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1

An Intermediate Language and Interpreter for the ASGOL Graphics Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to make ASGOL (ALGOL-Structured Graphics Oriented Language) more powerful, conditional and looping instructions were added to the language. To do this the existing interpreter system was converted to a compiler/interpreter system. An intermed...

K. P. Albert

1981-01-01

2

Tagless staged interpreters for typed languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-stage programming languages provide a convenient notation for explicitly staging programs. Staging a definitional interpreter for a domain specific language is one way of deriving an implementation that is both readable and efficient. In an untyped setting, staging an interpreter \\

Emir Pasalic; Walid Taha; Tim Sheard

2002-01-01

3

An Assessment Instrument for Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an instrument for objective assessment of sign language interpreters, which used videotapes to assess the accuracy of interpreted output. It categorizes the kinds of modifications made in response to cultural factors, estimates the degree of American Sign Language or English use, and records fingerspelling influence. (Author/SED)|

Strong, Michael; Rudser, Steven Fritsch

1985-01-01

4

An Interpreter’s Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters’ View of Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Previous studies have used survey techniques to identify potential risk factors and approaches to their medical management. Little is known about risk factors and management of symptoms in this group from the perspective of the interpreter. Such qualitative information should help inform future research related to

William L. Johnson; Michael Feuerstein

2005-01-01

5

25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request of a party...shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance...

2013-04-01

6

Syntax Directed Interpretation of Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation presents a method called syntax directed interpretation which permits the use of semantic information in a syntactic analysis of sentences taken from a restricted domain of natural language. This method is used in the resolution of syntac...

L. S. Coles

1967-01-01

7

The Subjective Assessment of Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When hearing raters subjectively evaluated the signed and spoken output of 25 sign language interpreters, rater agreement was between 0.52-0.86; the correlation between subjective and objective evaluation was between 0.59-0.79. Raters were unsuccessful in identifying which interpreters had deaf parents. (CB)|

Strong, Michael; Rudser, Steven Fritsch

1986-01-01

8

A reversible programming language and its invertible self-interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversible programming language supports deterministic forward and backward computation. We formalize the programming language Janus and prove its reversibility. We provide a program inverter for the language and implement a self-interpreter that achieves deterministic forward and backward interpretation of Janus programs without using a computation history. As the self-interpreter is implemented in a reversible language, it is invertible using

Tetsuo Yokoyama; Robert Glück

2007-01-01

9

Psychological testing of sign language interpreters.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11 held Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) certification. Six formal tests, the Quick Neurological Screening Test-II, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Test of Visual-Motor Skills (TVMS), the d2 Test of Attention, the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), were administered to the interpreters. Average scores were high on most of the tests; differences across the three groups were not statistically significant. Results from only one test, the d2 Test of Attention, were significantly correlated with interpreter level. Comparisons between educational and community interpreters also revealed no differences. Personality traits were widely distributed, but one trait, abstract reasoning, tested extremely high in 18 interpreters. Discussion of the potential implications of these results, particularly for educational interpreters, is offered. PMID:15304401

Seal, Brenda C

2004-01-01

10

Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

Cheatham, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

11

Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

Stedt, Joe D.

1992-01-01

12

Implementation of an Interpreter for a Parallel Language in Centaur  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the implementation of an interpreter for the parallel languageESTEREL in the CENTAUR system. The dynamic semantics of the languageis described and completed with two modules providing a graphical visualization ofthe execution and a graphical execution controller. The problems of implementinga parallel language using natural semantics and of providing a visualization for aparallel language are especially addressed.

Yves Bertot

1990-01-01

13

Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher-order programming languages (i.e., languages in which procedures or labels can occur as values) are usually defined by interpreters that are themselves written in a programming language based on the lambda calculus (i.e., an applicative language such as pure LISP). Examples include McCarthy's definition of LISP, Landin's SECD machine, the Vienna definition of PL\\/I, Reynolds' definitions of GEDANKEN, and recent

John C. Reynolds

1998-01-01

14

Effectively Teaching Discourse to Sign Language Interpreting Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores discourse features of Australian Sign Language (Auslan) and the need for sign language interpreting students to acquire an understanding of, and skills in, a range of discourse genres in Auslan in order to effectively carry out the work required in their profession. Discourse features of spoken English are outlined and compared…

Napier, Jemina

2006-01-01

15

Bridging language barriers: how to work with an interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience a language barrier with their health care provider. Language barriers are predictive of poor satisfaction with a medical encounter as well as poor understanding and compliance with medical instructions. A professional medical interpreter can minimize these shortcomings and allow for an effective communication between the health care provider and LEP patient. There

