Science.gov

Sample records for language interpreters cart

  1. Les cartes puce Brique ROSE

    E-print Network

    Tardieu, Samuel

    plus répandues : cartes bancaires ; cartes SIM pour téléphones mobiles ; cartes pour les décodeurs Card Query Language) 7816-8 commandes portables de sécurité Samuel Tardieu (ENST) Les cartes ŕ puce 4

  2. Command Language Interpreters February 1993

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    MDS Command Language Interpreters Reference Manual February 1993 Software Version: MDS 5.2 VAX Language) is copyrighted by Research Systems, Incorporated. GRAPAC4 (Graphics Package 4) is copyrighted of the command lanquage closely resembles that of the DCL com- mand language. In fact many of the \\standard" MDS

  3. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  4. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  5. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  6. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  7. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  8. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  9. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  10. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 true Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  11. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  12. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  13. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  14. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  15. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  16. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  17. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  18. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  19. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  20. Interpreting natural language queries using the UMLS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. B.; Aguirre, A.; Peng, P.; Cimino, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes AQUA (A QUery Analyzer), the natural language front end of a prototype information retrieval system. AQUA translates a user's natural language query into a representation in the Conceptual Graph formalism. The graph is then used by subsequent components to search various resources such as databases of the medical literature. The focus of the parsing method is on semantics rather than syntax, with semantic restrictions being provided by the UMLS Semantic Net. The intent of the approach is to provide a method that can be emulated easily in applications that require simple natural language interfaces. PMID:8130481

  1. Martin Heidegger: Interpretation, Language, and the Intrapersonal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Barbara

    The "logos" concept of Martin Heidegger's phenomenological philosophy refers to a perceptual attunement to "Being," or reality as a whole, which is prior to language. Logos includes every way in which people interpret, constitute, and interact with their world. Language is seen as prior to our awareness of Being, as well as constitutive of it.…

  2. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  3. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  4. Understanding quantifiers and scope interpretations in a second language

    E-print Network

    Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    ://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Understanding quantifiers and scope interpretations in a second language by Yan Li KU ScholarWorks is a service provided by the KU Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication & Copyright. This is the author’s accepted manuscript version of the article, made... available with the permission of the publisher. The original published version can be found at the link below. Li, Yan (2012d). Understanding quantifiers and scope interpretations in a second language, Contemporary Foreign Languages Studies, 384/12, pp...

  5. Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

  6. The Use of Interpreters by Speech-Language Pathologists Conducting Bilingual Speech-Language Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfrey, Carol Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to explore the practices of speech-language pathologists in conducting bilingual assessments with interpreters. Data were obtained regarding the assessment tools and practices used by speech-language pathologists, the frequency with which they work with interpreters, and the procedures…

  7. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  8. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  9. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  10. Interpreting Medicine: Lessons From a Spanish-Language Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients is an act of interpretation: we labor to understand the significance of a particular symptom and, when we have reached a diagnosis, we convert our medical jargon into plain language for the benefit of the patient. Caring for patients of limited English proficiency—a population that needs a very literal form of interpretation—underscores this lesson. Working with predominantly Spanish-speaking patients has shown me the importance of bearing witness to patients’ struggles and has brought me to realize that good physicians must work to forge a common language with all their patients, not only with those who do not speak English. PMID:25201742

  11. Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

  12. Automated Methods for Interpreting Geospatial Natural Language Dr Kristin Stock, Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University of Nottingham

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    NaturalGeo Automated Methods for Interpreting Geospatial Natural Language Dr Kristin Stock, Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University of Nottingham 2012-2014 What is geospatial natural language diagrams best match 2000 geospatial natural language expressions. The results will populate our

  13. Language switching mechanisms in simultaneous interpreters: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Leoni, Giuliana; Zani, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Recent event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging studies suggest that bilingual individuals are able to inhibit the processing of a non-target language while speaking or reading in another language. The neural mechanisms subserving code switching still remain matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to shed some light on the neurofunctional bases of such mechanisms. ERPs were recorded in native Italian simultaneous interpreters and monolingual controls during a semantic processing task in which the subjects had to evaluate the sensibleness of final words of incomplete sentences. All participants were strictly right-handed. Interpreters knew at least four languages (from four to eight) at a professional level, from among 11 European and Asian languages, and had an excellent command of English (L2). Four hundred short sentences were presented visually; half of them had an unexpected final word, producing a semantic incongruence. Sentences could be entirely in Italian or in English (unmixed); alternatively, the body of the sentence could be in English and the final word in Italian or vice versa (mixed). ERPs were time locked to the onset of the final word. Both reaction times (RTs) and electrophysiological data indicated a lesser degree of hemispheric lateralization for linguistic function during L2 rather than L1 processing in interpreters. The first effect of lexical switching and code switching was recorded in the time window between 140 and 200 ms at left anterior sites. At N400 level, ERPs were significantly larger to L2 than to L1 words only in the mixed and not in the unmixed condition. No effect of language was observed in the unmixed condition, thus suggesting that the difference in L1/L2 processing was not related to a difference in proficiency, but rather to a different functional organization of semantic integration systems due to the later age of acquisition of L2 compared to L1. Interpreters were faster at reading and comprehending sentences in English ending with an Italian word than vice versa (L2 --> L1 switch). PMID:15327931

  14. Emergency-Evacuation Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Otto H.; Owens, Lester J.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed cart designed to remove injured worker from vicinity of hazardous chemical spill. Self-propelled cart enables rescuer to move victim of industrial accident quickly away from toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, carcinogenic, asphyxiating, or extremely cold liquids. Intended for use where too dangerous for ambulances and other vehicles to approach accident site. Constructed of high-strength tubing, rides on bicycle wheels with balloon tires. Rescuer steers cart with handle at rear. Estimated mass of fully equipped vehicle is 650 lb.

  15. Carts Before Horses 1 Carts Before Horses:Carts Before Horses

    E-print Network

    C Carts Before Horses 1 Carts Before Horses:Carts Before Horses: Using Preparatory Exercises on Teaching Software Testing Melbourne, FL January, 2004 #12;C Carts Before Horses 2 Rationale present a solution or (preferably) enable them to develop their own solution. #12;C Carts Before Horses 3

  16. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  17. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    PubMed Central

    Debevc, Matjaž; Miloševi?, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers’ comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  18. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  19. Roles and responsibilities of the interpreter in interactions with speech-language pathologists, parents, and students.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Henriette W; Quintanar-Sarellana, Rosalinda

    2003-08-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA '97) specify that students must be assessed in their primary language. With the ever-increasing number of diverse languages spoken by students, it is very unlikely that even an English-bilingual speech-language pathologist's other language will match that of a student who is referred for a speech-language assessment. Knowing how to work effectively with an interpreter is, therefore, essential for all speech-language pathologists. This article reviews the process of interpretation during parent conferences and student assessments. It describes the specific roles and responsibilities of the speech-language pathologist-interpreter team, with a focus on the linguistic, cultural, and professional skills that the interpreter should have to ensure a successful outcome. Data obtained from bilingual Spanish/English-speaking speech-language pathologists are provided to confirm and describe some important features desired in an interpreter who collaborates with a speech-language pathologist. Suggestions for training and certifying future interpreters are outlined. Finally, models are presented for successful interactions with interpreters. PMID:14533055

  20. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

  1. Sign Language Vocabulary Development Practices and Internet Use Among Educational Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Brian C.; Jamieson, Janet R.

    2004-01-01

    Sign language interpreters working in schools often face isolation in terms of their sign language vocabulary development opportunities. The purposes of this study were to determine the key demographic characteristics of educational interpreters in British Columbia, to identify the resources they use to learn new vocabulary, and to shed light on…

  2. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  3. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  4. Deriving Meaning through Context: Interpreting Bare Nominals in Second Language Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the second language acquisition of telicity have suggested that learners can use morphosyntactic cues to interpret sentences as telic or atelic even in cases where the cues differ in the first language (L1) and second language (L2) (Slabakova, 2001, 2005; Gabriele, 2008; Kaku et al., 2008a, 2008b). The present study extends…

  5. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  6. 78 FR 50415 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Proposed Sample Reseller Certification Language for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by email: FCC504@fcc.gov or phone: (202) 418- 0530 or TTY... (ECFS) or by filing paper copies. See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR... COMMISSION Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Proposed Sample Reseller Certification Language...

  7. Incremental interpretation and the role of disfluencies in human language comprehension 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Following a substantial amount of research, language comprehension is now generally regarded as an incremental process in which both linguistic and non-linguistic input is integrated and interpreted as early as possible ...

  8. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvo?ák, LukáĹ.ˇ

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  9. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  10. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

  11. Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

  12. Oxen Pulling Cart

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Ox-pulled carts are still used on rural dirt roads in Paraguay. The oxen push against a rough log laid in front of their withers. Large wooden wheels work well on dry roads. The Ńeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56...

  13. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  14. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

  15. Interpreting as a Language Teaching Technique. Proceedings of a Conference (University of Salford, England, January 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Noel, Ed.; Towell, Richard, Ed.

    Papers presented at a conference on the use of simultaneous, consecutive, and other forms of interpreting as features of foreign language teaching and learning in British higher education include the following: "Liaison Interpreting as a Communicative Language-Learning Exercise" (H. A. Keith); "Interpreting and Communicating: Problems for the…

  16. The roles of working memory, language proficiency, and training in simultaneous interpretation performance: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals 

    E-print Network

    Tzou, Yeh-Zu

    2009-05-15

    – and on a simultaneous interpretation task. In addition, a translation judgment task and proficiency self-evaluation measures were administered to explore if language proficiency mediates working memory in participants’ L1 (native language) and L2 (second...

  17. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  18. Intensive Training Seminar for American Sign Language Interpreters, Post-Secondary Employment Emphasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastfield Coll., Mesquite, TX.

    The intensive four-week seminar described in this report was designed for sign language interpreters currently employed or desiring employment in public post-secondary technical and vocational education. After explaining the objectives of the seminar, its targeted participants, and the training structure, the report presents an outline of the…

  19. Language Interpretation and Generation for Football A. Nijholt, R. op den Akker & F. de Jong

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Language Interpretation and Generation for Football Commentary A. Nijholt, R. op den Akker & F. de developed for the textual domain. In MUMIS the extraction technology is applied to the domain of football. In this report we survey a number of research efforts that all deal with football commentary but for which

  20. Open Source Programming for Interpreted Language: Graphic Interface and Macro Bridging Interface in the EEGLAB

    E-print Network

    Delorme, Arnaud

    Co, Toulouse, France arno@ucsd.edu Abstract Interpreted languages like Matlab or Python are popular in the Open such as Matlab or Python that allow for designing graphic interfaces also offer unique capabilities Mathworks, Inc.). EEGLAB provides an interactive graphic user interface (GUI) allowing users to flexibly

  1. SDMOQL: An OQL-based Data Mining Query Language for Map Interpretation Tasks

    E-print Network

    Malerba, Donato

    data mining tasks in INGENS: inducing classification rules and discovering association rules. Only in [14], which proposes a logical framework for spatial association rule mining. GIS offers an importantSDMOQL: An OQL-based Data Mining Query Language for Map Interpretation Tasks Donato Malerba

  2. Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2014-01-01

    The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

  3. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  4. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  5. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  6. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

  7. [If the provision of information runs into the language barrier--about the cooperation with interpreters].

    PubMed

    Sleptsova, M

    2007-10-01

    Communication between professionals and patients from different cultural origin and without knowledge of the professional's language is not possible without the help of interpreters. Their presences however, can have a differential impact upon the quality of the interaction. Non-professional translators (family members, members of hospital staff etc.) can have a negative impact upon medical treatment via false translation, most commonly by the failure to add "creative elements" from their own interpretation to what has been said. As a consequence, using professional interpreters is generally preferred. It has been shown that professional translation improves the quality of treatment and patients' satisfaction with treatment. The proper professionalisation of interpretation is a rather recent development in health care, differentiating between various roles that an interpreter might take. The prominent role of a cultural translator often referred to as "mediation" assumes that the interpreter "mediates" between two different cultures that collide during an encounter. In our experience with Turkish speaking interpreters however, their socio-demographic characteristics (foremost education and social class in Turkey) resemble those of professionals much closer than that of Turkish patients; this the interpreter's position is not in the middle between patient and health care provider but skewed to the latter. Using concrete clinical situations we will recommend a word-by-word translation largely neglecting the role of the cultural mediator. PMID:18214211

  8. Assessing the Level of Performance of Sign Language Interpreters from Impaired Hearing Students' Perspectives at Public and Private Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanikat, Feryal Abdel-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the level of performance of sign language interpreters in both public and private Jordanian universities, as well as to recognize the effect of the study variables specifically gender and qualifications for acoustically disabled and interpreter, and the experience of the interpreter on the level of the performance…

  9. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  10. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  11. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  12. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  13. Club Cart Use Agreement QUALIFICATIONS TO OPERATE A CART

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    , annually STAFF/FACULTY- Must have an "Acceptable" driving record, as defined by Risk Management. Use an "Acceptable" driving record, as defined by Risk Management. Fill out the RM01 form and fax it to the number driver's license Must be at least 18 years of age Review and complete the Club Cart Use Agreement

  14. ViSlang: A System for Interpreted Domain-Specific Languages for Scientific Visualization.

    PubMed

    Rautek, Peter; Bruckner, Stefan; Gröller, M Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang, an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization. A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in terms of run-time performance. PMID:26356953

  15. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  16. Preservice Teacher and Interpreter American Sign Language Abilities: Self-Evaluations and Evaluations of Deaf Students' Narrative Renditions.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S; Scheetz, Nanci A

    2015-01-01

    In deaf education , the sign language skills of teacher and interpreter candidates are infrequently assessed; when they are, formal measures are commonly used upon preparation program completion, as opposed to informal measures related to instructional tasks. Using an informal picture storybook task, the authors investigated the receptive and expressive narrative sign language skills of 10 teacher and interpreter candidates in a university preparation program. The candidates evaluated signed renditions of two signing children, as well as their own expressive renditions, using the Signed Reading Fluency Rubric (Easterbrooks & Huston, 2008) at the completion of their fifth sign language course. Candidates' evaluations were compared overall and across 12 sign language indicators to ratings of two university program professors. Some variation existed across ratings for individual indicators, but generally the candidates were aware of and could accurately rate their own abilities and those of two signing children. PMID:26320753

  17. Interpretation of natural-language data base queries using optimization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The automatic interpretation of natural language (in this work, English), database questions formulated by a user untrained in the technical aspects of database querying is an established problem in the field of artificial intelligence. State-of-the-art approaches involve the analysis of queries with syntactic and semantic grammars expressed in phrase structure grammar or transition network formalisms. With such method difficulties exist with the detection and resolution of ambiguity, with the misinterpretation possibilities inherent with finite length look-ahead, and with the modification and extension of a mechanism for other sources of semantic knowledge. This work examines the potential of optimization techniques to solve these problems and interpret natural language, database queries. The proposed method involves developing a 0-1 integer programming problem for each query. The possible values that the set of variables in the optimization may take on is an enumeration of possible such individual associations between the database schema and the query. The solution to the integer programming problem corresponds to a single assignment of database data items and relationships to the words in the query. Constraints are derived from systematic and database schema knowledge stored as libraries of templates. An objective function is used to rank the possible associations as to their likelihood of agreement with the intent of the questioner. A test mechanism was built to support evaluation of the proposed method. Suitable knowledge source template sets and an objective function were developed experimentally with the test mechanism from a learning sample of queries. Then the performance of the method was compared to that of an established system (PLANES) on a test set of queries. The performance of the new method was found to be comparable to that of the established system.

  18. [An experimental study on muscle tension reaction induced by voice among sign language interpreters].

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the incidence of cervicobrachial muscle tension induced by voice among sign language interpreters (SLIs). The analyzed subjects included 8 professional SLIs (Case group) who complained of pain in the cervicobrachial muscle when listening to others' talking and 8 other people who have not learned sign language (Control group). Matching sexes, ages, and smoking habits of the Case and the Control groups was carried out. Informed consent to participate in the study was obtained from all subjects. While subjects relaxed in a sitting position, surface electromyographies (EMGs) were recorded from the right and left trapezius muscles and biceps brachii muscles. During this time, all subjects had two listening tasks: to listen to lectures in Japanese and to listen to instrumental music. An inquiry about subjective symptoms was conducted just after each task. Root-mean-square (RMS) values per 100 ms in each of the tasks were calculated for analysis of surface EMG. An original criterion of judgment was that the threshold of RMS values was 3.8 microV, and its threshold continued for more than 1 s. The criterion was used and the muscle tension was confirmed. Results showed muscle tension in the trapezius muscles or the biceps brachii muscles among 5 of 8 subjects in the Case group, and in 1 of 8 in the Control group when listening to the lecture. 3 subjects in the Case group and none in the Control group showed muscle tension in the trapezius muscles when listening not to music but to the lecture. The differences between the Case and Control groups in these results were not statistically significant. Confirmed muscle tension in SLIs when listening to a Japanese lecture is probably induced by the Japanese voice. It is necessary to further investigate whether muscle tension is an acquired reaction from sign language interpreting or a pathological reaction. Listening to Japanese voices may contribute to muscular overload in SLIs so that it may be necessary for SLIs to relax their muscles during break times with an absence of Japanese voices. PMID:15112455

  19. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  20. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic…

  1. La Interpretacion Consecutiva y la Ensenanza Avanzada de Idiomas (Delayed Interpretation and Advanced Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of interpretation. The importance of delayed interpretation, as opposed to simultaneous interpretation, is stressed, because of the emphasis on semantic meaning. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  2. CARTs on the road for myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Marcela V.; June, Carl H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chimeric antigen receptors re-direct T cells to surface antigens. Discovery and validation of appropriate target antigens expands the possible indications for CAR-T cells. CS1 is expressed at high levels by multiple myeloma cells, but also to some extent on other lymphocytes. CS1 may be a viable target for CAR-T cells in multiple myeloma. PMID:24919574

  3. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  4. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  5. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Erika

    2012-01-01

    On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

  6. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  7. Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: implications for closing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than do middle-class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the United States. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children's other language skills. PMID:22329382

  8. Transportable X-ray cart

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

  9. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  10. Native Language Attrition and Developmental Instability at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Data, Interpretations and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2004-01-01

    Montrul's study is an important contribution to a recently emerged research approach to the study of bilingualism and languages in contact, characterized by its sound theoretical basis and its reliance on data from different--and traditionally non-integrated--domains of language development: bilingual first language acquisition (Muller and Hulk,…

  11. Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Hye-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second…

  12. Disfluencies in Consecutive Interpreting among Undergraduates in the Language Lab Environment1

    E-print Network

    interpreting (CI) is "a process in which adequate information is orally presented and transferred into another cost and moderate requirement on technical support. It is applied in interpreter-on-site business to the increasing social demand for CI interpreters and English users of certain CI skills, a number of universities

  13. GRAMPS: a graphics language interpreter for real-time, interactive, three-dimensional picture editing and animation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, T.J.; Olson, A.J.

