developing countries, new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy, throughout breastfeeding for 1 year and then cessation of breastfeeding (COB). The efficacy of this approach during the first six months of exclusive breastfeeding has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of this approach beyond six months is not well documented. Methods A prospective observational cohort study of 279 HIV-positive mothers was started on zidovudine/3TC and lopinavir/ritonavir tablets between 14 and 30 weeks gestation and continued indefinitely thereafter. Women were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for six months, complementary feed for the next six months and then cease breastfeeding between 12 and 13 months. Infants were followed for transmission to 18 months and for survival to 24 months. Text message reminders and stipends for food and transport were utilized to encourage adherence and follow-up. Results Total MTCT was 9 of 219 live born infants (4.1%; confidence interval (CI) 2.2–7.6%). All breastfeeding transmissions that could be timed (5/5) occurred after six months of age. All mothers who transmitted after six months had a six-month plasma viral load >1,000 copies/ml (p<0.001). Poor adherence to cART as noted by missed dispensary visits was associated with transmission (p=0.04). Infant mortality was lower after six months of age than during the first six months of life (p=0.02). The cumulative rate of infant HIV infection or death at 18 months was 29/226 (12.8% 95 CI: 7.5–20.8%). Conclusions Maternal cART may limit MTCT of HIV to the UNAIDS target of <5% for eradication of paediatric HIV within the context of a clinical study, but poor adherence to cART and follow-up can limit the benefit. Continued breastfeeding can prevent the rise in infant mortality after six months seen in previous studies, which encouraged early COB. PMID:26140453

  17. Differences in the Direction of Change of Cerebral Function Parameters Are Evident over Three Years in HIV-Infected Individuals Electively Commencing Initial cART

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Alan; Puls, Rebekah; Kerr, Stephen J.; Duncombe, Chris; Li, Patrick; Gill, John M.; Ramautarsing, Reshmie; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in cerebral metabolite ratios (CMR) measured on 1H-MRS and changes in cognitive function (CF) are described in subjects commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), although the dynamics of such changes are poorly understood. Methods Neuroasymptomatic, HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART were eligible. CMR were assessed in three anatomical voxels and CF assessed at baseline, week 48 and week 144. Overall differences in absolute change in CMRs and CF parameters between 0–48 and 48–144 weeks were assessed. Results Twenty-two subjects completed study procedures. Plasma HIV-RNA was <50 copies/mL in all at week 48 and in all, but two subjects at week 144. In general, between weeks 0–48 a rise in N-acetyl-aspartate(NAA)/Creatine(Cr) ratio and a decline in myo-Inositol(mI)/Cr ratio were observed. Between weeks 48–144, small rises in NAA/Cr ratio were observed in two anatomical voxels, whereas a rise in mI/Cr ratio was observed in all anatomical locations (0.31 (0.66) and -0.27 (1.35) between weeks 0–48 and 0.13 (0.91) and 1.13 (1.71) between weeks 48–144 for absolute changes in NAA/Cr and mI/Cr (SD) in frontal-grey voxel, respectively). Global CF score improved between weeks 0–48 and then declined between weeks 48–144 (0.63 (1.16) and -0.63 (0.1.41) for mean absolute change (SD) between weeks 0–48 and weeks 48–144, respectively). Conclusions The direction of change of cerebral function parameters differs over time in HIV-infected subjects commencing cART, highlighting the need for long-term follow-up in such studies. The changes we have observed between weeks 48–144 may represent the initial development of cerebral toxicities from cART. PMID:25723494

  18. Coevolution of the language faculty and language(s) with decorrelated encodings

    E-print Network

    Briscoe, Ted

    Coevolution of the language faculty and language(s) with decorrelated encodings Ted Briscoe from a growing understanding that not only the language faculty but also languages themselves can that the language faculty evolved via genetic assimilation (sometimes referred to as the Baldwin Effect) in response

  19. Advanced computer languages

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, H.

    1984-05-03

    If software is to become an equal partner in the so-called fifth generation of computers-which of course it must-programming languages and the human interface will need to clear some high hurdles. Again, the solutions being sought turn to cerebral emulation-here, the way that human beings understand language. The result would be natural or English-like languages that would allow a person to communicate with a computer much as he or she does with another person. In the discussion the authors look at fourth level languages and fifth level languages, used in meeting the goal of AI. The higher level languages aim to be non procedural. Application of LISP, and Forth to natural language interface are described as well as programs such as natural link technology package, written in C.

  20. Teaching Indigenous Languages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers a wealth of materials relating to the anthropological, educational, and political issues involved with the teaching of Indigenous Languages. The best feature is the online full-texts of recently published scholarly studies and collections devoted to the subject. These texts include Revitalizing Indigenous Languages (1999), Teaching Indigenous Languages (1997), and Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (1996). The site also offers reprints of scholarly articles on such topics as American Indian language policy, models for teaching and maintaining indigenous languages, selected columns (1990-1999) from NABE (National Association for Bilingual Education) News, and quite a bit more. Many of the texts feature hyperlinks, and a site search engine is provided. Finally, an extensive, occasionally annotated list of links to Bilingual, American Indian, Indigenous Languages, and Literacy/ Reading sites is also posted. Jon Reyhner, an associate professor of bilingual and multicultural education at Northern Arizona University, maintains the site.