Ethan S Wiener; Maria Ivonne Rivera

2004-01-01

16

Factors affecting the interpretation of figurative language uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relations among three general language competency factors ? word knowledge, comprehension, and paradigmatic\\/syntagmatic reasoning ? and college developmental readers’ ability to interpret two text formats designed to elicit either a literal or figurative interpretation. The two formats were: a) an embedded format where different target expressions were included as the last statement in a context that

David G. OBrien; Bonnie Higginson; G. Michael Miller

1986-01-01

17

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

18

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

19

Interpretive programming language for image algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image Algebra (IA) was developed to provide a standard mathematical means of describing image processing algorithms. The goal of IA was to reduce the amount of programming code required in implementing an image processing algorithm. IA has been successful in expressing many linear and nonlinear image processing algorithms in a short and concise manner using a basic set of operators. When placed in a programming environment, IA enables the programmer to write image processing algorithms at a high level of abstraction and with a high degree of readability. IA functions have been developed for several programming languages such as ADA, FORTRAN, and C either as an external library or as a preprocessor.

Weeks, Arthur R.; Myler, Harley R.; Cinci, L. D.

1994-06-01

20

Social construction of American sign language--English interpreters.  

PubMed

Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English interpreters, such as learners' age and education and the characteristics of good citizens within the Deaf community. According to the participants, younger students were adept at language acquisition, whereas older learners more readily understood the purpose of lessons. Children of deaf adults were seen as more culturally aware. The participants' beliefs echoed the theories of P. Freire (1970/1970) that educators consider the reality of each student and their praxis and were responsible for facilitating student self-awareness. Important characteristics in the social construction of students included independence, an appropriate attitude, an understanding of Deaf culture, ethical behavior, community involvement, and a willingness to pursue lifelong learning. PMID:18424772

McDermid, Campbell

2008-04-18

21

CART manual  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of the numerics and physics of the 3-D resistive magnetohydrodynamic initial value code CART is provided. Instructions for running the code on the MFE Crays are given as well as descriptions of the required input files and data.

Lee, J.K.; Chu, M.S.; Howl, W.L.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA)); Klasky, M. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

22

Interpretation-mediated changes in neural activity during language comprehension.  

PubMed

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we identified cortical regions mediating interpretive processes that take place during language comprehension. We manipulated participants' interpretation of texts by asking them to focus on action-, space-, or time-related features while listening to identical short stories. We identify several cortical regions where activity varied significantly in response to this attention manipulation, even though the content being processed was exactly the same. Activity in the posterior and anterior sections of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which are thought to have different sensitivities to high-level language processing, was modulated by the listeners' attentional focus, but in ways that were quite different. The posterior left IFG (Pars Opercularis) showed different activity levels for the three conditions. However, a population coding analysis demonstrated similar distributions of activity across conditions. This suggests that while the gain of the response in the Pars Opercularis was modulated, its core organization was relatively invariant across the experimental conditions. In the anterior left IFG (Pars Triangularis), the analysis of population codes revealed different activity patterns between conditions: there was little similarity between activity during time-attention and action- and space-attention, however there were similar activity patterns while attending to space and action information. In addition, both the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus showed greater activity in the space and action attention conditions when contrasted with time attention. We discuss these findings in light of work on the role of left IFG in processing semantic information in language, and in light of theories suggesting that temporal information in language is processed in the brain using similar mechanisms as spatial information. Our findings suggest that a substantial source of variance in neural activity during language comprehension emerges from the internally-driven, information-seeking preferences of listeners rather than the syntactic or semantic properties of a text. PMID:21232614

Cooper, Emily A; Hasson, Uri; Small, Steven L

2011-01-11

23

Language switching mechanisms in simultaneous interpreters: an ERP study.  

PubMed

Recent event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging studies suggest that bilingual individuals are able to inhibit the processing of a non-target language while speaking or reading in another language. The neural mechanisms subserving code switching still remain matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to shed some light on the neurofunctional bases of such mechanisms. ERPs were recorded in native Italian simultaneous interpreters and monolingual controls during a semantic processing task in which the subjects had to evaluate the sensibleness of final words of incomplete sentences. All participants were strictly right-handed. Interpreters knew at least four languages (from four to eight) at a professional level, from among 11 European and Asian languages, and had an excellent command of English (L2). Four hundred short sentences were presented visually; half of them had an unexpected final word, producing a semantic incongruence. Sentences could be entirely in Italian or in English (unmixed); alternatively, the body of the sentence could be in English and the final word in Italian or vice versa (mixed). ERPs were time locked to the onset of the final word. Both reaction times (RTs) and electrophysiological data indicated a lesser degree of hemispheric lateralization for linguistic function during L2 rather than L1 processing in interpreters. The first effect of lexical switching and code switching was recorded in the time window between 140 and 200 ms at left anterior sites. At N400 level, ERPs were significantly larger to L2 than to L1 words only in the mixed and not in the unmixed condition. No effect of language was observed in the unmixed condition, thus suggesting that the difference in L1/L2 processing was not related to a difference in proficiency, but rather to a different functional organization of semantic integration systems due to the later age of acquisition of L2 compared to L1. Interpreters were faster at reading and comprehending sentences in English ending with an Italian word than vice versa (L2 --> L1 switch). PMID:15327931