    1981-08-01

    GRAMPS, a graphics language interpreter has been developed in FORTRAN 77 to be used in conjunction with an interactive vector display list processor (Evans and Sutherland Multi-Picture-System). Several of the features of the language make it very useful and convenient for real-time scene construction, manipulation and animation. The GRAMPS language syntax allows natural interaction with scene elements as well as easy, interactive assignment of graphics input devices. GRAMPS facilitates the creation, manipulation and copying of complex nested picture structures. The language has a powerful macro feature that enables new graphics commands to be developed and incorporated interactively. Animation may be achieved in GRAMPS by two different, yet mutually compatible means. Picture structures may contain framed data, which consist of a sequence of fixed objects. These structures may be displayed sequentially to give a traditional frame animation effect. In addition, transformation information on picture structures may be saved at any time in the form of new macro commands that will transform these structures from one saved state to another in a specified number of steps, yielding an interpolated transformation animation effect. An overview of the GRAMPS command structure is given and several examples of application of the language to molecular modeling and animation are presented.

  14. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  15. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  16. Prediction of radiation levels in residences: A methodological comparison of CART (Classification and Regression Tree Analysis) and conventional regression

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, I.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, trace and toxic substance concentrations frequently have very highly skewed distributions ranging over one or more orders of magnitude, and prediction by conventional regression is often poor. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) is an alternative in such contexts. To compare the techniques, two Pennsylvania data sets and three independent variables are used: house radon progeny (RnD) and gamma levels as predicted by construction characteristics in 1330 houses; and {approximately}200 house radon (Rn) measurements as predicted by topographic parameters. CART may identify structural variables of interest not identified by conventional regression, and vice versa, but in general the regression models are similar. CART has major advantages in dealing with other common characteristics of environmental data sets, such as missing values, continuous variables requiring transformations, and large sets of potential independent variables. CART is most useful in the identification and screening of independent variables, greatly reducing the need for cross-tabulations and nested breakdown analyses. There is no need to discard cases with missing values for the independent variables because surrogate variables are intrinsic to CART. The tree-structured approach is also independent of the scale on which the independent variables are measured, so that transformations are unnecessary. CART identifies important interactions as well as main effects. The major advantages of CART appear to be in exploring data. Once the important variables are identified, conventional regressions seem to lead to results similar but more interpretable by most audiences. 12 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Appetite regulation in Schizothorax prenanti by three CART genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dengyue; Wei, Rongbin; Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuanbing; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has received much attention as mediators of appetite regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of CART in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. In this study, three distinct CARTs were cloned from the Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Real-time quantitative PCR were applied to characterize the tissue distribution and appetite regulatory effects of CARTs in S. prenanti. The S. prenanti CART-1, CART-2 and CART-3 full-length cDNA sequences were 597bp, 694bp and 749bp in length, encoding the peptides of 125, 120 and 104 amino acid residues, respectively. All the S. prenanti CARTs consisted of three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the high mRNA levels of S. prenanti CART-1 were observed in the telencephalon and eye, followed by the hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and mesencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-2 mRNA was mainly found in the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, telencephalon and myelencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-3 mRNA was widely distributed among the tissues, with the high levels in the hypothalamus and foregut. In the periprandial experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were highly elevated after a meal, suggesting that CARTs are postprandial satiety signals. In the fasting experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions decreased after fasting and increased after refeeding, suggesting that CARTs might be involved in regulation of appetite in the S. prenanti. PMID:26316039

  18. The interaction of domain knowledge and linguistic structure in natural language processing: interpreting hypernymic propositions in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Rindflesch, Thomas C; Fiszman, Marcelo

    2003-12-01

    Interpretation of semantic propositions in free-text documents such as MEDLINE citations would provide valuable support for biomedical applications, and several approaches to semantic interpretation are being pursued in the biomedical informatics community. In this paper, we describe a methodology for interpreting linguistic structures that encode hypernymic propositions, in which a more specific concept is in a taxonomic relationship with a more general concept. In order to effectively process these constructions, we exploit underspecified syntactic analysis and structured domain knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). After introducing the syntactic processing on which our system depends, we focus on the UMLS knowledge that supports interpretation of hypernymic propositions. We first use semantic groups from the Semantic Network to ensure that the two concepts involved are compatible; hierarchical information in the Metathesaurus then determines which concept is more general and which more specific. A preliminary evaluation of a sample based on the semantic group Chemicals and Drugs provides 83% precision. An error analysis was conducted and potential solutions to the problems encountered are presented. The research discussed here serves as a paradigm for investigating the interaction between domain knowledge and linguistic structure in natural language processing, and could also make a contribution to research on automatic processing of discourse structure. Additional implications of the system we present include its integration in advanced semantic interpretation processors for biomedical text and its use for information extraction in specific domains. The approach has the potential to support a range of applications, including information retrieval and ontology engineering. PMID:14759819

  19. Linguistic complex networks: Rationale, application, interpretation, and directions. Reply to comments on "Approaching human language with complex networks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jin; Liu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Amid the enthusiasm for real-world networks of the new millennium, the enquiry into linguistic networks is flourishing not only as a productive branch of the new networks science but also as a promising approach to linguistic research. Although the complex network approach constitutes a potential opportunity to make linguistics a science, the world of linguistics seems unprepared to embrace it. For one thing, linguistics has been largely unaffected by quantitative methods. Those who are accustomed to qualitative linguistic methods may find it hard to appreciate the application of quantitative properties of language such as frequency and length, not to mention quantitative properties of language modeled as networks. With this in mind, in our review [1] we restrict ourselves to the basics of complex networks and the new insights into human language with the application of complex networks. For another, while breaking new grounds and posing new challenges for linguistics, the complex network approach to human language as a new tradition of linguistic research is faced with challenges and unsolved issues of its own. It is no surprise that the comments on our review, especially their skepticism and suggestions, focus on various different aspects of the complex network approach to human language. We are grateful to all the insightful and penetrating comments, which, together with our review, mark a significant impetus to linguistic research from the complex network approach. In this reply, we would like to address four major issues of the complex network approach to human language, namely, a) its theoretical rationale, b) its application in linguistic research, c) interpretation of the results, and d) directions of future research.

  20. Threads of a New Language: A Response to Eisenhart's "On the Subject of Interpretive Reviews."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Shuaib J.

    1998-01-01

    While traditional literature reviews have functioned to clarify a single field, the interpretive review may contribute to research that challenges the perceptual habits of reviewers and extends the ways in which research questions can be constructed and studied. The interpretive review may bring many disciplines together for a new approach to the…

  1. Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy

    E-print Network

    Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy Giri Vijayaraghavan-2002. Quality Week 2002 The Bug TaxonomyThe Bug Taxonomy · An outline that categorizes and lists a large number of potential bugs. · The tester who uses the taxonomy can sample from the list, selecting a potential problem

  2. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  3. Explaining and interpreting deficits in language development across clinical groups: Where do we go from here?

    E-print Network

    , as well as aspects of grammar, narrative, and verbal memory across the elementary school years by the ``problem space'' posed by a particular language (in this case English), so that virtu- ally all children by Reilly, Losh, Bellugi, and Wulfeck of grammar and discourse using the Frog Story narratives. However

  4. The Role of University Students' Attitude towards Turkish Language Lesson in Interpreting Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytan, Necmi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to measure the effect of students' reading strategies and attitudes towards Turkish language on reading habits. 323 first grade students receiving education in 2014-2015 semester in International Antalya University located at the center of Antalya were involved in the study. As the method, relational screening model was…

  5. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  6. Abstract interpretation of database query languages Raju Halder, Agostino Cortesi n

    E-print Network

    Cortesi, Tino

    ' Foscari Venezia, Italy a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 3 March 2011 Received in revised producing no result of particular interest to the user. Wasted time can be saved if users are able available at SciVerse ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cl Computer Languages, Systems

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN AND CYBERNETICS, VOL. ?, NO. ??, NOVEMBER 2006 1 Interpretation of Spatial Language

    E-print Network

    Roy, Deb

    , video games and geo-spatial communications analysis may benefit from automatic understanding of navigational language. In a video game scenario, for instance, players can be enabled to guide game characters throughout the virtual world of a game. This may be especially powerful when there are large numbers

  8. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  9. Italie: "Scienze" a la carte (Italy: Science a la carte).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasset-Deschamps, Veronique

    1993-01-01

    An adaptable, interdisciplinary project in high schools in Naples, Italy, involves teaching science in French to those who have completed at least three years of language study. Goals are to sensitize students to scientific French and to enrich their understanding through thematically focused work. (CNP)

  10. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  11. Symbolic Interpretation of Legacy Assembly Language Jacques Carette, Pulak Kumar Chowdhury

    E-print Network

    Carette, Jacques

    , fre- quent computed gotos, and even some (relatively mild) in- stances of self-modifying code. What we and symbolic interpretation techniques to reverse engineering the semantics of legacy assembler code. We for some interesting code sequences. Based on this, path conditions and generated "correctness" conditions

  12. Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joelle

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

  13. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  14. Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

    This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

  15. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

  16. Medication carts--are they all the same?

    PubMed

    Churchill, W W; Souney, P F; Fretthold, R A; Kaul, A F

    1985-11-01

    Purchase of unit dose medication carts is one of the major capital expenditures in the development and maintenance of a unit dose distribution system. Critical factors in this selection process are the considerations of product reliability and durability. To develop an assessment of user satisfaction with the various brands of unit dose carts, a national survey of 500 randomly selected hospital pharmacies was developed and mailed. The questionnaire requested information on types of carts used, satisfaction with cart performance, types of repairs needed, frequency of repairs, providers of cart repairs, and frequency of cart maintenance inspections. Two hundred seventy responses (54%) were available for evaluation. Eighty-five percent of cart users have five or more carts. Although 60% of respondents have carts greater than or equal to 4 years old, comparative satisfaction did not decrease as a function of increasing age of carts. There were 11 brands of unit dose carts reported by 214 responders. One hundred and three of these 214 responders (48.1%) used MacBick as compared with 36, 22, 18, and 35 users of Trans Aid, Lionville, Ferno Forge, and seven other brands, respectively. MacBick's users reported less equipment failure rate compared with the other brands, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (p less than 0.2 greater than 0.05). It was also determined that only 29% of hospitals routinely inspect carts to insure proper functioning. Since the most frequent type of equipment failure reported (up to 61% of users) involved cart locking mechanisms, drug security can be compromised without routine inspections. PMID:10274173

  17. Proper Motions from Carte du Ciel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyten, W. J.

    The existing data on proper motions from meridian catalogues and proper motion surveys appear to be reasonably complete for motions larger than 0.24 arc seconds per year and down to the 19th magnitude visual but for motions between 0.24 and 0.18 there exists a lacuna for stars between 8.5 and 11.5 visual which could easily be observed by repeating Carte du Ciel plates.

  18. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  19. Uses and Interpretations of Non-Word Repetition Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairments (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Evans, Julia L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The non-word repetition task (NRT) has gained wide acceptance in describing language acquisition in both children with normal language development (NL) and children with specific language impairments (SLI). This task has gained wide acceptance because it so closely matches the phonological component of word learning, and correlates…

  20. Processing a Cart from a Shopper Instruction Guide

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    for selected lines in a Cart for all forms by using the dropdown option, "Change Supplier" Note: You must first-right and select "Change Supplier". a. A Supplier Search box will appear so you can enter the supplier and search for it. b. Select the supplier and click Save. c. The cart will now send the order to the new supplier

  1. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  2. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, C.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache ŕ retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problčme de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part ŕ la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions ŕ la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'ŕ ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

  3. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  4. On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ech, Radek

    2014-12-01

    After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

  5. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  6. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  7. Making Yourself Mobile With a Medical Golf Cart

    PubMed Central

    Berry, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the specially designed and equipped golf cart in sports medicine has become commonplace at the professional and collegiate levels. However, at the high school level, athletic trainers often have been stymied by financial limitations that prevent them from purchasing professionally designed and manufactured medical golf carts. Through this article, I hope to share with high school athletic trainers my experiences in designing, obtaining, and equipping a medical golf cart that is affordable and suitable for use in the high school setting. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558219

  8. "Quelque Chose...De Remarquable" in English-French Acquisition: Mandatory, Informationally Encapsulated Computations in Second Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Hathorn, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the results of an experiment that investigates English-French learners' interpretation of quantifiers with detachable restrictions. Such quantifiers are ungrammatical in English. We investigate aspects of interpretation that rely on a highly idiosyncratic interface between grammar and general principles of conversational cooperation in…

  9. Semantic Meaning and Pragmatic Interpretation in 5-Year-Olds: Evidence from Real-Time Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on children's inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of "some" (implying "not all"), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly "all"). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of…

  10. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  11. The Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    1985-11-01

    Answers to a circular letter concerning the Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel from Alger (A. Ghezloun), Catania (C. Blanco), Cordoba (G. Carranza), Greenwich (P. J. Andrews), Paris (J. Delhaye), Sydney (A. E. Vaughan), Toulouse (R. Nadal).

  12. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  13. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  14. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  15. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  16. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART. PMID:21785720

  20. The retarding force on a fan-cart reversing direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analysed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artefact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in the introductory physics laboratory.

  1. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2012-03-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analyzed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artifact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in introductory physics laboratory.

  2. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peizhong

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART. PMID:21785720

  3. Quantum Interpretations

    E-print Network

    A. R. P. Rau

    2006-06-03

    Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such as the many worlds interpretation or specify a central role for consciousness or neural microstructures. The simple, but basic, acceptance that what is meant by the state of a physical system is different in quantum physics from what it is in classical physics goes a long way in explaining its seeming peculiarities.

  4. Reports from the field: engaging learners as interpreters for developing health messages -- designing the 'Familias Sin Plomo' English as a Second Language curriculum project.

    PubMed

    Handley, Margaret A; Santos, Maricel G; McClelland, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    California has a recently documented problem of trans-national environmental lead exposures in imported foods from Mexico but there is limited health information available in immigrant communities about this problem. This report highlights collaborative work with English as a Second Language (ESL) learners to critically review research data on lead exposures and reframe prevention messages about lead contamination of imported foods. These messages are now integrated into ESL curricula for dissemination to Spanish-speaking populations that are disproportionately affected by lead poisoning. This 'learners as interpreters' approach is a participatory method that can be applied across a wide range of public health activities. ESL learners emerged as ideal partners in developing curriculum for lead poisoning prevention for several reasons: the parents expressed strong interest in lead poisoning prevention, several have children under age 6 when lead screenings are recommended, and many have emigrated from regions in Mexico where lead hazards were identified. PMID:19773301

  5. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  6. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  7. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  8. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  9. THE VIRTUAL EMERGENCY CRASH CART: AN IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR NURSES

    E-print Network

    Brown, Leonard

    THE VIRTUAL EMERGENCY CRASH CART: AN IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL REALITY LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR NURSES virtual crash cart that could provide risk-free, on-demand training to all nurses for becoming familiar with a medical facility's specific cart configuration. Description: Nurses play an integral role

  10. Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System

    E-print Network

    Zenkov, Dmitry

    Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System Anthony M. Bloch. In this paper the method of controlled Lagrangians is applied to the discrete cart-pendulum system. This study out the matching procedure explicitly for the discrete cart-pendulum system and prove that we can

  11. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  12. The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

  13. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  14. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.986 “A la carte” offerings. (a) Collective offerings... collective offering of channels if the component channels' collective offering also have been continuously available on the system on a per channel basis since April 1, 1993. (c) A collective offering of per...

  15. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.986 “A la carte” offerings. (a) Collective offerings... collective offering of channels if the component channels' collective offering also have been continuously available on the system on a per channel basis since April 1, 1993. (c) A collective offering of per...

  16. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.986 “A la carte” offerings. (a) Collective offerings... collective offering of channels if the component channels' collective offering also have been continuously available on the system on a per channel basis since April 1, 1993. (c) A collective offering of per...

  17. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.986 “A la carte” offerings. (a) Collective offerings... collective offering of channels if the component channels' collective offering also have been continuously available on the system on a per channel basis since April 1, 1993. (c) A collective offering of per...

  18. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.986 “A la carte” offerings. (a) Collective offerings... collective offering of channels if the component channels' collective offering also have been continuously available on the system on a per channel basis since April 1, 1993. (c) A collective offering of per...

  19. Acceptance Test Report for Gamma Carts A and B

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, P.J.

    2000-03-16

    Report of Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Reports of the hardware and software tests. The objective of the testing was to verify in the shop that the hardware and software operated according to design specifications before field-testing and installation.

  20. SFASU Department of Public Safety Golf Cart Reservation

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    website at www.sfasu.edu/dps/defensive-driving.asp to fill out the Approved Driver Application and contact to not drive in those unapproved areas. B. Carts are not to be parked anywhere that interfere with the movement from rental rights may be issued. F. Please do not drive onto any curbs. This can cause the rims

  1. Origami Mathematiques Pratique Replier des cartes Laboratoire de Mathematiques

    E-print Network

    Hyvernat, Pierre

    Origami Math´ematiques Pratique Replier des cartes Laboratoire de Math´ematiques Universit´e de Savoie Origami et math´ematiques, une rencontre entre artistes et chercheurs Conf´erence Amphis pour tous Pierre Hyvernat (pierre.hyvernat@univ-savoie.fr) Laboratoire de math´ematiques, universit´e de Savoie

  2. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  3. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  4. Building community resilience to disasters through a community-based intervention: CART applications.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Neas, Barbara R; Houston, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART)* is a community-driven, publicly available, theory-based, and evidence-informed community intervention designed to build community resilience to disasters and other adversities. Based on principles of participatory action research, CART applications contribute to community resilience by encouraging and supporting community participation and cooperation, communication, self-awareness, and critical reflection. The primary value of CART lies in its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. In addition to generating community assessment data, CART can be used as a vehicle for delivering other interventions and creating sustainable capacity within communities. Two models for CART implementation are described. PMID:24180095

  5. Wind Tunnel Model Support Cart with Telescoping Mast and Cable Yaw Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Monroe, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    The 14-by-22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center uses model carts to support and position models in the test section. The carts are portable through the use of air bearings and can be moved from the test to the Model Prep Area (MPA) to change models in preparation for a new test. This paper describes the design of a new model cart that is three feet shorter than existing carts. This will eliminate clearance problems when moving the model and cart from the MPA to the test section.

