Note: This page contains sample records for the topic language interpreters cart from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view. Risk factors for the initiation and/or exacerbation...

W. L. Johnson

2003-01-01

2

Combining Multiple Regression and CART To Understand Difficulty in Second Language Reading and Listening Comprehension Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combined multiple regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses to study the interrelationships of variables that affect the item difficulty of items on tests of second language reading and listening comprehension. Results for 214 computerized items completed by 87 nonnative English speakers show the value of synthesizing…

Rupp, Andre A.; Garcia, Paula; Jamieson, Joan

2001-01-01

3

Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

2011-01-01

4

An Interpreter’s Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters’ View of Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Previous studies have used survey techniques to identify potential risk factors and approaches to their medical management. Little is known about risk factors and management of symptoms in this group from the perspective of the interpreter. Such qualitative information should help inform future research related to

William L. Johnson; Michael Feuerstein

2005-01-01

5

Entropy, Its Language, and Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The language of entropy is examined for consistency with its mathematics and physics, and for its efficacy as a guide to what entropy means. Do common descriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder understanding? Can the language of entropy be helpful in cases where entropy is not well defined? We argue in favor of the descriptor spreading, which entails space, time, and energy in a fundamental way. This includes spreading of energy spatially during processes and temporal spreading over accessible microstates states in thermodynamic equilibrium. Various examples illustrate the value of the spreading metaphor. To provide further support for this metaphor’s utility, it is shown how a set of reasonable spreading properties can be used to derive the entropy function. A main conclusion is that it is appropriate to view entropy’s symbol S as shorthand for spreading.

Leff, Harvey S.

2007-12-01

6

Syntax Directed Interpretation of Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation presents a method called syntax directed interpretation which permits the use of semantic information in a syntactic analysis of sentences taken from a restricted domain of natural language. This method is used in the resolution of syntac...

L. S. Coles

1967-01-01

7

Plain language for interpreting in consulting rooms.  

PubMed

Intercultural communication is by nature a complex activity. In a multilingual society like ours, it will inevitably surface in the health care sector. The services of an interpreter are often considered to break the impasse in this communication process. The communication problem between the two parties, the service provider and client/patient, is often not simply a matter of language but societal factors of which the liaison interpreter should be aware of also plays a major role for effective extended communication. This article focuses on some of the problems in rendering an oral source text in multilingual and multicultural societies such as South Africa in which there are heterogeneous target audiences for interpreting. It is pointed out that interpreters in such societies must take into account the heterogeneity of the target audiences, or otherwise interpreting will only be symbolic gestures, empty of value, and thus not communicate the message intended. In the process the limitations of the interpreter and how the presence of the interpreter can be facilitated, is also highlighted. PMID:18402423

Lesch, H M

2007-12-01

8

Mercury Shopping Cart Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

2006-01-01

9

Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

Lee, Jieun

2009-01-01

10

Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…

Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

2004-01-01

11

Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

Cheatham, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

12

CART peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

CART peptides are among the newest putative peptide neurotransmitter\\/cotransmitters. They show no significant homology to any other peptide, and they are thought to have a role in reward and reinforcement, feeding, development, sensory processing, stress and endocrine control.

Michael J Kuhar; Larry D Adams; Richard G Hunter; Stephanie Dall Vechia; Yoland Smith

2000-01-01

13

Fan Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If a sailboat is stranded because there is no wind, is it possible to set up a fan on deck and blow wind into the sail to make the boat move? In this activity, learners explore this classic physics question by using simple materials to build a low-friction cart with a removable motor and a removable sail. Learners will observe the behavior of their cart and see Newton's Laws in action.

Rathjen, Don

2003-01-01

14

Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

Stedt, Joe D.

1992-01-01

15

Figurative Language: Interpretation of Similes and Metaphors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will interpret the meanings of poems using similes and metaphors. The featured resource in the teacher modeling and guided practice sections utilizes the text Poetry for Young People: Langston Hughes edited by David Roessel and Arnold Rampersad.

Readworks

2012-03-22

16

Generating Statistical Language Models from Interpretation Grammars in Dialogue Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore statistical lan- guage modelling for a speech-enabled MP3 player application by generating a corpus from the interpretation grammar written for the application with the Gram- matical Framework (GF) (Ranta, 2004). We create a statistical language model (SLM) directly from our interpretation grammar and compare recognition per- formance of this model against a speech recognition grammar

Rebecca Jonson

2006-01-01

17

Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

18

A language for functional interpretation of model based simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional modelling has been in use for a number of years for the interpretation of the results of model based simulation of engineered systems. Its use enables the automatic generation of a textual design analysis report that interprets the results of qualitative (or numerical) simulation in terms of the system’s purpose. We present a novel functional description language that increases

Jonathan Bell; Neal Snooke; Chris Price

2007-01-01

19

Martin Heidegger: Interpretation, Language, and the Intrapersonal Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "logos" concept of Martin Heidegger's phenomenological philosophy refers to a perceptual attunement to "Being," or reality as a whole, which is prior to language. Logos includes every way in which people interpret, constitute, and interact with their world. Language is seen as prior to our awareness of Being, as well as constitutive of it.…

Warnick, Barbara

20

Social Construction of American Sign Language--English Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English…

McDermid, Campbell

2009-01-01

21

Interpretation of emotional body language displayed by robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for robots to be socially accepted and generate empathy they must display emotions. For robots such as Nao, body language is the best medium available, as they do not have the ability to display facial expressions. Displaying emotional body language that can be interpreted whilst interacting with the robot should greatly improve its acceptance. This research investigates the

Aryel Beck; Antoine Hiolle; Alexandre Mazel; Lola Cañamero

2010-01-01

22

Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

2013-01-01

23

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

24

Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

1997-01-01

25

The Recognition and Interpretation of Motion in Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we develop a framework for interpreting linguistic descriptions of places and locations as well as objects\\u000a in motion as found in natural language texts. We present an overview of existing qualitative spatiotemporal models in order\\u000a to discuss a more dynamic model of motion called Dynamic Interval Temporal Logic (DITL). The resulting static and dynamic\\u000a descriptions are represented

James Pustejovsky; Jessica Moszkowicz; Marc Verhagen

2010-01-01

26

The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

2012-01-01

27

Emergency-Evacuation Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed cart designed to remove injured worker from vicinity of hazardous chemical spill. Self-propelled cart enables rescuer to move victim of industrial accident quickly away from toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, carcinogenic, asphyxiating, or extremely cold liquids. Intended for use where too dangerous for ambulances and other vehicles to approach accident site. Constructed of high-strength tubing, rides on bicycle wheels with balloon tires. Rescuer steers cart with handle at rear. Estimated mass of fully equipped vehicle is 650 lb.

Fedor, Otto H.; Owens, Lester J.

1988-01-01

28

Microbiological surface sampling cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mobile sampling cart automatically swabs surfaces for the recovery of microorganisms. Unit operates without human involvement and provides for control of swabbing speed, rotation of cotton swab, and the pressure and angle applied to swab. Capability of reverse direction is also available. Sampling cart use is limited to flat surfaces.

Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M.

1972-01-01

29

Bayesian CART Model Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we put forward a Bayesian approach for finding classification and regression tree (CART) models. The two basic components of this approach consist of prior specification and stochastic search. The basic idea is to have the prior induce a posterior distribution that will guide the stochastic search toward more promising CART models. As the search proceeds, such models

Hugh A. Chipman; Edward I. George; Robert E. McCulloch

1998-01-01

30

Conceptual Metaphors and Figurative Language Interpretation: Food for Thought?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do people interpret metaphors such asThe lecture was a three-course meal?Lakoff (1993) has proposed that figurative expressions are interpreted as instantiations of deep conceptual metaphors, such as IDEAS ARE FOOD. In contrast, Glucksberg (1991) has proposed that metaphors are interpreted as assertions of the topic's (e.g.,lecture) membership in an attributive category exemplified by the vehicle (e.g.,three-course meal). Four experiments

Matthew S. McGlone

1996-01-01

31

Augmented Role Filling Capabilities for Semantic Interpretation of Spoken Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent work on the Unisys ATIS Spo- ken Language System, and reports benchmark results on nat- ural language, spoken language, and speech recognition. We describe enhancements to the system's semantic processing for handling non.transparent argument structure and enhance- ments to the system's pragmatic processing of material in art. swers displayed to the user. We found that the

Lewis M. Norton; Marcia C. Linebarger; Deborah A. Dahl; Nghi Nguyen

1991-01-01

32

Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

2006-01-01

33

Cable-Dispensing Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

Bredberg, Alan S.

2003-01-01

34

State of the cart.  

PubMed

Food on wheels: it's here, there and everywhere. But while some operations rev up cart expansion plans, others have shifted into low gear. Here's an update on that '90s phenomenon: mobile merchandising. PMID:10133262

Bernstein, C; Weiss, S; Lorenzini, B

1994-03-15

35

The Development of Comprehension of Chance Language: Evaluation and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of chance language, such as is found in newspapers, is a fundamental aspect of statistical literacy. In this study, students' understandings of chance language were explored through responses to two items in surveys administered to 2,726 students from grades 5 to 11. One item involved evaluating the chance expressed in phrases from…

Watson, Jane M.; Moritz, Jonathan B.

2003-01-01

36

Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

1973-01-01

37

Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

2010-01-01

38

The lunar cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expanded experiment-carrying capability, to be used between the Apollo 11 capability and the lunar roving vehicle capability, was defined for the lunar surface crewmen. Methods used on earth to satisfy similar requirements were studied. A two-wheeled cart was built and tested to expected mission requirements and environments. The vehicle was used successfully on Apollo 14.

Miller, G. C.

1972-01-01

39

Bayesian CART Model Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we put forward a Bayesian approach for nding CART (classication andregression tree) models. The two basic components of this approach consist of priorspecication and stochastic search. The basic idea is to have the prior induce a posteriordistribution which will guide the stochastic search towards more promising CARTmodels. As the search proceeds, such models can then be selected

Hugh A. CHIPMAN; Edward I. GEORGE; Robert E. MCCULLOCH

1997-01-01

40

Interpretation of Reflexive Anaphora in Second Language VP Ellipsis: Relevance Theory and Paradigms of Explanation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores second language (L2) learners' interpretation of reflexive anaphora in VP-Ellipsis by critiquing the work of Ying (2003), who applies Relevance Theory to explain elliptical anaphora. It argues against four claims made in his analysis: that L2 learners apply maximal relevance in anaphoric interpretation; that a procedural…

Sequeiros, Xose Rosales

2004-01-01

41

Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

2005-01-01

42

Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

2008-01-01

43

Relative Motion of Two Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab uses Tracker 4.0 video analysis software to measure and analyze the motion of two carts. Cart 1 has constant acceleration, and Cart 2 has constant velocity. Students are asked to predict the motion of each cart in the reference frame of the other cart. Tracker can be used to change the reference frame to one of the carts and update the graphs. Students measure the relative motion of the other cart and determine whether the reference frame is inertial or non-inertial. Topics taught in this lab activity include Newton's first law, Newton's second law, reference frames, and the definition of an inertial reference frame. This video, in conjunction with Tracker's ability to change reference frames, is ideal as an Interactive Lecture Demonstration. The lab questions can be used as ILD questions in lecture. When you ask students to predict the motion of a cart in the reference frame of the other cart, lively discussion will ensue. Teachers can also easily adapt the exercise for Clicker Questions during lecture. The zip file contains the lab handout, a video showing the motion of two carts, and the Tracker file. The video is copyrighted by RIT and was produced by the LivePhoto Physics Series. To open the Tracker file, download and run Tracker 4.0. Tracker is free. The video can be used with other video analysis software; however, the handout has screen captures from Tracker and instructions specifically written for Tracker.

Titus, Aaron

2011-07-21

44

Native language governs interpretation of salient speech sound differences at 18 months  

PubMed Central

One of the first steps infants take in learning their native language is to discover its set of speech-sound categories. This early development is shown when infants begin to lose the ability to differentiate some of the speech sounds their language does not use, while retaining or improving discrimination of language-relevant sounds. However, this aspect of early phonological tuning is not sufficient for language learning. Children must also discover which of the phonetic cues that are used in their language serve to signal lexical distinctions. Phonetic variation that is readily discriminable to all children may indicate two different words in one language but only one word in another. Here, we provide evidence that the language background of 1.5-year-olds affects their interpretation of phonetic variation in word learning, and we show that young children interpret salient phonetic variation in language-specific ways. Three experiments with a total of 104 children compared Dutch- and English-learning 18-month-olds' responses to novel words varying in vowel duration or vowel quality. Dutch learners interpreted vowel duration as lexically contrastive, but English learners did not, in keeping with properties of Dutch and English. Both groups performed equivalently when differentiating words varying in vowel quality. Thus, at one and a half years, children's phonological knowledge already guides their interpretation of salient phonetic variation. We argue that early phonological learning is not just a matter of maintaining the ability to distinguish language-relevant phonetic cues. Learning also requires phonological interpretation at appropriate levels of linguistic analysis.

Dietrich, Christiane; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

2007-01-01

45

Central Calorimeter Transporter Cart Design  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the cryostat transporter cart is to provide a means of rolling the CC cryostat in and out of a building, and to proyide a means of support for the cryostat while it is being worked on. The constraints on the cart are: (1) There should be a minimum amount of clearance between the cryostat and the ground, in order to be able to roll the cart and cryostat into a building; (2) The cart must be able to support the weight of the cryostat as well as the weight of approximately 4,000 gallons of liquid nitrogen; and (3) The cart must allow access to the underside of the cryostat for work that must be done. This report will address the design of the transporter cart, as well as any additional equipment needed to accomplish the above mentioned tasks.

Weber, K.; /Fermilab

1987-09-22

46

Shielding Yourself from the Perils of Empathy: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the psychological mechanisms of empathy with specific reference to sign language interpreters. It stresses that one must achieve a healthy balance of empathizing enough while shielding oneself from its perils to work effectively and ethically with a member of a minority group such as the deaf community. (Contains references.)…

Harvey, Michael A.

2003-01-01

47

Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly…

Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

2006-01-01

48

Central Calorimeter Transporter Cart Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the cryostat transporter cart is to provide a means of rolling the CC cryostat in and out of a building, and to proyide a means of support for the cryostat while it is being worked on. The constraints on the cart are: (1) There should be a ...

K. Weber P. McGivern

1987-01-01

49

Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning  

PubMed Central

Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that of hearing peers who saw lectures without any support services. Experiment 2 compared interpreting and two forms of real-time text, C-Print and Communication Access Real-Time Translation, at immediate testing and after a 1-week delay (with study notes). No significant differences among support services were obtained at either testing. Experiment 3 also failed to reveal significant effects at immediate or delayed testing in a comparison of real-time text, direct (signed) instruction, and both. Experiment 4 found no significant differences between interpreting and interpreting plus real-time text on the learning of either new words or the content of television programs. Alternative accounts of the observed pattern of results are considered, but it is concluded that neither sign language interpreting nor real-time text have any inherent, generalized advantage over the other in supporting deaf students in secondary or postsecondary settings. Providing deaf students with both services simultaneously does not appear to provide any generalized benefit, at least for the kinds of materials utilized here.

Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

2006-01-01

50

FMIT alignment cart  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

1981-01-01

51

A Pattern-based Analysis of Clinical Computer-interpretable Guideline Modeling Languages  

PubMed Central

Objectives Languages used to specify computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) differ in their approaches to addressing particular modeling challenges. The main goals of this article are: (1) to examine the expressive power of CIG modeling languages, and (2) to define the differences, from the control-flow perspective, between process languages in workflow management systems and modeling languages used to design clinical guidelines. Design The pattern-based analysis was applied to guideline modeling languages Asbru, EON, GLIF, and PROforma. We focused on control-flow and left other perspectives out of consideration. Measurements We evaluated the selected CIG modeling languages and identified their degree of support of 43 control-flow patterns. We used a set of explicitly defined evaluation criteria to determine whether each pattern is supported directly, indirectly, or not at all. Results PROforma offers direct support for 22 of 43 patterns, Asbru 20, GLIF 17, and EON 11. All four directly support basic control-flow patterns, cancellation patterns, and some advance branching and synchronization patterns. None support multiple instances patterns. They offer varying levels of support for synchronizing merge patterns and state-based patterns. Some support a few scenarios not covered by the 43 control-flow patterns. Conclusion CIG modeling languages are remarkably close to traditional workflow languages from the control-flow perspective, but cover many fewer workflow patterns. CIG languages offer some flexibility that supports modeling of complex decisions and provide ways for modeling some decisions not covered by workflow management systems. Workflow management systems may be suitable for clinical guideline applications.

Mulyar, Nataliya; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.; Peleg, Mor

2007-01-01

52

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

53

Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children  

MedlinePLUS

... often occur when children stand up in the child seat or the cart basket. Injuries result when children ... from shopping carts: ? Use seatbelts to restrain your child in the cart seat. ? Retailers should ensure that all carts have seatbelts ...

54

FPC conditioning cart at BNL  

SciTech Connect

The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

2011-03-28

55

Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

Warhol, Larisa

2011-01-01

56

Tritiated pump oil change cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device to facilitate the changing of oil in pumps used for tritium service has been constructed and utilized to service the TFTR project pumps. The utilization of tritium in TFTR has necessitated the requirement for new maintenance and service procedures for tritium equipment. Two oil change carts were constructed, one for hydrocarbon oil and a second for Krytox (Perfluoroalkyl

T. Kozub; L. Ciebiera

1995-01-01

57

Brokering language and culture: can ad hoc interpreters fill the language service gap at community health centers?  

PubMed

The purpose of the research was to explore the ability of ad hoc interpreters to integrate into the organizational climate at a federally qualified community health clinic (CHC) and create satisfactory services for limited-English-proficiency clients. Survey and interview data were gathered from staff (n = 17) and Latino clients (n = 30). The data indicate that clients felt satisfied with interpreters. Some friction existed between the interpreters and the medical staff due to incongruent expectations. The CHC's organizational climate and the interpreters' commitment to the Latino community mediated the impact of these tensions on services and satisfaction. The study offers important insight into how ad hoc interpreters can become professional medical interpreters within a limited-resource service environment. PMID:20446183

Larrison, Christopher R; Velez-Ortiz, Daniel; Hernandez, Pedro M; Piedra, Lissette M; Goldberg, Andrea

2010-05-01

58

Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps  

PubMed Central

On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills.

Hoff, Erika

2012-01-01

59

Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

Kane, Michael

2012-01-01

60

Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2012-01-01

61

Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second…

Kwak, Hye-Young

2010-01-01

62

Attitudes and behaviour in second language acquisition: A social psychological interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four behaviors involved in the acquisition of a 2nd language are achievement in the language, the decision to remain in the language program, behavior in the classroom, and social contact with members of the 2nd language community. In general, these behaviors have been considered in isolation of formal psychological models and of each other. The present authors review research relevant

R. C. Gardner; L. Gliksman; P. C. Smythe

1978-01-01

63

21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food... § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and...

2010-04-01

64

21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food... § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and...

2009-04-01

65

21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food... § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and...

2013-04-01

66

Occupational Upper Extremity Symptoms in Sign Language Interpreters: Prevalence and Correlates of Pain, Function, and Work Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive role of work demands, occupational stressors, and ergonomic risk factors in work-related upper extremity (UE) disorders remains unclear. Professional sign language interpreting, which involves exposure of the upper limbs to a combination of potential ergonomic and psychosocial stressors represents a unique occupational group to investigate the multivariate nature of UE disorders. The present study reports data on the

Michael Feuerstein; Ann Marie Carosella; Lolita M. Burrell; Liza Marshall; James Decaro

1997-01-01

67

Native Language Attrition and Developmental Instability at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Data, Interpretations and Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Montrul's study is an important contribution to a recently emerged research approach to the study of bilingualism and languages in contact, characterized by its sound theoretical basis and its reliance on data from different--and traditionally non-integrated--domains of language development: bilingual first language acquisition (Muller and Hulk,…

Sorace, Antonella

2004-01-01

68

The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

Logan, Debra M.

2010-01-01

69

The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

1995-01-01

70

Storage Device Performance Prediction with CART Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores the application of a machine learning tool, CART modeling, to storage devices. We have developed approaches to predict a device's performance as a function of input workloads, requiring no knowledge of the device internals. Two uses of CART models are considered: one that predicts per-request response times (and then derives aggregate values) and one that predicts aggregate

Mengzhi Wang; Kinman Au; Anastassia Ailamaki; Anthony Brockwell; Christos Faloutsos; Gregory R. Ganger

2004-01-01

71

Transportable X-ray cart  

SciTech Connect

The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

NONE

1995-12-01

72

High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous system. By employing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we document the state of cerebrocortical activity. We find that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 5 microg of CART 55-102 readily produces an abnormal EEG characterized initially by high amplitude hypersynchronous alpha in the 8-10 Hz range during behavioral wakefulness as manifest in both cortical and hippocampal theta EEG channels. This reliably progressed in three of three animals tested to unequivocal epileptiform activity accompanied by tremors and assumption of a rigid, tonic body posture. The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms. PMID:18178249

Keating, Glenda L; Kuhar, Michael J; Rye, David B

2008-04-01

73

Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

2014-01-01

74

Design for Safety: The Audiovisual Cart Hazard Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the design of carts for moving audiovisual equipment in schools emphasizes safety factors. Topics addressed include poor design of top-heavy carts that has led to deaths and injuries; cart navigation; new manufacturing standards; and an alternative, safer cart design. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

Sherry, Annette C.; Strojny, Allan

1993-01-01

75

Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (ages 4 ; 1 to 6 ; 4) and typically developing (TD) children (ages 3 ; 5 to 6 ; 5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from…

Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

2010-01-01

76

Theory of interpretive architectures: ideal language machines. Technical report No. 170  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study in ideal computer architectures or program representations is presented. An ideal architecture can be defined with respect to the representation that was used to describe a program originally, i.e., the higher-level language. Traditional machine architectures name operations and objects presumed to be present in the host machine: a memory space of certain size, ALU operations, etc. An ideal

M. J. Flynn; L. W. Hoevel

1979-01-01

77

Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

2009-01-01

78

Hemispheric asymmetry in interpreting novel literal language: an event-related potential study.  

PubMed

Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts of the frontal positivity, we suggest that both frontal positivities reflect learning mechanisms involving prediction based on statistical regularities in language (LH) and world knowledge (RH). PMID:23376053

Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

2013-04-01

79

Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (age 4;1 to 6;4) and typically developing (TD) children (age 3;5 to 6;5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from Wagner (2001). Sentences were in either present or past progressive and used telic predicates. Actions were performed twice in succession; the action was either completed or not completed in the first instance. In both experiments, the children with SLI were less accurate than the TD children, showing more difficulty with past than present progressive, regardless of completion cues. The TD children were less accurate with past than present progressive requests only when the past actions were incomplete. These findings suggest that children with SLI may be relatively insensitive to cues pertaining to event completion in past tense contexts.

Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

2013-01-01

80

MIT TechTV: Coupled Air Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video displays normal modes in a vibrating system through the motion of air carts connected by springs on an air track. When this system is at resonant frequency, symmetrical patterns called normal modes appear. The normal modes are shown in both driven and undriven cases, and the demonstration is repeated for systems of two, three, and five coupled carts. The video includes a short explanation of the demonstration. See Related Materials for an interactive Java simulation that addresses the same concept. This resource is part of a video demonstration collection created by the Physics Department at MIT.