Proverbio, Alice Mado; Leoni, Giuliana; Zani, Alberto

2004-01-01

24

Signed language working memory capacity of signed language interpreters and deaf signers.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an Auslan working memory (WM) span task. The results revealed that the hearing signers (i.e., the professional interpreters) significantly outperformed the deaf signers on the Auslan WM span task. However, the results showed no significant differences between the native signers and the nonnative signers in their Auslan working memory capacity. Furthermore, there was no significant interaction between hearing status and age of signed language acquisition. Additionally, the study found no significant differences between the deaf native signers (adults) and the deaf nonnative signers (adults) in their Auslan working memory capacity. The findings are discussed in relation to the participants' memory strategies and their early language experience. The findings present challenges for WM theories. PMID:23303377

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-09

25

Sign language interpreting on Chinese TV: a survey on user perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign language interpreting (SLI) on television has become a regular and relatively widespread type of media interpreting in China, with over 170 TV channels now airing sign language interpreted programmes daily or weekly. This research surveys the Chinese d\\/Deaf community on the general reception of these programmes, their comprehension levels and their perspectives on its quality. The research aims at

Xiaoyan Xiao; Feiyan Li

2011-01-01

26

Effects of pace and stress on upper extremity kinematic responses in sign language interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign language interpreters suffer from high levels of upper extremity disorders and burnout due to the physical and cognitive demands of interpreting. The objective of this research was to quantify the wrist kinematics of interpreting and to assess how speaker pace and psychosocial stress influence wrist kinematics. Professional interpreters interpreted a pre-recorded lecture, while the speaking pace of the lecture

J. Qin; M. Marshall; J. Mozrall; M. Marschark

2008-01-01

27

A basic interpretation of the technical language of radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the food producer contemplating the purchase of radiation processing equipment the task of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the available technologies, electron beam (E-beam), X-ray and gamma, to determine the best option for their application, is onerous. Not only is the level of investment daunting but also, to be sure of comparing like with like, the evaluator requires a basic understanding of the science underpinning radiation processing. There have been many papers published that provide technical specialists with a rigorous interpretation of this science (In: Gaughran, E.R.L., Goudie, A.J. (Eds.), Technical Developments and Prospects of Sterilization by Ionizing Radiation, International Conference, Vienna. Multiscience Publications Ltd., pp. 145-172). The objective for this paper is to give non-specialists an introduction to the language of radiation processing and to clarify some of the terminology associated with the use of radioactive sources for this application.

Deeley, Catherine M.

2004-09-01

28

Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

2010-01-01

29

Deriving Meaning through Context: Interpreting Bare Nominals in Second Language Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies on the second language acquisition of telicity have suggested that learners can use morphosyntactic cues to interpret sentences as telic or atelic even in cases where the cues differ in the first language (L1) and second language (L2) (Slabakova, 2001, 2005; Gabriele, 2008; Kaku et al., 2008a, 2008b). The present study extends…

Gabriele, Alison

2010-01-01

30

Interpreting "The Signs of Language." A Review Article.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the book that reports the results of research conducted by Edward Klima, Ursula Bellugi, and others. The book aims to show American Sign Language as a true language and to detail the representational devices that the language employs. A chapter by chapter summary of the reported research is given. (PJM)|

Todd, Peyton

1980-01-01

31

First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

2008-01-01

32

An Examination of Some Personal Characteristics & Abilities of Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 30 sign language interpreters (N=30) attempted to isolate cognitive, perceptual, psychomotor, and affective factors predictive of effective interpretive skills. Analysis revealed that family background (hearing or deaf family members) significantly affected certain personality traits and interpretive skills. (Author/CB)|

Rudser, Steven Fritsch; Strong, Michael

1986-01-01

33

Language Barriers among Patients in Boston Emergency Departments: Use of Medical Interpreters After Passage of Interpreter Legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 2001, Massachusetts state law dictates that emergency department (ED) patients with limited English proficiency have\\u000a the right to a professional interpreter. Methods one year later, for two 24-h periods, we interviewed adult patients presenting to four Boston EDs. We assessed language barriers\\u000a and compared this need with the observed use and type of interpreter during the ED visit. Results

Adit A. Ginde; Sunday Clark; Carlos A. Camargo Jr

2009-01-01

34

Little-JIL\\/Juliette: a process definition language and interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little-JIL, a language for programming coordination in processes is an executable, high-level language with a formal (yet graphical) syntax and rigorously defined operational semantics. The central abstraction in Little-JIL is the “step,” which is the focal point for coordination, providing a scoping mechanism for control, data, and exception flow and for agent and resource assignment. Steps are organized into a