  6. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  7. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment. PMID:26113836

  8. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment. PMID:26113836

  9. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

  10. Trilobite eyes and the optics of Des Cartes and Huygens.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, E N; Levi-Setti, R

    1975-04-24

    The thick lenses in the aggregate eyes of a group of trilobites were double structures designed to eliminate spherical aberration. The shape of the optically correcting interface is in accord with constructions by Des Cartes and Huygens and is dictated by a fundamental law of physics. Trilobites may have evolved such sophisticated eye-lenses to maximise optic neurone response in a dimly lit environment. PMID:1091864

  11. Online motor fault detection and diagnosis using a hybrid FMM-CART model.

    PubMed

    Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, a hybrid model combining the fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and the classification and regression tree (CART) for online motor detection and diagnosis tasks is described. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed FMM-CART model, an evaluation with a benchmark data set pertaining to electrical motor bearing faults is first conducted. The results obtained are equivalent to those reported in the literature. Then, a laboratory experiment for detecting and diagnosing eccentricity faults in an induction motor is performed. In addition to producing accurate results, useful rules in the form of a decision tree are extracted to provide explanation and justification for the predictions from FMM-CART. The experimental outcome positively shows the potential of FMM-CART in undertaking online motor fault detection and diagnosis tasks. PMID:24807956

  12. Factors affecting minimum push and pull forces of manual carts.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisawi, K W; Kerk, C J; Congleton, J J; Amendola, A A; Jenkins, O C; Gaines, W

    1999-06-01

    The minimum forces needed to manually push or pull a 4-wheel cart of differing weights with similar wheel sizes from a stationary state were measured on four floor materials under different conditions of wheel width, diameter, and orientation. Cart load was increased from 0 to 181.4 kg in increments of 36.3 kg. The floor materials were smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet. Two wheel widths were tested: 25 and 38 mm. Wheel diameters were 51, 102, and 153 mm. Wheel orientation was tested at four levels: F0R0 (all four wheels aligned in the forward direction), F0R90 (the two front wheels, the wheels furthest from the cart handle, aligned in the forward direction and the two rear wheels, the wheels closest to the cart handle, aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction), F90R0 (the two front wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction and the two rear wheels aligned in the forward direction), and F90R90 (all four wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction). Wheel width did not have a significant effect on the minimum push/pull forces. The minimum push/pull forces were linearly proportional to cart weight, and inversely proportional to wheel diameter. The coefficients of rolling friction were estimated as 2.2, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.5 mm for hard rubber wheels rolling on smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet floors, respectively. The effect of wheel orientation was not consistent over the tested conditions, but, in general, the smallest minimum push/pull forces were measured with all four wheels aligned in the forward direction, whereas the largest minimum push/pull forces were measured when all four wheels were aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction. There was no significant difference between the push and pull forces when all four wheels were aligned in the forward direction. PMID:10327087

  13. Development and Control of the Personal Cart for an Elderly Person

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Kenji; Wakatsuki, Takuya; Nozaki, Hisashi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Ito, Yuzo; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    This paper describes a personal cart for an elderly person and its control. The cart actively supports walking of an elderly person by himself/herself so that he/she can go out freely. The control system is synthesized to make the cart drive in accordance with gaits of an operator. The developed computer-controlled personal cart has four wheels and its controlling devices. The interval of its two front wheels is narrow, and the interval of the rear wheels is wide. Its structure looks like a three-wheeler. The two front wheels are driven by a DC-motor. An infrared radiation sensor measures the distance between the cart and the operator. The proposed system makes the cart maintain the distance between the personal cart and an operator at a certain level so that it can reduce the workload of the operator, who is walking on a slope with some baggage. It is not easy to describe the dynamic characteristics of the cart by a mathematical model, including its changing characteristics due to the driving environments such as the condition of roads and/or baggage. Furthermore, the cart system should be a human friendly system, because it is used by an elderly person. Therefore, the controller is synthesized based on a fuzzy theory. The proposed controller consists of two fuzzy controllers for driving and stopping the cart. The controller for stopping can stop the cart certainly as the cart does not access to the operator too much. The performances of the proposed system were tested in various conditions. Good performances of the control were also obtained independently of the condition of the road. Therefore, the proposed system is conceivable to be useful for the assisting of the walking.

  14. Differential expression of CART in feeding and reward circuits in binge eating rat model.

    PubMed

    Bharne, Ashish P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-09-15

    Binge eating (BE) disrupts feeding and subverts reward mechanism. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) mediates satiety as well as reward, its role in BE justifies investigation. To induce BE, rats were provided restricted access to high fat sweet palatable diet (HFSPD) for a period of 4 weeks. Immunoreactivity profile of the CART elements, and accompanying neuroplastic changes were studied in satiety- and reward-regulating brain nuclei. Further, we investigated the effects of CART, CART-antibody or rimonabant on the intake of normal chow or HFSPD. Rats fed on HFSPD showed development of BE-like phenotype as reflected by significant consumption of HFSPD in short time frame, suggestive of dysregulated satiety mechanisms. At the mid-point during BE, CART-immunoreactivity was significantly increased in hypothalamic arcuate (ARC), lateral (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT). However, for next 22-h post-binge time-period, the animals showed no interest in food, and low CART expression. Pre-binge treatment with rimonabant, a drug recommended for the treatment of BE, produced anorexia, increased CART expression in ARC and LH, but not in AcbSh and PVT. Higher dose of CART was required to produce anorexia in binged rats. While neuronal tracing studies confirmed CART fiber connectivity from ARC and LH to AcbSh, increase in CART and synaptophysin immunostaining in this pathway in BE rats suggested strengthening of the CART connectivity. We conclude that CART bearing ARC-LH-PVT-AcbSh reward circuit may override the satiety signaling in ARC-PVN pathway in BE rats. PMID:26008155

  15. Reduced ethanol consumption and preference in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Armando G; Nguyen, Chinh T Q; Ahmadi-Tehrani, Dara; Morrisett, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Several studies have characterized the role of CART in addiction to psychostimulants, but few have examined the role of CART in alcohol use disorders including alcoholism. The current study utilized a CART knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the role of CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol appetitive behaviors between CART wild type (WT) and KO mice. The mice were presented with an ethanol solution (3%-21%) and water, each concentration for four days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of quinine (bitter) and saccharin (sweet) solutions were measured following the ethanol preference tests. In addition, ethanol metabolism rates and ethanol sensitivity were compared between genotypes. CART KO mice consumed and preferred ethanol less than their WT counterparts in both sexes. This genotype effect could not be attributed to differences in bitter or sweet taste perception or ethanol metabolism rates. There was also no difference in ethanol sensitivity in male mice; however, CART KO female mice showed a greater ethanol sensitivity than the WT females. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors and as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and abstinence enhancement. PMID:22823101

  16. Reduced ethanol consumption and preference in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Armando G; Nguyen, Chinh T Q; Ahmadi-Tehrani, Dara; Morrisett, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Several studies have characterized the role of CART in addiction to psychostimulants, but few have examined the role of CART in alcohol use disorders including alcoholism. The current study utilized a CART knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the role of CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol appetitive behaviors between CART wild type (WT) and KO mice. The mice were presented with an ethanol solution (3%-21%) and water, each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of quinine (bitter) and saccharin (sweet) solutions was measured following the ethanol preference tests. In addition, ethanol metabolism rates and ethanol sensitivity were compared between genotypes. CART KO mice consumed and preferred ethanol less than their WT counterparts in both sexes. This genotype effect could not be attributed to differences in bitter or sweet taste perception or ethanol metabolism rates. There was also no difference in ethanol sensitivity in male mice; however, CART KO female mice showed a greater ethanol sensitivity than the WT females. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors and as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and abstinence enhancement. PMID:22823101

  17. Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

    2014-03-01

    While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

  18. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  19. Telesynergy v3 AnthroCart Setup Instructions

    Cancer.gov

    Document # 300-5141-00 Step 8 Install all six Castor Inserts into the Base Tube and secure with one Castor Screw per Insert. Push the Castors, (locking ones in front) into the Castor Inserts. Step 9 Place the Base Tube Assembly (from Step 8) onto the Vertical Legs of the Shelf Assembly (from Step 7). Attach the Base Tube to the Legs using a total of four Base Tube Screws. TIGHTEN ALL SCREWS. Step 10 Carefully, rotate your Cart over onto the Castors.

  20. Development of Electric Cart with Function of Maintaining/Improving Exercise Ability—Part I: Design of the Electric Cart System—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Kiyoshi

    This paper explains the development of a three-wheeled electric cart that not only is a means of transportation, but also provides the driver with a way of getting some physical exercise. Based on an investigation of the physiological decline accompanying aging, pedaling was chosen to implement the function of maintaining or improving physical strength; and an ergonomically designed pedal unit was mounted on a cart. An interface board that handles inputs and outputs was assembled to simplify the design of the system. Finally, a simple bilateral master-slave control system was built to test the cart. Experimental results on a fabricated cart demonstrate the effectiveness of pedaling and the usability of the system structure.

  1. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  2. SHOPPING CART Today's Date : 5/20/2014 1:08:55 AM

    E-print Network

    SHOPPING CART Today's Date : 5/20/2014 1:08:55 AM Contract: OR - OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (E. The prices in this shopping cart are valid for 30 days from the date above. If you do not wish to place or conditions shall apply. To access the HP Public Sector Online Store where this form was created, go to: http

  3. Biomechanical analysis of transporting loads with a large four-wheel cart 

    E-print Network

    Abell, David Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional large metal waste carts currently in use in industry to a plastic waste cart with the same load capacity. This was done through initial pull force studies using a dynamometer and biomechanical...

  4. Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

  5. Neurological Response to cART vs. cART plus Integrase Inhibitor and CCR5 Antagonist Initiated during Acute HIV

    PubMed Central

    Valcour, Victor G.; Spudich, Serena S.; Sailasuta, Napapon; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Fletcher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene D. M. B.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Allen, Isabel E.; Adams, Collin L.; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Slike, Bonnie M.; Hellmuth, Joanna M.; Kim, Jerome H.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central nervous system (CNS) outcomes in participants treated during acute HIV infection with standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vs. cART plus integrase inhibitor and CCR5 antagonist (cART+). Design 24-week randomized open-label prospective evaluation. Method Participants were evaluated then randomized to initiate cART (efavirenz, tenofovir, and either emtricitabine or lamivudine) vs. cART+ (cART plus raltegravir and maraviroc) during acute HIV and re-evaluated at 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We examined plasma and CSF cytokines, HIV RNA levels, neurological and neuropsychological findings, and brain MRS across groups and compared to healthy controls. Results At baseline, 62 participants were in Fiebig stages I-V. Randomized groups were similar for mean age (27 vs. 25, p = 0.137), gender (each 94% male), plasma log10 HIV RNA (5.4 vs. 5.6, p = 0.382), CSF log10 HIV RNA (2.35 vs. 3.31, p = 0.561), and estimated duration of HIV (18 vs. 17 days, p = 0.546). Randomized arms did not differ at 24 weeks by any CNS outcome. Combining arms, all measures concurrent with antiretroviral treatment improved, for example, neuropsychological testing (mean NPZ-4 of -0.408 vs. 0.245, p<0.001) and inflammatory markers by MRS (e.g. mean frontal white matter (FWM) choline of 2.92 vs. 2.84, p = 0.045) at baseline and week 24, respectively. Plasma neopterin (p<0.001) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (p = 0.007) remained elevated in participants compared to controls but no statistically significant differences were seen in CSF cytokines compared to controls, despite individual variability among the HIV-infected group. Conclusions A 24-week course of cART+ improved CNS related outcomes, but was not associated with measurable differences compared to standard cART. PMID:26555069

  6. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  7. Portable Tritium Cleanup Cart. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    The innovative technology demonstrated in the Mound LSDDP was the LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) Clean-Up Cart. Used as a stand-alone cart for scrubbing tritium effluent, it provides a scrubbing process based on catalytic oxidation of tritium. Tritiated water is collected on removable molecular sieve dryers, which can be shipped as low level waste (LLW) below the 1080 curie ''Type A'' limit. Replacement and disposal of the mole sieves and the catalyst-containing reactor is easy and quick. The unit provides a projected decontamination factor of greater than 1000, with a process flow rate of 45 liters/minute. Design features include: mole sieve dryer beds configured in series with moisture monitors to prevent moisture breakthrough, Process flow controllers in the main plumbing loop and air inlet system, process thermocouples which provide process stream and enclosure over-temperature control, and an enclosure which can function as a ventilated hood during normal operating conditions but which can be isolated when tritium concentrations inside the enclosure exceed the pre-selected control setpoint.

  8. Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

  9. Security bugs in embedded interpreters

    E-print Network

    Chen, Haogang

    Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

  10. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  11. An Interpretive Case Study of Stakeholders' Perceptions on the Enrollment and Progression of African American Students in High School Foreign Language Courses 

    E-print Network

    Schoener III, Herbert

    2012-10-19

    The "achievement gap" is a common term in Texas public education, often referring to academic differences in achievement among student ethnic groups within the core curriculum. Seldom is Foreign Language referenced in, nor ...

  12. Digitalización de placas Carte du Ciel con MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    Fifteen Carte du Ciel plates and four Astrographic Catalog plates from Córdoba Zone were scanned with MAMA (Machine Automatique á Mesurer pour l'Astronomie) on July 1999. Those plates were taken between 1912 and 1924, therefore they are a good source of first epoch positions for the determination of proper motions. The fields correspond to some of the open clusters in CdC Córdoba zone -NGC 2527, NGC 2587, VdBergh 83, Coll 132 and Blanco 1- and two low-extinction windows in the galactic bulge. MAMA fulfils the requirements of accuracy and repetitivity at 1 micron level as needed for obtaining the highest profit from the astrometric information given by this photographic material. The catalogues of `objects' detected on every plate were automatically built by software SExtractor. Those catalogues must be filtered in order to reject spurious objects and retain only stellar images that will be used in the astrometric reduction.

  13. STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  14. Innovative Varied-Fidelity Simulation Mobile Teaching Cart and Education Project.

    PubMed

    Harding, Andrew D; Cullinane Whalen, Kathryn; Silverman, Bradley S

    2015-09-01

    The use of a varied-fidelity simulation mobile teaching cart is a teaching tool that offers unique advantages in the acute care setting. The cart is used to demonstrate the use of patient monitoring devices, and there are a variety of software tools available with the monitoring technology to ensure that the outputs, including electrocardiographic waves, are analyzed appropriately by nursing staff using this varied-fidelity simulation mobile teaching cart. Bringing varied-fidelity simulation to the nurses' work area is a unique application setting. PMID:26100491

  15. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of CART-Containing Cells in Urinary Bladder of Rats with Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Janiuk, I.; Kasacka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question appears about the type of connection between hypertension and the functioning and activity of CART in the urinary tract (UT). The study gives rise to the assumption that high blood pressure can be a factor that intensifies CART secretion. In conclusion, the endocrine system of the urinary tract is modified by renovascular hypertension. This may affect the production of hormones and biologically active substances and contribute to the development of possible hypertension complications. In order to fully comprehend the role of the CART peptide in blood pressure regulation, further analyses are necessary. PMID:26150151

  17. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  18. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other. PMID:16432764

  19. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  20. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  1. Interpreting the Impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test on Second Language Students within an Argument-Based Validation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Kane's (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading…

  2. Expression of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) in the Porcine Intramural Neurons of Stomach in the Course of Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Micha?; Gonkowski, S?awomir; Ca?ka, Jaros?aw

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) enteric nervous structures was investigated within the porcine stomach. To induce diabetes, the pigs were administered intravenously streptozotocin at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight. A significant decrease of the number of CART-LI perikarya was observed in the myenteric plexus of the gastric antrum, corpus, and pylorus in the experimental group. In contrast, submucous plexus was devoid of CART-positive neuronal cells both in control and experimental animals. In the control group, the highest densities of CART-LI nerve fibers were observed in the circular muscle layer of antrum and slightly less nerve fibers were present in the muscle layer of corpus and pylorus. In turn, submucous layer of all studied stomach regions revealed relatively smaller number of CART-positive nerve fibers. Diabetes caused statistically significant decrease in the expression of CART-LI nerve fibers only in the antrum circular muscle layer. Also, no changes in the CART-like immunoreactivity in the intraganglionic nerve fibers were observed. The obtained results suggest that acute hyperglycemia produced significant reduction of the CART expression in enteric perikarya throughout entire stomach as well as decrease of density the CART-LI fibers in circular muscle layer of the antrum. Additionally, we suggest that CART might be involved in the regulation of stomach function especially in the gastric motility. PMID:26266486

  3. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

  4. La Carte du Ciel et l'ajustement des pratiques (fin XIXe et début XXe sičcle)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, J.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'intéresse aux modes d'organisation et de coordination qui caractérisent la Carte du Ciel. La standardisation des instruments et la normalisation des pratiques s'opčrent sur un mode directif. Les instances dirigeantes de la Carte du Ciel élaborent des rčgles trčs contraignantes pour uniformiser les opérations. Les astronomes doivent donc ajuster les normes édictées ŕ leur expérience d'observateurs. Les débats qui agitent les conférences internationales de la Carte du Ciel réunies ŕ Paris en 1887, 1889 et 1891, permettent d'apaiser les tensions entre prescriptions et pratiques individuelles. De plus, le Bulletin du Comité international permanent pour l'exécution de la Carte du Ciel, véritable forum informel, offre un espace inédit de discussion sur les aménagements ŕ envisager.

  5. New developments of the CARTE thermochemical code: I-parameter optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbiens, N.; Dubois, V.

    We present the calibration of the CARTE thermochemical code that allows to compute the properties of a wide variety of CHON explosives. We have developed an optimization procedure to obtain an accurate multicomponents EOS (fluid phase and condensed phase of carbon). We show here that the results of CARTE code are in good agreement with the specific data of molecular systems and we extensively compare our calculations with measured detonation properties for several explosives.

  6. The Use of Gestures in Consecutive Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga; And Others

    This study attempts to show the intrinsic connection between the verbal and nonverbal components of human communication. It suggests that consecutive interpreters should not transform spoken language into what amounts to an incomplete form of the corresponding written language, but that they should transfer gestures of the source language and…

  7. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  8. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C.; Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B.

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  9. Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

  10. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language

  11. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. Time optimal control of pendulum-cart system

    SciTech Connect

    Turnau, A.; Korytowski, A.

    1994-12-31

    We consider the synthesis of time optimal control which steers a pendulum hinged to a cart to a given state (e.g., the upright position), starting from arbitrary initial conditions. The control of the pendulum can system has attracted attention of many authors because of its relatively simple structure and at the same time, nontrivial nonlinearity. Various heuristic approaches combined with 1q stabilization in the vicinity of the target state were used to swing the pendulum up to the upright position and to keep it there. However, time-optimality was not achieved. We construct the time optimal control using a sequence of fixed horizon problems in which the norms of terminal states are minimized. The problems with fixed horizons are solved numerically by means of gradient optimization, with gradients determined from the solution of adjoint equations. Due to embedding the synthesis algorithms in the Matlab - Simulink environment, it is possible to track and visualize the control process as well as the results of simulation experiments.