Technical Services Group @ MIT Physics

2012-07-12

81

Rolling friction on a wheeled laboratory cart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of rolling friction is contrasted with the static or kinetic friction that in general is also present, such as for a cylinder or ball rolling along a horizontal or inclined surface.

Mungan, Carl E.

2012-05-01

82

Constant Acceleration: Experiments with a Fan-Driven Dynamics Cart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rebuilding of a Project Physics fan cart on a PASCO dynamics cart chassis for achieving greatly reduced frictional forces. Suggests four experiments for the rebuilt cart: (1) acceleration on a level track, (2) initial negative velocity, (3) different masses and different forces, and (4) inclines. (MVL)

Morse, Robert A.

1993-01-01

83

Center of Mass of Two Carts with Attached Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A spring that is attached to the ends of two carts. The spring is compressed when the two carts are placed next to each other on a low-friction track. The spring is released such that the two carts are "pushed" apart as shown in the animations (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-14

84

Feedback control of a nonholonomic wheeled cart in Cartesian space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of the problem of the feedback control of mobile robots is presented. The robot considered is a two-wheel-driven nonholonomic cart. Despite the controllability of the system, pure state feedback stabilization of the cart's configuration around a given terminal configuration is not possible. However, feedback stabilization of the position of any point of the cart is possible. Extension

C. Samson; K. Ait-Abderrahim

1991-01-01

85

Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

Barrett, Joelle

2005-01-01

86

Surface chemistry: Molecular cart-wheeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic adsorption of molecules on surfaces is known to either trigger local chemical reactions or initiate the recoil of adsorbates away from the surface. Now, another possible outcome has been observed -- the long-range 'cart-wheeling' of energetic molecules across a surface.

Lyding, Joseph W.

2011-05-01

87

Proper Motions from Carte DU Ciel Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing data on proper motions from meridian catalogues and proper motion surveys appear to be reasonably complete for motions larger than 0.24 arc seconds per year and down to the 19th magnitude visual but for motions between 0.24 and 0.18 there exists a lacuna for stars between 8.5 and 11.5 visual which could easily be observed by repeating Carte du Ciel plates.

Luyten, W. J.

88

Virtual Evidence Cart - RP (VEC-RP)  

PubMed Central

VEC-RP (Virtual Evident Cart) is an open, Web-based, searchable collection of clinical questions and relevant references from MEDLINE/PubMed for healthcare professionals. The architecture consists of four parts: clinical questions, relevant articles from MEDLINE/PubMed, “bottom-line” answers, and peer reviews of entries. Only registered users can add reviews but unregistered users can read them. Feedback from physicians, mostly in the Philippines (RP) who tested the system, is positive.

Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Paul; Muin, Michael; Ackerman, Michael

2005-01-01

89

Virtual Evidence Cart - RP (VEC-RP).  

PubMed

VEC-RP (Virtual Evident Cart) is an open, Web-based, searchable collection of clinical questions and relevant references from MEDLINE/PubMed for healthcare professionals. The architecture consists of four parts: clinical questions, relevant articles from MEDLINE/PubMed, "bottom-line" answers, and peer reviews of entries. Only registered users can add reviews but unregistered users can read them. Feedback from physicians, mostly in the Philippines (RP) who tested the system, is positive. PMID:16779321

Liu, Fang; Fontelo, Paul; Muin, Michael; Ackerman, Michael

2005-01-01

90

CART Classification of Human 5' UTR Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonredundant database of 2312 full-length human 5-untranslated regions (UTRs) was carefully prepared using state-of-the-art experimental and computational technologies. A comprehensive computational analysis of this data was conducted for characterizing the 5 UTR features. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to classify the data into three distinct classes. Class I consists of mRNAs that are believed to be

Ramana V. Davuluri; Yutaka Suzuki; Sumio Sugano; Michael Q. Zhang

2000-01-01

91

Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

2013-01-01

92

Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

93

Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

Baumgartner, Ilse

2012-01-01

94

"Quelque Chose...De Remarquable" in English-French Acquisition: Mandatory, Informationally Encapsulated Computations in Second Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the results of an experiment that investigates English-French learners' interpretation of quantifiers with detachable restrictions. Such quantifiers are ungrammatical in English. We investigate aspects of interpretation that rely on a highly idiosyncratic interface between grammar and general principles of conversational cooperation in…

Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Hathorn, Jon C.

2005-01-01

95

Interpreting Mexican-American Mothers' Beliefs about Language Disabilities from a Sociocultural Perspective: Implications for Early Childhood Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses examples from a study of seven Mexican American mothers of children with language disabilities to discuss the mothers' views about language and disability from a sociocultural perspective. It also considers implications of these views for early childhood intervention such as fostering native language development and respecting…

Garcia, Shernaz B.; Perez, Anita Mendez; Ortiz, Alba A.

2000-01-01

96

Velocity and torque feedback control of a nonholonomic cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for designing and analysing velocity and torque feedback controls for a nonholonomic wheeled-cart is presented. A stability analysis of a set of nonlinear systems, the equations of which encompass all stable linear invariant systems, is first proposed. This analysis is then applied to the design and analysis of feedback controls for the wheeled-cart. The control inputs are either

Claude Samson

97

Path Planning and Path Following for the Amsterdam Autonomous Cart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the University of Amsterdam an autonomous cart has been developed for research on intelligent multisensor systems. The main design criteria for the cart have been the following: The vehicle must be capable of finding its way through a simple environmen...

H. Muller

1986-01-01

98

CART peptides: novel addiction and feeding-related neuropeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

CART peptides are novel, putative brain–gut neurotransmitters and co-transmitters that probably have a role in drug abuse, the control of feeding behavior, sensory processing, stress and development. They are abundant, processed and apparently released. Exogenously applied peptides cause inhibition of feeding and have neurotrophic properties. Although the precise sequences, relative abundance and efficacy of all CART peptides are currently being

Michael J. Kuhar; Stephanie E. Dall Vechia

1999-01-01

99

CART in the brain of vertebrates: circuits, functions and evolution.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) with its wide distribution in the brain of mammals has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Last two decades have witnessed a steady rise in the information on the genes that encode this neuropeptide and regulation of its transcription and translation. CART is highly enriched in the hypothalamic nuclei and its relevance to energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine control has been understood in great details. However, the occurrence of this peptide in a range of diverse circuitries for sensory, motor, vegetative, limbic and higher cortical areas has been confounding. Evidence that CART peptide may have role in addiction, pain, reward, learning and memory, cognition, sleep, reproduction and development, modulation of behavior and regulation of autonomic nervous system are accumulating, but an integration has been missing. A steady stream of papers has been pointing at the therapeutic potentials of CART. The current review is an attempt at piecing together the fragments of available information, and seeks meaning out of the CART elements in their anatomical niche. We try to put together the CART containing neuronal circuitries that have been conclusively demonstrated as well as those which have been proposed, but need confirmation. With a view to finding out the evolutionary antecedents, we visit the CART systems in sub-mammalian vertebrates and seek the answer why the system is shaped the way it is. We enquire into the conservation of the CART system and appreciate its functional diversity across the phyla. PMID:24468550

Subhedar, Nishikant K; Nakhate, Kartik T; Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

2014-04-01

100

Language.  

PubMed

Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

Cattaneo, Luigi

2013-01-01

101

La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part à la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions à la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'à ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

Bigg, C.

2008-06-01

102

Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

Scarino, Angela

2013-01-01

103

Models to predict cardiovascular risk: comparison of CART, multilayer perceptron and logistic regression.  

PubMed Central

The estimate of a multivariate risk is now required in guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Limitations of existing statistical risk models lead to explore machine-learning methods. This study evaluates the implementation and performance of a decision tree (CART) and a multilayer perceptron (MLP) to predict cardiovascular risk from real data. The study population was randomly splitted in a learning set (n = 10,296) and a test set (n = 5,148). CART and the MLP were implemented at their best performance on the learning set and applied on the test set and compared to a logistic model. Implementation, explicative and discriminative performance criteria are considered, based on ROC analysis. Areas under ROC curves and their 95% confidence interval are 0.78 (0.75-0.81), 0.78 (0.75-0.80) and 0.76 (0.73-0.79) respectively for logistic regression, MLP and CART. Given their implementation and explicative characteristics, these methods can complement existing statistical models and contribute to the interpretation of risk.

Colombet, I.; Ruelland, A.; Chatellier, G.; Gueyffier, F.; Degoulet, P.; Jaulent, M. C.

2000-01-01

104

DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

105

Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.  

PubMed

The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

2013-10-01

106

143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

107

Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived animals show a pronounced decrease in expression of CART messenger

Peter Kristensen; Martin E. Judge; Lars Thim; Ulla Ribel; Kennet N. Christjansen; Birgitte S. Wulff; Jes T. Clausen; Per B. Jensen; Ole D. Madsen; Niels Vrang; Philip J. Larsen; Sven Hastrup

1998-01-01

108

Continuous steering-function control of robot carts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three alternative approaches for eliminating steering discontinuities are presented: changing the steering mechanism, changing the guide-point on the cart, or changing the curves on the path. The first approach requires a steering mechanism that allows the cart to move in any direction without changing its heading. The most common configurations in an automatically guided vehicle are the steered-wheel and differential-drive

W. L. Nelson

1989-01-01

109

The determinants of consumers’ online shopping cart abandonment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite placing items in virtual shopping carts, online shoppers frequently abandon them —an issue that perplexes online retailers\\u000a and has yet to be explained by scholars. Here, we identify key drivers to online cart abandonment and suggest cognitive and\\u000a behavioral reasons for this non-buyer behavior. We show that the factors influencing consumer online search, consideration,\\u000a and evaluation play a larger

Monika Kukar-Kinney; Angeline G. Close

2010-01-01

110

The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analyzed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artifact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in introductory physics laboratory.

Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

2012-03-01

111

Research Review: Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 2012 - Neuroscientific studies of intervention for language impairment in children: interpretive and methodological problems  

PubMed Central

Background Our ability to look at structure and function of a living brain has increased exponentially since the early 1970s. Many studies of developmental disorders now routinely include a brain imaging or electrophysiological component. Amid current enthusiasm for applications of neuroscience to educational interventions, we need to pause to consider what neuroimaging data can tell us. Images of brain activity are seductive, and have been used to give credibility to commercial interventions, yet we have only a limited idea of what the brain bases of language disorders are, let alone how to alter them. Scope and findings A review of six studies of neuroimaging correlates of language intervention found recurring methodological problems: lack of an adequate control group, inadequate power, incomplete reporting of data, no correction for multiple comparisons, data dredging and failure to analyse treatment effects appropriately. In addition, there is a tendency to regard neuroimaging data as more meaningful than behavioural data, even though it is behaviour that interventions aim to alter. Conclusion In our current state of knowledge, it would be better to spend research funds doing well-designed trials of behavioural treatment to establish which methods are effective, rather than rushing headlong into functional imaging studies of unproven treatments.

Bishop, D V M

2013-01-01

112

Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vit...

J. W. Halliwell E. C. Bradley

1995-01-01

113

Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

1993-01-01

114

Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

1993-05-01

115

Functional studies of homeobox gene {\\\\it Cart1\\\\\\/} during mouse development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cart1 is a paired-class homeobox-containing gene that is expressed in head mesenchyme, branchial arches, limb buds, and various cartilages during embryogenesis. To understand the role of Cart1 during mammalian development, I generated Cart1-mutant mice by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells. Cart1-homozygous mutants were born alive but all died soon after birth. Most had acrania (absence of the cranial

Qi Zhao

1996-01-01

116

The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART): A New Statewide Autism Collaborative.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interaction, language and repetitive behaviors. The need for services is rising sharply as the number of children identified with autism increases. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) was founded in 2009 with the goal of increasing communication among autism researchers throughout the state and improving treatment for children with autism. RI-CART members have several exciting projects in progress, with its larger aim being the creation of a statewide research registry. A statewide registry would benefit research in Rhode Island and allow for larger collaborations nationally. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-05.asp, free with no login]. PMID:24791265

Gerber, Alan; Morrow, Eric; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Anders, Thomas

2014-01-01

117

The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

2004-01-01

118

Using the Cultural Attitudes Repertory Technique (CART) in a Cross-Cultural Counseling Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the procedures for administering the Cultural Attitudes Repertory Technique (CART), designed to elicit personal constructs relevant to cross-cultural understanding. Shows an example of a completed CART and provides suggestions for discussing the CART in a small group. (LLL)

Fukuyama, Mary A.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

1985-01-01

119

An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

Kim, Sung-Ho

120

22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

121

McCART: Monte Carlo Code for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCART is a numerical procedure to solve the radiative transfer equation for light propagation through the atmosphere from visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The procedure has been developed to study the effect of the atmosphere in the remote sensing of the Earth, using aerospace imaging spectrometers. The simulation is run for a reference layered plane nonabsorbing atmosphere and a plane ground

Vanni Nardino; Fabrizio Martelli; Piero Bruscaglioni; Giovanni Zaccanti; Samuele Del Bianco; Donatella Guzzi; Paolo Marcoionni; Ivan Pippi

2008-01-01

122

West Valley transfer cart control system design description  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

123

CART and Best-Ortho-Basis: A Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study what we call "Dyadic CART" -- a method of nonparametric regressionwhich constructs a recursive partition by optimizing a complexity-penalized sum ofsquares, where the optimization is over all recursive partitions arising from midpointsplits. We show that the method is adaptive to unknown degree of anisotropic smoothness.Specifically, consider the "mixed smoothness" classes consisting of bivariate functions f(x 1 ; x

David L. Donoho

1995-01-01

124

Acceptance Test Report for Gamma Carts A and B  

SciTech Connect

Report of Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Reports of the hardware and software tests. The objective of the testing was to verify in the shop that the hardware and software operated according to design specifications before field-testing and installation.

FULLER, P.J.

2000-03-16

125

A Modified Laptop Program: Putting the Carts in the Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four fifth grade classrooms embarked on a modified ubiquitous computing initiative in Fall 2003. Two 15-computer wireless laptop carts were shared among the four classrooms in an effort to integrate technology across the curriculum and affect change in student learning and teacher pedagogy. This initiative?in contrast to other 1:1 programs and…

Grant, Michael M.; Ross, Steven M.; Wan, Weiping; Potter, Allison; Wilson, Yola

2004-01-01

126

A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

127

Unique Responses of Midbrain CART Neurons in Macaques to Ovarian Steroids  

PubMed Central

CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is a neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological processes, such as response to psychostimulants, food intake, depressive diseases and neuroprotection. It is robustly expressed in the brain, mainly in regions that control emotional and stress responses and it is regulated by estrogen in the hypothalamus. There is a distinct population of CART neurons located in the vicinity of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain that also colocalize urocortin-1. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the distribution of CART immunoreactive neurons in the monkey midbrain, 2) to examine the effects of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) on midbrain CART mRNA and peptide expression and 3) to determine whether midbrain CART neurons contain steroid receptors. Adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were spayed and either treated with placebo (OVX), estrogen alone (E), progesterone alone (P) or E + P. Animals were prepared (a) for RNA extraction followed by microarray analysis and quantitative (q) RT-PCR (n=3/group); (b) for immunohistochemical analysis of CART and CART+tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), CART+estrogen receptors (ER) or CART+progesterone receptors (n=5/group) and (c) for western blots (n=3/group). Both E? and E+P-administration decreased CART gene expression on the microarray and with qRT-PCR. Stereological analysis of CART immunostaining at five levels of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus indicated little effect of E or E + P administration on the area of CART immunostaining. However, P administration increased CART-immunopositive area in comparison to the OVX control group with Student’s t-test, but not with ANOVA. CART 55–102 detection on western blot was unchanged by hormone administration. ER?and PR were detected in CART neurons and CART fibers appeared to innervate TPH-positive serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe. In summary, E decreased CART mRNA, but this effect did not translate to the protein level. Moreover, P administration alone had a variable effect on CART mRNA, but it caused an increase in CART immunostaining. Together, the data suggest that CART neurons in the midbrain have a unique steroid response, which may be mediated by nuclear receptors, neuroactive steroids or interneurons.

Lima, F.B.; Henderson, J.A.; Reddy, A.P.; Tokuyama, Y.; Hubert, G. W.; Kuhar, M.J.; Bethea, C.L.

2008-01-01

128

Wind Tunnel Model Support Cart with Telescoping Mast and Cable Yaw Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 14-by-22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center uses model carts to support and position models in the test section. The carts are portable through the use of air bearings and can be moved from the test to the Model Prep Area (MPA) to change models in preparation for a new test. This paper describes the design of a new model cart that is three feet shorter than existing carts. This will eliminate clearance problems when moving the model and cart from the MPA to the test section.

Gregory, Peyton B.; Monroe, Charles A.

1999-01-01

129

CART (Classification and Regression Trees) Program: The Implementation of the CART Program and Its Application to Estimating Attrition Rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main purpose of this thesis is the implementation of the classification and regression trees (CART) computer programs on the Naval Postgraduate School Computer system. An additional goal is the forecasting of officer attrition rates of the U.S. Marine...

H. Amin Elseramegy

1985-01-01

130

Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

1995-02-01

131

The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

132

Translation and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

1995-01-01

133

Purification and characterisation of a new hypothalamic satiety peptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), produced in yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is a newly discovered hypothalamic peptide with a potent appetite suppressing activity following intracerebroventricular administration. When the mature rat CART sequence encoding CART(1–102) was inserted in the yeast expression plasmid three CART peptides could be purified from the fermentation broth reflecting processing at dibasic sequences. None of these corresponded to the naturally occurring CART(55–102).

Lars Thim; Per F. Nielsen; Martin E. Judge; Asser S. Andersen; Ivan Diers; Michi Egel-Mitani; Sven Hastrup

1998-01-01

134

Uccle Carte du Ciel Plate Catalogue Present in the WFPDB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the catalogue of the Carte du Ciel plates collected at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) and incorporated in the Wide-Field Plate Database. The catalogue comprises the descriptive information for 682 plates obtained with the Gautier 0.33-m equatorial telescope in the framework of the Carte du Ciel project in the period 1908-1939. The plates were taken using triple exposures with duration of 15 to 30 minutes. An analysis of the ROB CdC catalogue's content is presented. The catalogue, as well as the plate previews taken with a flatbed scanner AGFA (model DUOSCAN HiD) with a resolution of 250 dpi in TIFF format (of size 2.5 MB), are available on-line at http://www.skyarchive.org/.

Tsvetkova, Katya; Tsvetkov, Milcho; Lampens, Patricia; Duval, David

2007-08-01

135

A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students--the ballistic cart,1 i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

2011-10-01

136

T. N. Thiele and the Carte DU Ciel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T. N. Thiele participated in the astrographic conference in Paris 1887 and was the first theoretician to reduce and analyse the photographic plates of the Henry brothers. He was an enthusiastic supporter of photographic astrometry because of its elimination of personal errors. However, for different reasons he did not want the Copenhagen Observatory to take responsibility for a Carte du Ciel zone. Thiele's life and work and his plans for the development of astrometry are presented.

Kristensen, L. K.

137

Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) Commissioning and Baseline Data Collection  

SciTech Connect

During FY2002, the CART turbine and controller were developed and commissioned. This included developing and checking out the protection and operational control systems. More than 50 hours of data were collected in constant and variable-speed modes. A new strategy, which underwent limited testing on the machine, was created for avoiding tower resonance. All the data from the checkout through the operational periods were organized, archived, and backed up.

Fingersh, L. J.; Johnson, K.

2002-10-01

138

Zero-Spring-Rate Mechanism/Air Suspension Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact mechanism suspends articulating flexible structures with minimal constraints. Zero-spring-rate mechanism (ZSRM) air suspension cart used to suspend flexible, "mass-critical" articles like lightweight spacecraft undergoing such large motions as slewing, translation, and telescoping/retraction. Suspends flexible article undergoing large rigid-body motion concurrent with vibratory motion, with minimal interaction between suspended article and suspending hardware. Adaptive to active control, which reduces undesirable effects caused by friction, nonlinearity, and mass coupling. Practical for most suspension applications.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Cooley, Victor M.

1991-01-01

139

Solar semidiurnal tidal wind oscillations above the CART site  

SciTech Connect

Harmonic analysis of wintertime data from 915- and 404-MHz radar wind profilers at four sites in North America has identified coherent semidiurnal wind oscillations through the entire depth of the troposphere. These winds are readily apparent above the CART site, as evidenced from analyses of data from the Haviland, KS, radar profiler. The characteristics of this wind system match the characteristics of solar semidiurnal atmospheric tides, as predicted by a simple dynamic model.

Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

1995-03-01

140

Enhancing the Interpretation of a Norm-Referenced Second-Language Test through Criterion Referencing: A Research Assessment of Experience in the TOEIC Testing Context. TOEIC Research Report Number 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to develop guidelines for making interpretive inferences from scores on the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC), a norm-referenced test of English-language listening comprehension (LC) and reading (R) skills, about level of ability to use English in face-to-face conversation, indexed by performance in…

Wilson, Kenneth M.

141

Kinin B1 receptor gene ablation affects hypothalamic CART productionb.  

PubMed

A role for the kinin B1 receptor in energy-homeostatic processes was implicated in previous studies; notably, the studies where kinin B1 receptor knockout mice (B1-/-) were shown to have impaired adiposity, impaired leptin and insulin production, lower feed efficiency, protection from liver steatosis and diet-induced obesity when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In particular, in a model where the B1 receptor is expressed exclusively in the adipose tissue, it rescues the plasma insulin concentration and the weight gain seen in wild type mice. Taking into consideration that leptin participates in the formation of hypothalamic nuclei, which modulate energy expenditure, and feeding behavior, we hypothesized that these brain regions could also be altered in B1-/- mice. We observed for the first time a difference in the gene expression pattern of cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) in the (lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) resulting from the deletion of the kinin B1 receptor gene. The correlation between CART expression in the LHA and the thwarting of diet-induced obesity corroborates independent correlations between CART and obesity. Furthermore, it seems to indicate that the mechanism underlying the 'lean' phenotype of B1-/- mice does not stem solely from changes in peripheral tissues but may also receive contributions from changes in the hypothalamic machinery involved in energy homeostasis processes. PMID:23585179

Torres, Hugo A M; Louise Motta, Fabiana; Sales, Vicencia Micheline; Batista, Carolina; da Silva, Joelcimar M; Vignoli, Thiago; Barnabé, Gabriela F; Goeldner, Francine O; D'Almeida, Vânia; Bittencourt, Jackson C; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Bader, Michael; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Pesquero, João Bosco

2013-07-01

142

A cloud climatology of the Southern Great Plains ARM CART  

SciTech Connect

Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in north-central Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Wichita, Kansas) were selected. The ECR data span a 10-yr period from December 1981 to November 1991. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) provided cloud amounts over the SGP CART for an 8-yr period (1983--91). Cloud amounts were also obtained from Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and Belfort Ceilometer (BLC) cloud-base height measurements made at the SGP CART over a 1-yr period. The annual and diurnal cycles of cloud amount as a function of cloud height and type were analyzed. The three datasets closely agree for total cloud amount. Good agreement was found in the ECR and MPL-BLC monthly low cloud amounts. With the exception of summer and midday in other seasons, the ISCCP low cloud amount estimates are generally 5%--10% less than the others. The ECR high cloud amount estimates are typically 10%--15% greater than those obtained from either the ISCCP or MPL-BLC datasets. The observed diurnal variations of altocumulus support the authors' model results of radiatively induced circulations.