Aaron G. Cass; Barbara Staudt Lerner; Stanley M. Sutton Jr.; Eric K. McCall; Alexander E. Wise; Leon J. Osterweil

2000-01-01

35

Overcoming Language Barriers in Psychiatric Practice: Culturally Sensitive and Effective Use of Interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcoming language barriers through the use of interpreters in mental health work is a challenge for clinicians. This article reviews and examines the common problems of language translation encountered at both technical and conceptual levels during the assessment and treatment of mentally ill patients, many of whom are immigrants. Various models of translation for different clinical purposes are reviewed. Ways

Selene Luk

2008-01-01

36

Ground Operations Aerospace Language (Goal). Volume 4: Interpretive Code Translator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly ...

1973-01-01

37

Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

2005-01-01

38

Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

2008-01-01

39

Making Learning Accessible for Sign Language Interpreters: A Process of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an innovative project conducted at Macquarie University, in order to instigate a change in the delivery of the Postgraduate Diploma in Auslan/English Interpreting. This is the first reported educational change project focusing on the training of sign language interpreters. The goal of the project was to research and develop a…

Napier, Jemina

2005-01-01

40

Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

2008-01-01

41

The Effects of Language and Pruning on Function Structure Interpretability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, the interpretability of function structures is evaluated through a user study in which participants are given function structures and asked to identify the product that is modeled. Two abstraction factors are controlled in the experiment: the type of functions and the specificity of the terms, thus resulting in functional models are four level of abstraction. The user

B Caldwell; J Thomas; C Sen; G M Mocko; J D Summers

2012-01-01

42

Interpreting as a Language Teaching Technique. Proceedings of a Conference (University of Salford, England, January 2-5, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers presented at a conference on the use of simultaneous, consecutive, and other forms of interpreting as features of foreign language teaching and learning in British higher education include the following: "Liaison Interpreting as a Communicative Language-Learning Exercise" (H. A. Keith); "Interpreting and Communicating: Problems for the…

Thomas, Noel, Ed.; Towell, Richard, Ed.

43

The Shopping Cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anyone who’s ever done any shopping, either on the Internet or off, understands the concept of a shopping cart. It allows\\u000a customers browsing your products to aggregate some products from your catalog and then, once they’ve gotten everything they\\u000a want to buy, go through the checkout process with all the items in their shopping cart.

Jim McGaw

44

Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to…

Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

2006-01-01

45

Shielding Yourself from the Perils of Empathy: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the psychological mechanisms of empathy with specific reference to sign language interpreters. It stresses that one must achieve a healthy balance of empathizing enough while shielding oneself from its perils to work effectively and ethically with a member of a minority group such as the deaf community. (Contains references.)…

Harvey, Michael A.

2003-01-01

46

A Pattern-based Analysis of Clinical Computer-interpretable Guideline Modeling Languages  

PubMed Central

Objectives Languages used to specify computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) differ in their approaches to addressing particular modeling challenges. The main goals of this article are: (1) to examine the expressive power of CIG modeling languages, and (2) to define the differences, from the control-flow perspective, between process languages in workflow management systems and modeling languages used to design clinical guidelines. Design The pattern-based analysis was applied to guideline modeling languages Asbru, EON, GLIF, and PROforma. We focused on control-flow and left other perspectives out of consideration. Measurements We evaluated the selected CIG modeling languages and identified their degree of support of 43 control-flow patterns. We used a set of explicitly defined evaluation criteria to determine whether each pattern is supported directly, indirectly, or not at all. Results PROforma offers direct support for 22 of 43 patterns, Asbru 20, GLIF 17, and EON 11. All four directly support basic control-flow patterns, cancellation patterns, and some advance branching and synchronization patterns. None support multiple instances patterns. They offer varying levels of support for synchronizing merge patterns and state-based patterns. Some support a few scenarios not covered by the 43 control-flow patterns. Conclusion CIG modeling languages are remarkably close to traditional workflow languages from the control-flow perspective, but cover many fewer workflow patterns. CIG languages offer some flexibility that supports modeling of complex decisions and provide ways for modeling some decisions not covered by workflow management systems. Workflow management systems may be suitable for clinical guideline applications.

Mulyar, Nataliya; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.; Peleg, Mor

2007-01-01

47

Loader Cart automation enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target market of PCR1 2-way radio is people with critical mission. Thus, quality of radio has to be ensured. Loader cart system is being used actively as an automated testing tool in PCR during system test phase. It is able to stress the radio to its limit to ensure its stability, robustness, and reliability. All major issues reported have to

Wei Hoo Chong

2012-01-01

48

Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

Warhol, Larisa

2011-01-01

49

Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

Warhol, Larisa

2011-01-01

50

Shielding yourself from the perils of empathy: the case of sign language interpreters.  