  13. 75 FR 63067 - Interpretation of “Children's Product”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Interpretative Rule and Changes to the Final Interpretative Rule In the Federal Register of April 20, 2010 (75 FR... language in the preamble of this rule and the preamble of the proposed rule (75 FR at 20533) (to the extent... FR at 20535). (Comment 3)--A few commenters state that the proposed interpretative rule affects...

  14. A Preliminary Study on Interpreting for Emergent Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caitlin; Dicus, Danica

    2015-01-01

    Sign language interpreters work with a variety of consumer populations throughout their careers. One such population, referred to as "emergent signers," consists of consumers who are in the process of learning American Sign Language, and who rely on interpreters during their language acquisition period. A gap in the research is revealed…

  15. Pediatric shopping-cart-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the 2004 US shopping cart safety standard on shopping-cart-related injuries among children younger than 15 years of age by retrospectively analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 530 494 children younger than 15 years were treated in US emergency departments for shopping-cart-related injuries from 1990 to 2011, averaging 24 113 children annually. The most commonly injured body region was the head (78.1%). The annual concussion/closed head injury rate per 10 000 children increased significantly (P < .001) by 213.3% from 0.64 in 1990 to 2.02 in 2011. Although a shopping cart safety standard was implemented in the United States in 2004, the overall number and rate of injuries associated with shopping carts have not decreased. In fact, the number and rate of concussions/closed head injuries have continued to climb. Increased prevention efforts are needed to address these injuries among children. PMID:24351504

  16. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  17. Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics. PMID:23543038

  18. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  19. New developments of the CARTE thermochemical code: Calculation of detonation properties of high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Vincent; Desbiens, Nicolas; Auroux, Eric

    2010-07-01

    We present the improvements of the CARTE thermochemical code which provides thermodynamic properties and chemical compositions of CHON systems over a large range of temperature and pressure with a very small computational cost. The detonation products are split in one or two fluid phase (s), treated with the MCRSR equation of state (EOS), and one condensed phase of carbon, modeled with a multiphase EOS which evolves with the chemical composition of the explosives. We have developed a new optimization procedure to obtain an accurate multicomponents EOS. We show here that the results of CARTE code are in good agreement with the specific data of molecular systems and measured detonation properties for several explosives.

  20. Foreign Languages and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    1974-01-01

    Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation

  1. Foreign Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkmaier, Emma; Lange, Dale

    1967-01-01

    This review of research in foreign language instruction summarizes and interprets selected studies produced during the period 1963-66. Topics covered include the psychology of learning, comparisons o f methods, language skills, visual-auditory relationships, vocabulary, grammar, and FLES, as well as programed instruction, technological media,…

  2. Is working memory working in consecutive interpreting

    E-print Network

    Jin, Ya-shyuan

    2010-01-01

    It is generally agreed that language interpreting is cognitively demanding; how- ever, to date there is little evidence to indicate how working memory is involved in the task, perhaps due to methodological limitations. ...

  3. Dealing with Interpretation Errors in Tutorial Dialogue. 

    E-print Network

    Dzikovska, Myroslava; Callaway, Charles; Farrow, Elaine; Moore, Johanna D.; Steinhauser, Natalie; Campbell, Gwendolyn

    We describe an approach to dealing with interpretation errors in a tutorial dialogue system. Allowing students to provide explanations and generate contentful talk can be helpful for learning, but the language that ...

  4. Foreign Language Day--A Living Language Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Paul W.

    St. Bonaventure University holds a Language Day each spring, hosting some 3,900 area junior high and high school students. The buildings and facilities of the university campus are used, and activities include language competitions (exhibits, interpretative readings, language productions, audio-visual presentations and essays); a fiesta; foreign…

  5. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  6. Interpreter services in pediatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee

    2005-01-01

    A critical part of every encounter between a pediatric nurse and a patient is obtaining accurate patient information. Unique obstacles are encountered when patients and their families have little or no understanding of the English language. Federal and state laws require health care systems that receive governmental funds to provide full language access to services. Both legal and ethical issues can arise when caring for non-English-speaking patients. Often, obtaining accurate patient information and a fully informed consent cannot be done without the use of an interpreter. The interpreter informs the family of all the risks and benefits of a specific avenue of care. When inappropriate interpreter services are used, such as when children in the family or other family members act as interpreters, concerns about accuracy, confidentiality, cultural congruency, and other issues may arise. The purpose of this article is to: (a) explore principles related to the use of medical interpreters, (b) examine different models of interpreter services, and (c) identify available resources to assist providers in accessing interpreter services (e.g., books, online resources, articles, and videos). The case study format will be used to illustrate key points. PMID:16229125

  7. Characterization of seven cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CARTs) differentially expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues of Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Martínez, Almudena; Martín-Robles, Águeda J; Muńoz-Cueto, José A; Morais, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a peptide with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions with several key roles, both centrally and peripherally. In mammals there is a single gene that produces two alternatively spliced variants in rat and a single transcript in human but in teleosts multiple genes have been found. In the present study we report the existence of seven transcripts in Senegalese sole and characterize their sequences and phylogenetic relationships, as well as their expression patterns in the brain and peripheral tissues, and in response to feeding. Both cart2a and cart4 showed a ubiquitous expression in the brain, while cart1a, cart1b and cart3a were similarly expressed and had higher transcript levels in the mesencephalon, followed by the diencephalon. On the other hand, cart2b showed a main expression in the olfactory bulbs, and cart3b was predominantly expressed in the spinal cord. The expression profile in peripheral tissues differed substantially between cart's, even between more recently duplicated genes. Collectively, all the tissues examined, except the muscle, express at least one of the different cart's, although the highest transcript levels were found in the brain, gonads (ovary and testis) and, in some cases, eye and kidney. Concerning the feeding response, only brain cart1a, cart2a and cart4 showed a significant postprandial regulation, although future studies are necessary to assess potential confounding effects of stress imposed by the force feeding technique employed. Senegalese sole exhibits the highest number of cart genes reported to date in a vertebrate species. Their differential expression patterns and feeding regulation suggest that multiple cart genes, resulting from at least 3 rounds of whole genome duplication, have been retained in fish genomes through subfunctionalization, or possibly even through neofunctionalization. PMID:26320854

  8. SDL: A Surface Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maple, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

  9. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  10. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  11. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  12. CART Classification of Human 5 UTR Sequences Ramana V. Davuluri,1

    E-print Network

    CART Classification of Human 5 UTR Sequences Ramana V. Davuluri,1 Yutaka Suzuki,2 Sumio Sugano,2 understanding the translational regulation of human mRNAs. Furthermore, this database and classification can of 2312 full-length human 5 -untranslated regions (UTRs) was carefully prepared using state

  13. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Neas, Barbara R; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Van Horn, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community resilience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention. PMID:24187884

  14. Mechatronics 2: Part 1 Motorized Winch-and-Cart Copyright 2011 by Paul Oh

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    mass (cart and weight). Figure B: The winch (motor and wheel) are clamped to overhang from a desk mimics a winch ­ a wheel of known radius is fixed to the motor's shaft. A rope connects the wheel of the known mass m and gravitational constant 2 m/s8.9=g . The lever arm is simply the wheel's radius r

  15. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  16. Biofuels in Africa May Help Achieve Global Goals, Experts Say | Worldwatch Institute Login | Register | Shopping Cart

    E-print Network

    | Register | Shopping Cart q Home q About Worldwatch q - Mission q - Staff q - Jobs q - Board of Directors q - Annual Report q Publications q Programs q Online Features q Press Room q Global Partners q Join Us q Contact Us Sign Up for e-mail updates Home » Online Features » e2 - Eye on Earth Biofuels in Africa May

  17. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs ...

  18. Shopping Cart Help Contact Us Members of the Group Log Off univerich.multipleuser

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    Shopping Cart Help Contact Us Members of the Group Log Off univerich.multipleuser Article Back To) bioautography, a total of 58 extracts from various organs (aerial parts, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots) of 16 sprayed onto TLC plates were used for detecting antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of the crude

  19. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  20. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

  1. The nucleus accumbens 5-HTR4-CART pathway ties anorexia to hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Jean, A; Laurent, L; Bockaert, J; Charnay, Y; Dusticier, N; Nieoullon, A; Barrot, M; Neve, R; Compan, V

    2012-01-01

    In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this ‘paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors (5-HTR4) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR1B self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR4 in the absence of 5-HTR1B, associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR4 overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR4 knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR4. Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR4 suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR4/CART pathway establishes a ‘tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules. PMID:23233022

  2. Anorexia induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors is mediated by increases in CART in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Alexandra; Conductier, Grégory; Manrique, Christine; Bouras, Constantin; Berta, Philippe; Hen, René; Charnay, Yves; Bockaert, Joël; Compan, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a growing concern in mental health, often inducing death. The potential neuronal deficits that may underlie abnormal inhibitions of food intake, however, remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that anorexia may involve altered signaling events within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure involved in reward. We show here that direct stimulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 4 receptors (5-HT4R) in the NAc reduces the physiological drive to eat and increases CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) mRNA levels in fed and food-deprived mice. It further shows that injecting 5-HT4R antagonist or siRNA-mediated 5-HT4R knockdown into the NAc induced hyperphagia only in fed mice. This hyperphagia was not associated with changes in CART mRNA expression in the NAc in fed and food-deprived mice. Results include that 5-HT4R control CART mRNA expression into the NAc via a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Considering that CART may interfere with food- and drug-related rewards, we tested whether the appetite suppressant properties of 3,4-N-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) involve the 5-HT4R. Using 5-HT4R knockout mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT4R are required for the anorectic effect of MDMA as well as for the MDMA-induced enhancement of CART mRNA expression in the NAc. Directly injecting CART peptide or CART siRNA into the NAc reduces or increases food consumption, respectively. Finally, stimulating 5-HT4R- and MDMA-induced anorexia were both reduced by injecting CART siRNA into the NAc. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 5-HT4R-mediated up-regulation of CART in the NAc triggers the appetite-suppressant effects of ecstasy. PMID:17913892

  3. Geometry and Structural Properties for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) from Model Tuning: August 25, 2003--November 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Stol, K. A.

    2004-09-01

    The Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) is a modified Westinghouse WWG-0600 machine rated at 600 kW. It is located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Boulder, Colorado, and has been installed to test new control schemes for power and load regulation. In its original configuration, the WWG-0600 uses a synchronous generator, fluid coupling, and hydraulic collective pitch actuation. However, the CART is fitted with an induction generator, rigid coupling, and individual electromechanical pitch actuators. The rotor runs upwind of the tower and consists of two blades and a teetering hub. In order to design advanced control schemes for the CART, representative computational models are essential.

  4. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

  5. Montana State University 1 Modern Languages and

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    taught in English. The study of foreign cultures, languages, and literature is an integral part study abroad programs, the department offers advice concerning the role of language study in career planning. Foreign languages are used by interpreters, translators, and teachers. Language proficiency also

  6. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

  7. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  8. Meetings Publications Membership Career Central Advertise / Exhibit About MRS Advocacy Store My MRS Media Contact Site Map FAQs View Cart

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Media Contact Site Map FAQs View Cart Childcare Options at the Fall Meeting The Materials Research, Elizabeth A. Nickels, Peter P. Edwards From MRS Proceedings Volume 1098E Abstract: We review here work

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection” exception... requirements of the language constitutes a violation of the regulatory prohibition of boycott-based refusals...

  10. Using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and random forests to analyze attrition: Results from two simulations.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Timothy; Usami, Satoshi; Jacobucci, Ross; McArdle, John J

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we describe a recent development in the analysis of attrition: using classification and regression trees (CART) and random forest methods to generate inverse sampling weights. These flexible machine learning techniques have the potential to capture complex nonlinear, interactive selection models, yet to our knowledge, their performance in the missing data analysis context has never been evaluated. To assess the potential benefits of these methods, we compare their performance with commonly employed multiple imputation and complete case techniques in 2 simulations. These initial results suggest that weights computed from pruned CART analyses performed well in terms of both bias and efficiency when compared with other methods. We discuss the implications of these findings for applied researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389526

  11. The importance of viral blips and duration of therapy initiated in primary infection in maintaining viral control after stopping cART

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Sarah; Olson, Ashley; Fox, Julie; Phillips, Andrew; Morrison, Charles; Thornhill, John; Bucher, Heiner; Muga, Roberto; Porter, Kholoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction After achieving undetectable HIV-RNA on cART, on cessation, HIV-RNA rebounds to pre-treatment values for the majority due to the presence of an inaccessible viral reservoir. There is some evidence that cART during primary HIV infection (PHI) limits the reservoir size, optimizing the chance of maintaining viral control off cART. Data are required to predict possible viral controllers for treatment interruption following cART. This analysis aims to investigate the effect of cART duration and the rate of viral blips while on cART initiated in PHI, and other factors on maintaining viral control for those stopping cART. Material and Methods Using CASCADE data on HIV seroconverters, we characterized virologic blip (viral suppression on cART followed by a single HIV-RNA above a blip threshold and a subsequent measure below the threshold without cART change) rates for those starting cART within six months of seroconversion (SC). Using Cox models, we examined the effect of the following factors on time to virologic rebound (HIV-RNA>1000) after cART stop: cART duration, severity/rate of blips on cART, time from SC to cART start, cART class, SC year, SC age, CD4 at cART start/stop, sex and HIV risk group. Results The 660 individuals initiating cART in PHI were mostly male (91%), seroconverting between 1995 and 2012, with a median (IQR) age of 34 (29, 41) years mostly infected through sex between men (73%). Median cART duration was 14.8 (7.0, 31.7) months initiated at a median 1.9 (0.5, 3.9) months post SC. 13 (11, 16), 9 (7, 11), 6 (5, 9) and 7 (6, 10)% of individuals experienced blips >50, 100, 200 and 400 copies/mL, respectively. Of those who experienced blips, most (77–90%, depending on blip threshold) experienced just one. Among 250 individuals with undetectable HIV-RNA at cART stop, median time to rebound was 1.6 (0.30, 5.8) months. Time on cART was the only factor independently associated with control after stopping, HR for rebound=0.91 (0.86, 0.98) per extra six months spent on cART, HR for ever blipping >400 copies/mL while on cART=0.88 (0.40, 1.93). Conclusions Blips occur in about 10% of individuals who initiate cART in PHI, most of who experience only one blip, but was not predictive of subsequent virologic rebound. Increasing time spent on cART initiated in PHI could increase time of virological suppression after cART stop. PMID:25397564

  12. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  13. Design of the CART data system for the US Department of Energy's ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B. ); Campbell, A.P. ); Edwards, D.M. ); Kanciruk, P. ); Tichler, J.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a major atmospheric research effort to reduce the uncertainties found in general circulation and other models due to the effects of clouds and radiation. The objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and testing parameterizations of the processes for use in atmospheric models. This experimental testbed, known as the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART), will include a complex data system, the CART Data Environment (CDE). The major functions of the CDE will be to: acquire environments from instruments and external data sources; perform quality assessments of the data streams; create data streams of known quality to be used as model input compared to model output; execute the models and capture their predictions; and make data streams associated with model tests available to ARM investigators in near real-time. The CDE will also be expected to capture ancillary information ( meta-data'') associated with the data streams, provide data management facilities for design of ARM experiments, and provide for archival data storage. The first section of this paper presents background information on CART. Next the process for the functional design of the system is described, the functional requirements summarized, and the conceptual architecture of the CDE is presented. Finally, the status of the CDE design activities is summarized, and major technical challenges are discussed.

  14. Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs? — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates.

  15. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  16. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

  17. Deep Natural Language Processing for Italian Sign Language Translation

    E-print Network

    Mazzei, Alessandro

    Deep Natural Language Processing for Italian Sign Language Translation No Author Given No Institute Given Abstract. This paper presents the architecture of a translator from written Italian into Italian.e. a dependency parser for Italian, an ontology based seman- tic interpreter, a generator based on expert

  18. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  19. Influence of the Biosphere on Precipitation: July 1995 Studies with the ARM-CART Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, D. M.; Walker, G. K.; Koster, Randal D.

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble sets of simulation experiments were conducted with a single column model (SCM) using the Goddard GEOS II GCM physics containing a recent version of the Cumulus Scheme (McRAS) and a biosphere based land-fluxes scheme (SSiB). The study used the 18 July to 5 August 1995 ARM-CART (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Test-bed) data, which was collected at the ARM-CART site in the mid-western United States and analyzed for single column modeling (SCM) studies. The new findings affirm the earlier findings that the vegetation, which increases the solar energy absorption at the surface together with soil and soil-moisture dependent processes, which modulate the surface, fluxes (particularly evapotranspiration) together help to increase the local rainfall. In addition, the results also show that for the particular study period roughly 50% of the increased evaporation over the ARM-CART site would be converted into rainfall with the Column, while the remainder would be advected out to the large-scale. Notwithstanding the limitations of only one-way interaction (i.e., the large-scale influencing the regional physics and not vice versa), the current SCM simulations show a very robust relationship. The evaporation-precipitation relationship turns out to be independent of the soil types, and soil moisture; however, it is weakly dependent on the vegetation cover because of its surface-albedo effect. Clearly, these inferences are prone to weaknesses of the SCM physics, the assumptions of the large-scale being unaffected by gridscale (SCM-scale) changes in moist processes, and other limitations of the evaluation procedures.