Lazarus, S.M.; Krueger, S.K.; Mace, G.G.

2000-05-15

143

Online Motor Fault Detection and Diagnosis Using a Hybrid FMM-CART Model.  

PubMed

In this brief, a hybrid model combining the fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and the classification and regression tree (CART) for online motor detection and diagnosis tasks is described. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed FMM-CART model, an evaluation with a benchmark data set pertaining to electrical motor bearing faults is first conducted. The results obtained are equivalent to those reported in the literature. Then, a laboratory experiment for detecting and diagnosing eccentricity faults in an induction motor is performed. In addition to producing accurate results, useful rules in the form of a decision tree are extracted to provide explanation and justification for the predictions from FMM-CART. The experimental outcome positively shows the potential of FMM-CART in undertaking online motor fault detection and diagnosis tasks. PMID:24807956

Seera, Manjeevan; Chee Peng Lim

2014-04-01

144

Vibration suppression for a beam-cart system using adaptive fuzzy controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam fixed on a moving cart will be analysis in this study. The moving cart is mounted on the ball-screw mechanism system. Dynamic formulation for control purposes is first investigated for such beam-cart system in this research. The controller has two separate feedback loops for positioning and damping, and the vibration suppression controller is

J. Lin; W.-S. Chao

2008-01-01

145

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

146

Telesynergy v3 AnthroCart Setup Instructions  

Cancer.gov

Document # 300-5141-00 Step 8 Install all six Castor Inserts into the Base Tube and secure with one Castor Screw per Insert. Push the Castors, (locking ones in front) into the Castor Inserts. Step 9 Place the Base Tube Assembly (from Step 8) onto the Vertical Legs of the Shelf Assembly (from Step 7). Attach the Base Tube to the Legs using a total of four Base Tube Screws. TIGHTEN ALL SCREWS. Step 10 Carefully, rotate your Cart over onto the Castors.

147

Diglossia and the Present Language Situation in Greece: A Sociological Approach to the Interpretation of Diglossia and Some Hypotheses on Today's Linguistic Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach to Greek diglossia is proposed, focusing on the differing social functions of the two coexisting Greek languages. Reasons for the success of the 1976 language reform abolishing diglossia, and the resulting revival of the argument questioning Demotic Greek, are examined and concluded to be attributed to a crisis of national identity.…

Frangoudaki, Anna

1992-01-01

148

AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

WHITE, D.A.

1999-12-29

149

Development of Electric Cart with Function of Maintaining/Improving Exercise Ability—Part I: Design of the Electric Cart System—  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains the development of a three-wheeled electric cart that not only is a means of transportation, but also provides the driver with a way of getting some physical exercise. Based on an investigation of the physiological decline accompanying aging, pedaling was chosen to implement the function of maintaining or improving physical strength; and an ergonomically designed pedal unit was mounted on a cart. An interface board that handles inputs and outputs was assembled to simplify the design of the system. Finally, a simple bilateral master-slave control system was built to test the cart. Experimental results on a fabricated cart demonstrate the effectiveness of pedaling and the usability of the system structure.

Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Kiyoshi

150

Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.  

PubMed

The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship. PMID:23084786

Janiuk, Izabela; M?ynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jaros?aw

2013-05-01

151

Rule-Based Classification Systems Using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating ancillary data into image classification can increase classification accuracy and precision. Rule-based classification systems using expert systems or machine learning are a particularly useful means of incorporating ancillary data, but have been difficult to implement. We developed a means for creating a rule-based classification using classification and regression tree analysis (CART), a commonly available statistical method. The CART classifica-

Rick L. Lawrence; Andrea Wrlght

2001-01-01

152

The Interpretation of Pronouns in Spanish Language Acquisition and Breakdown: Evidence for the "Principle B Delay" as a Non-Unitary Phenomenon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well known that English and Dutch children often allow pronouns to refer to local ccommanding antecedents, the so-called Principle B Delay. A similar observation has been made for English agrammatics. This phenomenon, which we call the Pronoun Interpretation Problem (PIP), has been argued to be due to children's and agrammatics' difficulties…

Baauw, Sergio; Cuetos, Fernando

2003-01-01

153

Portable Tritium Cleanup Cart. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The innovative technology demonstrated in the Mound LSDDP was the LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) Clean-Up Cart. Used as a stand-alone cart for scrubbing tritium effluent, it provides a scrubbing process based on catalytic oxidation of tritium. Tritiated water is collected on removable molecular sieve dryers, which can be shipped as low level waste (LLW) below the 1080 curie ''Type A'' limit. Replacement and disposal of the mole sieves and the catalyst-containing reactor is easy and quick. The unit provides a projected decontamination factor of greater than 1000, with a process flow rate of 45 liters/minute. Design features include: mole sieve dryer beds configured in series with moisture monitors to prevent moisture breakthrough, Process flow controllers in the main plumbing loop and air inlet system, process thermocouples which provide process stream and enclosure over-temperature control, and an enclosure which can function as a ventilated hood during normal operating conditions but which can be isolated when tritium concentrations inside the enclosure exceed the pre-selected control setpoint.

None

2002-03-01

154

Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART

Nils Wierup; Anna Gunnarsdóttir; Eva Ekblad; Frank Sundler

2007-01-01

155

Distribution of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide in mature and developing marsupial brain.  

PubMed

CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a neuromodulator involved in feeding, drug reward, stress and cardiovascular function. We have immunohistochemically studied the distribution of the CART peptide in the brains of two adult marsupial species: the brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii) as a representative of polyprotodont marsupials and the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a representative of diprotodont marsupials. We have also examined the distribution of CART during postnatal development in the tammar wallaby. There were similarities and differences both between the two marsupial species and between the marsupials and eutherians in CART distribution. Both marsupials showed immunoreactivity to CART in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, extended amygdala, the supraoptic, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, somatosensory and auditory nuclei of the brainstem, vagal/solitary complex, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus and presumptive presympathetic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla, as has been seen in eutherians. On the other hand, immunoreactivity to CART was weak in or absent from isocortical areas, and immunoreactivity to CART was poor or minimal in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of both species; regions where immunoreactivity to CART is very strong in the brains of eutherians. During development, CART was present at birth (P0) in the lateral trigeminal ganglion, spinal trigeminal tract and the vagal sensorimotor complex, but did not appear in mid- or forebrain regions until much later (from P37). These anatomical findings indicate that although CART is likely to serve very similar functions in both eutherians and marsupials, there are potentially functionally significant differences between the two mammalian groups. PMID:20881368

Ashwell, K W S; Mai, J K

2010-01-01

156

An examination of the language and interpretations of ‘Standard one’ for initial teacher training in England: professional values and practice—outcomes or opportunities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an analysis of school tutors' assessments of aspects of Standard one, professional values and practice (DfES\\/TTA 2002) for secondary trainee teachers, together with interview data from a sample of trainee teachers and their school tutors\\/assessors. The paper examines teachers' interpretations of four sub?categories within this Standard and considers these in terms of three key questions:1.?How is the terminology

Jennifer Harrison

2006-01-01

157

National Conversations in the UK: Using a Language-Based Approach to Interpret Three Key Education Policy Documents (2001-2007) from England, Scotland and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines three key education policy documents from Scotland, England and Wales in the eight years after devolution. A close textual analysis of the language of each document is undertaken, which is supported by the authors' insider knowledge of these countries. Findings are presented from analysis of a group of selected words, as well…

Laugharne, Janet; Baird, Adela

2009-01-01

158

La Carte du Ciel, histoire et actualité d'un projet scientifique international  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cet ouvrage collectif analyse la genèse, le déploiement, l'abandon et les résurgences récentes de la Carte du Ciel. Au-delà de son échec avéré, la Carte du Ciel fut en effet le premier projet international astronomique de grande envergure, remarquable notamment par son organisation à l'échelle du globe. Bien plus que par son objet ou les techniques mobilisées pour sa réalisation, c'est par cette vision que la Carte du Ciel ouvre une nouvelle ère pour l'astronomie.

Lamy, J.

2008-06-01

159

Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

1990-01-01

160

STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

1989-01-01

161

Modeling of the b-Cart Based Agent System in B2B EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In B2B EC area, the need for agent based system for desktop purchasing is increasing. To simulate agent based B2B e-Commerce,\\u000a we model the b-cart based B2B agent framework. B-cart implies a buyer’s shopping cart which a buyer carries to the seller’s\\u000a sites. The modeled system is designed to provide an effective architecture for employee’s direct desktop purchasing from external

Gyoo Gun Lim; Soo-hyun Park; Jinhwa Kim

2004-01-01

162

Portable Tritium Cleanup Cart. Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area. OST/TMS-ID-2974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The innovative technology described in this report and demonstrated at the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (MEMP), Mound Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP), was the Tritium Cleanup Cart designed and built by Lawrence Live...

2002-01-01

163

Analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.  

PubMed

Our study is a cross-sectional analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths for years 2003 and 2004. We used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology to classify undetermined intent Maryland poisoning deaths as either unintentional or suicidal poisonings. The predictive ability of the selected set of variables (i.e., poisoned in the home or workplace, location type, where poisoned, place of death, poison type, victim race and age, year of death) was extremely good. Of the 301 test cases, only eight were misclassified by the CART regression tree. Of 1,204 undetermined intent poisoning deaths, CART classified 903 as suicides and 301 as unintentional deaths. The major strength of our study is the use of CART to differentiate with a high degree of accuracy between unintentional and suicidal poisoning deaths among Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths. PMID:18999168

Pamer, Carol; Serpi, Tracey; Finkelstein, Joseph

2008-01-01

164

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide ...

R. A. Peppler P. J. Lamb D. L. Sisterson

1998-01-01

165

32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of âgo-carts,â âminibikes,â and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply with applicable Georgia State Law and Fort Stewart traffic laws and regulations contained in...

2013-07-01

166

STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

1989-01-01

167

Methods and Performance of a Three-Dimensional Whole-Core Transport Code DeCART  

Microsoft Academic Search

DeCART is a three-dimensional whole-core transport code capable of performing direct core calculations at power generating conditions without involving a priori homogenized few-group constant generation. In this paper, the methods of DeCART, which are characterized by the planar method of characteristics (MOC) solutions, the cell based coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation, the subgroup method for resonance treatment and subpin

Han Gyu Joo; Jin Young Cho; Kang Seog Kim; Chung Chan Lee; Sung Quun Zee

2004-01-01

168

Peripherally injected CCK-8S activates CART positive neurons of the paraventricular nucleus in rats  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the short-term inhibition of food intake. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has been observed in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of CART peptide inhibits food intake in rodents. The aim of the study was to determine whether intraperitoneally (ip) injected CCK-8S affects neuronal activity of PVN-CART neurons. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 6 or 10 ?g/kg CCK-8S or 0.15 M NaCl ip (n = 4/group). The number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons was determined in the PVN, arcuate nucleus (ARC), and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). CCK-8S dose-dependently increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the PVN (mean ± SEM: 102 ± 6 vs. 150 ± 5 neurons/section, p < 0.05) and compared to vehicle treated rats (18 ± 7, p < 0.05 vs. 6 and 10 ?g/kg CCK-8S). CCK-8S at both doses induced an increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the NTS (65 ± 13, p < 0.05, and 182 ± 16, p < 0.05). No effect on the number of c-Fos neurons was observed in the ARC. Immunostaining for CART and c-Fos revealed a dose-dependent increase of activated CART neurons (19 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 7; p < 0.05), only few activated CART neuron were observed in the vehicle group (1 ± 0). The present observation shows that CCK-8S injected ip induces an increase in neuronal activity in PVN-CART neurons and suggests that CART neurons in the PVN may play a role in the mediation of peripheral CCK-8S's anorexigenic effects.

Noetzel, Steffen; Inhoff, Tobias; Goebel, Miriam; Tache, Yvette; Veh, Rudiger W.; Bannert, Norbert; Grotzinger, Carsten; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Monnikes, Hubert; Kobelt, Peter

2014-01-01

169

Further studies on the anatomical distribution of CART by in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is a novel, brain-enriched mRNA which predicts a novel protein without homology to any known protein or peptide. In situ hybridization studies have identified many expression sites in the brain and periphery as well as clarify its expression in three known areas. CART mRNA has been localized to ganglion cells of the retina, lamina

Pastor R Couceyro; Ersin O Koylu; Michael J Kuhar

1997-01-01

170

Using Direct Measurement Video to find the acceleration of a rocket-powered cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video of a student accelerating across a stage on a cart powered by a releasing compressed carbon dioxide from a fire extinguisher can be used to analyze constant acceleration. This video includes a to-scale ruler that students can use to find displacement, as well as a frame counter that can be used to find elapsed time. This lesson is meant to be a direct application of using the kinematic equations to solve for the acceleration of the cart.

Johnson, Rebekah

171

Interpreting Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is to give you practice preparing for and interpreting in math education settings. 1. Activate your extra linguistic knowledge (ELK) in preparation for interpreting a math lesson. Visit the Solving Equations website and familiarize yourself with the steps for solving linear equations. Clarify any concepts you do not understand. (Remember that you cannot interpret what you do not understand.) Solving Equations 2. Begin working on ...

2007-10-01

172

Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

2011-01-01

173

Advancing monthly streamflow prediction accuracy of CART models using ensemble learning paradigms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryStreamflow forecasting is one of the most important steps in the water resources planning and management. Ensemble techniques such as bagging, boosting and stacking have gained popularity in hydrological forecasting in the recent years. The study investigates the potential usage of two ensemble learning paradigms (i.e., bagging; stochastic gradient boosting) in building classification and regression trees (CARTs) ensembles to advance the streamflow prediction accuracy. The study, initially, investigates the use of classification and regression trees for monthly streamflow forecasting and employs a support vector regression (SVR) model as the benchmark model. The analytic results indicate that CART outperforms SVR in both training and testing phases. Although the obtained results of CART model in training phase are considerable, it is not in testing phase. Thus, to optimize the prediction accuracy of CART for monthly streamflow forecasting, we incorporate bagging and stochastic gradient boosting which are rooted in same philosophy, advancing the prediction accuracy of weak learners. Comparing with the results of bagged regression trees (BRTs) and stochastic gradient boosted regression trees (GBRTs) models possess satisfactory monthly streamflow forecasting performance than CART and SVR models. Overall, it is found that ensemble learning paradigms can remarkably advance the prediction accuracy of CART models in monthly streamflow forecasting.

Erdal, Halil Ibrahim; Karakurt, Onur

2013-01-01

174

The Private Language Argument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

Baker, Gordon

1998-01-01

175

Portraits of Scientists: Increase Lapham's Cartes-de-visites Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increase Lapham came west to Wisconsin via New York and Kentucky in 1836, and he soon established himself as one of the state's premier experts on the natural history of the Badger State. In fact, he was the state's first scientist, and by the time he died in 1875, he had created the first accurate maps of the state, made investigations into local effigy mounds, and provided his services in a host of different ways to the betterment of Wisconsinites. During these years, he also maintained correspondence with the leading geologists, botanists and other scientists of his day. He kept an album of photographs of these individuals, and this forms the basis of this online collection offered by the Wisconsin Historical Society. Merely by browsing throughout the collection, visitors will be able to view images of noted geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, botanist Asa Gray, and Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz. The collection is rounded out by an essay on these cartes-de-visite and hyper-text links to some of Lapham's seminal works, such as his 1855 book, "The Antiquities of Wisconsin".

176

CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

2011-05-01

177

Recombinant CART peptide induces c-Fos expression in central areas involved in control of feeding behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that the hypothalamic neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated-transcript) is a leptin dependent endogenous satiety factor in the rat. In the present study we confirm and extend our previous observations by showing that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administered CART(42–89) dose-dependently inhibits 3-h food intake in food restricted rats with a lowest effective dose of 0.5 ?g. CART also potently inhibits NPY-induced

Niels Vrang; Mads Tang-Christensen; Philip J Larsen; Peter Kristensen

1999-01-01

178

241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)  

SciTech Connect

Shop test of the sludge mobilization cart system to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

WHITE, D.A.

2000-01-27

179

241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)  

SciTech Connect

Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

WHITE, D.A.

2000-03-01

180

Blockade of central GLP-1 receptors prevents CART-induced hypophagia and brain c-Fos expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central administration of both CART and GLP-1 reduces feeding and increases c-Fos in brain areas associated with food intake. To determine whether aspects of CART's effects were mediated through GLP-1's action, we examined whether the GLP-1 receptor antagonist des-His1-Glu9-exendin-4 (EX) blocked CART-induced feeding inhibition, and c-Fos activation. An i.c.v. dose of 100?g EX blocked the feeding inhibitory action of 1?g

Susan Aja; Cassandra Ewing; Jennifer Lin; Jayson Hyun; Timothy H. Moran

2006-01-01

181

High-efficiency InGaN-GaN MQW green light-emitting diodes with CART and DBR structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and charge asymmetric resonance tunneling (CART) structures were applied to nitride-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance their output efficiency It was found that we can reduce the forward voltage at 20 mA from 3.7 to 3.2 V with the inclusion of CART structure. It was also found that the electroluminescence peak wavelength of the CART

C. H. Chen; S. J. Chang; Y. K. Su; G. C. Chi; J. K. Sheu; J. F. Chen

2002-01-01

182

Changing predictors of mortality over time from cART start: implications for care  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine predictors of mortality and changes in those predictors over time on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in South Africa. Design A cohort study. Methods Using routine clinic data with up to 4 years follow-up after ART initiation and with death ascertainment from a national vital statistics register, we used proportional hazards modeling to assess baseline and time-updated predictors of mortality, and changes in strength of those predictors over time on cART. Furthermore, we compared CD4 count among individuals who died by duration on cART. Results 15,060 subjects (64% men, median CD4 count 127 cells/mm3) started antiretroviral therapy between January 2003 and January 2008. Over a median follow-up of 1.8 years, 2,658 subjects died. The baseline characteristics of WHO stage, haemoglobin, CD4 count, HIV RNA level, and symptoms were all associated with mortality during the first 12 months of cART but lost association thereafter. However time updated factors of CD4 count, body mass index, symptoms, anemia, and HIV RNA suppression remained strong predictors of death. Most recent CD4 count prior to death rose from 71 during the first 3 months of cART to 175 cells/mm3 after >3 years of cART. Conclusion Over 4 years of cART, risk of death declined and associations with mortality changed. An increase in CD4 count at death and changing associations with mortality may suggest a shift in causes of death, possibly from opportunistic infections to other infections and chronic illnesses.

Hoffmann, Christopher J; Fielding, Katherine L; Johnston, Victoria; Charalambous, Salome; Innes, Craig; Moore, Richard D; Chaisson, Richard E; Grant, Alison D; Churchyard, Gavin J

2013-01-01

183

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

184

Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

2013-01-01

185

Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School ? la Carte Food Availability*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school à la carte lines for schools’ ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006–May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each school’s à la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered “healthy” (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on à la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of “healthfulness of foods on à la carte lines,” especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive à la carte assessment tool.

Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

2010-01-01

186

Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.

Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.

2010-09-01

187

High incidence of intermittent care in HIV-1-infected patients in Curaçao before and after starting cART.  

PubMed

Retention in care is one of the major challenges to scaling up and maximizing the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). High attrition rates have been reported in the Caribbean region, varying from 6% to 23%. We studied the incidence of and risk factors for intermittent care in a cohort of adult HIV-1-positive patients, who entered into care in Curaçao between January 2005 and July 2009. A total of 214 therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected patients aged 15 years or older, entered HIV care between January 2005 and July 2009. Intermittent care was defined as at least one period of 365 days or longer in which there was no HIV care contact in Curaçao. Cox regression models were used to identify characteristics associated with time to intermittent care. In all, 203 (95%) patients could be classified as having intermittent or continuous care. The incidence of intermittent care before starting cART was 25.4 per 100 person years observation (PYO), whilst it was 6.1 per 100 PYO after starting cART. Being born outside Curaçao was associated with intermittent care before and after starting cART. Time from diagnosis to entry into care was an independent predictor for intermittent care before starting cART. Younger age was independently associated with intermittent care after starting cART. Half of the patients returned to care after intermitting care. Upon returning to care, median CD4 count was 264 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 189-401) for those who intermitted care before starting cART, and 146 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 73-436) in those who intermitted care after starting cART. In conclusion, the incidence of intermitting care is high in Curaçao, especially before starting cART, and intermitting care before starting cART is an independent predictor for starting cART late. PMID:23428308

Hermanides, H S; Holman, R; Gras, L; Winkel, C N; Gerstenbluth, I; de Wolf, F; Duits, A J

2013-01-01

188

Quantum interpretations  

SciTech Connect

Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.

1987-10-01

189

Spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth at the ARM CART Site  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to better characterize the inputs to radiative transfer models and research-grade global climate simulation models (GCMs) the columnar aerosol loading, measured as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), has been computed for five facilities within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site. Characterization of the AOD reported here show clear evidence that the spatial and temporal gradient exists at a much finer linear scale than those of the CART site. The annual variations of median AOD are on the order of 0.30 at all five facilities. The Spearman correlation and varimax-rotated PCA indicated the AOD values vary consistently across the CART site. The Northwest corner facility (EF-1) was the single facility that behaved differently from the rest. This sub-GCM grid variation can not be ignored if the model is to be used to accurately predict future climate change.

Nash, T.M.; Cheng, M.D.

1998-02-01

190

Performing Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

2013-01-01

191

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) for Kentucky: Horse Farm Owner Dies When Pinned Under Golf Cart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 31, 2004, a 45-year old female horse farm owner (decedent) died when she was pinned under a golf cart. The woman had driven a gas-powered golf cart from her house on the farm to the horse barn to muck stalls and put horses in the barn. After dr...

2005-01-01

192

Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of

Lenka Maletínská; Jana Maixnerová; Resha Matyšková; Renata Haugvicová; Zdeno Pirník; Alexander Kiss; Blanka Železná

2008-01-01

193

Evolutionary design of Fuzzy Logic Controllers with the techniques Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm for cart-pole problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the Genetic Algorithm learning paradigm applied to train the ANNs for balancing the cart-pole balancing system. The studied system is a classic control problem namely “cart-pole” problem. We will apply the unconventional techniques Artificial Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic to a classic control problem \\

Reena Thakur; Vinay Kr Singh; Manu Pratap Singh

2010-01-01

194

Functional domains of paired-like homeoprotein Cart1 and the relationship between dimerization and transcription activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : Cart1 encodes the paired-like homeo- domain in the central portion of the gene, and plays a crucial role in the developmental lineage of bone and cartilage, especially in head formation. However, its transactivation mechanism is still poorly understood, including the target gene. Here, we report biochemical dissections of Cart1 functional domains and a relationship between dimerization and transcription

Keizo Furukawa; Takashi Iioka; Mariko Morishita; Akira Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Shindo; Hiroyuki Namba; Shunichi Yamashita; Tomoo Tsukazaki

2002-01-01

195

Top Ten Mistakes of Shopping Cart Design Revisited: A Survey of 500 Top E-Commerce Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A list of common mistakes with e-commerce shopping cart design were identified in a previous issue of Usability News. This article revisits that list and reviews how 500 of the top Internet retail sites of today implemented their shopping cart design.