PubMed

Cross-cultural exchanges between deaf and hearing persons are replete with unintentional misunderstandings and even purposeful acts of oppression. Sign language interpreters routinely bear witness to the negative emotional fallout of these dynamics on the Deaf consumer. It is largely inevitable-a psychological reflex-to experience some degree of empathic pain. One must achieve a healthy balance of empathizing enough while shielding oneself from its perils. I describe the psychological effects of juxtaposed extremes of affect, projective identification, and the dual nature of empathy. PMID:15448069

Harvey, Michael A

2003-01-01

51

Shopping Cart-Related Injuries to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shopping cart-related injuries to children are common and can result in severe injury or even death. Most injuries result from falls from carts or cart tip-overs, and injuries to the head and neck represent three fourths of cases. The current US standard for shopping carts should be revised to include clear and effective per- formance criteria to prevent falls from

Poison Prevention

52

Rational versus anti-rational interpretations of science: an ape-language case-study.  

PubMed

Robert Nola (2003) has argued that anti-rationalist interpretations of science fail to adequately explain the process of science, since objective reasons can be causal factors in belief formation. While I agree with Nola that objective reasons can be a cause of belief, in this paper I present a version of the strong programme in the sociology of knowledge, the Interests Thesis, and argue that the Interests Thesis provides a plausible explanation of an episode in the history of ape-language research. Specifically, I examine Terrace, Petitto, Sandess, & Bever (1979, 1980) illegitimate comparison of the signing of their chimpanzee, Nim, with data from human early childhood language development, and argue that Terrace et al.'s interests played a causal role in determining their sceptical beliefs concerning ape linguistic abilities. However, I go on to argue that Terrace et al.'s interests are not the only causal factors in determining their beliefs: objective reasons, associated with the institution of new methodologies, were also causally determinative of Terrace et al.'s sceptical beliefs. Consequently, I argue that belief formation in science is a multi-factorial affair wherein both interests and objective reasons have causal roles. I finish the paper with two conjectures concerning the proper locus of scientific rationality. PMID:16473269

Farrell, Robert P

2006-01-24

53

Natural-Language Syntax as Procedures for Interpretation: The Dynamics of Ellipsis Construal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we set out the preliminaries needed for a formal theory of context, relative to a linguistic framework in which natural-language syntax is defined as procedures for context-dependent interpretation. Dynamic Syntax provides a formalism where both representations of content and context are defined dynamically and structurally, with time-linear monotonic growth across sequences of partial trees as the core structure-inducing notion. The primary data involve elliptical fragments, as these provide less familiar evidence of the requisite concept of context than anaphora, but equally central. As part of our sketch of the framework, we show how apparent anomalies for a time-linear basis for interpretation can be straightforwardly characterised once we adopt a new perspective on syntax as the dynamics of transitions between parse-states. We then take this as the basis for providing an integrated account of ellipsis construal. And, as a bonus, we will show how this intrinsically dynamic perspective extends in a seamless way to dialogue exchanges with free shifting of role between speaking and hearing (split-utterances). We shall argue that what is required to explain such dialogue phenomena is for contexts, as representations of content, to include not merely partial structures but also the sequence of actions that led to such structures.

Kempson, Ruth; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Meyer-Viol, Wilfried; Purver, Matthew; White, Graham; Cann, Ronnie

54

Occupational Upper Extremity Symptoms in Sign Language Interpreters: Prevalence and Correlates of Pain, Function, and Work Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive role of work demands, occupational stressors, and ergonomic risk factors in work-related upper extremity (UE) disorders remains unclear. Professional sign language interpreting, which involves exposure of the upper limbs to a combination of potential ergonomic and psychosocial stressors represents a unique occupational group to investigate the multivariate nature of UE disorders. The present study reports data on the

Michael Feuerstein; Ann Marie Carosella; Lolita M. Burrell; Liza Marshall; James Decaro

1997-01-01

55

Language barriers and the use of interpreters in the public health services. A questionnaire-based survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study aims to examine cross-cultural communication in health-care settings, which has implications for equal access to health services. We studied how often health-care workers experience a need for language assistance, what they do in such situations, what expectations they have of the interpreters and their evaluation of competency needs.

Emine Kale; Hammad Raza Syed

2010-01-01

56

The effects of two interventions on persistent pain: A multiple single-case study among sign language interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the present study were: (1) to explore the effects of two interventions (B: stress management and C: work style) among sign language interpreters (SLIs), using a single-case cross-over design; and (2) to document the feasibility of using such a repeated measures design in exploring work intervention impact. Seven participants reporting persistent pain during the baseline measurements were

Alain Delisle; Marie-José Durand; Daniel Imbeau; Christian Larivière

2007-01-01

57

Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2012-01-01

58

Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: implications for closing achievement gaps.  