  20. Neuroretinal Degeneration in HIV Patients Without Opportunistic Ocular Infections in the cART Era.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand; Schlingemann, Reinier; Verbraak, Franciscus

    2015-10-01

    Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 counts<100 cells/?L are most at risk for neuroretinal damage, with a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, subtle loss of color vision and/or contrast sensitivity, visual field deficits, and subnormal electrophysiological responses. In contrast, alterations in retinal vascular calibers and retinal blood flow were not associated with nadir CD4 counts, but instead with detectable viremia, suggesting a role for (chronic) inflammation in microvascular damage. Although the alterations in visual function are subtle, they can lead to difficulties in activities, such as reading or driving, thereby affecting quality of life. Since HIV has become a chronic disease, its long-term effects with respect to visual function loss become more important, as is recently emphasized by a longitudinal study, reporting that AIDS patients with HIV-NRD have higher risks of developing bilateral visual impairment and even blindness than patients without HIV-NRD. The question remains whether patients with high (>350 cells/?L) nadir CD4 counts and well-suppressed HIV infection on cART remain at risk for HIV-NRD, as this group constitutes a growing part of the aging HIV-infected population. PMID:26258992

  1. Languages Undergraduate Languages Undergraduate

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    is a world-class institution. In the Department of Politics, Languages and International Studies we offer the challenges of the future. We offer excellent placement opportunities and exciting options for study and work you! Prof Charles Lees Head of Department #12;Undergraduate Languages The Department of Politics

  2. STS-37 MS Apt tests CETA cart during EVA in OV-104's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), tests Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during extravehicular activity (EVA) in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB). Apt works his way along the CETA deployable track mounted on OV-104's PLB port side. The ascent particle monitor (APM) is visible on the starboard side in the foreground. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead and the vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. Crewmembers spent several hours evaluating means of performing future EVA chores, transporting tools and crewmembers, etc. on Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  3. Synchronizing N cart-pendulums using Virtual Holonomic Constraints Dame Jankuloski, Manfredi Maggiore, and Luca Consolini

    E-print Network

    Maggiore, Manfredi

    variable qi = (i,xi) Qi, where Qi = S1 � R is the i-th configuration space, and S1 is the set of real form i mi Mi li xi ui g Fig. 1. The ith cart-pendulum system Di(qi) ¨qi +Ci(qi, qi) qi +Pi(qi) = Bui, (1) where Di(qi) = mil2 i mili cosi mili cosi Mi +mi , Pi(qi) = -migli sini 0 , Ci(qi, qi) = 0 0

  4. Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    2003-01-01

    Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

  5. Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Alejandro; Hanson, William E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature in the area of language brokering. Language brokers are children of immigrant families who translate and interpret for their parents and other individuals. Results suggest that language brokers possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for their role as the family's translator and interpreter.…

  6. 27.3.2012 Thema fur eine Studienarbeit Integration von eKaay in die e-Commerce Software Zen Cart

    E-print Network

    Borchert, Bernd

    27.3.2012 Thema f¨ur eine Studienarbeit Integration von eKaay in die e-Commerce Software Zen Cart soll in das e-Commerce-Paket Zen Cart (das ebenso wie xt-commerce aus os- commerce entstanden ist) integriert werden, so dass die Betreiber von e-Commerce-Seiten das neue Einlogg- und Best

  7. Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week an...

  8. Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased…

  9. 38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the veteran: (i) Can benefit from language and speech training; and (ii) Agrees to undertake language and speech training. (b) Periods during which interpreter service may be provided....

  10. 38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determines that the veteran: (i) Can benefit from language and speech training; and (ii) Agrees to undertake language and speech training. (b) Periods during which interpreter service may be provided....

  11. Use of CART analysis to differentiate pollen of red pine ( Pinus resinosa) and jack pine ( P. banksiana) in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Andrew M.; Nurse, Andrea M.; Michaud, Katelyn; Hardy, Sarah W.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of fossil pollen at the generic rather than species level is hampering progress in understanding the biogeography and dynamics of paleo-vegetation. We used CART analysis to facilitate the differentiation of fossil pollen of Pinus banksiana and Pinusresinosa, which are morphologically similar and nearly always combined in paleoecological studies. The CART model, using four of the ten morphological traits measured, exhibited a high level of correct identification for pollen of each of the species and shows promise as a tool for increasing the detail of paleoecological records and inferences.

  12. Evaluation of alternative model selection criteria in the analysis of unimodal response curves using CART

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Miller, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated CART performance with a unimodal response curve for one continuous response and four continuous explanatory variables, where two variables were important (ie directly related to the response) and the other two were not. We explored performance under three relationship strengths and two explanatory variable conditions: equal importance and one variable four times as important as the other. We compared CART variable selection performance using three tree-selection rules ('minimum risk', 'minimum risk complexity', 'one standard error') to stepwise polynomial ordinary least squares (OLS) under four sample size conditions. The one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity methods performed about as well as stepwise OLS with large sample sizes when the relationship was strong. With weaker relationships, equally important explanatory variables and larger sample sizes, the one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity rules performed better than stepwise OLS. With weaker relationships and explanatory variables of unequal importance, tree-structured methods did not perform as well as stepwise OLS. Comparing performance within tree-structured methods, with a strong relationship and equally important explanatory variables, the one-standard-error-rule was more likely to choose the correct model than were the other tree-selection rules 1) with weaker relationships and equally important explanatory variables; and 2) under all relationship strengths when explanatory variables were of unequal importance and sample sizes were lower.

  13. Heterogeneous surface fluxes and their effects on the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Hu, Q.; Hubbe, J.M.; Liljegren, J.C.; Shaw, W.J.; Zhong, S.; Collatz, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    The treatment of subgrid-scale variations of surface properties and the resultant spatial variations of sensible and latent heat fluxes has received increasing attention in recent years. Mesoscale numerical simulations of highly idealized conditions, in which strong flux contrasts exist between adjacent surfaces, have shown that under some circumstances the secondary circulations induced by land-use differences can significantly affect the properties of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the region of the atmosphere above the PBL. At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, the fluxes from different land-surface types are not expected to differ as dramatically as those found in idealized simulations. Although the corresponding effects on the atmosphere should thus be less dramatic, they are still potentially important. From an ARM perspective, in tests of single column models (SCMs) it would be useful to understand the effects of the lower boundary conditions on model performance. We describe here our initial efforts to characterize the variable surface fluxes over the CART site and to assess their effects on the PBL that are important for the performance of SCMs.

  14. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira; Grycajuk, Marcelly; Molento, Marcelo Beltrăo; Bonacin, José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates. PMID:20624353

  15. Lampooning Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Tim

    1982-01-01

    Uses trademarks that are calculated misspellings, bumper sticker slogans, the strained and pretentious language of Howard Cosell, and governmental jargon to illustrate how to attune students to the magic and power of language, while poking fun at language abuse. (RL)

  16. Generating Alternatives: Interpreting Focus in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christina S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates a class of context-dependent expressions--focus-sensitive particles--as a way of addressing how language users draw on contextual information to interpret expressions whose meanings are underdetermined by their forms. While the problem of context dependence has been widely studied, the question of precisely what…

  17. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  18. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

  19. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  20. Identifying Patterns in Geospatial Natural Language Kristin Stock

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    Identifying Patterns in Geospatial Natural Language Kristin Stock Nottingham Geospatial Institute University of Nottingham Abstract The automated interpretation of geospatial be suitable as an approach to the representation of geospatial natural language that supports

  1. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  2. Home | Login | Logout | Access Information | Alerts | Purchase History | Cart | Sitemap | Help Top 100 Documents BROWSE SEARCH IEEE XPLORE GUIDE SUPPORT

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    Home | Login | Logout | Access Information | Alerts | Purchase History | Cart | Sitemap | Help Top. Taking handheld devices to the next level Myers, B.A.; Nichols, J.; Wobbrock, J.O.; Miller, R.C. Computer Dissemination to a Large Mobile Network: Simulation of Broadcast Clouds Celik, A.; Holliday, J.; Hurst, Z

  3. Biomechanical and psychophysical evaluation of using a two-wheel cart to transport loads over a curb 

    E-print Network

    King, Rebecca Lynn

    1997-01-01

    ) involved altering the amount of weight placed on the cart, the diameter of the wheels, and the load center of gravity. For the heavier load of 68 kg (150 lb), the forces exerted on the force plates (p=0.0001) and the dynamic moments (P=0...

  4. Wagging the Dog, Carting the Horse: Testing and Improving Schools. Summary of Conference Proceedings. Research into Practice Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan; And Others

    The purpose of the conference, "Wagging the Dog, Carting the Horse: Testing vs. Improving California Schools," was to discuss alternative perspectives on testing and evaluation in education and their role in improving teaching and learning. Four papers were presented: (1) "Using Educational Evaluation for the Improvement of California Schools," by…

  5. Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to…

  6. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study, "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment" examined whether students who enrolled in courses at a high school that combined academics and technical education had higher college enrollment rates than students who did not. The research described in this report does not meet What Works…

  7. Dynamics and Control of a Chain Pendulum on a Cart Taeyoung Lee, Melvin Leok, and N. Harris McClamroch

    E-print Network

    Leok, Melvin

    Dynamics and Control of a Chain Pendulum on a Cart Taeyoung Lee, Melvin Leok, and N. Harris McClamroch Abstract-- A geometric form of Euler-Lagrange equations is developed for a chain pendulum, a serial translate in a horizontal plane acted on by a horizontal control force while the chain pendulum can undergo

  8. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

  9. Assessment of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271237

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection” exception... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection” exception... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection” exception... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection” exception... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  14. The Effects of Direction of Exertion, Path, and Load Placement in Nursing Cart Pushing and Pulling Tasks: An Electromyographical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huei Chu; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung Hui; Chen, Su Huang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of direction of exertion (DOE) (pushing, pulling), path (walking in a straight line, turning left, walking uphill), and load placement (LP) (the 18 blocks were indicated by X, Y and Z axis; there were 3 levels on the X axis, 2 levels on the Y axis, and 3 levels on the Z axis) on muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion in nursing cart pushing and pulling tasks. Ten participants who were female students and not experienced nurses were recruited to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 108 experimental trials in the study, consisting of 2 directions of exertion (push and pull), 3 paths, and 18 load placements (indicated by X, Y and Z axes). A 23kg load was placed into one load placement. The dependent variables were electromyographic (EMG) data of four muscles collected bilaterally as follows: Left (L) and right (R) trapezius (TR), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum (ED), and erector spinae (ES) and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Split-split-plot ANOVA was conducted to analyze significant differences between DOE, path, and LP in the EMG and RPE data. Pulling cart tasks produced a significantly higher activation of the muscles (RTR:54.4%, LTR:50.3%, LFDS:57.0%, LED:63.4%, RES:40.7%, LES:36.7%) than pushing cart tasks (RTR:42.4%, LTR:35.1%, LFDS:32.3%, LED:55.1%, RES:33.3%, LES:32.1%). A significantly greater perceived exertion was found in pulling cart tasks than pushing cart tasks. Significantly higher activation of all muscles and perceived exertion were observed for walking uphill than walking in a straight line and turning left. Significantly lower muscle activity of all muscles and subject ratings were observed for the central position on the X axis, the bottom position on the Y axis, and the posterior position on the Z axis. These findings suggest that nursing staff should adopt forward pushing when moving a nursing cart, instead of backward pulling, and that uphill paths should be avoided in the design of work environments. In terms of distribution of the load in a nursing cart, heavier materials should be positioned at bottom of the cabinet, centered on the horizontal plane and close to the handle, to reduce the physical load of the nursing staff. PMID:26485039

  15. Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H.; Graham, Brett A.; Dayas, Christopher V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine exposure shifts aPVT neurons to a more excitable state (TF). We propose that the capacity of CART to reduce excitatory drive to this population balances the enhanced aPVT excitability to restore the net output of this region in the reward-seeking pathway. This is in line with previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in addiction. PMID:25309361

  16. Differences in CART expression and cell cycle behavior discriminate sympathetic neuroblast from chromaffin cell lineages in mouse sympathoadrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Hei Chan, Wing; Gonsalvez, David G; Young, Heather M; Michelle Southard-Smith, E; Cane, Kylie N; Anderson, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and peripheral sympathetic neurons originate from a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell. The timing and phenotypic changes that mark this lineage diversification are not fully understood. The present study investigated the expression patterns of phenotypic markers, and cell cycle dynamics, in the adrenal medulla and the neighboring suprarenal ganglion of embryonic mice. The noradrenergic marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was detected in both presumptive adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglion cells, but with significantly stronger immunostaining in the former. There was intense cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunostaining in most neuroblasts, whereas very few adrenal chromaffin cells showed detectable CART immunostaining. This phenotypic segregation appeared as early as E12.5, before anatomical segregation of the two cell types. Cell cycle dynamics were also examined. Initially, 88% of Sox10 positive (+) neural crest progenitors were proliferating at E10.5. Many SA progenitor cells withdrew from the cell cycle at E11.5 as they started to express TH. Whereas 70% of neuroblasts (TH+/CART+ cells) were back in the cell cycle at E12.5, only around 20% of chromaffin (CART negative) cells were in the cell cycle at E12.5 and subsequent days. Thus, chromaffin cell and neuroblast lineages showed differences in proliferative behavior from their earliest appearance. We conclude that the intensity of TH immunostaining and the expression of CART permit early discrimination of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neuroblasts, and that developing chromaffin cells exhibit significantly lower proliferative activity relative to sympathetic neuroblasts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 137-149, 2016. PMID:25989220

  17. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  18. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naďve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/?L and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ?500/?L), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ?500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/?L at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  19. A Phenomenological Study of the Relationship between Deaf Students in Higher Education and Their Sign Languge Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Carrie L

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the relationship between deaf students in higher education who use sign language and need an interpreter to access course content. A sign language interpreter is a trained professional who translates between American Sign Language or another sign system and English. This phenomenological study draws from interviews with 10…

  20. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene (CART1) expression through CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) in chicken anterior pituitary.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chunheng; Cai, Guoqing; Huang, Long; Deng, Qiuyang; Lin, Dongliang; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yajun; Li, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide(s) is generally viewed as neuropeptide(s) and can control food intake in vertebrates, however, our recent study revealed that CART1 peptide is predominantly expressed in chicken anterior pituitary, suggesting that cCART1 peptide is a novel pituitary hormone in chickens and its expression is likely controlled by hypothalamic factor(s). To test this hypothesis, in this study, we examined the spatial expression of CART1 in chicken anterior pituitary and investigated the effect of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on pituitary cCART1 expression. The results showed that: 1) CART1 is expressed in both caudal and cephalic lobes of chicken anterior pituitary, revealed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), western blot and immuno-histochemical staining; 2) CRH potently stimulates cCART1 mRNA expression in cultured chick pituitary cells, as examined by qPCR, and this effect is blocked by CP154526 (and not K41498), an antagonist specific for chicken CRH type I receptor (cCRHR1), suggesting that cCRHR1 expressed on corticotrophs mediates this action; 3) the stimulatory effect of CRH on pituitary cCART1 expression is inhibited by pharmacological drugs targeting the intracellular AC/cAMP/PKA, PLC/IP3/Ca(2+), and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. This finding, together with the functional coupling of these signaling pathways to cCRHR1 expressed in CHO cells demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay systems, indicates that these intracellular signaling pathways coupled to cCRHR1 can mediate CRH action. Collectively, our present study offers the first substantial evidence that hypothalamic CRH can stimulate pituitary CART1 expression via activation of CRHR1 in a vertebrate species. PMID:26363222

  1. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  2. [Current status and future development of CAR-T gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of a target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3? receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and malignant lymphoma. PMID:26458458

  3. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: Ŕ La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school ŕ la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (? 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  4. Stabilization of an inverted pendulum-cart system by fractional PI-state feedback.

    PubMed

    Bettayeb, M; Boussalem, C; Mansouri, R; Al-Saggaf, U M

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with pole placement PI-state feedback controller design to control an integer order system. The fractional aspect of the control law is introduced by a dynamic state feedback as u(t)=K(p)x(t)+K(I)I(?)(x(t)). The closed loop characteristic polynomial is thus fractional for which the roots are complex to calculate. The proposed method allows us to decompose this polynomial into a first order fractional polynomial and an integer order polynomial of order n-1 (n being the order of the integer system). This new stabilization control algorithm is applied for an inverted pendulum-cart test-bed, and the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control are examined by experiments. PMID:24315056

  5. Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

  6. Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2007-01-01

    Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

  7. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  8. Interpreting in Mental Health Settings: Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay; Miller, Katrina

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines expectations and stresses placed on sign language interpreters in mental health settings within a framework of demand and control theory. Translations of some specific psychological screening instruments and issues related to the Code of Ethics of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf are considered relative to…

  9. Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…

  10. Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny

    2012-01-01

    A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

  11. Service, Profits, and Stimulus: A Case for a "Language Line" in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the value of a service called "Language Line" and its potential to attract and educate business about the benefits derived from hiring employees with language skills. Language Line provides a national telephone-based service that provides interpretation for speakers of different languages. The article makes a case for the use of Language

  12. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Medication Adherence Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Do, Natalie T.; Phiri, Kelesitse; Bussmann, Hermann; Gaolathe, Tendani; Marlink, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract As increasing numbers of persons are placed on potentially life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa, it is imperative to identify the psychosocial and social factors that may influence antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Using an 87 question survey, the following data were collected from patients on cART in Botswana: demographics, performance (Karnofsky) score, perceived stigma and level of HIV disclosure, attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV/AIDS, substance and/or drug use, depression, and pharmacy and healthcare provider-related factors. Overall adherence rates were determined by patient self-report, institutional adherence, and a culturally modified Morisky scale. Three hundred adult patients were recruited between April and May 2005. The overall cART adherence rate was 81.3% based on 4 day and 1 month patient recall and on clinic attendance for ARV medication refills during the previous 3 months. Adults receiving cART for 1–6 months were the least adherent (77%) followed by those receiving cART for greater than 12 months (79%). Alcohol use, depression, and nondisclosure of positive HIV status to their partner were predictive of poor adherence rates (p value <0.02). A significant proportion (81.3%) of cART-treated adults were adherent to their prescribed treatment, with rates superior to those reported in resource-rich settings. Adherence rates were poorest among those just starting cART, most likely due to the presence of ARV-related toxicity. Adherence was lower among those who have been treated for longer periods of time (greater than 1 year), suggesting complacency, which may become a significant problem, especially among these long-term cART-treated patients who return to improved physical and mental functioning and may be less motivated to adhere to their ARV medications. Healthcare providers should encourage HIV disclosure to “at-risk” partners and provide ongoing counseling and education to help patients recognize and overcome HIV-associated stigma, alcohol abuse, and depression. PMID:20518649

  13. History and Ethno-Mathematics in the interpretation of the process of learning/teaching

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    1 History and Ethno-Mathematics in the interpretation of the process of learning/teaching Filippo the relationship between Epistemology, History and communication of mathematics. If the interpretation of phenomena of mathematics as 1) history of syntax of mathematics languages, 2) history of semantic of mathematics languages

  14. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  15. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  16. Data Acquisition Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    University of British Columbia Geophysical Inversion Facility Applied Geophysics, 2010 Justin Granek DCIPData Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Virgin River DCIP Report Justin Granek1 1 Report #12;Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Outline 1 Data Acquisition Location

  17. Retrograde study of CART- or NPY-neuronal projection from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus to the dorsal raphe and/or the locus coeruleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ye S; Lee, Ji S; Lee, Hyun S

    2013-06-26

    The present study was designed to reveal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)- or neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neuronal projections from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) to the dorsal raphe (DR) and/or the locus coeruleus (LC) in the rat. Our results demonstrated that CART or NPY axon terminals formed close appositions to the neuronal profiles in the DR and the LC. Thus, arcuate sections were immunostained for the CART or NPY after the injections of green RetroBeads(™) into the DR and red tracer into the LC (or vice versa). First, retrogradely-labeled CART cells were mainly observed in the lateral Arc without colchicine. Of the total population of arcuate CART neurons, DR- and LC-projecting cells were 5.7% ± 0.9% and 6.6% ± 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a subset (3.3% ± 0.7%) of CART neurons provided divergent axon collaterals to the DR and the LC. Second, retrogradely-labeled NPY cells were observed in lateral or ventral borders of the medial Arc only after colchicine injection. Of the entire NPY cell population, DR- and LC-projecting neurons were 1.5% ± 0.3% and 1.3% ± 0.3%, respectively. Only a scanty proportion (0.1% ± 0.0%) sent axon collaterals to the DR and the LC. These observations suggested that arcuate CART or NPY system might have a potential influence on the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, modulating their roles in feeding, nociception, emotional behaviors, arousal, and stress responses. Furthermore, a portion of arcuate CART neurons (along with only a few NPY cells) sending divergent axon collaterals to the DR/LC might have a simultaneous (and possibly more efficient) way to exert their specific influences on the monoaminergic nuclei. PMID:23628478

  18. Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

  19. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  20. Building Languages

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Language American Sign Language (ASL) Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE) Cued Speech Finger Spelling Listening/Auditory Training Manually Coded English Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading Family Decision Making ...