Barbara S. Chaparro; Shivashankar Naidu

196

Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

1990-01-01

197

A combined atmospheric radiative transfer (CART) model and its applications for cirrus clouds simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast atmospheric radiative transfer model called Combined Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (CART) has been developed to rapidly calculate atmospheric transmittance and background radiance in the wavenumber range from 1 to 25000 cm-1 with spectral resolution of 1 cm-1. The spectral radiative properties of cirrus clouds at various effective sizes, optical thicknesses, and altitudes from visible to infrared wavelength region are simulated using the CART. The analyses show that the properties of cirrus clouds might be retrieved from the satellite-base spectral characteristics of cirrus clouds based on these simulations.

Wei, Heli; Cao, Ya'nan; Chen, Xiuhong

2012-11-01

198

Actions of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide on regulation of appetite and hypothalamo–pituitary axes in vitro and in vivo in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and CART peptide are abundant in hypothalamic nuclei controlling anterior pituitary function. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of CART peptide results in neuronal activation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), rich in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRH) and thyrotrophin-releasing factor (TRH) immunoreactive neurons. The aims of this study were three-fold. Firstly, to examine the effects of CART peptide on hypothalamic

S. A. Stanley; C. J. Small; K. G. Murphy; E. Rayes; C. R. Abbott; L. J. Seal; D. G. A. Morgan; D. Sunter; C. L. Dakin; M. S. Kim; R. Hunter; M. Kuhar; M. A. Ghatei; S. R. Bloom

2001-01-01

199

Volunteer Community Language Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

200

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public.

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

201

On the formulation of interpretations.  

PubMed

The author analyses several interpretations published by different authors from the point of view of their linguistic form and the type of language used, in order to determine the therapeutic effect and the manner of working of each. Two types can be distinguished: literal-explanatory language and metaphorical language. Each performs a different function. Metaphorical language is proper to the primary process; it is related to displacement and condensation; it reactivates the most primitive levels of the mind; it serves the purpose of expressing affects and emotions. Literal-explanatory language is proper to the secondary process; it is related to logical-formal thought; it reactivates the most highly developed levels of the mind; it serves a referential, informative and explanatory purpose. A knowledge of the function of each of these forms of language allows the psychoanalyst to direct the interpretations he formulates to either the primary or the secondary process as befits the clinical requirements. PMID:2228442

Allegro, L A

1990-01-01

202

Cartes de Salvador Espriu a Vilama Devi i a Manuel de Seabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vint-i-una cartes de Salvador Espriu adreçades a Vimala Devi i a Manuel de Seabra sobre l'obra literària de Vimala Devi, sobre el procés de traducció de 'La pell de brau' al portuguès i a l'esperanto a càrrec de Manuel de Seabra i, finalment, sobre l'ideari iberista de l'escriptor català.

Víctor Martínez-Gil

2005-01-01

203

A Breakfast Buffet Cart as an Alternative to Regular Meal Service to Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To implement an alternative meal service for oncology patients that results in increased calorie and protein intake.A breakfast buffet cart was initiated on the oncology unit of a large, urban, public, teaching hospital as an alternative meal service. Meeting the nutritional needs of cancer patients is often difficult due to the many side effects of cancer and it's

C. L. Murray

1997-01-01

204

An Evaluation of an All Commuted Ration Ashore/a La Carte System for the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an evaluation of a food service system wherein all personnel at a Navy base were placed on a monetary allowance (Commuted Ration) and all food was priced a la carte. The result of placing personnel formerly on Rations in Kind (RIK) wa...

P. Brandler M. M. Davis W. Wilkinson L. Symington D. D. Schnackenberg

1977-01-01

205

La phase critique de la Carte du Ciel à Paris, 1920-1940.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce chapitre revient sur la "phase critique" de la Carte du Ciel à Paris, entre 1920 et 1940. Il examine en détail la crise que traverse l'astronomie française et l'Observatoire de Paris dans l'entre-deux guerres. La productivité de l'établissement parisien est jugée insuffisante et les conditions climatiques difficiles l'empêchent de développer une activité soutenue. Une délocalisation, loin de la ville, est envisagée. Dans ce contexte délicat, la légitimité de la Carte du Ciel est explicitement remise en cause. En 1930, Henri Mineur se voit confié par Benjamin Baillaud, directeur de l'Observatoire de Paris, un programme de développement de la Carte du Ciel. Il suggère la création d'un laboratoire de statistique stellaire permettant notamment d'inventorier les amas stellaires. Mineur n'est pas soutenu dans son projet et rejoint, en 1933, le service d'astrophysique. Finalement les décisions de l'Union Astronomique Internationale et les financements du CNR prolongent, dans les années 1930, les activités de la Carte du Ciel.

Saint-Martin, A.

2008-06-01

206

West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

207

Energy and passivity based control of the double inverted pendulum on a cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the design of a nonlinear controller for the double inverted pendulum (DIP), a system consisting of two inverted pendulums mounted on a cart. The swingup controller bringing the pendulums from any initial position to the unstable up-up position is designed based on passivity properties and energy shaping. While the swingup controller drives the DIP into a region

Wei Zhong; Helmut Rock

2001-01-01

208

What Is a Programming Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

Wold, Allen

1983-01-01

209

The nucleus accumbens 5-HTR4-CART pathway ties anorexia to hyperactivity  

PubMed Central

In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this ‘paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors (5-HTR4) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR1B self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR4 in the absence of 5-HTR1B, associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR4 overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR4 knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR4. Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR4 suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR4/CART pathway establishes a ‘tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules.

Jean, A; Laurent, L; Bockaert, J; Charnay, Y; Dusticier, N; Nieoullon, A; Barrot, M; Neve, R; Compan, V

2012-01-01

210

Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed CREB and serine 133 phospho-CREB binding to the CART gene proximal promoter  

PubMed Central

Both over expression of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and intra-accumbal injection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, have been shown to decrease cocaine reward. Also, over expression of CREB in the rat NAc increased CART mRNA and peptide levels, but it is not known if this was due to a direct action of P-CREB on the CART gene promoter. The goal of this study was to test if CREB and P-CREB bound directly to the CRE site in the CART promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. ChIP assay with anti-CREB antibodies showed an enrichment of the CART promoter fragment containing the CRE region over IgG precipitated material, a non-specific control. Forskolin, which was known to increase CART mRNA levels in GH3 cells, was utilized to show that the drug increased levels of P-CREB protein and P-CREB binding to the CART promoter CRE-containing region. A region of the c-Fos promoter containing a CRE cis-regulatory element was previously shown to bind P-CREB, and it was used here as a positive control. These data suggest that the effects of CREB over expression on blunting cocaine reward could be, at least in part, attributed to the increased expression of the CART gene by direct interaction of P-CREB with the CART promoter CRE site, rather than by some indirect action.

Rogge, George A; Shen, Li-Ling; Kuhar, Michael J.

2010-01-01

211

Language for Semantic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semantic analysis is important for compilers. In the APTS program transformation system, semantics is specified by rules in the language RSL. The semantic rules are interpreted by APTS to generate the semantic information of the program, which is then use...

J. Cai

1993-01-01

212

Geometry and Structural Properties for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) from Model Tuning: August 25, 2003--November 30, 2003  

SciTech Connect

The Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) is a modified Westinghouse WWG-0600 machine rated at 600 kW. It is located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Boulder, Colorado, and has been installed to test new control schemes for power and load regulation. In its original configuration, the WWG-0600 uses a synchronous generator, fluid coupling, and hydraulic collective pitch actuation. However, the CART is fitted with an induction generator, rigid coupling, and individual electromechanical pitch actuators. The rotor runs upwind of the tower and consists of two blades and a teetering hub. In order to design advanced control schemes for the CART, representative computational models are essential.

Stol, K. A.

2004-09-01

213

SQL à la Carte –Toward Tailor-made Data Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of the structured query language (SQL) continuously increases. Extensions of SQL for special domains like stream processing or sensor networks come with own extensions, more or less unrelated to the standard. In general, underlying DBMS support only a subset of SQL plus vendor specific extensions. In this paper, we analyze application domains where special SQL dialects are needed

Marko Rosenmuller; Norbert Siegmund; Sagar Sunkle; Sven Apel; Thomas Leich; Gunter Saake

2009-01-01

214

76 FR 61655 - Definition of Part 15 Auditory Assistance Device  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...anyone at any location for simultaneous language interpretation, where the spoken words...anyone at any location for simultaneous language interpretation. DATES: Comments must...accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by...

2011-10-05

215

Discourse coherence and gesture interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In face-to-face conversation, communicators orchestrate multimodal contributions that meaning- fully combine the linguistic resources of spoken language and the visuo-spatial affordances of gesture. In this paper, we characterise this meaningful combination in terms of the COHERENCE of gesture and speech. Descriptive analyses illustrate the diverse ways gesture interpretation can supplement and extend the interpretation of prior gestures and accompanying speech.

Alex Lascarides; Matthew Stone

2009-01-01

216

Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

217

Programming Language Description Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the middle of the twentieth century, hundreds of programming languages have been designed and implemented – and new\\u000a ones are continually emerging. The syntax of a programming language can usually be described quite precisely and efficiently\\u000a using formal grammars. However, the formal description of its semantics is much more challenging. Language designers, implementers\\u000a and programmers commonly regard formal semantic

Peter D. Mosses

218

Systemic 5-hydroxy- l-tryptophan down-regulates the arcuate CART mRNA level in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system correlates with the hypothalamic expression of cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene. Rats received intraperitoneal 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP; a single or three daily injections at a dose of 100 mg\\/kg\\/10 ml), and CART mRNA level in the hypothalamus was examined by in situ hybridization at different time points. The 5-HT contents of

Si Ho Choi; Bum Sup Kwon; Thomas A. Houpt; Hoon Taek Lee; Dong Goo Kim; Jeong Won Jahng

2003-01-01

219

Society and the Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on sociocultural factors in the second language classroom includes: "Autonomy and Ideology in the English Language Classroom" (Hywel Coleman); "Safe-Talk: Collusion in Apartheid Education" (J. Keith Chick); "English Language Education in Japan" (Virginia LoCastro); "Shadow Puppets and Language Lessons: Interpreting

Coleman, Hywel, Ed.

220

Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

221

Foreign Languages and Careers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation

Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

1974-01-01

222

Carte du Ciel plates, San Fernando Zone, using a flatbed scanner.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results as to the astrometric precision obtained upon digitization by a flat bed scanner relative to that of a PDS. Preliminary results indicate a final, internal accuracy of ~ 1.5micro in x and ~ 1.0micro in y for the mean of two scans. The results given are for actual `Carte du Ciel' plate material, San Fernando zone, of the collections at Real Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), Cádiz (España).

Vicente, B.; Abad, C.

2003-11-01

223

Ethnoveterinary practices of owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad City (Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was planned to investigate the ethnoveterinary methods practiced by the owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad Metropolis (Pakistan). During a 7-year-period (November 1992–November 1999), 200 owners of draught camels working in the city were interviewed. Information concerning the ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of common disorders of digestive tract (indigestion, colic and diarrhea), respiratory tract (cold\\/rhinitis,

Ghulam Muhammad; Muhammad Zargham Khan; Muhammad Hammad Hussain; Zafar Iqbal; Muhammad Iqbal; Muhammad Athar

2005-01-01

224

Functions of Alx3, Alx4 and Cart1 during craniofacial development in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aristaless-related genes are Paired-related homeobox genes that by definition encode a second strongly conserved domain at their C-terminal end, the aristaless-box . During my Ph. D. project I studied the functions of a specific subset of these highly related genes, Alx3, Alx4 and Cart1, during craniofacial development in the mouse. They are expressed in overlapping patterns in developing limb and

A. Beverdam

2001-01-01

225

Interpretive model for a ''a concurrency method''  

SciTech Connect

''A Concurrency Method'' is a language embodying the data flow characteristics of data-drive and single-assignment. The interpreter for ''A Concurrency Method'' models a physical machine with an architecture directed toward this language. The interpreter is a complete system with scheduler, editor, load balancer and message handler. This model embraces some architectural features in other data flow machines and models and combines these features in a manner most conducive to this language. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Carter, C.L.

1986-06-01

226

Efficient interpretation by transforming data types and patterns to functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the stepwise construction of an efficient interpreter for lazy functional programming languages like Haskell and Clean. The interpreter is realized by first transforming the source language to the intermediate language SAPL (Simple Application Programming Language) consisting of pure functions only. During this transformation algebraic data types and pattern-based function definitions are mapped to functions. This

Jan Martin Jansen; Pieter W. M. Koopman; Rinus Plasmeijer

2006-01-01

227

Apparent Surface Reflectance of the DOE ARM SGP CART Central Site Derived from AVIRIS Spectral Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is to acquire in situ and remote sensing data to improve cloud and atmospheric radiative models and parameterizations. As a consequence of this program, a large number of atmosphere and surface measurements are being acquired at the ARM SGP CART central site. NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) overflew this site on August 1, 1997. AVIRIS measures the upwelling spectral solar radiance from 400 to 2500 nm at 10-nm intervals. From 20 km altitude, these calibrated spectra are acquired as images of 11 by up to 800 km with 20-by-20 m spatial resolution. These data were acquired at the ARM SGP CART Central Site to first investigate derivation of atmospheric parameters from the measured spectra, second study the variation of these parameters, and third demonstrate the inversion of the calibrated radiance spectra to apparent surface reflectance. These objectives have been pursued with AVIRIS data at other sites for atmospheric water vapor and derivation of apparent surface reflectance.

Green, Robert O.

1998-01-01

228

Investigating spatial climate relations using CARTs: An application to persistent hot days in a multimodel ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study introduces Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) as a new tool to explore spatial relationships between different climate patterns in a multimodel ensemble. We demonstrate the potential of CARTs by a simple case study based on time-aggregated patterns of circulation (represented by average levels and variabilities of sea level pressure, SLP) and land surface conditions (diagnosed from the time-averaged surface water balance) from regional climate model simulations (ENSEMBLES) over Europe. These patterns are systematically screened for their relevance to the spatial distribution of persistent hot days. Present-day (ERA40) and future (A1B) climate conditions are analyzed. A CART analysis of the ERA40 reanalysis complements the results for the present-day simulations. In many models, long persistent hot days concur with low variabilities of SLP and high water balance deficits both in present and future. However, for the change patterns (A1B minus ERA40) the analysis indicates that the most robust feature is the link between aggravating persistent hot days and increasing surface water deficits. These results highlight that the factors controlling (in our case spatial) variability are not necessarily the same as those controlling associated climate change signals. Since the analysis yields a rather qualitative output, the model bias problems encountered when studying ensemble averages are alleviated.

Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

2011-07-01

229

Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

Hahn, Andrew S.

2012-01-01

230

Fuzzy coordinator compensation for balancing control of cart-seesaw system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The control of the cart-seesaw system is especially difficult since it is an underactuated mechanism (three degrees of freedom and only two inputs). This research develops a balancing approach for a novel SAMS model, called the cart-seesaw system, using fuzzy logic and fuzzy coordinator compensation to drive the sliding carts and keep the seesaw angle close to zero in the equilibrium state. Experimental results indicate that utilizing the proposed control methodology significantly enhances the performance. Moreover, the presentation of the fuzzy balancing controller is not considerably affected by changes in the environmental parameters, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the fuzzy controller in minimizing the seesaw tilt angle in the time domain, although the system is caused by unpredicted loading variation. Moreover, the experimental results indicate the usefulness and robustness of the proposed fuzzy control methodology. Furthermore, the proposed software/hardware platform can be beneficial for standardizing laboratory equipment and developing amusement apparatus.

Lin, J.; Guo, S.-Y.; Chang, Julian

2011-12-01

231

Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide attenuates dopamine- and cocaine-mediated locomotor activity in both male and female rats: lack of sex differences.  

PubMed

Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript peptide (CART peptide) is known for having an inhibitory effect on dopamine (DA)- and cocaine-mediated actions and is postulated to be a homeostatic, regulatory factor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Some sex differences in cocaine-mediated locomotor activity (LMA) and in the expression and function of CART peptide have been reported. However, it is not known if the inhibitory effect of CART peptide on cocaine-mediated LMA is sexually dimorphic. In this study, the effects of CART 55-102 on LMA due to intra-NAc DA and i.p. cocaine were determined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results show that CART 55-102 blunted or reduced both the DA- and cocaine-induced LMA in both males and females. In conclusion, CART peptide is effective in blunting DA- and cocaine-mediated LMA in both males and females. PMID:24630272

Job, Martin O; Perry, Joanna; Shen, Li L; Kuhar, Michael J

2014-04-01

232

The Use of Gestures in Consecutive Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to show the intrinsic connection between the verbal and nonverbal components of human communication. It suggests that consecutive interpreters should not transform spoken language into what amounts to an incomplete form of the corresponding written language, but that they should transfer gestures of the source language and…

von Raffler-Engel, Walburga; And Others

233

Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons: histochemical relationship to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin\\/hypocretin and neuropeptide Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demonstrations of the feeding-inhibitory properties of putative peptides derived from cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) raise the question of interactions between CART peptides and other messenger molecules implicated in the control of food intake. The present study investigated the histochemical relationship of CART to the neuropeptides thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), orexin\\/hypocretin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the

Christian Broberger

1999-01-01

234

Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs? — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates.

235

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in myenteric plexus neurons of the rat ileum and co-localization with choline acetyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) encodes a novel brain-enriched protein whose features are reminiscent of a neurotransmitter propeptide. We have now localized CART peptide(s) in the gastrointestinal tract by immunohisto- chemical methods. Polyclonal antisera raised to CART peptide 106-129 stained neuronal cell bodies and fibers in rat ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle tissue prepara- tions. Electron microscopic analysis of thin

Pastor Couceyro; Maryse Paquet; Ersin Koylu; Michael J. Kuhar; Yoland Smith

1998-01-01

236

Building interpreters by composing monads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exhibit a set of functions coded in Haskell that can be used as building blocks to construct a variety of interpreters for Lisp-like languages. The building blocks are joined merely through functional composition. Each building block contributes code to support a specific feature, such as numbers, continuations, functions calls, or nondeterminism. The result of composing some number of building

Guy L. Steele Jr.

1994-01-01

237

A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

Robison, Arch Douglas

1987-01-01

238

Foreign Language Day--A Living Language Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

St. Bonaventure University holds a Language Day each spring, hosting some 3,900 area junior high and high school students. The buildings and facilities of the university campus are used, and activities include language competitions (exhibits, interpretative readings, language productions, audio-visual presentations and essays); a fiesta; foreign…

Wood, Paul W.

239

Pesticides in urban multiunit dwellings: hazard identification using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.  

PubMed

Many units in public housing or other low-income urban dwellings may have elevated pesticide residues, given recurring infestation, but it would be logistically and economically infeasible to sample a large number of units to identify highly exposed households to design interventions. Within this study, our aim was to devise a low-cost approach to identify homes in public housing with high levels of pesticide residues, using information that would allow the housing authority and residents to determine optimal strategies to reduce household exposures. As part of the Healthy Public Housing Initiative, we collected environmental samples from 42 public housing apartments in Boston, MA, in 2002 and 2003 and gathered housing characteristics; for example, household demographics and self-reported pesticide use information, considering information available with and without a home visit. Focusing on five organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, we used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to disaggregate the pesticide concentration data into homogenous subsamples according to housing characteristics, which allowed us to identify households and associated networks impacted by the mismanagement of pesticides. The CART analysis demonstrated reasonable sensitivity and specificity given more extensive household information but generally poor performance using only information available without a home visit. Apartments with high concentrations of cyfluthrin, a pyrethroid of interest given that it is a restricted use pesticide, were more likely to be associated with Hispanic residents who resided in their current apartment for more than 5 yr, consistent with documented pesticide usage patterns. We conclude that using CART as an exploratory technique to better understand the home characteristics associated with elevated pesticide levels may be a viable approach for risk management in large multiunit housing developments. PMID:18939776

Julien, Rhona; Levy, Jonathan I; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Hauser, Russ; Spengler, John D; Canales, Robert A; Hynes, H Patricia

2008-10-01

240

Predicting acute kidney injury among burn patients in the 21st century: a CART analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Historically, acute kidney injury (AKI) carried a deadly prognosis in the burn population. Our aim with this study was to provide a modern description of AKI in the burn population and to develop a prediction tool for identifying patients at risk for late AKI. Methods A large multi-institution database, the Glue Grant's trauma related database (TRDB), was used to characterize AKI in a cohort of critically ill burn patients. We defined AKI according to the RIFLE criteria and categorized AKI as early, late or progressive. We then used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to create a decision tree with data obtained from the first 48 hours of admission to predict which subset of patients would develop late AKI. We tested the accuracy of this decision tree in a separate, single-institution cohort of burn patients who met the same criteria for entry into the Glue Grant study Results Of the 220 total patients analyzed from the Glue Grant cohort, 49 (22.2%) developed early AKI, 39 (17.7%) developed late AKI, and 16 (7.2%) developed progressive AKI. The group with progressive AKI was statistically older, with more comorbidities, and with the worst survival when compared to those with early or late AKI. Using CART analysis, we developed a decision tree with an overall accuracy of 80% for the development of late AKI for the Glue Grant dataset. We then tested this decision tree on a smaller dataset from our own institution to validate this tool, and found it to be 73% accurate. Conclusions AKI is common in severe burns with notable differences between early, late, and progressive AKI. Additionally, CART analysis provided a predictive model for early identification of patients at highest risk for developing late AKI with proven clinical accuracy.

Schneider, David F.; Dobrowolsky, Adrian; Shakir, Irshad A.; Sinacore, James M.; Mosier, Michael J.; Gamelli, Richard L.

2011-01-01

241

Virologic and Immunologic Response to cART by HIV-1 Subtype in the CASCADE Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to compare rates of virologic response and CD4 changes after combination antiretroviral (cART) initiation in individuals infected with B and specific non-B HIV subtypes. Methods Using CASCADE data we analyzed HIV-RNA and CD4 counts for persons infected ?1996, ?15 years of age. We used survival and longitudinal modeling to estimate probabilities of virologic response (confirmed HIV-RNA <500 c/ml), and failure (HIV-RNA>500 c/ml at 6 months or ?1000 c/ml following response) and CD4 increase after cART initiation. Results 2003 (1706 B, 142 CRF02_AG, 55 A, 53 C, 47 CRF01_AE) seroconverters were included in analysis. There was no evidence of subtype effect overall for response or failure (p?=?0.075 and 0.317, respectively) although there was a suggestion that those infected with subtypes CRF01_AE and A responded sooner than those with subtype B infection [HR (95% CI):1.37 (1.01–1.86) and 1.29 (0.96–1.72), respectively]. Rates of CD4 increase were similar in all subtypes except subtype A, which tended to have lower initial, but faster long-term, increases. Conclusions Virologic and immunologic response to cART was similar across all studied subtypes but statistical power was limited by the rarity of some non-B subtypes. Current antiretroviral agents seem to have similar efficacy in subtype B and most widely encountered non-B infections in high-income countries.

Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Bucher, Heiner C.; Zangerle, Robert; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Kucherer, Claudia; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud

2013-01-01

242

STS-37 MS Apt tests CETA cart during EVA in OV-104's payload bay (PLB)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), tests Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during extravehicular activity (EVA) in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB). Apt works his way along the CETA deployable track mounted on OV-104's PLB port side. The ascent particle monitor (APM) is visible on the starboard side in the foreground. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead and the vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. Crewmembers spent several hours evaluating means of performing future EVA chores, transporting tools and crewmembers, etc. on Space Station Freedom (SSF).