PubMed

On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than do middle-class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the United States. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children's other language skills. PMID:22329382

Hoff, Erika

2012-02-13

59

Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

Sadler, Karen L.

60

Interpretation of compound nouns by adolescents with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of phenotypic overlap.  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate (i) whether adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism plus Language Impairment (ALI) experience word-formation difficulties, and (ii) whether these two groups present with a similar language phenotype. The study investigated four groups using a 2 (language status) ×2 (autism status) design; adolescents with SLI (n = 14), ALI (n = 16), Autism Language-Typical (ALT; n = 14), and language matched controls (n = 17), with all groups presenting with typical non-verbal skills. Mean age was 14;10. Comprehension of conventional Noun-Noun lexical compounds (e.g., snowman), synthetic compounds (SCs, e.g., cat chaser), and novel root compounds (RCs, e.g., sheep socks), was assessed using a forced-choice picture selection task. The SLI and ALI participants frequently mis-parsed the SCs, interpreting the first noun as the agent. Those with poorer vocabularies and non-word repetition had greater difficulties. Reaction time (RT) profiles were flatter in the ASD groups, with similar RTs across different compounds. Language difficulties in the SLI and ALI groups extend to word-formation processes; for example, comprehension of SCs. This may reflect difficulties making analogies with stored lexical items. Overall the results support the hypothesis of a phenotypic overlap between SLI and ALI. PMID:22762205

Riches, Nick G; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

2012-08-01

61

The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

Logan, Debra M.

2010-01-01

62

The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

Logan, Debra M.

2010-01-01

63

Structural analysis of the CDF transporter cart  

SciTech Connect

The transporter cart serves as a dolly to move the large toroids (539 tons) and the Roman arches (600 tons) which are part of the central detector. ANSYS has been used to compute deflections and stresses in this cart.

Leininger, M.

1982-11-17

64

FPC conditioning cart at BNL  

SciTech Connect

The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

2011-03-28

65

Bullock Cart Haulage in Sri Lanka.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The characteristics of bullock cart haulage are described and the estimated profitability of operating bullock carts based on data collected from surveys conducted in 1977/78. The paper concludes that while the basic design of the bullock cart has changed...

A. J. Plumbe D. J. Savage

1981-01-01

66

Kinematics of a PASCO Motorized Cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PASCO motorized cart is used to study the kinematic behavior of the cart when driven by a variety of waveforms produced by a PASCO 750 Interface and Power Amplifier II. The various shapes presented by the waveforms determine the time behavior of the driving voltage applied to the cart motor. Since students are typically exposed only to constant acceleration

Luke Trowbridge; Rachel Peters; Anne Franchek; Ken Taylor

2010-01-01

67

Tritiated pump oil change cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device to facilitate the changing of oil in pumps used for tritium service has been constructed and utilized to service the TFTR project pumps. The utilization of tritium in TFTR has necessitated the requirement for new maintenance and service procedures for tritium equipment. Two oil change carts were constructed, one for hydrocarbon oil and a second for Krytox (Perfluoroalkyl

T. Kozub; L. Ciebiera

1995-01-01

68

Animal-assisted therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this

Warangkhana Phanwanich; Orrawan Kumdee; Panrasee Ritthipravat; Yodchanan Wongsawat

2011-01-01

69

Low-Income Children's Literacy Interpretations in a Skills-Based and a Whole-Language Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive study investigated two groups of low-income, urban children who had whole-language instruction during their kindergarten and first-grade years. These 17 children were studied previously for those 2 years in their separate schools. The current investigation focused on the general academic success of the two groups and on eight, focal learners' interpretations. In one school, a group of children

Penny A. Freppon

1995-01-01

70

Animal-Assisted Therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model.  

PubMed

Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy. PMID:22254514

Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

2011-01-01

71

A Pattern-based Analysis of Clinical Computer-Interpretable Guideline Modelling Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we evaluate clinical guidelines modelling languages us- ing the Workflow Patterns as an analysis framework. The analysis provided for clinical guidelines aims at an unbiased and vendor-independent survey of the ex- pressive power of some modelling languages for representing clinical guidelines. The results from the survey could be used for the selection of a specification for representing

Nataliya Mulyar; Wil M. P. van der Aalst; Mor Peleg

72

The effects of shopping cart design and prior behavioral history on children's standing in cart seats.  