  1. An internal analysis of SGP/CART radiosonde performance during the September 1996 Water Vapor intensive operations period

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B.M.

    1997-09-01

    The September 1996 Water Vapor Intensive Operations Period (IOP) provided an excellent opportunity to investigate further the operational performance of the radiosondes used by ARM at the SGP/CART site. Although many instrument intercomparisons were conducted during the IOP, the lack of an accepted absolute standard makes evaluation of the results difficult. By focusing on information obtained from the radiosondes themselves, with minimal reference to external instruments, we hope to eliminate much of the uncertainty associated with comparing different measurement systems.

  2. CARTS biogenesis requires VAP-lipid transfer protein complexes functioning at the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi interface.

    PubMed

    Wakana, Yuichi; Kotake, Richika; Oyama, Nanako; Murate, Motohide; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Arasaki, Kohei; Inoue, Hiroki; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2015-12-15

    Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident integral membrane protein that controls a nonvesicular mode of ceramide and cholesterol transfer from the ER to the Golgi complex by interacting with ceramide transfer protein and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), respectively. We report that VAP and its interacting proteins are required for the processing and secretion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor, whose transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface is mediated by transport carriers called "carriers of the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface" (CARTS). In VAP-depleted cells, diacylglycerol level at the TGN was decreased and CARTS formation was impaired. We found that VAP forms a complex with not only OSBP but also Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase at specialized ER subdomains that are closely apposed to the trans-Golgi/TGN, most likely reflecting membrane contact sites. Immobilization of ER-Golgi contacts dramatically reduced CARTS production, indicating that association-dissociation dynamics of the two membranes are important. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the ER-Golgi contacts play a pivotal role in lipid metabolism to control the biogenesis of transport carriers from the TGN. PMID:26490117

  3. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  4. Culture and Language: The Black American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William S.; Freedle, Roy O.

    The express focus of this book is primarily on black American language. However, it is asserted, a comprehensive interpretation of this language requires an understanding of its social and cultural context. This book reviews the various ways in which the black experience in the United States has been treated in social science. It points out a…

  5. Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

  6. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. PMID:25526839

  7. The Language of Language Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conant, Susan

    1986-01-01

    Language researchers should avoid using such terms as "language-defective", "linguistically deviant", "normal", or "healthy" when describing children with or without language problems, because these terms suggest that the children are nothing but their disability. The use of "children with" (or without) plus description of the condition is more…

  8. Does First Language Maintenance Hamper Nativelikeness in a Second Language?: A Study of Ultimate Attainment in Early Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly…

  9. CdC-SF: Proper motion catalogue from Carte du Ciel plates, San Fernando Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, B.

    2008-12-01

    We present an astrometric catalogue of positions and proper motions derived from the Carte du Ciel plates of the San Fernando zone, which has a mean epoch 1901.4 and a limiting magnitude V 15. Digitization has been made using a conventional flatbed scanner. Special techniques have been developed to handle the combination of plate material and the large distortion introduced by the scanner. A variety of post-scan corrections are shown to be necessary. The equatorial coordinates are obtained on the ICRS system defined by Tycho-2. Comparison with the reference catalog indicates external errors of 0''.2. The UCAC2 Catalogue was used for second-epoch positions to derive proper motions with a mean accuracy of 1.2 mas yr-1 for the the well-measured stars. The usefulness of the resulting proper motion catalog is demonstrated by means of a proper-motion analysis of seven open clusters, ASCC 30, BOCHUM 3, NGC 2215, NGC 2302, NGC 2311, NGC 2323 and NGC 2548, determining individual membership probabilities and characterizing the gross properties of each cluster.

  10. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  11. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  12. Development of a cart for independent mobility assistance for non-ambulatory children.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Sekiguchi, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    Some parents of non-ambulatory children are not eager to allow their children to use powered wheelchairs because of apprehension of further deterioration of their functionality and the risk for accidents. The authors think that not all but some such children could develop their ability to operate powered wheelchairs and might expand their knowledge about the circumstances and interests in them. Thus we made a prototype cart for them eventually to experience motion by themselves. Based on a 6-wheeled chassis, the two middle wheels are driven with a traction roller drive system. We had been testing this prototype with a child with cerebral palsy for one year. Acquisition of skills in pushing switches and enjoyment of motion were confirmed. However, we encountered several problems such as difficulty in rolling on a carpet and in handling due to its weight. The ability to record moving speed and operation of input devices helps rehabilitation experts to conduct quantitative performance evaluation. To solve these problems, we manufactured another prototype. The second prototype was tested with another child with cerebral palsy for one year. The problems were solved. She acquired the operation skills necessary to operate the prototype with four switch operation. PMID:19965102

  13. Structure-taste relationships for disubstituted phenylsulfamate tastants using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.

    PubMed

    Spillane, William J; Kelly, Damien P; Curran, Patrick J; Feeney, Brendan G

    2006-08-01

    Forty-two new disubstituted phenylsulfamates have been synthesized, and 30 of these have been combined with 40 already available from earlier work to create a training database of 70 compounds. On the basis of panel taste data these were divided into three categories, N (nonsweet), N/S (nonsweet/sweet), and (S) sweet, and a "sweetness value" or weighting was also calculated for each compound. Using these 70 compounds as a training set and a series of nine predictors derived from Corey-Pauling-Koltun (CPK) models, calculated from the PC SPARTAN PRO program and Hammett sigma values taken from the literature, a classification and regression tree analysis (CART) was carried out leading to a regression tree that correctly classified 62 of the 70 compounds (89% overall correct classification). The tree's predictive ability varies for the different taste categories, and for nonsweet compounds it is virtually 100%; for nonsweet/sweet compounds it is 66%, and for sweet compounds it is approximately 75%. This tree correctly predicted taste categories for 10 compounds from a test set of 12 randomly selected from among the 42 new compounds (83% correct classification). Therefore, it can be used with a good degree of confidence to predict the tastes of disubstituted phenylsulfamates. For the design of new sweeteners, appropriate values or ranges of the descriptors are derived. PMID:16881707

  14. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  15. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  16. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  17. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  18. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  19. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  2. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  4. Language and the Newborn Brain: Does Prenatal Language Experience Shape the Neonate Neural Response to Speech?

    PubMed Central

    May, Lillian; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that by the time of birth, the neonate brain responds specially to the native language when compared to acoustically similar non-language stimuli. In the current study, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to ask how prenatal language experience might shape the brain response to language in newborn infants. To do so, we examine the neural response of neonates when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar language, as well as to non language stimuli. Twenty monolingual English-exposed neonates aged 0–3?days were tested. Each infant heard low-pass filtered sentences of forward English (familiar language), forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language), and backward English and Tagalog (non-language). During exposure, neural activation was measured across 12 channels on each hemisphere. Our results indicate a bilateral effect of language familiarity on neonates’ brain response to language. Differential brain activation was seen when neonates listened to forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language) as compared to other types of language stimuli. We interpret these results as evidence that the prenatal experience with the native language gained in utero influences how the newborn brain responds to language across brain regions sensitive to speech processing. PMID:21960980

  5. Language acquisition and language change.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, David

    2010-09-01

    Children acquire a mature language system and sometimes this system differs from that of their parents. This is a significant part of language change and understanding acquisition is key to understanding this kind of change in people's internal grammars. I outline one approach to language acquisition, based on children finding cues expressed in the input they are exposed to. This enables us to understand historical change in grammars: change in external language sometimes triggers a new internal grammar as cues come to be expressed differently. Work on language variation, acquisition, and change converges, and these three areas are mutually dependent; empirical work in one area may enrich understanding more generally, opening the way to new kinds of empirical work. Seen this way, language is a complex system and language change can be treated productively in the context of complexity science. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271652

  6. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  7. American Sign Language Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Cheryl; Hochman, Darlene

    A review is provided of the American Sign Language (ASL) program at Suffolk Community College (SCC), in New York. Following definitions of program terms and historical information, the educational and career goals of the program are discussed and the curricula are described for the two sequences of the program, Interpreter for the Deaf and ASL…

  8. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language

  9. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  10. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    E-print Network

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  11. Smooth Interpretation Swarat Chaudhuri

    E-print Network

    Chauduri, Swarat

    Smooth Interpretation Swarat Chaudhuri Pennsylvania State University swarat@cse.psu.edu Armando Solar-Lezama MIT asolar@csail.mit.edu Abstract We present smooth interpretation, a method for systematic approx- imation of programs by smooth mathematical functions. Programs from many application domains make

  12. OF CONFERENCE INTERPRETING

    E-print Network

    . The demand for qualified conference interpreters is at an all-time high, and is only expected to grow conference facilities, fully equipped for simultaneous interpreting. As well, numerous internship an exciting career ­ at home or abroad ­ within unlimited areas of interest. facebook.com/Glendon.School

  13. BEYSIK: Language description and handbook for programmers (system for the collective use of the Institute of Space Research, Academy of Sciences USSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.

    1979-01-01

    The BASIC algorithmic language is described, and a guide is presented for the programmer using the language interpreter. The high-level algorithm BASIC is a problem-oriented programming language intended for solution of computational and engineering problems.

  14. Ethnoveterinary practices of owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad City (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Iqbal, Muhammad; Athar, Muhammad

    2005-02-28

    The present study was planned to investigate the ethnoveterinary methods practiced by the owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad Metropolis (Pakistan). During a 7-year-period (November 1992-November 1999), 200 owners of draught camels working in the city were interviewed. Information concerning the ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of common disorders of digestive tract (indigestion, colic and diarrhea), respiratory tract (cold/rhinitis, pneumonia), skin problems (mange, ulceration of nostrils with or without nasal myiasis, ticks and lice, harness sores), systemic states (fever, ze/rba/d, anhidrosis) and preventive therapy of indigestion and halitosis was collected through interviews and collated with those documented for the treatment of desert-dwelling camels. Familiarity of owners with two traditional methods of surra (trypanosomiasis) diagnosis ('Sand-ball test' and 'Hair-stick test') known to pastorilists was also probed. In addition, the dose and frequency of use of common salt was investigated. Traditional inputs utilized by the camel owners included various plant products, insecticides, sulphur, sump oil, common salt, aspirin, naphthalene balls and milk fat. Different owners used different combinations of traditional drugs for the treatment of disorders/conditions investigated. None of the camel owners was found familiar with the 'Sand-ball test' or 'Hair-stick test' of trypanosomiasis diagnosis. For the prevention of indigestion and halitosis all camel owners had practiced administration of 'massaulas' (physic drench/balls) along with common salt (average 250 g) on weekly basis. Firing had not been used by any owner. In general, the ethnoveterinary treatment practices used by the owners of city-dwelling camels appear to be different from those documented for the treatment of diseases of desert-dwelling camels. PMID:15707760

  15. 78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  16. 77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  17. 77 FR 53163 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  18. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  19. 78 FR 10582 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  20. 78 FR 74056 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  1. 78 FR 23872 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  2. 77 FR 62479 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  3. 78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  4. 78 FR 1166 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  5. 78 FR 16448 - Medical Diagnostic Equipment Accessibility Standards Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...CART), and sign language interpreters will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  6. Culture, Language, and Literacy: The Effects of Child Brokering on Language Minority Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Lucy; McQuillan, Jeff

    Three studies of language brokering among linguistic minority (LM) children are reviewed and discussed. In child language brokering, children act as linguistic mediators, not translators or interpreters, for their limited-English-proficient parents and relatives. The purpose of the studies was to describe brokering in LM communities and to examine…

  7. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  8. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  9. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    PubMed Central

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  10. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    PubMed

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  11. Interpreters: a double-edged sword in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Maltby, H J

    1999-07-01

    The provision of health services for all Australians is based on equality of access to health care services, regardless of cultural origin or linguistic skill, and on the responsibility of the health system to respond appropriately. Lack of fluency in the English language and lack of bilingual or multilingual nurses are major sources of miscommunication, even with the use of interpreters and translated health information. Many immigrant women find the use of interpreters unacceptable. Nurses are concerned with legal issues. These two viewpoints make the use of interpreters a double-edged sword in practice. The findings of recent research and the literature in relation to language skills and the use of interpreters and translations in the Australian context are explored. Potential resolutions for transcultural nursing practice are provided. PMID:10693412

  12. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  13. Spatially-varying surface fluxes at the Southern Great Plains cart site and their effects on boundary-layer properties

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Liljegren, J.C.; Zhong, S.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, data from the US DOE Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is combined with results from a mesoscale model to examine the effects of spatially-varying surface fluxes on some features of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Precipitation data from several sources was used to generate objectively-interpolated precipitation fields over the CART domain, and daily precipitation totals were assigned to each grid point in the domain. Normalized difference vegetation index values were averaged and a value assigned to each grid point. Surface sensible and latent heat flux values from the CART instruments were fitted to a bilinear function and flux values were calculated for each grid element. The mesoscale model used for the analysis was the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). For comparison, a case was run in which soil moisture and vegetation cover in the model domain was made uniform and adjusted to produce flux values equal to the spatial average of the latent heat fluxes calculated with RAMS. Results indicate that there a number of PBL properties that may be sensitive to the proper specification of surface fluxes. In addition to mesoscale fluxes, these include features such as the depth of the mixed layer and the likelihood of cloud formation. Comparison of the results for the latter two quantities was performed for simulations with and without spatially resolved fluxes. Results for the test case showed that even if the spatial variation of surface fluxes is not resolved over areas smaller than 10{sup 5} km{sup 2}, there may be relatively little impact on a general circulation model`s ability to describe cloud formation. In general, results indicate that some aspects of subgrid-scale variations of surface fluxes may not be as important to the performance of general circulation models as previously implied. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  14. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  15. Software development without languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Haywood S.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

  16. Teaching Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Laura F.

    1986-01-01

    The article details on three classroom projects using computers and synthesized speech software to foster expressive language and facilitate language comprehension in severely visually handicapped preschoolers and in preschool- and school-age Downs syndrome children. Computer use with a cerebral palsied child for story comprehension and…

  17. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  18. Sign Language From the Space Station - Duration: 5 minutes, 50 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

  19. 21 CFR 201.16 - Drugs; Spanish-language version of certain required statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...language. Such labeling is authorized under § 201.15(c). One required warning, the wording of which is fixed by law in the English language, could be translated in various ways, from literal translation to loose interpretation. The...

  20. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  1. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  2. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  3. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language

  4. Language Contact Means Language Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of language conflict and examines the areas of emphasis in the literature, including multilingualism and linguistic identity, glottophagia and minority/majority relations, the danger of reliance on language censuses, conflict resolution/avoidance, and the importance of ecolinguistics in conflict description and for…

  5. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  6. Jeu de cartes or Jeu Descartes: Business Cards in a French Course for the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegerias, Mary

    This paper discusses the use of French business cards in a college-level French language and culture course for professionals. Among other assignments, students were each given a different card and asked to speak about the design of their card, the business represented, idiomatic expressions and historical allusions on the card, and the use of…

  7. Lack of Hypophagia in CB1 Null Mice is Associated to Decreased Hypothalamic POMC and CART Expression

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Claudia; Seoane-Collazo, Patricia; Fernř, Johan; Mazza, Roberta; Bosch, Fátima; Seoane, Luisa M.; Nogueiras, Ruben; Diéguez, Carlos; Quarta, Carmelo; López, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cumulative data indicate that the endocannabinoid system plays a major role in feeding behavior and energy balance. Genetic silencing of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) reduces body weight gain, independently of food intake. Methods: In this work, we investigated whether the hypothalamic neuropeptide expression pattern supports the absence of the anorexigenic response observed under constitutive CB1 ablation, by using neuronal CB1 conditional null mice (CamK-CB1-KO) and whole body CB1 null mice (CB1-KO). Results: Our data showed that both CB1 null models display a marked decrease in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Conclusions: This evidence suggests that a lack of hypophagia is associated with the suppression of ARC anorexigenic neuropeptides and that behavioral changes in food intake (or lack thereof) after constitutive CB1 ablation are likely mediated by impaired melanocortin and CART signaling in the hypothalamus. PMID:25655433

  8. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    PubMed

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. PMID:26113447

  9. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  10. Bilingual Encounters: Spanish-English Medical and Legal Dialogues. A Practical Resource for Educators and Students of Interpreting. Interpreting and Translation Publications Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Sandra

    Thirty-eight dialogues are presented, each illustrating a common, real-life interpreting situation involving medical and/or legal issues and terminology. Each involves both Spanish and English languages, and the situations are specific to New South Wales, Australia. They are designed to be used as a resource in teaching interpreting. The…

  11. Analysis, recognition, and interpretation of speech signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintziuk, Taras Klimovich

    The problems of the machine analysis, recognition, semantic interpretation, synthesis, and compressed speech transmission are examined with reference to oral man-machine dialogue in formalized and natural languages for applications in data collection, processing, and control systems. Methods for the recognition of individual words and continuous speech, signal segmentation and self-segmentation, speech recognition learning, recognition of the voice of a particular operator, recognition of multiple speakers, and selection of signal matching and signal analysis techniques are discussed from a unified standpoint based on the use of dynamic programming.

  12. Training the Professional Interpreter for the Commercial and Legal Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eleonora K.