1991-01-01

243

Engineers inspect STS-37 CETA manual hand over hand cart in JSC's MAIL Bldg 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From left, Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) John Gustafson and JSC's Charles E. Whitsett, Steven Poulos, and James O'Kane inspect the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart, mounted on CETA track or rail, in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. CETA is scheduled for evaluation aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37. The four engineers have headed a team of hundreds that have contributed to the CETA project. CETA is being planned for usage on Space Station Freedom (SSF). NOTE: SSF mockup in the background.

1990-01-01

244

Improvements of the CARTE thermochemical code dedicated to the computation of properties of explosives.  

PubMed

In the field of detonation science or shock physics, predicting the thermo- dynamic properties and chemical compositions of detonation products of CHON systems (outcome of the decomposition of explosives) over a wide range of temperature and pressure with a very small computational cost is of great importance. Thermochemical codes such as the CARTE code use several methods published in the literature to compute the properties of these CHON systems. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the recently improved KLRR perturbation method and we propose a new mixing rule to reduce the fluid mixture to an effective pure fluid. Then, the results obtained with these two contributions are presented. PMID:21936498

Desbiens, N; Dubois, V; Matignon, C; Sorin, R

2011-11-10

245

SDL: A Surface Description Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

Maple, Raymond C.

1992-01-01

246

Control of the Cart-Pendulum System Based on Discrete Mechanics — Part I: Theoretical Analysis and Stabilization Control —  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the discrete model of the cart-pendulum system modeled by discrete mechanics, which is known as a good discretizing method for mechanical systems and has not been really applied to control theory. We first sum up basic concepts on discrete mechanics and discuss the explicitness of the linear approximation of the discrete Euler-Lagrange Equations. Next, the discrete cart-pendulum system is derived and analyzed from the viewpoint of solvability of implicit nonlinear control systems. We then show a control algorithm to stabilize the discrete cart-pendulum based on the discrete-time optimal regulator theory. Finally, some simulations are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Kai, Tatsuya

247

Temporal interpretation, discourse relations and commonsense entailment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a formal account of how to determine the discourse relations between propositions introduced in a text, and the relations between the events they describe. The distinct natural interpretations of texts with similar syntax are explained in terms of defeasible rules. These characterise the effects of causal knowledge and knowledge of language use on interpretation. Patterns of defeasible

Alex Lascarides; Nicholas Asher

1993-01-01

248

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Kentucky: 15-Year-Old Dies in Utility Gulf Cart Overturn, FACE-00-KY-119.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fifteen-year-old golf course worker (the victim) was killed when the utility golf cart he was operating overturned. The victim was employed by the golf club adjacent to which he and his family resided and had driven the utility golf cart to his home loc...

2002-01-01

249

Communicative Language Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of communicative language teaching (CLT) in the late 1970s, there have been different definitions and\\u000a interpretations of the communicative approach to second language (L2) instruction. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in\\u000a several misconceptions of CLT and how it is implemented in the L2 classroom. While most descriptions of CLT emphasize the\\u000a communication of messages and meaning, there

Nina Spada

250

Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Is Colocalized with the Orexigenic Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-Related Protein and Absent from the Anorexigenic  -Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Neurons in the Infundibular Nucleus of the Human Hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a recently discovered anorexigenic peptide. In rodents, CART inhibits food intake and is expressed in the anorexigenic -MSH- but not in the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and agouti-relatedprotein(AGRP)-synthesizingneuronsofthear- cuate nucleus. To understand whether CART is similarly ex- pressed in feeding-related neuronal groups of the human hy- pothalamus as observed in rodents, colocalization of CART

Judit Menyhert; Gabor Wittmann; Ronald M. Lechan; Eva Keller; Zsolt Liposits; Csaba Fekete

2007-01-01

251

In Vivo Cerebrovascular Effects of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Peptide  

PubMed Central

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and its associated peptides have been implicated in a number of physiologic processes including modulation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and cardiovascular regulation. Recently, we reported that in isolated cerebral arterioles, CART peptide (CARTp) acts directly to produce endothelium-dependent constriction via the endothelin signaling pathway. We used the rat closed cranial window model to determine the in vivo effects of CARTp on pial arteriolar diameter. Intravenous administration of 30 ?g/kg CARTp produced a significant pressor effect and constriction of pial arterioles. The pressor response to systemic CARTp was blocked by the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (2 mg/kg IV). Direct application of 0.1 nM–1?M CARTp to pial arterioles produced a dose-dependent and long-lasting constriction to approximately 88% of baseline diameter. The constriction response to topically applied 100 nM CARTp was blocked by both the endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist BQ-123 (10 ?M) and the inhibitor of endothelin-converting enzyme, phosphoramidon (100 nM). These results demonstrate for the first time that CARTp constricts cerebral vessels in vivo, an action mediated by its effects on the endothelin system, specifically via activation of ETA receptors. This supports the notion that CARTp plays a physiologic role in cerebrovascular regulation, particularly during times of HPA axis activation.

Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Golshani, Kiarash J.; Weinstein, Jason; Traystman, Richard J.; West, G. Alexander

2009-01-01

252

Shark Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch and observe skulls of sharks and rays to learn about their diversity (over 400 species of sharks alone!). Background information is provided about the types and functions of shark teeth. Additional information is provided about specific types of sharks: Great White, Bull Shark, Mako Shark, Zebra Shark, and Rays. The goal of the activity is to make sharks better understood and appreciated.

Pacific, Aquarium O.

2009-01-01

253

Whale Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners interact with whale artifacts such as replicas of skulls, bones, teeth, and baleen (hair-like plates that form a feeding filter). Guiding questions help learners differentiate between toothed whales and baleen whales, including what they eat, how they breathe, and how humans are connected to them. Background information is provided about many of the details of how whales survive, including hunting and pollution problems caused by humans ("Save the whales!"). This activity is written to be used in a museum or aquarium, but could be used for general background information about whales, or in conjunction with a field trip.

Pacific, Aquarium O.

2009-01-01

254

Monad transformers and modular interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how a set of building blocks can be used to construct programming language interpreters, and present implementations of such building blocks capable of supporting many commonly known features, including simple expressions, three different function call mechanisms (call-by-name, call-by-value and lazy evaluation), references and assignment, nondeterminism, first-class continuations, and program tracing.The underlying mechanism of our system is monad transformers,

Sheng Liang; Paul Hudak; Mark P. Jones

1995-01-01

255

Building Languages  

MedlinePLUS

... National Center Homepage Hearing Loss Share Compartir Building Languages How can I start communicating with my baby ... English (MCE), Natural Gestures, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech "Language" When most people hear the word "language" they ...

256

What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study, "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment" examined whether students who enrolled in courses at a high school that combined academics and technical education had higher college enrollment rates than students who did not. The research described in this report does not meet What Works…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

257

"It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

Young, Susan

2004-01-01

258

Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive patitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were

Michael W. Kattan; Kenneth R. Hess; J. Robert Beck

1998-01-01

259

Geometry and Structural Properties for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) from Model Tuning: August 25, 2003November 30, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) is a modified Westinghouse WWG-0600 machine rated at 600 kW. It is located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Boulder, Colorado, and has been installed to test new control schemes for power and load regulation. In its original configuration, the WWG-0600 uses a synchronous generator, fluid coupling, and hydraulic collective pitch actuation.

Stol

2004-01-01

260

Language Endangerment and Language Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

Muhlhausler, Peter

2003-01-01

261

Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters' Roles and Functions  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care.

Kramer, Eric M.

2012-01-01

262

Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

263

Leveraging Virtual Learning Environments for Training Interpreter Trainers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the demand for conference interpreters in traditional language combinations (the more widely used languages) is decreasing, the need for experts in less widely used languages is rapidly increasing with each enlargement of the EU. Post-war peace-keeping operations as well as war- crime tribunals have also increased the need for high-level interpreters in languages hitherto not used in the international

ARBARA MOSER-MERCER; KILIAN G. SEEBER

264

Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

1998-01-01

265

Sign Language From the Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

266

Monocytes as Regulators of Inflammation and HIV-Related Comorbidities during cART  

PubMed Central

Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) extends the lifespan and the quality of life for HIV-infected persons but does not completely eliminate chronic immune activation and inflammation. The low level of chronic immune activation persisting during cART-treated HIV infection is associated with the development of diseases which usually occur in the elderly. Although T-cell activation has been extensively examined in the context of cART-treated HIV infection, monocyte activation is only beginning to be recognized as an important source of inflammation in this context. Here we examine markers and sources of monocyte activation during cART-treated HIV infection and discuss the role of monocytes during cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and innate immune aging.

Anzinger, Joshua J.; Butterfield, Tiffany R.; Angelovich, Thomas A.; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Palmer, Clovis S.

2014-01-01

267

VTA Leptin Receptor Neurons Specifically Project to and Regulate CART Neurons of the Extended Central Amygdala  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Leptin acts via its receptor (LepRb) to regulate neural circuits in concert with body energy stores. In addition to acting on a number of hypothalamic structures, leptin modulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. To determine the sites at which LepRb neurons might directly influence the mesolimbic DA system, we examined the distribution of LepRb neurons and their projections within mesolimbic brain regions. Although the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contains DA LepRb neurons, LepRb neurons are absent from the amygdala and striatum. Also, LepRb-EGFPf mice (which label projections from LepRb neurons throughout the brain) reveal that few LepRb neurons project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In contrast, the central amygdala (CeA) and its rostral extension receive copious projections from LepRb neurons. Indeed, LepRb-specific anterograde tracing demonstrates (and retrograde tracing confirms) that VTA LepRb neurons project to the extended CeA (extCeA), but not the NAc. Consistently, leptin promotes CREB phosphorylation in the extCeA, but not NAc, of leptin-deficient animals. Furthermore, transgenic mice expressing the trans-synaptic tracer, wheat germ agglutinin, in LepRb neurons reveal the innervation of CeA cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) neurons by LepRb neurons, and leptin suppresses the increased CeA CART expression of leptin-deficient animals. Thus, LepRb VTA neurons represent a subclass of VTA DA neurons that specifically innervate and control the extCeA; we hypothesize that these neurons primarily modulate CeA directed behaviors.

Leshan, Rebecca L.; Opland, Darren M.; Louis, Gwendolyn W.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Patterson, Christa M.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Munzberg, Heike; Myers, Martin G.

2010-01-01

268

Assessment and improvement of the 2D/1D method stability in DeCART  

SciTech Connect

As part of ongoing work with Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), the 2D/1D code, DeCART, has demonstrated some of the advantages of the 2D/1D method with respect to realistic, full-core analysis, particularly over explicit 3D transport methods, which generally have higher memory and computation requirements. The 2D/1D method performs 2D-radial transport sweeps coupled with ID-axial diffusion calculations to provide a full 3D simulation. DeCART employs the 2D method of characteristics for the radial sweeps and ID one-node nodal diffusion for the axial sweeps, coupling the two methods with transverse leakages to ensure a more consistent representation of the transport equation. It has been observed that refinement of the axial plane thickness leads to instabilities in the calculation scheme. This work assesses the sources of these instabilities and the approaches to improve them, especially with respect to negative scattering cross sections and the tightness of the 2D-radial/ID-axial coupling schemes. Fourier analyses show that the existing iteration scheme is not unconditionally stable, suggesting a tighter coupling scheme is required. For this reason 3D-CMFD has been implemented, among other developments, to ensure more stable calculation. A matrix of test cases has been used to assess the convergence, with the primary parameter being the axial plane thickness, which has been refined down to 1 cm. These cases demonstrate the issues observed and how the modification improve the stability. However, it is apparent that more work is necessary to ensure unconditional stability. (authors)

Stimpson, S.; Young, M.; Collins, B.; Kelley, B.; Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

2013-07-01

269

Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site January-June 2000.  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 2000, and looks forward in less detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. With this issue, many aspects of earlier Site Scientific Mission Plan reports have been moved to ARM sites on the World Wide Web. This report and all previous reports are available on the SGP CART web site.

Peppler, R. A.; Sisterson, D. L.; Lamb, P.

2001-03-15

270

Projection patterns of lateral hypothalamic, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons to the dorsal raphe and/or the locus coeruleus in the rat.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to reveal the projection patterns of lateral hypothalamic (LH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons to the dorsal raphe (DR) and/or the locus coeruleus (LC) in the rat. After the injection of Red or Green Retrobeads into the DR or LC, LH sections were immunostained for CART and/or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). First, CART-immunoreactive axon terminals formed close appositions to the DR (or LC) neuronal profiles. Second, a subpopulation of CART neurons containing MCH projected to the monoaminergic nuclei; the majority of labeled neurons were observed in the dorsal hypothalamic area, the dorsal part of the posterior hypothalamic area, and the zona incerta. Cells were also observed in the perifornical part of the LH, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, the peduncular and the magnocellular parts of the LH. Of the total population of DR (or LC)-projecting cells, CART/MCH co-containing neurons were 9.5% ± 1.6% (or 10.8% ± 1.3% for LC). Finally, a subset of CART (or MCH) neurons provided divergent axon collaterals to the DR and the LC. Of the entire CART (or MCH) cell population, 3.9% ± 0.8% (or 5.6% ± 1.0% for MCH) sent axon collaterals to the DR/LC. CART/MCH co-containing neurons projecting to the DR or LC might be involved in the feeding-related regulation of arousal, stress-related responses, and emotional behaviors. Thus, CART (or MCH) cells that send divergent axon collaterals to the DR/LC might have a simultaneous (and possibly more efficient) way to exert their specific influences on the aminergic nuclei. PMID:23206801

Yoon, Ye S; Lee, Hyun S

2013-02-01

271

Effect of Desipramine and Citalopram Treatment on Forced Swimming Test-Induced Changes in Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Immunoreactivity in Mice.  

PubMed

Recent study demonstrates antidepressant-like effect of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the forced swimming test (FST), but less is known about whether antidepressant treatments alter levels of CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) in the FST. To explore this possibility, we assessed the treatment effects of desipramine and citalopram, which inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into the presynaptic terminals, respectively, on changes in levels of CART-IR before and after the test swim in mouse brain. Levels of CART-IR in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were significantly increased before the test swim by desipramine and citalopram treatments. This increase in CART-IR in the AcbSh, dBNST, and PVN before the test swim remained elevated by desipramine treatment after the test swim, but this increase in these brain areas returned to near control levels after test swim by citalopram treatment. Citalopram, but not desipramine, treatment increased levels of CART-IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the locus ceruleus (LC) before the test swim, and this increase was returned to control levels after the test swim in the CeA, but not in the LC. These results suggest common and distinct regulation of CART by desipramine and citalopram treatments in the FST and raise the possibility that CART in the AcbSh, dBNST, and CeA may be involved in antidepressant-like effect in the FST. PMID:24748481

Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Min; Shin, Kyung Ho

2014-05-01

272

Post-Soviet Language Policy and the Language Utilization Patterns of Kyivan Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of language policy in Ukraine on language utilization patterns of school children in Kyiv. Using quantitative data from student responses to a questionnaire focusing on subject background, native and home language, including reported usage of interactive and interpretive language, examines the extent to which language shift or…

Marshall, Camelot Ann

2002-01-01

273

Professional Language in Language Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

274

The Cost-Effectiveness of Early Access to HIV Services and Starting cART in the UK 1996–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo calculate use, cost and cost-effectiveness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting routine treatment and care before starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and PLHIV starting first-line 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PIboosted, comparing PLHIV with CD4?200 cells\\/mm3 and CD4>200 cells\\/mm3. Few studies have calculated the use, cost and cost-effectiveness of routine treatment and care before starting cART and starting cART above and

Eduard J. Beck; Sundhiya Mandalia; Roshni Sangha; Peter Sharott; Mike Youle; Guy Baily; Ray Brettle; Mark Gompels; Margaret Johnson; Brendan McCarron; Ed Ong; Anton Pozniak; Achim Schwenk; Stephen Taylor; John Walsh; Ed Wilkins; Ian Williams; Brian Gazzard

2011-01-01

275

Argumentation: The Language of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past two decades, the role of language in the science curriculum has become prominent in science education literature. From a constructivist perspective, language mediates social interaction and meaning is constructed as learners interpret and reinterpret events through the lens of prior knowledge. This perspective applied to the science…

Tippett, Christine

2009-01-01

276

Psychosocial Factors Affecting Medication Adherence Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Abstract As increasing numbers of persons are placed on potentially life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa, it is imperative to identify the psychosocial and social factors that may influence antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Using an 87 question survey, the following data were collected from patients on cART in Botswana: demographics, performance (Karnofsky) score, perceived stigma and level of HIV disclosure, attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV/AIDS, substance and/or drug use, depression, and pharmacy and healthcare provider-related factors. Overall adherence rates were determined by patient self-report, institutional adherence, and a culturally modified Morisky scale. Three hundred adult patients were recruited between April and May 2005. The overall cART adherence rate was 81.3% based on 4 day and 1 month patient recall and on clinic attendance for ARV medication refills during the previous 3 months. Adults receiving cART for 1–6 months were the least adherent (77%) followed by those receiving cART for greater than 12 months (79%). Alcohol use, depression, and nondisclosure of positive HIV status to their partner were predictive of poor adherence rates (p value <0.02). A significant proportion (81.3%) of cART-treated adults were adherent to their prescribed treatment, with rates superior to those reported in resource-rich settings. Adherence rates were poorest among those just starting cART, most likely due to the presence of ARV-related toxicity. Adherence was lower among those who have been treated for longer periods of time (greater than 1 year), suggesting complacency, which may become a significant problem, especially among these long-term cART-treated patients who return to improved physical and mental functioning and may be less motivated to adhere to their ARV medications. Healthcare providers should encourage HIV disclosure to “at-risk” partners and provide ongoing counseling and education to help patients recognize and overcome HIV-associated stigma, alcohol abuse, and depression.

Do, Natalie T.; Phiri, Kelesitse; Bussmann, Hermann; Gaolathe, Tendani; Marlink, Richard G.

2010-01-01

277

Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1985-01-01

278

Language Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

Dulay, Heidi; And Others

279

Programming Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

Tesler, Lawrence G.

1984-01-01

280

Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

2008-01-01

281

The Role and Influence of Interpretation in Hermeneutic phenomenological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the significance of interpretation and its role within qualitative hermeneutic-phenomenological inquiry. The discussion begins with a critical historical overview highlighting how the subject of interpretation emerged and was debated among the work of Husserl, Heidegger and Gadamer. Taken from historical as well as present day writings concerning interpretation, four interlocking elements; lived experience, meaning, understanding and language

Jo-Ann Vis

282

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

283

Control of the Cart-Pendulum System Based on Discrete Mechanics — Part II: Transformation to Continuous-Time Inputs and Experimental Verification —  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a stabilization problem for the cart-pendulum system based on discrete mechanics, which is known as a good discretizing method for mechanical systems and has not been really applied to control theory. First, the continuous and discrete cart-pendulum systems are explained. We next propose a transformation method that converts a discrete-time input derived from the discrete-time optimal regulator theory into a continuous-time zero-order hold input, and carry out some simulations on stabilization of the cart-pendulum system by the transformation method. Then, we apply not only our proposed method but also existing methods to an experimental laboratory of the cart-pendulum system and perform some experiments in order to verify the availability of the proposed method.

Kai, Tatsuya; Bito, Kensuke; Shintani, Takeshi

284

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

Whittier, Mrs.

2010-01-28

285

Some remarks on arbitrary multiple pattern interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A word w is obtained by an arbitrary n-pattern interpretation of a word x if there are n homomorphisms h1; h2; : : : ; hn and a positive integer k such that w = hi1(x)hi2(x) hik(x) with 1 ij n for all 1 j k. This arbitrary multiple pattern interpretation of words is naturally extended to languages. We investigate

C. MARTIN-VIDE; V. MITRANA

2003-01-01

286

Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy.

Price, Erika Leemann; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; Lopez, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

2014-01-01

287

Microinjection of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide into the nucleus accumbens inhibits the cocaine-induced upregulation of dopamine receptors and locomotor sensitization.  

PubMed

Repeated exposure to addictive drugs enhances dopamine receptor (DR) signaling and the ultimate phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). These effects are known to contribute to the expression of behavioral sensitization. CART peptides are neuropeptides that modulate drug reward and reinforcement. The present experiments investigated the effects of CART 55-102 microinjection into the NAcc on (1) the phosphorylation of CREB, (2) cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and (3) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylated kinase signaling. Here, we show that repeated microinjections into the NAcc of CART 55-102 peptides (1.0 or 2.5?g, 0.5?l/side) attenuates cocaine-induced enhancements of D1R, D2R and D3R phosphorylation in this sites. Furthermore, the microinjection of CART 55-102 followed by repeated injections of cocaine (15mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the enhancement of cAMP levels, PKA activity and pERK and pCREB levels on the fifth day of cocaine administration. The cocaine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization in rats were also inhibited by the 5-day-microinjection of CART peptides. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB by cocaine in the NAcc was blocked by the CART 55-102 peptide via the inhibition of D1R and D2R stimulation, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP/PKA signaling and ERK phosphorylated kinase signaling. These effects may have played a compensatory inhibitory role in the behavioral sensitization of rats that received microinjections of CART 55-102. PMID:24953280

Peng, Qinghua; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ziyong; Yang, Jianghua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

2014-09-01

288

Language Fairs and Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature and function of language fairs are explored in this article. Seen as a source of student motivation toward second language learning and as a means of improving public relations with the community, the language fair is described as being a miniature carnival in the planning and operation of which students, parents, and teachers…

Kaplan, David

289

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

290

Implementation of Raman lidar for profiling of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols at the SGP CART site  

SciTech Connect

There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the SGP CART (southern great plains cloud and radiation testbed) site. Research conducted at several laboratories, including our own collaboration in a previous ARM Instrument Development Project, has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We are currently building a ruggedized Raman lidar system that will reside permanently at the CART site, and that is computer-automated to minimize requirements for operator interaction. In addition to profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar will provide quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Bisson, S.E.; Blair, F.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Melfi, S.H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ferrare, R.A. [Hughes STX Corp., Lanham, MD (United States)

1994-05-01

291

Prepraring to Interpret: AA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about Alcoholics Anonymous and prepare to interpret for a deaf member at a traditional AA meeting. Interpreting for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) requires that the interpreter have an understanding of the purpose of the meetings, prepares adequately for frozen text and informal register that will be used, and has respect for the organization and its members. It can be a difficult, but rewarding assignment. Preparing to ...