PubMed

Twenty one males 17-22 months old took part in an experiment of the effects of shopping cart design on standing in the seat section of the cart and speed of standing. Two different cart designs were examined. It was predicted that standing would be more likely in the over-the-counter vs deep basket type of cart since the former is less confining because of a larger seating area and larger leg holes. In fact, standing was slightly more likely to occur in the deep basket cart. The strongest predictors of standing, however, were subjects' prior incidents of standing in the cart seat and climbing out of the cart seat in grocery store settings. Thus, inter-individual differences in learning history may determine a child's risk of injury around shopping carts more than features of the cart's design. PMID:8799443

Harrell, W A

1996-05-01

73

Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second…

Kwak, Hye-Young

2010-01-01

74

Brokering Language and Culture: Can Ad Hoc Interpreters Fill the Language Service Gap at Community Health Centers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to explore the ability of ad hoc interpreters to integrate into the organizational climate at a federally qualified community health clinic (CHC) and create satisfactory services for limited–English-proficiency clients. Survey and interview data were gathered from staff (n = 17) and Latino clients (n = 30). The data indicate that clients felt satisfied with

Christopher R. Larrison; Daniel Velez-Ortiz; Pedro M. Hernandez; Lissette M. Piedra; Andrea Goldberg

2010-01-01

75

CART peptide induces neuroregeneration in stroke rats  

PubMed Central

Utilizing a classic stroke model in rodents, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), we describe a novel neuroregenerative approach using the repeated intranasal administration of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide starting from day 3 poststroke for enhancing the functional recovery of injured brain. Adult rats were separated into two groups with similar infarction sizes, measured by magnetic resonance imaging on day 2 after MCAo, and were treated with CART or vehicle. The CART treatment increased CART level in the brain, improved behavioral recovery, and reduced neurological scores. In the subventricular zone (SVZ), CART enhanced immunolabeling of bromodeoxyuridine, a neural progenitor cell marker Musashi-1, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, as well as upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA. AAV–GFP was locally applied to the SVZ to examine migration of SVZ cells. The CART enhanced migration of GFP(+) cells from SVZ toward the ischemic cortex. In SVZ culture, CART increased the size of neurospheres. The CART-mediated cell migration from SVZ explants was reduced by anti-BDNF blocking antibody. Using 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), increases in N-acetylaspartate levels were found in the lesioned cortex after CART treatment in stroke brain. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript increased the expression of GAP43 and fluoro-ruby fluorescence in the lesioned cortex. In conclusion, our data suggest that intranasal CART treatment facilitates neuroregeneration in stroke brain.

Luo, Yu; Shen, Hui; Liu, Hua-Shan; Yu, Seong-Jin; Reiner, David J; Harvey, Brandon K; Hoffer, Barry J; Yang, Yihong; Wang, Yun

2013-01-01

76

Shopping Cart Interactive Program (SCIP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Shopping Cart Interactive Program (SCIP) application was designed to improve shoppers’ connection with the grocery retail\\u000a environment. Nutrition is central to human life. Eating the right foods can significantly impact one’s quality of life. With\\u000a the capabilities of the SCIP application to provide an interface that can display readable health information on a mobile\\u000a device and tailor to the

Cyndi Wiley; Emmanuel Saka; Stefan Tauber; Sunghyun R. Kang

77

The interpretation of stressed and non-stressed pronouns in Spanish language breakdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Earlier research has indicated that patients with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have problems with constraints on the intra-sentential interpretation of object pronouns, incorrectly allowing them to refer to the subject of the same sentence. However, these studies do not show how agrammatic patients deal with constraints on the extra-sentential interpretation of pronouns. Also, studies that did investigate patients' extra-sentential interpretation

Sergio Baauw; Esther Ruigendijk; Fernando Cuetos; Sergey Avrutin

2011-01-01

78

Elementary Teachers' Use of Language to Label and Interpret Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study examined how three teachers of upper elementary students used science vocabulary in their lessons. The data revealed that teachers used vocabulary to label science phenomena and interpret scientific concepts for students. The practice of labeling was used more extensively than interpreting. Teachers did not help their…

Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

2009-01-01

79

Training Translators and Conference Interpreters. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 58.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination of translation and conference interpretation as well-established academic professions focuses on how they should be taught in order to maintain the integrity of the two professions and the highest standards in their exercise. An introductory section answers the question, "Can translation and interpretation be taught?," noting that…

Weber, Wilhelm K.