    The United States has been training interpreters only in the recent past, but the American penchant for technology has furthered the profession as a whole. Benchmarks in this process include machines introduced at the 1936 Paris World Fair and the Nuremberg trials, establishment of the United Nations, language services, development of the Division…

  13. The Afrocentric Interpretation of History: Bernal Replies to Lefkowitz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Replies to Mary Lefkowitz's criticism of Afrocentrists' interpretation of history as stated in her work entitled "Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became and Excuse to Teach Myth as History." The author centers his argument and overall critical commentary on the question of Egyptian influence over Greek science, culture, and language and the…

  14. Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,…

  15. On the Nature and Formation of Interpretive and Rhetorical Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    Distinguishes between Stanley Fish's idea of interpretive communities and rhetorical communities and asserts that because language is the passport to these communities, schools should seek ways to help students enter the communities to which they seek access. Cites evidence from an international study of writing to support the idea of rhetorical…

  16. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  17. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. PMID:22376096

  18. Interpreting St. Clair's Comanche Texts: Objective Case Marking and 'Same Subject' Dependent Clauses

    E-print Network

    Armagost, James L.

    1990-01-01

    St. Clair's Comanche texts, collected in 1902, appear to exhibit a very uncharacteristic form of objective case marking along with 'same subject' dependent clause types unknown elsewhere in the language. Proper interpretation of the materials...

  19. Priming the interpretation of ambiguous noun-noun compounds in young children 

    E-print Network

    Fialka, Justine K B

    2010-06-30

    Abstract: Investigation into adult language users’ interpretation of ambiguous noun-noun compounds has been considerably explored and documented. However, investigation into the same phenomenon in a population such as young children has been...

  20. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  1. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  2. Children's Interpretation of Dissolving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longden, Ken; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children of 2 different age groups (11-12, n=246; and 13-14, n=196) were asked to draw and write about dissolving in 2 different ways. Greater percentage of children at both ages gave accurate particle interpretation that accurate view of observable process. Consistency between two ways of looking at dissolving was not found to improve with age.…

  3. DNA Mixture Interpretation

    E-print Network

    interpretation #12;Father's Sperm Mother's Egg Child's Cell Father's Sperm Mother's Egg Father contributes: 22 Showing Possible Genotype Combinations (from Genetic Inheritance) A B A AA AB B AB BB p q p p2 pq q pq q2 pq + pq = 2pq Allele Frequencies Parental Alleles Child Genotypes father mother father mother

  4. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  5. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

  6. The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

    2000-04-04

    Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

  7. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quińones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  8. Planning Micro-Level Language Education Reform in New Diaspora Sites: Two-Way Immersion Education in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paciotto, Carla; Delany-Barmann, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Discontinuities are often found between top-down language education policies and local language policy enactments, as de facto language policymaking results from stakeholders' negotiation and interpretation of policy mandates. Teachers occupy a particular role in the execution of language education policies, as they are the "final arbiters" of…

  9. The Extensibility of an Interpreted Language Using Plugin Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Dorde; Radakovi?, Davorka

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) are computer programs that allow one to create and manipulate geometrical drawings. They are mostly used in teaching and studying geometry. However, DGS can also be used to develop interactive drawings not directly related to geometry. Examples include teaching materials for numerical mathematics at secondary school and university levels, or interactive mathematical games for elementary school children. Such applications often surpass the intended purposes of the DGS and may require complicated programming on behalf of the user. In this paper we present a simple plug-in model which enables easy development and deployment of interactive GUI components for "Geometrijica", a DGS we are developing on Silverlight.

  10. Test of Awareness of Language Segments (Test Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the Test of Awareness of Language Segments (TALS), discussing the test administration, scoring, interpretation, reliability, and validity. Recommends TALS for evaluating a child's readiness for reading instruction, and for suggesting appropriate instructional interventions. (MM)

  11. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  12. LANGUAGE ARTS ! Teaching Materials!

    E-print Network

    Burg, Theresa

    LANGUAGE ARTS ! Teaching Materials! !!! ! 1. PROGRAMS OF STUDY ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !Language Arts by the English Language Arts Council.! !! 2. LEARNING & TEACHING RESOURCES ! ! Online Learning and Teaching Resources: ! Illustrative Examples for English Language Arts: Kindergarten to Grade 9 -- provides practical

  13. Integral backstepping sliding mode control for underactuated systems: swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Nabanita; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2013-11-01

    In this paper an integral backstepping sliding mode controller is proposed for controlling underactuated systems. A feedback control law is designed based on backstepping algorithm and a sliding surface is introduced in the final stage of the algorithm. The backstepping algorithm makes the controller immune to matched and mismatched uncertainties and the sliding mode control provides robustness. The proposed controller ensures asymptotic stability. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is compared against a coupled sliding mode controller for swing-up and stabilization of the Cart-Pendulum System. Simulation results show that the proposed integral backstepping sliding mode controller is able to reject both matched and mismatched uncertainties with a chattering free control law, while utilizing less control effort than the sliding mode controller. PMID:23932857

  14. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  15. Physical Interpretion of Antigravity

    E-print Network

    Bars, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl invariant Standard Model coupled to General Relativity (SM+GR), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and o...

  16. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  17. Interpreting Deer Harvest Records. 

    E-print Network

    Guynn, Dwight E.

    1984-01-01

    Agricultural Extension Service Zerle L. Carpenter. Director College Station B-1486 People Helping People Interpreting Deer Harvest Records LIB ARY Dwight f. Guynn* JUN 11 1985 Deer harvest records are extremely important to proper deer herd man... of the jaw teeth. A publication de scribing this technique is available from the Texas Agricultural Extension Service (8-1453 The Age of a Deer). How to Arrange Oata and Calculations Arrangement of harvest data by ages is very important...

  18. Radiology interpretation process modeling.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-04-01

    Information and communication technology in healthcare promises optimized patient care while ensuring efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, the promised results are not yet achieved; the healthcare process requires analysis and radical redesign to achieve improvements in care quality and productivity. Healthcare process reengineering is thus necessary and involves modeling its workflow. Even though the healthcare process is very large and not very well modeled yet, its sub-processes can be modeled individually, providing fundamental pieces of the whole model. In this paper, we are interested in modeling the radiology interpretation process that results in generating a diagnostic radiology report. This radiology report is an important clinical element of the patient healthcare record and assists in healthcare decisions. We present the radiology interpretation process by identifying its boundaries and by positioning it on the large healthcare process map. Moreover, we discuss an information data model and identify roles, tasks and several information flows. Furthermore, we describe standard frameworks to enable radiology interpretation workflow implementations between heterogeneous systems. PMID:16165403

  19. First language attrition and syntactic subjects : a study of Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian intermediate and advanced speakers in Dutch 

    E-print Network

    Beganovic, Jasminka

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the nature of second language induced first language attrition in the distribution and interpretation of overt and postverbal subjects in Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian (S/C/B). Data are collected ...

  20. Objective Determination of Cloud Heights and Radar Reflectivities Using a Combination of Active Remote Sensors at the ARM CART Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mace, Gerald G.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Miller, Mark A.; Martner, Brooks E.

    2000-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is deploying sensitive, millimeter-wave cloud radars at its Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The radars complement optical devices, including a Belfort or Vaisala laser ceilometer and a micropulse lidar, in providing a comprehensive source of information on the vertical distribution of hydrometeors overhead at the sites. An algorithm is described that combines data from these active remote sensors to produce an objective determination of hydrometeor height distributions and estimates of their radar reflectivities, vertical velocities, and Doppler spectral widths, which are optimized for accuracy. These data provide fundamental information for retrieving cloud microphysical properties and assessing the radiative effects of clouds on climate. The algorithm is applied to nine months of data from the CART site in Oklahoma for initial evaluation. Much of the algorithm's calculations deal with merging and optimizing data from the radar's four sequential operating modes, which have differing advantages and limitations, including problems resulting from range sidelobes, range aliasing, and coherent averaging. Two of the modes use advanced phase-coded pulse compression techniques to yield approximately 10 and 15 dB more sensitivity than is available from the two conventional pulse modes. Comparison of cloud-base heights from the Belfort ceilometer and the micropulse lidar confirms small biases found in earlier studies, but recent information about the ceilometer brings the agreement to within 20-30 m. Merged data of the radar's modes were found to miss approximately 5.9% of the clouds detected by the laser systems. Using data from only the radar's two less-sensitive conventional pulse modes would increase the missed detections to 22%-34%. A significant remaining problem is that the radar's lower-altitude data are often contaminated with echoes from nonhydrometeor targets, such as insects.

  1. CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.; Turner, D.D.; Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D.; Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G.; Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T.

    1998-04-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  2. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS)

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul; Brown, Matthew; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Schore, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature, the current study further supports the utility of the CARTS as a means of assessing the family dynamics of childhood attachment and maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. PMID:26243548

  3. On Boundaries of the Language of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    The aim of the present paper is to outline a method of reconstruction of the historical development of the language of physical theories. We will apply the theory presented in Patterns of Change, Linguistic Innovations in the Development of Classical Mathematics to the analysis of linguistic innovations in physics. Our method is based on a reconstruction of the following potentialities of language: analytical power, expressive power, integrative power, and explanatory power, as well as analytical boundaries and expressive boundaries. One of the results of our reconstruction is a new interpretation of Kant's antinomies of pure reason. If we relate Kant's antinomies to the language, they retain validity.

  4. Language in dementia of recent referral.

    PubMed

    Code, C; Lodge, B

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-four recently referred patients with dementia were assessed on a range of language tests and a mental status test. The tasks which appeared to present the most difficulties for the patients were written spelling, pragmatic processing tasks like sentence disambiguation and proverb interpretation. 'Straight' linguistic processing tasks sensitive to aphasia, like oral reading, serial identification of objects, naming and correction of semantically incorrect sentences, appeared to present fewer problems. It is concluded that certain language tasks may be useful and sensitive detectors of developing dementia, and that in early dementia those aspects of language which depend on straight linguistic processing can be relatively preserved. PMID:3425482

  5. Second Language Education Certificate

    E-print Network

    Second Language Education Certificate Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making language learning an essential ingredient to give you a real-world, competitive edge. www.uwindsor.ca/languages English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers are in high demand

  6. Language Effects in Trilinguals: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Xavier; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Pu, He; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded during the visual presentation of words in the three languages of French-English-Spanish trilinguals. Participants monitored a mixed list of unrelated non-cognate words in the three languages while performing a semantic categorization task. Words in L1 generated earlier N400 peak amplitudes than both L2 and L3 words, which peaked together. On the other hand, L2 and L3 words did differ significantly in terms of N400 amplitude, with L3 words generating greater mean amplitudes compared with L2 words. We interpret the effects of peak N400 latency as reflecting the special status of the L1 relative to later acquired languages, rather than proficiency in that language per se. On the other hand, the mean amplitude difference between L2 and L3 is thought to reflect different levels of fluency in these two languages. PMID:23133428

  7. Children's Interpretation of Indefinites in Sentences Containing Negation: A Reassessment of the Cross-Linguistic Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon; Gualmini, Andrea; Helder, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children's behavior with respect to the interpretation of indefinite objects in negative sentences may differ depending on the target language: whereas young English-speaking children tend to select a surface scope interpretation (e.g., Musolino (1998)), young Dutch-speaking children consistently prefer an inverse…

  8. Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

  9. Distance Learning as an Effective Tool for Medical Interpreting Training in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güven, Mine

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the need for trained medical interpreters in various local/ethnic languages especially at public health institutions in Turkey, and argues that distance learning would be an effective tool for medical interpreting training, given the particular constraints of the situation. Designed to meet the respective needs of different…

  10. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals and interpreters.

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002). All bilingual groups showed a smaller congruency effect in the Simon task than the monolingual group. They were also faster overall in the ANT. Furthermore, interpreters outperformed unbalanced, but not balanced, bilinguals in terms of overall accuracy on both tasks. In the ANT, the error congruency effect was significantly smaller for interpreters and balanced bilinguals. Using a measure of switching fluency in language production, this study also found direct evidence for a relation between language control and executive control. This relation was only observed in balanced bilinguals, where fluent switching was correlated with the Simon effect. These findings support the existence of a bilingual advantage and also indicate that different patterns of bilingual language use modulate the nature and extent of a cognitive control advantage in multilingual populations. PMID:25689001

  11. Body Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  12. Language Contact Outcomes as the Result of Bilingual Optimization Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muysken, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper sketches a comprehensive framework for modeling and interpreting language contact phenomena, with speakers' bilingual strategies in specific scenarios of language contact as its point of departure. Bilingual strategies are conditioned by social factors, processing constraints of speakers' bilingual competence, and perceived…

  13. Efficient Implementation of a Linear Logic Programming Language

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    of the logic of the language Lolli that is conducive to the creation of both more efficient interpreters implements a useful fragment of Lolli. Resource con- scious algorithms executed using this system show, 1 #12;and then show how a recent treatment of the logic underlying the language Lolli can

  14. Ethnolinguistically Relevant Pedagogy: Empowering English Language Learners in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Columna, Luis; Hodge, Samuel R.; Mansilla, Patricia Martinez de la Vega

    2013-01-01

    People from diverse cultures interpret languages and gestures differently (Columna & Lieberman, 2011). It is not surprising, therefore, that communication differences may have negative implications for teachers and English language learners in K-12 physical education environments. To address this issue, we advocate preparing physical education…

  15. Interfacing the Experimenter to the Computer: Languages for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Ronald W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    An examination and comparison of the computer languages which behavioral scientists are most likely to use: SCAT, INTERACT, SKED, OS/8 Fortran IV, RT11/Fortran, RSX-11M, Data General's Real-Time; Disk Operating System and its Fortran, and interpretative Languages. (EH)

  16. Children Negotiating Korean American Ethnic Identity through Their Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study provides an interpretive reading of focus group interviews of four Korean American children in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It examines how these Korean American children are negotiating their ethnic identity as Korean Americans while learning Korean as a heritage language. It shows that maintaining heritage language is…

  17. "Good Teaching for All Students?": Sheltered Instruction Programming in Washington State Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Crissa; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    Many in the field of language policy have called for studies that connect policy texts at the macro level with their interpretations in districts, schools, and classrooms at the micro level. The purpose of this study is to trace Washington's educational language policy through the layers of interpretation to educational practice to see how…

  18. The realization of the wave function collapse in the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Ishikawa, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized in the linguistic interpretation. And furthermore, I propose the justification of the von Neumann-L\\"uders projection postulate. After all, I conclude that the wave function collapse should not be adopted in the Copenhagen interpretation.

  19. L3 Interactive Data Language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-05

    The L3 system is a computational steering environment for image processing and scientific computing. It consists of an interactive graphical language and interface. Its purpose is to help advanced users in controlling their computational software and assist in the management of data accumulated during numerical experiments. L3 provides a combination of features not found in other environments; these are: - textual and graphical construction of programs - persistence of programs and associated data - directmore »mapping between the scripts, the parameters, and the produced data - implicit hierarchial data organization - full programmability, including conditionals and functions - incremental execution of programs The software includes the l3 language and the graphical environment. The language is a single-assignment functional language; the implementation consists of lexer, parser, interpreter, storage handler, and editing support, The graphical environment is an event-driven nested list viewer/editor providing graphical elements corresponding to the language. These elements are both the represenation of a users program and active interfaces to the values computed by that program.« less

  20. Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Sofia M.

    2011-01-01

    Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

  1. Beneficial Effects of cART Initiated during Primary and Chronic HIV-1 Infection on Immunoglobulin-Expression of Memory B-Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Pensieroso, Simone; Tolazzi, Monica; Chiappetta, Stefania; Nozza, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During HIV-1 infection the B-cell compartment undergoes profound changes towards terminal differentiation, which are only partially restored by antiretroviral therapy (cART). Materials and Methods To investigate the impact of infection as early as during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) we assessed distribution of B-cell subsets in 19 PHI and 25 chronic HIV-1-infected (CHI) individuals before and during 48 weeks of cART as compared to healthy controls (n = 23). We also analysed Immunoglobulin-expression of memory B-cell subsets to identify alterations in Immunoglobulin-maturation. Results Determination of B-cell subsets at baseline showed that total and Naive B-cells were decreased whereas Activated Memory (AM), Tissue-like Memory (TLM) B-cells and Plasma cells were increased in both PHI and CHI patients. After 4 weeks of cART total B-cells increased, while AM, TLM B-cells and Plasma cells decreased, although without reaching normal levels in either group of individuals. This trend was maintained until week 48, though only total B-cells normalized in both PHI and CHI. Resting Memory (RM) B-cells were preserved since baseline. This subset remained stable in CHI, while was expanded by an early initiation of cART during PHI. Untreated CHI patients showed IgM-overexpression at the expenses of switched (IgM-IgD-) phenotypes of the memory subsets. Interestingly, in PHI patients a significant alteration of Immunoglobulin-expression was evident at BL in TLM cells, and after 4 weeks, despite treatment, in AM and RM subsets. After 48 weeks of therapy, Immunoglobulin-expression of AM and RM almost normalized, but remained perturbed in TLM cells in both groups. Conclusions In conclusion, aberrant activated and exhausted B-cell phenotypes rose already during PHI, while most of the alterations in Ig-expression seen in CHI appeared later, despite 4 weeks of effective cART. After 48 weeks of cART B-cell subsets distribution improved although without full normalization, while Immunoglobulin-expression normalized among AM and RM, remaining perturbed in TLM B-cells of PHI and CHI. PMID:26474181

  2. Working with an interpreter in psychiatric assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    1990-12-01

    Cross-cultural assessment and care frequently involve cross-language communication via a translator, interpreter, or bilingual worker. A resurgence of immigration, legalization of former illegal migrants, and refugee flight to the United States has increased the need for such special means of communication. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals should develop conceptual models, skills, and experience for conducting cross-language interviews. This article provides information, terminology, and models for one aspect of this special clinical task, i.e., working with translators. PMID:2246648

  3. Language Acquisition Is Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition…

  4. English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This Policy sets out the University's requirements for, and expectations of, UTS students' English language proficiency at admission and during Language Policy 2 1. Purpose This Policy sets out the University's requirements for, and expectations of

  5. The Language Policy Course and Language Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joe Darwin

    A new and important part of the training and education of English as a second language teachers is the course in "Language Policy," which centers on the relationship between politics and language teaching in developing countries, i.e., on language planning. A better understanding and more knowledge might be had by including static and declining…

  6. Understanding and Interpretation: Defending Gadamer in Light of Shusterman's "Beneath Interpretation"

    E-print Network

    Stroud, Scott R.

    from the sunny climes of Santa Cruz, indicating that when someone tells him "the surf is up" while he is on the way to the beach, no need for interpretation exists. It is "only if there where some problem in understanding, some puzzle or doubt... of the phrase "the surf is up" and his consequential response. While he does not cogitate overtly on the meaning of the semantic units of this utterance, he does recognize and understand its meaning through his immersion in a language and cultural tradition...