2007-10-03

292

Coinjection of CCK and leptin reduces food intake via increased CART/TRH and reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

CCK and leptin are anorectic hormones produced in the small intestine and white adipose tissue, respectively. Investigating how these hormones act together as an integrated anorectic signal is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which energy balance is maintained. We found here that coadministration of subthreshold CCK and leptin, which individually have no effect on feeding, dramatically reduced food intake in rats. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus significantly decreased after coinjection of CCK and leptin. In addition, coadministration of these hormones significantly increased mRNA levels of anorectic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the hypothalamus. The interactive effect of CCK and leptin on food intake was abolished by intracerebroventricular preadministration of the AMPK activator AICAR or anti-CART/anti-TRH antibodies. These findings indicate that coinjection of CCK and leptin reduces food intake via reduced AMPK phosphorylation and increased CART/TRH in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, by using midbrain-transected rats, we investigated the role of the neural pathway from the hindbrain to the hypothalamus in the interaction of CCK and leptin to reduce food intake. Food intake reduction induced by coinjection of CCK and leptin was blocked in midbrain-transected rats. Therefore, the neural pathway from hindbrain to hypothalamus plays an important role in transmitting the anorectic signals provided by coinjection of CCK and leptin. Our findings give further insight into the mechanisms of feeding and energy balance. PMID:24735891

Akieda-Asai, Sayaka; Poleni, Paul-Emile; Date, Yukari

2014-06-01

293

Kinesin-5/Eg5 is important for transport of CARTS from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface  

PubMed Central

Here we report that the kinesin-5 motor Klp61F, which is known for its role in bipolar spindle formation in mitosis, is required for protein transport from the Golgi complex to the cell surface in Drosophila S2 cells. Disrupting the function of its mammalian orthologue, Eg5, in HeLa cells inhibited secretion of a protein called pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) but, surprisingly, not the trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) to the cell surface. We have previously reported that PAUF is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface in specific carriers called CARTS that exclude VSV-G. Inhibition of Eg5 function did not affect the biogenesis of CARTS; however, their migration was delayed and they accumulated near the Golgi complex. Altogether, our findings reveal a surprising new role of Eg5 in nonmitotic cells in the facilitation of the transport of specific carriers, CARTS, from the TGN to the cell surface.

Villeneuve, Julien; van Galen, Josse; Cruz-Garcia, David; Tagaya, Mitsuo

2013-01-01

294

Kinesin-5/Eg5 is important for transport of CARTS from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface.  

PubMed

Here we report that the kinesin-5 motor Klp61F, which is known for its role in bipolar spindle formation in mitosis, is required for protein transport from the Golgi complex to the cell surface in Drosophila S2 cells. Disrupting the function of its mammalian orthologue, Eg5, in HeLa cells inhibited secretion of a protein called pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) but, surprisingly, not the trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) to the cell surface. We have previously reported that PAUF is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface in specific carriers called CARTS that exclude VSV-G. Inhibition of Eg5 function did not affect the biogenesis of CARTS; however, their migration was delayed and they accumulated near the Golgi complex. Altogether, our findings reveal a surprising new role of Eg5 in nonmitotic cells in the facilitation of the transport of specific carriers, CARTS, from the TGN to the cell surface. PMID:23857769

Wakana, Yuichi; Villeneuve, Julien; van Galen, Josse; Cruz-Garcia, David; Tagaya, Mitsuo; Malhotra, Vivek

2013-07-22

295

A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

296

Wold Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be exposed to a number of different languages through the viewing of the following websites. HELLO! BONJOUR! SABAAI-DII! HOLA! DZIEN DOBRY! BUON GIORNO! KONNICHI WA! ZDRAVSTVUITE! At the following website look up words and find their translation into other languages. The New Logos Dictionary Browse though this next website and see how to express some things in American Sign Language. ASL Explore how to say ...

Schroeder, M.

2007-10-12

297

Fuzzy Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ?-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

Rahonis, George

298

BBC: Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Learning Zone of BBC Education Online (first discussed in the {May 5, 1995 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1995/scout-950505.html}) offers an excellent resource for learning languages online. The multimedia BBC Education - Languages site provides an interactive learning experience, combining audio clips, video clips, Shockwave games, transcripts, and glossaries for beginning and intermediate level autodidacts studying French, German, Italian, or Spanish. The site also includes a collection of annotated language learning links and an online brochure listing resources that support BBC language learning programs. Users running Windows 95 may download a variety of multimedia lessons (self-extracting executables) for French, German, and Spanish.

299

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-01-01

300

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

1997-08-28

301

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1993-12-01

302

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-07-01

303

Development of a cart for independent mobility assistance for non-ambulatory children.  

PubMed

Some parents of non-ambulatory children are not eager to allow their children to use powered wheelchairs because of apprehension of further deterioration of their functionality and the risk for accidents. The authors think that not all but some such children could develop their ability to operate powered wheelchairs and might expand their knowledge about the circumstances and interests in them. Thus we made a prototype cart for them eventually to experience motion by themselves. Based on a 6-wheeled chassis, the two middle wheels are driven with a traction roller drive system. We had been testing this prototype with a child with cerebral palsy for one year. Acquisition of skills in pushing switches and enjoyment of motion were confirmed. However, we encountered several problems such as difficulty in rolling on a carpet and in handling due to its weight. The ability to record moving speed and operation of input devices helps rehabilitation experts to conduct quantitative performance evaluation. To solve these problems, we manufactured another prototype. The second prototype was tested with another child with cerebral palsy for one year. The problems were solved. She acquired the operation skills necessary to operate the prototype with four switch operation. PMID:19965102

Kakimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Sekiguchi, Yukio

2009-01-01

304

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

1999-03-10

305

Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART.  

PubMed

Bone remodelling, the mechanism by which vertebrates regulate bone mass, comprises two phases, namely resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts; osteoblasts are multifunctional cells also controlling osteoclast differentiation. Sympathetic signalling via beta2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb2) present on osteoblasts controls bone formation downstream of leptin. Here we show, by analysing Adrb2-deficient mice, that the sympathetic nervous system favours bone resorption by increasing expression in osteoblast progenitor cells of the osteoclast differentiation factor Rankl. This sympathetic function requires phosphorylation (by protein kinase A) of ATF4, a cell-specific CREB-related transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation and function. That bone resorption cannot increase in gonadectomized Adrb2-deficient mice highlights the biological importance of this regulation, but also contrasts sharply with the increase in bone resorption characterizing another hypogonadic mouse with low sympathetic tone, the ob/ob mouse. This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly abolished in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl expression. Our study establishes that leptin-regulated neural pathways control both aspects of bone remodelling, and demonstrates that integrity of sympathetic signalling is necessary for the increase in bone resorption caused by gonadal failure. PMID:15724149

Elefteriou, Florent; Ahn, Jong Deok; Takeda, Shu; Starbuck, Michael; Yang, Xiangli; Liu, Xiuyun; Kondo, Hisataka; Richards, William G; Bannon, Tony W; Noda, Masaki; Clement, Karine; Vaisse, Christian; Karsenty, Gerard

2005-03-24

306

'À la Carte' Peptide Shuttles: Tools to Increase Their Passage across the Blood-Brain Barrier.  

PubMed

Noninvasive methods for efficient drug delivery to the brain is an unmet need. Molecular access to the brain is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) established by the endothelial cells of brain vessels. Passive diffusion is one of the main mechanisms that organic compounds use to travel through these endothelial cells. This passage across the BBB is determined mainly by certain physicochemical properties of the molecule such as lipophilicity, size, and the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. One emerging strategy to facilitate the passage of organic compounds across the BBB is the use of peptide shuttles.1 In using this approach the permeability in front the BBB is, clearly, determined by the combined physicochemical properties of both the cargo and the shuttle. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of variations of one of the more efficient peptide shuttles, (N-MePhe)n . These include diverse structural features such as various backbone stereochemistries or the presence of non-natural amino acids, including halogenated residues. In several cases, we assessed the BBB permeability of both the shuttles alone and linked to a few cargos. Our results show how factors such as stereochemistry or halogen content influences the passage across the BBB and, more importantly, opens the way to a strategy of peptide shuttles 'à la carte', in which a particular fine-tuned shuttle is used for each specific cargo. PMID:24665021

Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Guixer, Bernat; Arranz-Gibert, Pol; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest

2014-07-01

307

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-01-01

308

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-07-01

309

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-07-01

310

Structure-taste relationships for disubstituted phenylsulfamate tastants using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.  

PubMed

Forty-two new disubstituted phenylsulfamates have been synthesized, and 30 of these have been combined with 40 already available from earlier work to create a training database of 70 compounds. On the basis of panel taste data these were divided into three categories, N (nonsweet), N/S (nonsweet/sweet), and (S) sweet, and a "sweetness value" or weighting was also calculated for each compound. Using these 70 compounds as a training set and a series of nine predictors derived from Corey-Pauling-Koltun (CPK) models, calculated from the PC SPARTAN PRO program and Hammett sigma values taken from the literature, a classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was carried out leading to a regression tree that correctly classified 62 of the 70 compounds (89% overall correct classification). The tree's predictive ability varies for the different taste categories, and for nonsweet compounds it is virtually 100%; for nonsweet/sweet compounds it is 66%, and for sweet compounds it is approximately 75%. This tree correctly predicted taste categories for 10 compounds from a test set of 12 randomly selected from among the 42 new compounds (83% correct classification). Therefore, it can be used with a good degree of confidence to predict the tastes of disubstituted phenylsulfamates. For the design of new sweeteners, appropriate values or ranges of the descriptors are derived. PMID:16881707

Spillane, William J; Kelly, Damien P; Curran, Patrick J; Feeney, Brendan G

2006-08-01

311

Improvements of the CARTE thermochemical code dedicated to the computation of properties of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting the thermodynamic properties of detonation products and the detonation parameters of explosives with thermochemical codes requires both the use of very accurate theoretical equations of state of fluid species and a precise calibration of the parameters of the species potentials. In this work, we present the methods used in the CARTE^(1) thermochemical code. The detonation product mixture is split in two phases (fluid phase plus condensed phase for the carbon). The improved KLRR^(2) method and a modified Van der Waals -- one fluid model^(3) are used to compute the properties of the mixture. The usual Ree -- Van Thiel equation of state for carbon is used. Ionic/polar species are taken into account by the use of methods already published in the literature^(4). We also consider a multiphase EOS model of carbon which evolves with the chemical composition of the explosives. The calibration of the parameters is then performed with a Monte Carlo minimisation method against a wide range of both theoretical and experimental data. This reference data base is mainly composed of shock or static compression data. Finally, we present some results obtained on a wide range of explosives. (1) Dubois et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 494, 2010, p 306 (2) Victorov et al., Proc. of the 13^th Int. Deto. Symp., 2006 (3) Desbiens et al., Proc. of 8^th New Models and Hydrocodes, 2010 (4) Bastea et al., Proc. of the 13^th Int. Deto. Symp., 2006

Desbiens, Nicolas; Dubois, Vincent; Matignon, Christophe; Sorin, Remy

2011-06-01

312

Equilibrium cycle pin by pin transport depletion calculations with DeCART  

SciTech Connect

As the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has matured it has become more important to utilize more advanced simulation methods. The work reported here was performed as part of the AFCI fellowship program to develop and demonstrate the capability of performing high fidelity equilibrium cycle calculations. As part of the work here, a new multi-cycle analysis capability was implemented in the DeCART code which included modifying the depletion modules to perform nuclide decay calculations, implementing an assembly shuffling pattern description, and modifying iteration schemes. During the work, stability issues were uncovered with respect to converging simultaneously the neutron flux, isotopics, and fluid density and temperature distributions in 3-D. Relaxation factors were implemented which considerably improved the stability of the convergence. To demonstrate the capability two core designs were utilized, a reference UOX core and a CORAIL core. Full core equilibrium cycle calculations were performed on both cores and the discharge isotopics were compared. From this comparison it was noted that the improved modeling capability was not drastically different in its prediction of the discharge isotopics when compared to 2-D single assembly or 2-D core models. For fissile isotopes such as U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 the relative differences were 1.91%, 1.88%, and 0.59%), respectively. While this difference may not seem large it translates to mass differences on the order of tens of grams per assembly, which may be significant for the purposes of accounting of special nuclear material. (authors)

Kochunas, B.; Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Taiwo, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01

313

Virtual seismic interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of the virtual reality paradigm to scientific visualization. We describe how the seismic interpretation task performed in oil and gas companies can be facilitated by using immersion techniques inherent to virtual reality. The feeling of immersion allows an easier and better understanding and manipulation of the three-dimensional data associated with seismic interpretation. Volume rendering is

L. A. Lima; R. Bastos

1998-01-01

314

Prosody and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

Erekson, James A.

2010-01-01

315

Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language acquisition that are part of a continuum of receptivity and communication every child experiences in the first 3 years of life. Suggests parents assist language development by being sympathetic to each developmental turning point, providing the right emotional climate for expression, and…

Montanaro, Silvana

2001-01-01

316

LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

317

Language Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collaborative project started by a language enthusiast that not only aims to help language learners, but also to "provide a window into the culture of the people who speak those languages." So how does the site accomplish this feat? It provides interactive language lessons, quizzes, and texts that allow the language learner to hear the word or text pronounced by fluent, often native, speakers. The sound quality is high, and by simply scrolling over any of the pictures in categories as diverse as the alphabet, weather, insects, and money, visitors will hear the word read pronounced. Thirteen languages are offered, including "Vietnamese", "Arabic", "German", "Hindi" and "Hebrew", with the most fully realized lessons for "English", "French" and "Spanish". However, the collaborative nature of the site should soon fill out the lessons of the other languages, because the "Collaborate/Volunteer" section of the site shows the many contributions volunteers can make, such as "Translating", "Suggesting Words/Phrases" or Contribute Your Voice". As the content of the site continues to expand, visitors can sign up for the "Newsletter" to be notified when major new content for a specific language has been added.

318

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

319

Space languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

Hays, Dan

1987-01-01

320

Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

Hyams, Nina

2007-01-01

321

Interpreting canonical tensor model in minisuperspace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canonical tensor model is a theory of dynamical fuzzy spaces in arbitrary space–time dimensions. Examining its simplest case, we find a connection to a special case of minisuperspace model of general relativity in arbitrary dimensions. This is a first step in interpreting variables in canonical tensor model based on the known language of general relativity.

Sasakura, Naoki; Sato, Yuki

2014-05-01

322

Analysis of sequence variability in the pig CART gene and association of polymorphism with fatness traits in a F2 population.  

PubMed

CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in appetite control and energy homeostasis. It can inhibit food intake and reduce body weight that have received much attention, but a direct and comprehensive relationship with pigs differing in fatness which could be applied to breeding well has not been established. This study aims to search for polymorphism within the porcine CART gene and evaluate the effect of specific genotypes with regards to an association with fatness traits in a F2 population consisting of 230 individuals. Screening of 2264 bp DNA fragment covering the entire CART gene revealed 29 mutations and four indels (insertion or a deletion), in which four unlinked SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) could be digested by enzymes and subsequently genotyped in two purebreds and a F2 population. Landrace (lean-type), one of purebreds, presented significantly higher CART expression level than Lantang (obese-type) in most tissues studied. Association analysis revealed that three SNPs (T415C, C640T and C847T) displayed significantly association (p < 0.05) with fatness traits. Additionally, they are in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. Western blotting experiments on these three SNPs loci revealed difference in CART expression among individuals with different genotypes, and the individuals with lower average live backfat thickness (BFAW) expressed CART protein at a bit higher level than others. Our study screened and mapped the genetic variations in the porcine CART gene, and confirmed three functional SNPs which are promising molecular markers for pig production traits. PMID:24830562

Zhu, Xiaoping; Mo, Delin; Wang, Chong; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Jiaqi; Ling, Fei; Chen, Yaosheng

2014-08-01

323

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in feeding- and reward-related brain areas of young OLETF rats.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in the control of appetite, drug reward and homeostatic regulation and it has an overall anorexigenic effect. Recently, we have shown that CART peptide immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens and in the rostro-medial part of the nucleus of the solitary tract in adult CCK-1 receptor deficient obese diabetic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats compared to Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) lean controls. It is not clear, however, whether altered CART expression is caused primarily by the deficiency in CCK-1 signaling or whether is related to the obese and diabetic phenotype of the OLETF strain which develops at a later age. Therefore, in the present study, CART-immunoreaction in feeding-related areas of the brain was compared in young, age-matched (6-7 weeks old) non-obese, non-diabetic OLETF rats and in LETO controls. We found that, young, non-diabetic OLETF rats revealed unaltered distribution of CART-peptide expressing neurons and axons throughout the brain when compared to age-matched LETO rats. In contrast to previous results observed in the obese diabetic adult rats, intensity of CART immunoreaction did not differ in the areas related to control of food-intake and reward in the young OLETFs compared to young LETO rats. Our findings suggest that factors secondary to obesity and/or diabetes rather than impaired CCK-1 receptor signaling may contribute to altered CART expression in the OLETF strain. PMID:23545074

Armbruszt, Simon; Abraham, Hajnalka; Figler, Maria; Kozicz, Tamas; Hajnal, Andras

2013-05-01

324

Theory Interpretations in PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

325

Language, games and language games  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do social values come about and gain legitimacy? Starting from the premise that discourses of social analysis affect the ways in which social norms develop and proliferate, this article models the evolution of professional codes and dialects using Wittgenstein’s idea of a language game. A language game is formalized as a repeated game of tacit coordination played among participants

Mihnea Moldoveanu

2002-01-01

326

Conceptualizing ‘Communication’ in Second Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overviewing how the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) conceptualizes ‘communication’ is a complex task. First, researchers differ in their interpretations of the nature of the object of inquiry and the goals of their research, based on different philosophical assumptions about the nature of language and the processes involved in language learning. Second, the concept ‘communication’ is generally taken as

Susana A. Eisenchlas

2009-01-01

327

Language Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On his journey to discover the human spark, Alan Alda speaks with Dr. Elizabeth Spelke from Harvard University and Professor Neville from the University of Oregon about the development of language in this video from The Human Spark.

Wnet

2011-08-08

328

SIMUFORT Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SIMUFORT language is especially useful in writing programs for discrete event simulation applications, although it is also useful, more generally, for writing programs for applications that involve mathematical computations and other manipulation of n...

G. V. Fulscher N. R. Nielsen

1973-01-01

329

The Extensibility of an Interpreted Language Using Plugin Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic geometry software (DGS) are computer programs that allow one to create and manipulate geometrical drawings. They are mostly used in teaching and studying geometry. However, DGS can also be used to develop interactive drawings not directly related to geometry. Examples include teaching materials for numerical mathematics at secondary school and university levels, or interactive mathematical games for elementary school children. Such applications often surpass the intended purposes of the DGS and may require complicated programming on behalf of the user. In this paper we present a simple plug-in model which enables easy development and deployment of interactive GUI components for ``Geometrijica'', a DGS we are developing on Silverlight.

Herceg, Dorde; Radakovi?, Davorka

2011-09-01

330

GEMINI: A Natural Language System for Spoken-Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gemini is a natural language understanding system developed for spoken language applications. The paper describes the architecture of Gemini, paying particular attention to resolving the tension between robustness and overgeneration. Gemini features a broad-coverage unification-based grammar of English, fully interleaved syntactic and semantic processing in an all-paths, bottom-up parser, and an utterance-level parser to find interpretations of sentences that might

John Dowding; Jean Mark Gawron; Doug Appelt; John Bear; Lynn Cherny; Robert Moore; Douglas Moran

1994-01-01

331

Shakespeare's Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

Flowers, Ms.

2009-10-21

332

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

1994-01-01

333

Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim

1994-01-01

334

A revisit to the region of Collinder 132 using Carte du Ciel and Astrographic Catalogue plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Based on stellar positions and proper motions, we aim to re-analyse the region of the controversial open cluster Collinder 132. Methods: We have developed a model which analyses the proper motion distribution and the stellar density to find moving groups. The astrometric data were obtained from four Carte du Ciel (CdC) and one Astrogaphic Catalogue (AC) plates of the Córdoba Astronomical Observatory collection (Argentina). Results: We detected an open cluster from the field stars and calculated the mean proper motion and the membership probabilities of the region's stars. We report new coordinates of its centre ?c = 108.347 °, ?c = -31.011 °, the components of mean proper motion ??cos? = -2.62±0.44 mas/yr, ?? = 4.79±0.88 mas/yr. Thirteen stars are astrometric members giving a value of 20' for the cluster angular diameter. Six stars fulfil the astrometric and photometric criteria for being cluster members and locate the cluster at 360 pc from the Sun. We propose a simple model for the analysis of the proper motion distribution of an association. We report the components of the association mean proper motion ??cos? = -1.38±0.14 mas/yr, ?? = 2.26±0.16 mas/yr. We found 149 astrometric members, 11 of which have reliable photometric data that locate them betweeen 417 and 660 pc from the Sun. The Córdoba CdC-AC Catalogue (CCAC) and Table 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/521/A39

Orellana, R. B.; de Biasi, M. S.; Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

2010-10-01

335

Interpreting cointegrated models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-correction models for cointegrated economic variables are commonly interpreted as reflecting partial adjustment of one variable to another. We show that error-correction models may also arise because one variable forecasts another. Reduced-form estimates of error-correction models cannot be used to distinguish these interpretations. In an application, we show that the estimated coefficients in the Marsh-Merton (1987) error-correction model of dividend

John Y. Campbell; Robert J. Shiller

1988-01-01

336

Foundations of arrhythmia interpretation.  

PubMed

Basic arrhythmia monitoring is being used with increasing frequency in both inpatient and outpatient care settings. Nurses are being asked to interpret cardiac rhythms and develop critical thinking skills that assist in evaluating the significance of the rhythms identified for individual patients. The foundations needed for nurses to evaluate cardiac rhythms and assess the significance of the rhythms identified are provided. Cardiac anatomy, physiology, and cardiac properties are used to provide a framework for interpreting and understanding rhythms. PMID:9313546

Scrima, D A

1997-08-01

337

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the central nucleus of amygdala potentiates behavioral and hormonal responses of the rat exposed to its predator.  

PubMed

Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) regulates anxiety and stress in amygdala, we hypothesized that the peptide may also process negative psychological experience like fear. During acute exposure to a cat, the rat showed freezing behavior and subsequently, profound signs of anxiety in social interaction test, and elevated serum cortisol concentration. While these behavioral effects were potentiated by the intracerebroventricular (icv) and intra-central nucleus of amygdala (intra-CeA) administration of CART peptide, they were blocked by CART antibody. On the other hand, chronic exposure for 7 days resulted in a steady reduction in freezing, increase in social interaction index and restored cortisol levels. In these rats, the behavior resembled with that of the time matched control rats suggesting habituation. However, CART peptide treatment, via the icv or intra-CeA route, chronically for 7 days, prevented habituation; significant freezing behavior and anxiety were noticed in these rats. The results suggest that CART peptide, in the framework of CeA, may process predator triggered innate fear in acute time scale, while chronic exposure might down-regulate the system and produce habituation. PMID:23299040

Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Subhedar, Nishikant K

2013-04-15

338

Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

Ozolins, Uldis

2003-01-01

339

Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian-White Relations on the Early American Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, while interpreters of American Indian languages in French territories served merely as translators of language, interpreters in British North America were often field representatives of the colonies, serving as messengers and diplomatic agents to Indian tribes. Includes many anecdotes about Indian and White interpreters. Contains 35…

Kawashima, Yasuhide

1989-01-01

340

Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

341

Learning History and Learning Language: Focusing on Language in Historical Explanations to Support English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a History is a language-based discipline. In this discipline, language plays a central role in understanding, reasoning, and\\u000a explanation. Doing history entails engaging in close reading and evaluation of particular texts, reading across texts to establish\\u000a intertextual links, constructing meaning by juxtaposing a series of texts, and writing arguments to support a particular interpretation\\u000a of events, structures, themes, or metasystems (Leinhardt,

Mariana Achugar; Catherine Stainton

342

Language barriers  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs.

Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

2012-01-01

343

Practical Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides something of a manual or “how-to” guide to the derivation of stratigraphic and structural information from multichannel seismic reflection profiles. Its emphasis is, as the title suggests, the practical business of just how one goes about extracting this information. I believe the intent is that one should be able to first read the book, then place it on the work table next to a reflection profile to be interpreted, and by examining the profile while thumbing through the book, find interpreted examples of features similar to those to be interpreted and hence be guided toward a geological interpretation of the data. The book is replete with examples—I counted more than 130 individual reflection profile segments illustrating commonly observed structural and stratigraphic features. Beyond this, the reader also gets a large amount of practical advice, such as the type of colored pencils and eraser to use, what phase of the reflecting event should be marked, how to fold the profiles to check for ties at line intersections, how to mark faults, the various types of unconformity, and many, many other intensely practical aspects of data interpretation.

Mutter, John C.

344

Chameleon voices: interpreting for deaf parents.  

PubMed

As interpreters for their deaf parents, hearing children are a cultural link between two often separate worlds: the Deaf and the Hearing. Data from a 4 year study of adult hearing children throughout the United States indicate significant differences between hearing daughters and hearing sons. Not only were daughters more likely than sons (regardless of birth order or age differences) to interpret for their parents, but daughters were also far more likely to be bilingual: fluent in both spoken English and American Sign Language. A similar gender bias has been observed among the general hearing public: women are far more likely to attend sign language classes and to work as interpreters for the deaf. This paper explores the social mechanisms and cultural values which determine the gender of the way we communicate with one another. Informants' narratives suggest that sign language and the practice of interpreting often touched upon a larger pattern of socialization and status differences between women and men. The discussion then turns to consider how these differences affect the cultural identity of hearing sons versus hearing daughters. PMID:8783430

Preston, P

1996-06-01

345

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

Stedt, Joe D.

1989-01-01

346

Interpretations of Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar statistical correlations between spatially separated systems which arise in quantum mechanics, and which the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper of 1935 thrust into the limelight, have been the focus of much interpretive speculation and disagreement in the years since then. Amongst the questions raised along the way have been questions about the possibility of superluminal causation, the limits of quantum mechanics and its relation to relativity theory, the nature of and need for causal explanation, realism, determinism, and the presence of holism in quantum mechanics. This talk will provide an historically structured overview of these debates including discussion of the Bohm theory, the many worlds interpretation, and more recent developments and will suggest a way of dividing many of the interpretations of entanglement into clusters of like-minded views.

Jones, Martin

2002-04-01

347

Hospitals as interpretation systems.  

PubMed Central

In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.

Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

1991-01-01

348

Modern Language Association Language map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on information from the United States Census 2000 long form, the Modern Language Association has crated this important interactive map that allows users to see where the speakers of thirty-seven languages reside throughout the country. The map allows visitors the option to toggle certain themes (such as rivers, lakes, and highways) and to look through the numbers of speakers by zip code, town, city, or county. Visitors can also look at data at the state level, and they can also print out their own customized maps as well. Users of the site can also generate interactive maps for two languages in the same state, or compare the concentration of the same language in two states. If all of this seems a bit overwhelming, visitors can also take an online tour of the site's features. This site will be of great interest both to linguists and to those interested in learning about the spatial distribution of the languages spoken across the United States.

349

Autism and Pragmatics of Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes different aspects of Autism and attempts to explain the syndrome using the theoretical framework of Modular Pragmatics of Language. We review definitions and classifications of the disorder from the first description of the syndrome by Kanner (1943), through the Theory of Mind (Leslie, 1987) interpretation of the core impairments in Autism, to the most recent DSM-IV (Volkmar

Asa Kasher; Sara Meilijson

350

Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

Johnston, Trevor

2012-01-01

351

Python Language Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Python Language Home Page is hosted by the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), Reston, VA. Python is an "interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, extensible programming language." It is both clear and versatile, freely available, and it runs on Unix, PC, and many other systems. Python was developed in the early 1990s at CWI in Amsterdam (the Netherlands); it has seen continuing development and widespread use since then. The site contains the official Python source code distribution, binaries, documentation, and conference proceedings. It also hosts a collection of contributed code and contains links to organizations and mailing lists that provide technical support for Python users. There are links to various projects that are using Python as well as to a number of special interest group (SIG) mailing lists. The SIGs are working to extend and enhance Python.

1998-01-01

352

Specific Language Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Voice, Speech and Language Specific Language Impairment Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

353

Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

Melchor, Rosemary Laura

2008-01-01

354

Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

2007-01-01

355

A fuzzy cooperative fusion system for seismic image interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concerns a seismic attribute fusion based on a cooperative approach between the interpreters and the system. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to allow geologists to use the system easily. It provides an original way to adjust some of the fusion system parameters which are understandable and close to the interpreters' language. The numerical aspect

L. Valet; G. Mauris; P. Bolon; N. Keskes

2001-01-01

356

Determining Register in Sign-to-English Interpreting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies indicators of register or style in selected portions of two lectures presented in American Sign Language, and in the interpretations of each made by two interpreters. The indicators used are speaking rate, pausing, syntax, intonation, and lexical choice. Transcripts of data are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)

Shaw, Risa

1987-01-01

357

Simultaneous and Consecutive Interpretation and Human Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of noise on the performance of simultaneous conference interpreters, and to carry out a detailed examination of verbal and temporal aspects of their output in relation to source language input. A further aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of simultaneous and consecutive interpretation

Gerver, D.

358

Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

Leung, Janny

2012-01-01

359

The effects of infusions of CART 55–102 into the basolateral amygdala on amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The affective aspects of d-amphetamine (AMPH) may be mediated, in part, by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides in the basolateral\\u000a amygdala (BLA). The formation of context-drug associations produces either conditioned place preference (CPP) or conditioned\\u000a place aversion (CPA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The aim of the present study was to determine whether intra-BLA infusions of CART 55–102 are either rewarding or aversive and

David J. Rademacher; Elyse M. Sullivan; David A. Figge

2010-01-01

360

Language and cognition.  

PubMed

What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research. PMID:19419838

Perlovsky, Leonid

2009-04-01

361

Miami Interpretive Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth and diversity of the City of Miami has left its inhabitants somewhat lost in a city with much to offer. The challenge of this thesis is to provide Miami with an architectural proposal that enhances an understanding of its own urban context through both its form and function. Specifically, the Miami Interpretive Center (M.I.C.) will offer the

Raul Esteban Bejel

1998-01-01

362

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

363

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

364

Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

2001-01-01

365

Interpretation of space photolineaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A definite pattern of space photolineaments exists, most have northeasterly and northwesterly strikes. The two main systems are traced in all platform regions. Seismic observations along regional profiles help in solving the fracture, the results of interpretation of space survey data should be compared with seismogeological sections along regional profiles. The comparisons show that space photolineaments coincide well with faults

L. N. Rozanov; I. N. Kalinina

1985-01-01

366

Explaining the Interpretive Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions of the epistemological foundations of psychology reflect two prominent positions, one invoking the causal-explanatory claims of the Piagetian tradition and the other the hermeneutic-interpretive claims of the Vygotskian tradition. Both traditions need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. The danger of causally explaining the cultural practices by which human beings construct and understand the meanings of their

Jens Brockmeier

1996-01-01

367

Explaining the Interpretive Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

Brockmeier, Jens

1996-01-01

368

On Jesus, Pharaohs, and the Chosen People: Martin Luther King as Biblical Interpreter and Humanist  

Microsoft Academic Search

King assumed that exodus is an archetypal experience; it supplied him with the metaphorical language for interpreting the black experience in America—but always with agape informing his interpretation at every point along the way.

James H. Smylie

1970-01-01

369

FIRST LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different measures derived from 41 3- to 4-year-old children's self- generated picture-book narratives and their performance on a general measure of language development (TELD-2, Hresko, Reid & Hammill, 1991) were evaluated with respect to their possible predictive relation two years later with 5 areas of academic achievement (General information, Reading recognition, Reading comprehension, Math, Spelling) assessed using

Daniela K. O'Neill; Michelle J. Pearce; Jennifer L. Pick

370

Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language

Schinkel, Anders

2011-01-01

371

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

372

Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

Braun, Mark

2007-03-02

373

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

374

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

375

Experimental evaluation of a generic abstract interpretation algorithm for PROLOG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract interpretation of PROLOG programs has attracted many researchers in recent years, partly because of the potential for optimization in PROLOG compilers and partly because of the declarative nature of logic programming languages that make them more amenable to optimization than procedural languages. Most of the work, however, has remained at the theoretical level, focusing on the developments of frameworks

Baudouin Le Charlier; Pascal Van Hentenryck

1994-01-01

376

Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

Washington, Earl M.

1981-01-01

377

Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

1990-05-01

378

Metaphor interpretation and use: a window into semantics in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The nature of putative semantic anomalies in schizophrenia is controversial. Metaphor interpretation and use provide a useful methodology with which to probe semantics since metaphors are critical in reasoning processes and in how conceptual knowledge is organized. The first study examined free speech for figurative language. The second study explored whether emotional versus non-emotional metaphorical language interpretation elicits differences in the tendencies to produce idiosyncratic (bizarre) or literal interpretations or use of other metaphors to describe the meaning of a metaphor. The third study examined the interpretation of time metaphors. We expected the time perspective in ambiguous sentences to be differentially influenced by previously presented unambiguous sentences of a specific perspective, either events moving relative to a stationary observer (moving-time) or an observer moving relative to a stationary event (moving-ego). First, we found that patients used a similar amount of figurative language as control participants. Second, we did not find any difference between the groups in terms of idiosyncratic interpretations, although patients did interpret more metaphors literally and controls utilized more figurative language. Third, we did not find evidence of a difference between the groups in terms of time perspectives influencing ambiguous target sentences differentially. As operationalized here, the interpretation and use of metaphors is similar in patients with schizophrenia to that of healthy control participants. To the extent that metaphors recruit semantic processes this area of cognition is generally intact in schizophrenia. PMID:21821395

Elvevåg, B; Helsen, K; De Hert, M; Sweers, K; Storms, G

2011-12-01

379

Consumer and Worker Opinions of an A La Carte Food Service System Independent of any Systematic Changes in Ration Status: Barksdale AFB.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to study the effect of replacing the traditional flat-rate, meal priced system in Air Force food service with an item-priced A La Carte system, but without making any systematic changes in the ration status of individuals, Air Force enlisted ...

W. C. Wilkinson L. E. Symington M. F. Berman B. Edelman

1979-01-01

380

Geometry and Structural Properties for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) from Model Tuning. Subcontractor Report for August 25, 2003 - November 30, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) is a modified Westinghouse WWG-0600 machine rated at 600 kW. It is located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Boulder, Colorado, and has been installed to test new control schemes for power and l...

K. A. Stol

2004-01-01

381

L4-L5 compression and anterior/posterior joint shear forces in cabin attendants during the initial push/pull actions of airplane meal carts.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the acute low back load of cabin attendants during cart handling and to identify working situations which present the highest strain on the worker. In a setup, 17 cabin attendants (ten females and seven males) pushed, pulled and turned a 20kg standard meal cart (L: 0.5m×W: 0.3m×H: 0.92m) loaded with extra 20kg and 40kg, respectively on two different surfaces (carpet and linoleum) and at three floor inclinations (-2°, 0° and +2°). Two force transducers were mounted as handles. Two-dimensional movement analysis was performed and a 4D WATBAK modelling tool was used to calculate the acute L4-L5 load. No working situations created loads greater than the accepted values for single exertions, however compression and anterior/posterior shear forces during pulling and turning were much higher when compared with pushing. There were significant effects of handling the cart on different floor types, at the varying inclinations and with different cart weights. Additionally, when external forces were reduced, the cabin attendants did not decrease push/pull force proportionally and thus the L4-L5 load did not decrease as much as expected. PMID:24552608

Sandfeld, Jesper; Rosgaard, Christian; Jensen, Bente Rona

2014-07-01

382

The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

2000-04-04

383

Laptop Learning: A Comparison of Teaching and Learning in Upper Elementary Classrooms Equipped with Shared Carts of Laptops and Permanent 1:1 Laptops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares teaching and learning activities in 4th and 5th grade classrooms that were permanently equipped with one laptop for each student and classrooms that share a cart of laptops that create a 1:1 laptop environment on a temporary basis. The study originated from a question posed to us by Andover Public Schools (MA): "How does…

Russell, Michael; Bebell, Damian; Higgins, Jennifer

2004-01-01

384

Computer-Assisted Remote Transcription (CART): A Tool To Aid People Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study investigated the effectiveness of a new technology to aid people who are deaf or hard of hearing to participate fully in meetings held in the workplace through the use of Computer Assisted Remote Transcription (CART), in which a stenographer transcribes a meeting from a remote location. Results indicated some problems with using the…

Preminger, Jill E.; Levitt, Harry

1997-01-01

385

[The development of a bedside cart for the management of acute respiratory failure with non-invasive ventilation in Internal Medicine wards].  

PubMed

In order to improve the organization of a General Medical ward without a real critical care area and to optimize treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure, we developed a cart for non-invasive ventilation to be used at the patient bedside. In the rear panel, we set two i.v. drip poles used for i.v. therapy and to hold two Venturi-like flow generators for continuous positive airway pressure. On the top, two ventilators are present, a smaller one (domiciliary) and a bigger one (intensive care unit ventilator). In the front panel, there are 4 drawers called "blood - drugs", "oxygenation", "CPAP", "ventilation", in which all the devices for ventilation, oxygenation, aerosol and medical therapy are easily and quickly available. The management of acute respiratory failure is simpler, easier and safer with this cart: each necessary device is immediately available, and this avoids wasting time. This bedside non-invasive ventilation cart, as far as the cardiac emergency cart, can be useful in general medical wards lacking a critical care area in order to improve interventions in patients with acute respiratory failure. PMID:23548951

Lari, Federico; Bortolotti, Roberta; Scandellari, Novella; Zecchi, Virna; Bragagni, Gianpaolo; Giostra, Fabrizio; Di Battista, Nicola

2013-03-01

386

Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

387

Documenting Endangered Languages  

NSF Publications Database

... Documenting Endangered Languages Documenting endangered languages. Credit and Larger Version ... preserve key languages before they become extinct. More than 70 at-risk languages will be digitally ...

388

Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates) and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor) were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis. PMID:24723947

Sharma, Prannda; Satorius, Ashley E; Raff, Marika R; Rivera, Adriana; Newton, Duane W; Younger, John G

2014-01-01

389

Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates) and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor) were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

Sharma, Prannda; Satorius, Ashley E.; Raff, Marika R.; Rivera, Adriana; Newton, Duane W.; Younger, John G.

2014-01-01

390

Working Effectively with Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, so early childhood educators are often among the first to work with families whose primary languages are other than English. Many parents, guardians, and family members do speak English but not fluently enough to feel comfortable communicating with teachers or administrators. When educators and…

Cellitti, Anarella

2010-01-01

391

INTERPRETING CHINA'S ECONOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is unique in covering all important topics of the Chinese economy in depth but written in a language understandable to the layman and yet challenging to the expert. Beginning with entrepreneurship that propels the dynamic economic changes in China today, the book is organized into four broad parts to discuss China's economic development, to analyze significant economic issues,

Gregory C Chow

392

Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

Ferrari, Pier Luigi

2004-01-01

393

Speech recognition for Japanese spoken language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper overviews the speech recognition issues for the Japanese language, and introduces three research projects conducted at NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) Human Interface Laboratories and ATR Interpreting Telephony Research Laboratories. The first topic is stochastic language models for the sequences of Japanese characters to be used in a Japanese dictation system with unlimited vocabulary. The second topic is

Sadaoki Furui

1994-01-01

394

Complexity in Child Language. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of language of four, five, and six year old children was examined in a psycholinguistic study that attempted to differentiate the characteristics of sentences that were difficult for children to comprehend from those which were easy, and to discover whether children used a subject-verb-object (S-V-O) language strategy to interpret

Gordon, Alice M.

395

Interpretation of Conventional Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

396

Interpreting Paleoenvironments with Microfossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is constructed to help students gain a better understanding of how scientists can use foraminifera to interpret past environments. Specifically, they will have the opportunity to understand one of the basic tenets of geology: the present is the key to the past, a principle otherwise known as uniformitarianism. Objectives include: distinguishing between planktonic, benthic, hyaline, porcelaneous, and agglutinated foraminifera, calculating the proportion of planktonic specimens in a sample, establishing the species diversity of a sample, establishing the shell-type ratio of a sample, and reconstructing the environment of deposition of the sample.

Culver, Stephen

397

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

398

Interpretation for Discussions about End-of-Life Issues: Results from a National Survey of Health Care Interpreters  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Communication about end-of-life issues is difficult across language barriers. Little is known about the experience of health care interpreters in these discussions. Objectives Objectives of this study were to: 1) assess the experiences of healthcare interpreters when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues; 2) identify interpreter characteristics and experiences that may be associated with improved satisfaction and comfort with interpreting these discussions; and 3) describe interpreter training needs. Methods The study utilized an electronically administered survey distributed nationally to health care interpreters in the United States. One hundred and forty-two health care interpreters participated. Measurements included general experiences, attitudes, and perceived training needs when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues. Results Most respondents had received a certificate in interpretation (71%, 101/142), completed more than 40 hours of training (89%, 127/142), and had more than 5 years of interpreting experience (65%, 93/142). Overall, 85% (121/142) of respondents had interpreted discussions about end-of-life issues and most interpreted multiple discussions per week. Of those interpreters who had experience with these discussions, the majority (85%, 103/121) reported feeling comfortable, but only half (48%, 58/121) reported that these discussions usually went well. Interpreters who felt clear about their role were more likely than interpreters who did not feel clear about their role to think that discussions went well (51% [57/112] versus 11% [1/9], p=0.02) and to feel comfortable interpreting (88% [98/112] versus 56% [5/9], p=0.01). Eighty percent (97/121) of respondents with experience in end-of-life discussions were personally interested in more specific training for these discussions. Attitudes and perceived training needs did not differ by interpreter demographics or qualifications. Conclusions The majority of interpreters have experience with end-of-life discussions but, independent of interpreter training and experience, only half report that these discussions usually go well. Interpreters want and may benefit from targeted educational interventions that could improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and families in these difficult situations. Health systems and interpreter certification programs should incorporate specific training on how to interpret discussion about end-of-life issues.

Fernandez, Alicia; Kerr, Kathleen; O'Riordan, David; Pantilat, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

399

Integral backstepping sliding mode control for underactuated systems: swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System.  

PubMed

In this paper an integral backstepping sliding mode controller is proposed for controlling underactuated systems. A feedback control law is designed based on backstepping algorithm and a sliding surface is introduced in the final stage of the algorithm. The backstepping algorithm makes the controller immune to matched and mismatched uncertainties and the sliding mode control provides robustness. The proposed controller ensures asymptotic stability. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared against a coupled sliding mode controller for swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System. Simulation results show that the proposed integral backstepping sliding mode controller is able to reject both matched and mismatched uncertainties with a chattering free control law, while utilizing less control effort than the sliding mode controller. PMID:23932857

Adhikary, Nabanita; Mahanta, Chitralekha

2013-11-01

400

Astronomy in my shopping cart: Today I bought some asteroids, hundreds of black holes and three Solar Systems!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we will present a pilot project that will be tested and developed throughout 2007/08 in advance of the International Year of Astronomy. Why "putting astronomy in the shopping cart"? The aim of the project is to publicise astrophysics at a popular level, choosing a place that best matches the meaning of the word `popular': the shopping mall. With this project we want to arouse consumer interest in science, making use of the supermarket inside any shopping mall: a place people are familiar with and where they find common consumer goods. The final purpose is to give our science consumer the chance to bring home shopping bags filled not only with consumer goods, but also with a piece of knowledge about astronomy, astrophysics and the way astronomers work and think to understand the Universe and its phenomena.

Boccato, C.; Lazzaretto, E.

2008-06-01

401

CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies  

SciTech Connect

The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1998-04-01

402

Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.

Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.

2004-01-01

403

Explaining ambiguity in a formal query language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of generating reasonable natural language-like responses to queries formulated in nonnavigational query languages with logical data independence is addressed. An extended ER model, the Entity-Relationship-Involvement model, is defined which assists in providing a greater degree of logical data independence and the generation of natural language explanations of a query processor's interpretation of a query. These are accomplished with

Joseph A. Wald; Paul G. Sorenson

1990-01-01

404

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the telencephalon of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus: distribution and response to fasting, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, glucose, insulin, and leptin treatments.  

PubMed

The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-containing system in the forebrain of Clarias gariepinus was studied with immunocytochemistry. While the immunoreactivity was prominently seen in the neurons of the entopeduncular nucleus (EN) located in the ventral telencephalon, CART-immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed in the dorsal and ventral telencephalon. In view of the established role of CART in energy metabolism, we investigated the response of the CART immunoreactive system to positive and negative nutritional conditions. Neurons of the EN and fibers in the different areas of the telencephalon showed significant reduction in CART immunoreactivity following 48 hours food deprivation, or 2 hours following intracranial administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG, 100 ng/g body weight, a metabolic antagonist of glucose). However, intracranial injection of glucose (100 ng/g body weight) resulted in a distinct increase in CART immunoreactivity in these components. In mammals, insulin and leptin have been recognized as adiposity agents that convey peripheral energy status-related information to brain. Intracranial administration of insulin (3 mU/fish) and leptin (10 ng/g body weight) significantly increased CART immunoreactivity in the EN neurons and in the fiber network within 2 hours. Superfusion of the EN-containing tissue fragments in the medium enriched in glucose, insulin, or leptin evoked a significant increase in CART immunoreactivity in the EN neurons, but 2DG reduced the immunoreactivity. We suggest that CART-containing neurons of the EN, and fibers in the telencephalon, may process the energy status-related information and contribute to satiety. PMID:21452197

Subhedar, Nishikant; Barsagade, Vikas G; Singru, Praful S; Thim, Lars; Clausen, Jes Thorn

2011-05-01

405

Kawa - Compiling Dynamic Languages to the Java VM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many are interested in Java for its portable bytecodes and extensive libraries, but prefer a different language, especially for scripting. People have implemented other languages using an interpreter (which is slow), or by translating into Java source (with poor responsiveness for eval). Kawa uses an interpreter only for \\

Per Bothner

406

American Sign Language  

MedlinePLUS

... Infections, and Deafness American Sign Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

407

Preschool Language Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Preschool Language Disorders What are preschool language disorders ? What are some signs or symptoms of preschool language disorders ? What ... individuals with preschool language disorders ? What are preschool language disorders? Preschool children (3 to 5 years old) ...

408

Does First Language Maintenance Hamper Nativelikeness in a Second Language?: A Study of Ultimate Attainment in Early Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly…

Bylund, Emanuel; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

2012-01-01

409

Multi-Media: The Electronic Sensory Languages: A Return to Lascaux.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an interpretation of the history of the development of visual and verbal language, and argues for the place of electronic technologies of visual and oral languages in the language arts curriculum. (DF)

Thompson, Nancy; Cromer, Jim

1980-01-01

410

Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death

Vanezis, P

2001-01-01

411

Interpretation of genetic variants.  

PubMed

Sequencing of the human genome and introduction of clinical next-generation sequencing enable discovery of all DNA variants carried by an individual. Variants may be solely responsible for disease, may contribute to disease, or may have no influence on the development of disease. Interpreting the effect of these variants upon disease is a major challenge for medicine. Although the process is still evolving, certain methods are useful in discriminating the effect of variants upon phenotype. These methods have been employed to the greatest extent in Mendelian disorders where deleterious changes in one gene can cause disease. Here, we briefly review the relative merits of these methods, with emphasis on using a comprehensive approach modelled after the analysis of variants that causes cystic fibrosis. PMID:24343785

Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R

2014-03-01

412

Finding Language in the Language Arts: Towards "Cognitive Language Arts."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language arts are constructed like a doughnut or a bagel, so that at their center where there might be something, there is instead a hole--emptiness. The dominant approach to understanding the nature of language--generative grammar--does not suggest a center for the language arts. An alternative approach to language and mind is "cognitive…

Chametzky, Robert A.

413

Foreign language teachers’ language proficiency and their language teaching practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ subject knowledge is recognised as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers’ subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling, prompting a demand for more foreign language teachers. A nationwide professional development programme

Heather Richards; Clare Conway; Annelies Roskvist; Sharon Harvey

2012-01-01

414

Getting By: Underuse of Interpreters by Resident Physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Language barriers complicate physician–patient communication and adversely affect healthcare quality. Research suggests that physicians underuse interpreters despite evidence of benefits and even when services are readily available. The reasons underlying the underuse of interpreters are poorly understood. Objective To understand the decision-making process of resident physicians when communicating with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants Internal medicine resident physicians (?=?20) from two urban teaching hospitals with excellent interpreter services. Approach An interview guide was used to explore decision making about interpreter use. Results Four recurrent themes emerged: 1) Resident physicians recognized that they underused professional interpreters, and described this phenomenon as “getting by;” 2) Resident physicians made decisions about interpreter use by weighing the perceived value of communication in clinical decision making against their own time constraints; 3) The decision to call an interpreter could be preempted by the convenience of using family members or the resident physician’s use of his/her own second language skills; 4) Resident physicians normalized the underuse of professional interpreters, despite recognition that patients with LEP are not receiving equal care. Conclusions Although previous research has identified time constraints and lack of availability of interpreters as reasons for their underuse, our data suggest that the reasons are far more complex. Residents at the study institutions with interpreters readily available found it easier to “get by” without an interpreter, despite misgivings about negative implications for quality of care. Findings suggest that increasing interpreter use will require interventions targeted at both individual physicians and the practice environment.

Schenker, Yael; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Fernandez, Alicia

2008-01-01

415

The interpretation of IPCC probabilistic statements around the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) uses verbal descriptions of uncertainty (for example, Unlikely) to convey imprecision in its forecasts and conclusions. Previous studies showed that the American public misinterprets these probabilistic statements. We report results from a multi-national study involving 25 samples in 24 countries and 17 languages. As predicted, laypeople interpret IPCC statements as conveying probabilities closer to 50% than intended by the IPCC authors. We show that an alternative presentation format supplementing the verbal terms with numerical ranges increases the correspondence between the public's interpretations and the IPCC guidelines, and the terms are better differentiated. These qualitative patterns are remarkably stable across all samples and languages. In fact, interpretations of the terms in various languages are more similar under the new presentation format. These results suggest changing the way the IPCC communicates uncertainty.

Budescu, David V.; Por, Han-Hui; Broomell, Stephen B.; Smithson, Michael

2014-06-01

416

Culture, Language, and Literacy: The Effects of Child Brokering on Language Minority Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies of language brokering among linguistic minority (LM) children are reviewed and discussed. In child language brokering, children act as linguistic mediators, not translators or interpreters, for their limited-English-proficient parents and relatives. The purpose of the studies was to describe brokering in LM communities and to examine…

Tse, Lucy; McQuillan, Jeff

417

Towards Modular Interpretive Decompilation of Low-Level Code to Prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decompiling low-level code to a high-level intermediate representation facilitates the development of an- alyzers, model checkers, etc. which reason about properties of the low-level code (e.g., bytecode, .NET). Interpretive decompilation consists in partially evaluating an interpreter for the low-level language (writ- ten in the high-level language) w.r.t. the code to be decompiled. There have been proofs-of-concept that interpretive decompilation is

Miguel Gomez-Zamalloa; Elvira Albert; German Puebla

2009-01-01

418

A Monadic Interpretation of Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many proof tools use 'tactic languages' as programs to di- rect their proofs. We present a simplified idealised tactic language, and describe its denotational semantics. The language has many applications outside theorem-proving activities. The semantics is parametrised by a monad (plus additional structure). By instantiating this in various ways, the core semantics of a number of different tactic languages is

Andrew Martin; Jeremy Gibbons

2002-01-01

419

Language, cognition, and second language grammaticality judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In first language research, there appear to be two predominant positions relating metalinguistic awareness to language development. One suggests that since metalinguistic awareness is related to primary language acquisition (comprehension and production), general cognitive processes perform a limited role in metalinguistic awareness. The other suggests that since metalinguistic awareness is more closely related to secondary language acquisition (reading and writing),

Diana Masny; Alison d'Anglejan

1985-01-01

420

Language Testing in "The Modern Language Journal."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses coverage of language testing issues in the "Modern Language Journal" over the last 80 years. Suggests that overall the articles devoted to language testing show a valuable concern with the use rather than the form of language tests. (Author/VWL)

Spolsky, Bernard

2000-01-01

421

Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

1991-01-01

422

L'opération de la Carte du Ciel dans les contextes institutionnel et technique de l'astronomie française à la fin du XIXe siècle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce chapitre analyse le contexte institutionnel français dans lequel naît la Carte du Ciel. Dans les années 1880, le régime républicain réorganise totalement la recherche astronomique. À Paris, l'instrumentation est totalement renouvelée sous l'impulsion de Maurice Loewy. En province, les efforts de décentralisation permettent un accroissement significatif des arsenaux techniques de Marseille et Toulouse, ainsi que l'édification des établissements de Besançon, Lyon et Bordeaux. À Alger, la station astronomique créée sous le second Empire est transformée en un observatoire particulièrement dynamique grâce à l'implication de Charles Trépied. Ce panorama des établissements astronomiques permet de cerner les enjeux institutionnels et scientifiques qui concourent à l'engagement des observatoires de Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Alger dans l'entreprise de la Carte du Ciel.

Le Guet Tully, F.; Sadsaoud, H.; de La Noë, J.

2008-06-01

423

A planning language for activity scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

1991-01-01

424

Changes in First-Line cART Regimens and Short-Term Clinical Outcome between 1996 and 2010 in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Objectives Document progress in HIV-treatment in the Netherlands since 1996 by reviewing changing patterns of cART use and relating those to trends in patients' short-term clinical outcomes between 1996 and 2010. Design and Methods 1996–2010 data from 10,278 patients in the Dutch ATHENA national observational cohort were analysed. The annual number of patients starting a type of regimen was quantified. Trends in the following outcomes were described: i) recovery of 150 CD4 cells/mm3 within 12 months of starting cART; ii) achieving viral load (VL) suppression ?1,000 copies/ml within 12 months of starting cART; iii) switching from first-line to second-line regimen within three years of starting treatment; and iv) all-cause mortality rate per 100 person-years within three years of starting treatment. Results Between 1996 and 2010, first-line regimens changed from lamivudine/zidovudine-based or lamivudine/stavudine-based regimens with unboosted-PIs to tenofovir with either emtricitabine or lamivudine with NNRTIs. Mortality rates did not change significantly over time. VL suppression and CD4 recovery improved over time, and the incidence of switching due to virological failure and toxicity more than halved between 1996 and 2010. These effects appear to be related to the use of new regimens rather than improvements in clinical care. Conclusion The use of first-line cART in the Netherlands closely follows changes in guidelines, to the benefit of patients. While there was no significant improvement in mortality, newer drugs with better tolerability and simpler dosing resulted in improved immunological and virological recovery and reduced incidences of switching due to toxicity and virological failure.

Smit, Mikaela; Smit, Colette; Geerlings, Suzanne; Gras, Luuk; Brinkman, Kees; Hallett, Timothy B.; de Wolf, Frank

2013-01-01

425

Learning About Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes between language study which implies a critical scrutiny of the language, and language learning directed at language fluency only. Suggests that a more effective approach would be a combination of the two methods. (DS)

Haile, H. G.

1970-01-01

426

Speech and Language Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... 11] Back to top Development of Speech and Language Skills in Childhood Speech and language skills develop ... story. Back to top Characteristics of Speech or Language Impairments The characteristics of speech or language impairments ...

427

Expressive language disorder - developmental  

MedlinePLUS

Language disorder - expressive ... 10% of all school-age children have expressive language disorder. It is a pretty common issue in ... Standardized expressive language and nonverbal intellectual tests ... language disorder is suspected. Testing for other learning ...

428

Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program  

SciTech Connect

Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

Ferrare, Richard A.

2002-08-19

429

Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history  

PubMed Central

Background Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222), an internet sample (n=123), and psychiatric outpatients (n=30). Results The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted.

Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Lanius, Ruth A.

2013-01-01

430

Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.; Tichelen, Luc V.

2001-01-01

431

Language and Literacy Development in Prelingually-Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to address the issue of language development in hearing impaired children. It argues that interpreters, teachers or peers can provide deaf children with language exposure so that they can acquire their native languages more easily. It also argues that the provision of a developmentally appropriate print-rich environments is the…

Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

2008-01-01

432

The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

Ellis, Nick C.

2008-01-01

433

Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

2007-12-01

434

Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

1998-01-01

435

Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning Raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART Raman lidar  

SciTech Connect

Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warning scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

Whiteman, D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Turner, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1998-04-01

436

Predictors of CNS injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the setting of chronic HIV infection and CART.  

PubMed

The reasons for persistent brain dysfunction in chronically HIV-infected persons on stable combined antiretroviral therapies (CART) remain unclear. Host and viral factors along with their interactions were examined in 260 HIV-infected subjects who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Metabolite concentrations (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and Glx/Cr) were measured in the basal ganglia, the frontal white matter, and gray matter, and the best predictive models were selected using a bootstrap-enhanced Akaike information criterion (AIC). Depending on the metabolite and brain region, age, race, HIV RNA concentration, ADC stage, duration of HIV infection, nadir CD4, and/or their interactions were predictive of metabolite concentrations, particularly the basal ganglia NAA/Cr and the mid-frontal NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr, whereas current CD4 and the CPE index rarely or did not predict these changes. These results show for the first time that host and viral factors related to both current and past HIV status contribute to persisting cerebral metabolite abnormalities and provide a framework for further understanding neurological injury in the setting of chronic and stable disease. PMID:24696364

Harezlak, J; Cohen, R; Gongvatana, A; Taylor, M; Buchthal, S; Schifitto, G; Zhong, J; Daar, E S; Alger, J R; Brown, M; Singer, E J; Campbell, T B; McMahon, D; So, Y T; Yiannoutsos, C T; Navia, B A

2014-06-01

437

The Unmet Need for Interpreting Provision in UK Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background With increasing globalisation, the challenges of providing accessible and safe healthcare to all are great. Studies show that there are substantial numbers of people who are not fluent in English to a level where they can make best use of health services. We examined how health professionals manage language barriers in a consultation. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional study in 41 UK general practices . Health professionals completed a proforma for a randomly allocated consultation session. Seventy-seven (63%) practitioners responded, from 41(59%) practices. From 1008 consultations, 555 involved patients who did not have English as a first language; 710 took place in English; 222 were in other languages, the practitioner either communicating with the patient in their own language/using an alternative language. Seven consultations were in a mixture of English/patient's own language. Patients' first languages numbered 37 (apart from English), in contrast to health practitioners, who declared at least a basic level of proficiency in 22 languages other than English. The practitioner's reported proficiency in the language used was at a basic level in 24 consultations, whereas in 21, they reported having no proficiency at all. In 57 consultations, a relative/friend interpreted and in 6, a bilingual member of staff/community worker was used. Only in 6 cases was a professional interpreter booked. The main limitation was that only one random session was selected and assessment of patient/professional fluency in English was subjective. Conclusions It would appear that professional interpreters are under-used in relation to the need for them, with bilingual staff/family and friends being used commonly. In many cases where the patient spoke little/no English, the practitioner consulted in the patient's language but this approach was also used where reported practitioner proficiency was low. Further research in different setting is needed to substantiate these findings.

Gill, Paramjit S.; Beavan, Jacqueline; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

2011-01-01

438

The Philological and Exegetical Approach to Language and Culture in the History of Language Study in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the history of language study in Japan, there are two main streams: foreign language study and an inquiry into the mother tongue. For both types of language study, the philological and exegetical interpretation of texts had generally been the central approach for many centuries, particularly in the "koku-gaku" movement--a fierce Nativist…

Eto, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

439

Language and the newborn brain: does prenatal language experience shape the neonate neural response to speech?  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that by the time of birth, the neonate brain responds specially to the native language when compared to acoustically similar non-language stimuli. In the current study, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to ask how prenatal language experience might shape the brain response to language in newborn infants. To do so, we examine the neural response of neonates when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar language, as well as to non language stimuli. Twenty monolingual English-exposed neonates aged 0-3?days were tested. Each infant heard low-pass filtered sentences of forward English (familiar language), forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language), and backward English and Tagalog (non-language). During exposure, neural activation was measured across 12 channels on each hemisphere. Our results indicate a bilateral effect of language familiarity on neonates' brain response to language. Differential brain activation was seen when neonates listened to forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language) as compared to other types of language stimuli. We interpret these results as evidence that the prenatal experience with the native language gained in utero influences how the newborn brain responds to language across brain regions sensitive to speech processing. PMID:21960980

May, Lillian; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F

2011-01-01

440

47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and readers) if the request is made to the Commission's Section 504 Officer a...

2013-10-01

441

77 FR 9653 - Sunshine Act Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2012-02-17

442

78 FR 11179 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2013-02-15

443

77 FR 6798 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2012-02-09

444

47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and readers) if the request is made to the Commission's...

2010-10-01

445

75 FR 62815 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2010-10-13

446

76 FR 34985 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2011-06-15

447

47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and readers) if the request is made to the Commission's...

2009-10-01

448

77 FR 24201 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2012-04-23

449

75 FR 68788 - Sunshine Act; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2010-11-09

450

76 FR 70131 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2011-11-10

451

78 FR 67144 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2013-11-08

452

77 FR 41404 - Sunshine Act Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2012-07-13

453

76 FR 12733 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Requests for other...

2011-03-08

454

76 FR 31611 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2011-06-01

455

78 FR 26031 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2013-05-03

456

78 FR 16501 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2013-03-15

457

76 FR 42709 - Sunshine Act Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TTY) at any time for information on these meetings. The EEOC provides sign language interpretation and Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART) services at Commission meetings for the hearing impaired. Requests for other reasonable...

2011-07-19

458

Curriculum Guide for Interpreter Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a curriculum guide for the training of interpreters for the deaf consisting of 15 sections to be used as individual units or comprising a two part, 1 year course. The full course uses the text, Interpreting for Deaf People, as a guide and includes laboratory and practicum experiences. Curriculum guidelines include specific aims such…

Sternberg, Martin L. A.; And Others

459

Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

460

A Pathway for Interpretive Phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a qualitative method for research is offered that clearly incorporates Heideggerian philosophy into an interpretive phenomenological research design. Several unique contributions to interpretive research are provided. Tested Hermeneutical Principles for Research (HPR) are outlined. These frame the design and method, and practically integrate the underlying philosophy.

Sherrill A. Conroy

2003-01-01

461

Photo Interpreter Data Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis is reported of the need for, and use of, data processing equipment to support the photo interpreter in a field environment, a review of the existing Image Interpretation Central AN/MSQ-58A system operation, and an analysis of the photo interpr...

A. W. Muoio

1967-01-01

462

The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

Peter Bosch

1991-01-01

463

Is American Sign Language a "Foreign" Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the complexities of the question as to whether or not American Sign Language (ASL) is a foreign language. It reviews the historical oppression of the deaf, the development of ASL and its defining value to proponents of deaf culture, mentions other language systems (including foreign sign systems) used by the…

Belka, Robert W.

464

Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

2000-01-01

465

Language Flowering, Language Empowering for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based upon the view that parents, home visitors, and teachers in early childhood settings need tools for empowering young children to develop language, this paper examines what adults need to know to guide young children's language development and presents 20 suggestions for enhancing language growth. The paper maintains that adults need to know…

Honig, Alice Sterling

466

Language policy and language planning in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the trajectories of language polices in Cyprus and to relate

Xenia Hadjioannou; Stavroula Tsiplakou; Matthias Kappler

2011-01-01

467

Language and Language Policy in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

Baxter, William H., III

1985-01-01

468

Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2010-01-01

469

Using Non-Professional Interpreters in a Multiethnic Primary Care Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multiethnic countries such as Malaysia more than six different languages are spoken by patients in publicly -funded clinics. Sometimes doctors are unable to speak the patient's language and there are no professional interpreters. Research on doctor -patient communication has rarely included the language variable and its impact on information exchange and patient outcome in consultations where the doctor does

Cecilia Fredericks

470

Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.  

PubMed

Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful. PMID:20537266

Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

2010-06-01

471

On the Nature and Formation of Interpretive and Rhetorical Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes between Stanley Fish's idea of interpretive communities and rhetorical communities and asserts that because language is the passport to these communities, schools should seek ways to help students enter the communities to which they seek access. Cites evidence from an international study of writing to support the idea of rhetorical…

Purves, Alan C.

1985-01-01

472

Training the Professional Interpreter for the Commercial and Legal Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States has been training interpreters only in the recent past, but the American penchant for technology has furthered the profession as a whole. Benchmarks in this process include machines introduced at the 1936 Paris World Fair and the Nuremberg trials, establishment of the United Nations, language services, development of the Division…

Adams, Eleonora K.

473

Spatial-Linguistic Reasoning in LEI (Locality and Elevation Interpreter)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In LEI, the Locality and Elevation Interpreter, lingusitic and geometric reasoning are joined to resolve natural language representations of locations as geodetic coordinates. The system uses the PAU (Parser and Understander) system to translate locality descriptions into semantic relations. The relations are then disambiguated by instantiation from USGS data bases. The project's goal is to replace operator intervention in locality

Shaun Futch; David N. Chin; Matthew Mcgranaghan; Jinn-guey Lay

1992-01-01

474

Interpreting Hypernymic Propositions in an Online Medical Encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of semantic propositions from bio- medical texts documents would provide valuable support to natural language processing (NLP) ap- plications. We are developing a methodology to in- terpret a kind of semantic proposition, the hy- pernymic proposition, in MEDLINE abstracts. In this paper, we expanded the system to identify these structures in a different discourse domain: the Medi- cal Encyclopedia

Marcelo Fiszman; Thomas C. Rindflesch; Halil Kilicoglu

2003-01-01

475

Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

Heinz, Michael

2013-01-01

476

Barriers to Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis will explore the acquisition of a second language by normal adults and children, and first language acquisition by children with learning disabilities, more precisely specific language impairment (SLI). It will investigate the striking similarities and the differences between these language groups. Special attention will be paid to morphological and phonological processes that are particularly problematic for both language

Sabina R. Neugebauer

2002-01-01

477

Language Trends 2010 Secondary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

2010-01-01

478

Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

479

A Priority Fuzzy Logic Extension of the XQuery Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there have been significant research findings in flexible XML querying techniques using fuzzy set theory. Many types of fuzzy extensions to XML data model and XML query languages have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce priority fuzzy logic extensions to XQuery language. Describing these extensions we introduce a new query language. Moreover, we describe a way to implement an interpreter for this language using an existing XML native database.

Škrbi?, Srdjan; Wettayaprasit, Wiphada; Saeueng, Pannipa

2011-09-01

480

Red Language Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RED is a programmed language designed, in accordance with the DOD Steelman requirements, for DoD embedded computer applications. The language combines features common to most existing high level languages with new capabilities for abstract data types, exc...

J. Nestor M. V. Deusen

1979-01-01

481

ASPEN Language Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ASPEN is a 'toy' language that can be used as a sample source language in the teaching of compiler construction. As such, its design incorporates language constructs that can be handled by fundamental compiler construction techniques and yet are expressiv...

T. R. Wilcox

1976-01-01

482

Speech and Language Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Speech and language disorders More information on speech and language disorders ... Return to top More information on Speech and language disorders Explore other publications and websites Aphasia - This ...

483

Revisiting Plain Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

Mazur, Beth

2000-01-01

484

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

485

MUMPS Language Standard.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This NBS Handbook contains a three-part description of various aspects of the MUMPS computer programming language. Part I, the MUMPS Language Specification, consists of a stylized English narrative definition of the MUMPS language which was adopted and ap...

J. T. O'Neill

1976-01-01

486

The gradual emergence of language 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language is a unique hallmark of the human species. Although many species can communicate about things that are physically present, only humans can use communication to construct a full narrative characterization of events occurring outside of the here and now. The religions of the world have interpreted this unique endowment as a Special Gift bestowed directly by the Creator. Scientists

Brian MacWhinney

487

A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

488

Diagrams and Programming Languages for Programmable Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In many domain specific languages diagrammatic notation isused because it conforms to notations used by domain specialists beforethe deployment of programmable components. The aim is to lessen thepossibility of error by changing as little as possible. However the switchto programmable components often means a radical change in the detailsof the implementation. Such changes can mean that the domain experts'interpretation

Stuart Anderson; Konstantinos Tourlas

1997-01-01

489

Language as Ideology: The American Indian Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language can act as ideology in 2 possible ways: 1) as a major source and embodiment of a group's world view, sanctioning certain forms of behavior and interpretation; and 2) as a symbol of group identity virtually command a group action. (Author)

Svensson, Frances

1975-01-01

490

Lost in Translation: The Power of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

2011-01-01

491

Personalized Interpretation and Experience Enhancement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion on the interpretations of museums and zoos. Introduces the applications of living history, museum theater and explains the terms interactors, explainers, and curators; keepers; and technicians. Lists the locations having the explained applications. Includes 29 references. (YDS)

West, Robert Mac

2001-01-01

492

INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes preliminary attempts to formulate viable models for interpreting environmental assessment data. The models are evaluated using data from the four most comprehensive environmental assessments. A format for entering environmental assessment results on FORTRAN c...

493

ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

494

Map Interpretation with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...

495

Over-Interpreting Functional Neuroimages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive neuroscientists use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure properties of a participant's brain during a cognitive task. These imaging results are transformed into compelling pictures of brain activity using statistical models. I will argue that, for a broad class of experiments, neuroimaging experts have a tendency to over-interpret the functional significance of their data. This over-interpretation appears to

Marc A. Burock

2009-01-01

496

Metaphor: An Inescapable Phenomenon in Natural Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpreting metaphors is an integral and inescapable process in human understanding of natural language. Part I of this paper discusses a method of analyzing metaphors based on the existence of a small number of generalized metaphor mappings. Each genera...

J. G. Carbonell

1981-01-01

497

Metaphor: An Inescapable Phenomenon in Natural Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpreting metaphors is an integral and inescapable process in human understanding of natural language. This paper discusses a method of analyzing metaphors based on the existence of a small number of generalized metaphor mappings. Each generalized meta...

J. G. Carbonell

1981-01-01

498

Once a Broker, Always a Broker: Non-Professional Interpreting as Identity Accomplishment in Multigenerational Italian-English Bilingual Family Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores interpreting in three-generational Italian-English bilingual families as a complex language brokering activity. Recent studies approach non-professional interpreting as language brokering in which bilinguals (often children) interpret for non-bilinguals (adults) in institutional settings (Hall 2004; Valdes 2003). These studies…

Del Torto, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

499

Molecular characterization of CART, AgRP, and MC4R genes and their expression with fasting and re-feeding in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), agouti-related proteins (AgRP) and Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) involv