  7. Language Equality in International Cooperation. Esperanto Documents, New Series, No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Ralph; Mandel, Mark

    The policies of the United Nations with regard to the six official languages have left holes in the fabric of international cooperation. Maintaining language services in all six languages has proved to be an impossibility because of the scarcity of trained interpreters and translators between, for instance, Chinese and Arabic. English, French, and…

  8. K.Stock et al. Creating a corpus of geospatial language

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    K.Stock et al. Creating a corpus of geospatial language Kristin Stock* , Robert C Pasley, Zoe of Nottingham, United Kingdom Abstract The description of location using natural language is of interest of methods for automated interpretation and generation of natural language to ease interaction

  9. Medical Signbank as a Model for Sign Language Planning? A Review of Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina; Major, George; Ferrara, Lindsay; Johnston, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews a sign language planning project conducted in Australia with deaf Auslan users. The Medical Signbank project utilised a cooperative language planning process to engage with the Deaf community and sign language interpreters to develop an online interactive resource of health-related signs, in order to address a gap in the health…

  10. Negotiating Language Policy and Practice: Teachers of English Learners in an Arizona Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Arizona language policy now requires English learners (ELs) to enroll in "English language development" (ELD) classrooms for 4 hr of skill-based, English-only instruction. In this article, I describe Arizona teachers' interpretation and negotiation of language policy and practice during this time of change to more restrictive mandates. I…

  11. Examining the Effects of Language Brokering on Student Identities and Learning Opportunities in Dual Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Hill-Bonnet, Laura; Raley, Jason

    2011-01-01

    In settings where speakers of two or more different languages coexist, language brokering, the act of interpreting and translating between culturally and linguistically different speakers, is commonly practiced. Yet the examination of language brokering and its implications in classroom settings have not received much attention in the literature.…

  12. The Familial Context of Adolescent Language Brokering within Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Josephine M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Language brokering, whereby children of immigrants provide informal translation and interpretation for others, is considered commonplace. However, the research evidence remains inconsistent concerning how language brokering relates to the psychological health of child language brokers and their relationships with their parents. Furthermore, few…

  13. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration; and 3) invest in faculty development for successful and sustainable delivery. PMID:25473325

  14. Foreign Language Careers: Translation. Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Jeanne

    Translation skills require the ability to interpret information from a source language into the native tongue without distortion of emotional or written content. A broad knowledge of several subject areas, plus schooling in a special translator-training program, are prerequisites for a career in translation. Nonliterary translation offers the most…

  15. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  16. Lost in Translation: The Power of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

  17. A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

    APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

  18. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  19. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  20. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  1. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  2. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurementsĂ?Âť

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sergey Matrosov

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  3. L'opération de la Carte du Ciel dans les contextes institutionnel et technique de l'astronomie française ŕ la fin du XIXe sičcle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guet Tully, F.; Sadsaoud, H.; de La Noë, J.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre analyse le contexte institutionnel français dans lequel naît la Carte du Ciel. Dans les années 1880, le régime républicain réorganise totalement la recherche astronomique. Ŕ Paris, l'instrumentation est totalement renouvelée sous l'impulsion de Maurice Loewy. En province, les efforts de décentralisation permettent un accroissement significatif des arsenaux techniques de Marseille et Toulouse, ainsi que l'édification des établissements de Besançon, Lyon et Bordeaux. Ŕ Alger, la station astronomique créée sous le second Empire est transformée en un observatoire particuličrement dynamique grâce ŕ l'implication de Charles Trépied. Ce panorama des établissements astronomiques permet de cerner les enjeux institutionnels et scientifiques qui concourent ŕ l'engagement des observatoires de Paris, Bordeaux, Toulouse et Alger dans l'entreprise de la Carte du Ciel.

  4. Changes in First-Line cART Regimens and Short-Term Clinical Outcome between 1996 and 2010 in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Mikaela; Smit, Colette; Geerlings, Suzanne; Gras, Luuk; Brinkman, Kees; Hallett, Timothy B.; de Wolf, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Document progress in HIV-treatment in the Netherlands since 1996 by reviewing changing patterns of cART use and relating those to trends in patients' short-term clinical outcomes between 1996 and 2010. Design and Methods 1996–2010 data from 10,278 patients in the Dutch ATHENA national observational cohort were analysed. The annual number of patients starting a type of regimen was quantified. Trends in the following outcomes were described: i) recovery of 150 CD4 cells/mm3 within 12 months of starting cART; ii) achieving viral load (VL) suppression ?1,000 copies/ml within 12 months of starting cART; iii) switching from first-line to second-line regimen within three years of starting treatment; and iv) all-cause mortality rate per 100 person-years within three years of starting treatment. Results Between 1996 and 2010, first-line regimens changed from lamivudine/zidovudine-based or lamivudine/stavudine-based regimens with unboosted-PIs to tenofovir with either emtricitabine or lamivudine with NNRTIs. Mortality rates did not change significantly over time. VL suppression and CD4 recovery improved over time, and the incidence of switching due to virological failure and toxicity more than halved between 1996 and 2010. These effects appear to be related to the use of new regimens rather than improvements in clinical care. Conclusion The use of first-line cART in the Netherlands closely follows changes in guidelines, to the benefit of patients. While there was no significant improvement in mortality, newer drugs with better tolerability and simpler dosing resulted in improved immunological and virological recovery and reduced incidences of switching due to toxicity and virological failure. PMID:24098764

  5. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  6. ARABIC LANGUAGE HANDBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BATESON, MARY CATHERINE

    EACH VOLUME IN THE CENTER FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS LANGUAGE HANDBOOK SERIES, WHICH ENCOMPASSES THE MAJOR MODERN LANGUAGES OF ASIA AND AFRICA, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE AN OUTLINE OF THE SALIENT FEATURES OF A PARTICULAR LANGUAGE AND A SUMMARY OF THE LANGUAGE SITUATION AND LANGUAGE PROBLEMS OF THE COUNTRY OR AREA IN WHICH IT IS SPOKEN. THE ARABIC…

  7. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  8. Language Acquisition Sleven Pinker

    E-print Network

    Pylyshyn, Zenon

    Chapter 6 Language Acquisition Sleven Pinker 6.1 Introdudion Language acquisition is one topic has aroused such controversy. Possessing a language is the quintessentially human trait: all about language, so the facts of language structure are easy to come by; these data hint at a system

  9. Immigrant Languages in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

    Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

  10. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  11. Sign Language Diglossia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C., Jr.

    Charles A. Ferguson's concept of "diglossia" (1959, 1964) is used in analyzing sign language. As in Haitian Creole or Swiss German, "two or more varieties" of sign language are "used by the same speakers under different conditions"--these are here called "High" (H) sign language and "Low" (L) sign language. H sign language is formally taught…

  12. Language Arts Topics Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jane M.; And Others

    This document brings together six papers on language skills and language arts teaching of gifted students. "The State of the Art Issues in Language Study for High Ability Learners: Thinking about Language with Gifted Children" (Michael Clay Thompson) considers two areas traditionally included in discussions of language study--grammar and…

  13. HIV Status Disclosure Among People Living with HIV in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART)

    PubMed Central

    Madi, Deepak; Gupta, Parul; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish; Mahalingam, Soundarya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As patients with HIV live longer due to Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (cART) serostatus disclosure becomes an important issue. Disclosure can have both positive and negative outcomes. Disclosure of HIV status has been associated with better adherence to medication and reduction in levels of psychological distress. Stigma and disruption of family relationships are barriers for disclosure. Most studies regarding disclosure status have been conducted in West. There are many cultural differences in Indian society when compared to west. There is a dearth of research in the field of disclosure of HIV infection in India. Aim To determine the prevalence of HIV status disclosure among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South India. Materials and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done in the hospital attached to Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India from May–June 2013. PLHIV of age more than 18 years were included. During the study period 111 consecutive patients who consented for the study were enrolled. Statistical Analysis Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered semi structured questionnaire. Data collected was analysed using SPSS Version 11.5 statistical software. Descriptive statistics were done and the results are presented as proportions and mean. Results The mean age of the study population was 44.86 ± 10.8 years. Majority of the study subjects were men 76 (68.4%). Out of 111 study subjects, 102 (91.9%) had disclosed their HIV status to at least one person while 9 (8.1%) had not disclosed their HIV status to anyone. Disclosure on doctor’s advice was the main reason for 56 (54.9%) participants to disclose their HIV status. The main reason for non-disclosure was fear of shame in family. Conclusion Disclosure rate was high in our study in the era of cART. Society must stop discriminating against PLHIV so that they can disclose their serostatus and gain access to care and treatment services without any fear of stigma. In our study the main reason for disclosure was doctor’s advice which clearly states the importance of the commitment of doctors in creating awareness among PLHIV about the need for voluntary disclosure. PMID:26435983

  14. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222), an internet sample (n=123), and psychiatric outpatients (n=30). Results The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted. PMID:23580403

  15. Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard A.

    2002-08-19

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

  16. Dialogue: Interactive Alignment and Its Implications for Language Learning and Language Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Simon; Pickering, Martin J.

    This chapter discusses language processing during conversation. In particular, it considers why taking part in a conversation is more straightforward than speaking or listening in isolation. We argue that conversation is easy because speakers and listeners automatically align with each other at different linguistic levels (e.g., sound, grammar, meaning) which leads to alignment at the level of interpretation. This alignment process is reflected in the repetitiveness of dialogue at different levels and occurs both on the basis of local mechanisms of priming and more global mechanisms of routinization. We argue that the latter process may tell us something about both acquisition of language and historical processes of language change.

  17. Why does parental language input style predict child language development? A twin study of gene–environment correlation

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Philip S.; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established correlations between parental input style and child language development, which have typically been interpreted as evidence that the input style causes, or influences the rate of, changes in child language. We present evidence from a large twin study (TEDS; 8395 pairs for this report) that there are also likely to be both child-to-parent effects and shared genetic effects on parent and child. Self-reported parental language style at child age 3 and age 4 was aggregated into an ‘informal language stimulation’ factor and a ‘corrective feedback’ factor at each age; the former was positively correlated with child language concurrently and longitudinally at 3, 4, and 4.5 years, whereas the latter was weakly and negatively correlated. Both parental input factors were moderately heritable, as was child language. Longitudinal bivariate analysis showed that the correlation between the language stimulation factor and child language was significantly and moderately due to shared genes. There is some suggestive evidence from longitudinal phenotypic analysis that the prediction from parental language stimulation to child language includes both evocative and passive gene–environment correlation, with the latter playing a larger role. Learning outcomes: The reader will understand why correlations between parental language and rate of child language are by themselves ambiguous, and how twin studies can clarify the relationship. The reader will also understand that, based on the present study, at least two aspects of parental language style – informal language stimulation and corrective feedback – have substantial genetic influence, and that for informal language stimulation, a substantial portion of the prediction to child language represents the effect of shared genes on both parent and child. It will also be appreciated that these basic research findings do not imply that parental language input style is unimportant or that interventions cannot be effective. PMID:26277213

  18. Embodied Language Comprehension Requires an Enactivist Paradigm of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Slors, Marc; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Two recurrent concerns in discussions on an embodied view of cognition are the “necessity question” (i.e., is activation in modality-specific brain areas necessary for language comprehension?) and the “simulation constraint” (i.e., how do we understand language for which we lack the relevant experiences?). In the present paper we argue that the criticisms encountered by the embodied approach hinge on a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. We argue that the data relating sensorimotor activation to language comprehension can best be interpreted as supporting a non-representationalist, enactivist model of language comprehension, according to which language comprehension can be described as procedural knowledge – knowledge how, not knowledge that – that enables us to interact with others in a shared physical world. The enactivist view implies that the activation of modality-specific brain areas during language processing reflects the employment of sensorimotor skills and that language comprehension is a context-bound phenomenon. Importantly, an enactivist view provides an embodied approach of language, while avoiding the problems encountered by a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. PMID:21833288

  19. Speech and Language Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This information in Spanish ( en espańol ) Speech and language disorders More information on speech and language disorders ... Return to top More information on Speech and language disorders Explore other publications and websites Aphasia - This ...

  20. Multimedia for language learning

    E-print Network

    Kovács, Géza, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Students studying foreign languages often wish to enjoy authentic foreign-language content - for example, foreign-language videos and comics. Existing means of presenting this content, however, are suboptimal from the ...

  1. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  2. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  3. Multicultural issues in test interpretation.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Henriette W; Wiig, Elisabeth H

    2009-11-01

    Designing the ideal test or series of tests to assess individuals who speak languages other than English is difficult. This article first describes some of the roadblocks-one of which is the lack of identification criteria for language and learning disabilities in monolingual and bilingual populations in most countries of the non-English-speaking world. This lag exists, in part, because access to general education is often limited. The second section describes tests that have been developed in the United States, primarily for Spanish-speaking individuals because they now represent the largest first-language majority in the United States (80% of English-language learners [ELLs] speak Spanish at home). We discuss tests developed for monolingual and bilingual English-Spanish speakers in the United States and divide this coverage into two parts: The first addresses assessment of students' first language (L1) and second language (L2), usually English, with different versions of the same test; the second describes assessment of L1 and L2 using the same version of the test, administered in the two languages. Examples of tests that fit a priori-determined criteria are briefly discussed throughout the article. Suggestions how to develop tests for speakers of languages other than English are also provided. In conclusion, we maintain that there will never be a perfect test or set of tests to adequately assess the communication skills of a bilingual individual. This is not surprising because we have yet to develop an ideal test or set of tests that fits monolingual Anglo speakers perfectly. Tests are tools, and the speech-language pathologist needs to know how to use those tools most effectively and equitably. The goal of this article is to provide such guidance. PMID:19851953

  4. Language Interoperability and Logic Programming Languages 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Jonathan J

    We discuss P#, our implementation of a tool which allows interoperation between a concurrent superset of the Prolog programming language and C#. This enables Prolog to be used as a native implementation language for ...

  5. Fundamentals of interpretation in echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, P.; Lee, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This illustrated book provides familiarity with the many clinical, physical, and electronic factors that bear on echocardiographic interpretation. Physical and clinical principles are integrated with considerations of anatomy and physiology to address interpretive problems. This approach yields, for example, sections on the physics and electronics of M-mode, cross sectional, and Doppler systems which are informal, full of echocardiagrams, virtually devoid of mathematics, and rigorously related to common issues faced by echocardiograph interpreters.

  6. Study of Spatial Configurations of Equipment for Online Sign Interpretation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Kaoru; Tanaka, Saori

    This paper discusses the design of configurations of videophone equipment aimed at online sign interpretation. We classified interpretation services into three types of situations: on-site interpretation, partial online interpretation, and full online interpretation. For each situation, the spatial configurations of the equipment are considered keeping the issue of nonverbal signals in mind. Simulation experiments of sign interpretation were performed using these spatial configurations and the qualities of the configurations were assessed. The preferred configurations had the common characteristics that the hearing subject could see the face of his/her principal conversation partner, that is, the deaf subject. The results imply that hearing people who do not understand sign language utilize nonverbal signals for facilitating interpreter-mediated conversation.

  7. The intersections of culture and power in clinician and interpreter relationships: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Becher, Emily H; Wieling, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing racial/ethnic health disparities place increasing emphasis on the importance of interpreters in mental health treatment. Yet there is a limited body of research examining how interpreters and clinicians work together in delivering care. This article used an ethno-culturally informed qualitative procedure to ask interpreters and clinicians about their experiences in cross-language mental health treatment. Seventeen semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 interpreters and 7 clinicians. The interplay of power was experienced differently by interpreters and clinicians as exemplified by 3 categories of meaning: Interpreters speaking out, The relationship matters, and Who has the power? The authors recommend future research focus on the clinician-interpreter relationship as an essential piece of cross-cultural mental health delivery. PMID:25090141

  8. Mantoux test and its interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19(th) century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

  9. Languages and Language Varieties in Malta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Maltese, the national language of Malta, is, without doubt, the dominant language of most Maltese in most domains of language use in Malta. It however shares official status with English, which is also in regular use. Most Maltese can, in fact, be said to be bilingual to differing degrees. This article begins by providing some background…

  10. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  11. Spontaneous Language Markers of Spanish Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2007-01-01

    Spanish-speaking (SS) children with language impairment (LI) present with deficits in morphology and verb argument structure. These language areas may be useful for clinical identification of affected children. This study aimed to evaluate the discrimination accuracy of spontaneous language measures with SS preschoolers to tease out what…

  12. Language Assessment Training in Hong Kong: Implications for Language Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    Despite the call for using assessment to promote effective learning, most language teachers remain underprepared to conduct classroom-based formative assessment and interpret the summative assessment information for improving instruction as well as learning. Drawing upon a survey of programme and government documents, interviews, student…

  13. Another Person in the Room: Using Interpreters During Interviews With Immigrant Workers.

    PubMed

    Kosny, Agnieszka; MacEachen, Ellen; Lifshen, Marni; Smith, Peter

    2014-05-13

    Cross-language research poses many challenges. When researchers and participants do not speak the same language, meanings expressed by participants might not be understood in the same way by researchers, and the richness of participants' experiences might be lost. This can lead to the misrepresentation and silencing of issues faced by these participants, especially newcomers. In this article, we critically examine our experience conducting qualitative interviews with injured immigrant workers with the help of professional interpreters. Using examples from our field notes and transcripts, we outline some of the key difficulties we faced: varying styles of interpretation, breeches of interview conventions, and miscommunications with interpreters. We discuss how these issues affected our study design, rapport with participants and, ultimately, data quality. We end with a discussion of how to improve cross-language and cross-cultural research. PMID:24823318

  14. Second Language Acquisitionnd Language Acquisition In a global society, knowing several languages is vital for

    E-print Network

    Hill, Wendell T.

    Second Language Acquisitionnd Language Acquisition In a global society, knowing several languages about security, understanding languages is also important for gathering intelligence and mediating conflicts. While, clearly, learning the languages of our trading partners, allies, and adversaries

  15. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  16. Curriculum Guide for Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Martin L. A.; And Others

    Presented is a curriculum guide for the training of interpreters for the deaf consisting of 15 sections to be used as individual units or comprising a two part, 1 year course. The full course uses the text, Interpreting for Deaf People, as a guide and includes laboratory and practicum experiences. Curriculum guidelines include specific aims such…

  17. SCHROTH INTERPRETIVE TRAIL DEMONSTRATION PRAIRIE

    E-print Network

    Chen, Deming

    SCHROTH INTERPRETIVE TRAIL MUSIC BARN DEMONSTRATION PRAIRIE FORMER SITE OF THE LOST GARDEN PIONEER and upland forests, a meadow and a 30-acre demonstration prairie » 14 miles of interpretive hiking trails Institute of Architects'List of 150 Great Places in Illinois. #12;FU DOG GARDEN (SCULPTURES) HOUSE

  18. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  19. 75 FR 47797 - Board of Visitors, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ...Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center AGENCY: Department of...Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Date: September 13...Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center and Presidio of...

  20. Using Language Sample Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; J.…