80

The Impact of Language Barriers on Documentation of Informed Consent at a Hospital with On-Site Interpreter Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Informed consent is legally and ethically required before invasive non-emergent procedures. Language barriers make obtaining\\u000a informed consent more complex.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  Determine the impact of language barriers on documentation of informed consent among patients in a teaching hospital with\\u000a on-site interpreter services.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN  Matched retrospective chart review study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SUBJECTS  Eligible Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) who received a thoracentesis, paracentesis,

Yael Schenker; Frances Wang; Sarah Jane Selig; Rita Ng; Alicia Fernandez

2007-01-01

81

THE EFFECTS OF SHOPPING CART DESIGN AND PRIOR BEHAVIORAL HISTORY ON CHILDREN'S STANDING IN CART SEATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one males 17-22 months old took part in an experiment of the effects of shopping cart design on standing in the seat section of the cart and speed of standing. Two different cart designs were examined. It was predicted that standing would be more likely in the over-the-counter vs deep basket type of cart since the former is less

W. ANDREWHARRELL

82

The effects of shopping cart design and prior behavioral history on children's standing in cart seats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one males 17–22 months old took part in an experiment of the effects of shopping cart design on standing in the seat section of the cart and speed of standing. Two different cart designs were examined. It was predicted that standing would be more likely in the over-the-counter vs deep basket type of cart since the former is less

W. Andrew Harrell

1996-01-01

83

Child carrier assembly for a shopping cart  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A child seat assembly for use in a shopping cart and secured to the hinged rear gate of the shopping cart that is configured for lifting to expose a rear opening for nesting like carts. The child seat is secured in a lower portion of the shopping cart basket by hinged connections, such that the seat assembly is movable between a use and a non-use configuration, and the seat assembly is suspended in position by a strut member, as an articulating strut member, and a suspension support member attached to the strut.

Russell; Joseph W. (Frankfort, IL); Moreno; Eleobardo (St. John, IN)

2011-08-23

84

Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

2012-01-01

85

Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

2012-01-01

86

Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (ages 4 ; 1 to 6 ; 4) and typically developing (TD) children (ages 3 ; 5 to 6 ; 5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from…

Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

2010-01-01

87

Pragmatic language interpretation after closed head injury: Relationship to executive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Closed head injury is associated with impairment in a range of executive skills, and with everyday difficulties in social interactions. Comprehension of pragmatic language plays an important role in social interactions. The present study was designed to examine performance on a task involving pragmatic judgement in people who had suffered closed head injury (CHI), and the relationship between this

Shelley Channon; Mike Watts

2003-01-01

88

Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used…

Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

2012-01-01

89

A Translation and Interpreting Primer for Foreign Language PhDs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the possibilities that accrue through development of a dual professional life in college-level teaching and translating. In addition to encouraging those with academic training to look for intellectual satisfaction in the field associated with language and literature, the article offers a wealth of information on training,…

Gordon, Andrew Steven

2000-01-01

90

Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children  

MedlinePLUS

... www.cpsc.gov • www.SaferProducts.gov Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children Every ... in U.S. hospital emergency rooms for falls from shopping carts. Falls from shopping carts are among the ...

91

Nurturing Students' Strengths: The Impact of a School-Based Student Interpreter Program on Latino/a Students' Reading Comprehension and English Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Framed within the growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in urban schools, this study examined the learning experiences of bilingual Latino/a students who were taught to serve as on-site interpreters at their inner-city K-8 school in California. Participants in the Young Interpreters Program had significantly higher scores in…

Borrero, Noah

2011-01-01

92

Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept…

Mungan, Carl E.

2012-01-01

93

The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

1995-01-01

94

Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

Mungan, Carl E.

2012-01-01

95

Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.  

PubMed

Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets. PMID:18624893

Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

2008-07-04

96

Beyond buying: Motivations behind consumers' online shopping cart use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate consumers' motivations for placing items in an online shopping cart with or without buying, termed virtual cart use. While retailers offer virtual carts as a functional holding space for intended online purchases, this study, based on a national online sample, reveals other powerful utilitarian and hedonic motivations that explain the frequency of consumers' online cart use. Beyond

Angeline G. Close; Monika Kukar-Kinney

2010-01-01

97

Dynamic interplay between histone H3 modifications and protein interpreters: emerging evidence for a 'histone language'  

PubMed Central

Histone proteins organize DNA into dynamic chromatin structures and regulate processes such as transcription, repair and replication. Control of chromatin function and structure is mediated in part by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on histones. The most N-terminal region of histone H3 contains a high density of modifiable residues. In this review, we focus on the dynamic interplay between histone modification states on the H3 N-terminus and the binding modules that recognize these states. Specifically, we will discuss the effect of auxiliary modifications to H3K4unmod/me3 binding modules (specifically H3R2 methylation, H3T3 phosphorylation and H3T6 phosphorylation). Emerging evidence suggests that histone PTMs behave less like a strict ‘code’, but rather like a ‘language’, which better illustrates the importance of context. Using androgen receptor-mediated gene activation as an example, we propose a model for how the combinatorial nature of PTMs on the H3 N-terminus and the complexes that recognize these epigenetic modifications control gene expression.

Oliver, Samuel S.; Denu, John M.

2010-01-01

98

Motorized Cart Driver Safety in Assisted Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a group of residents at a life care facility purchased motorized carts to move around the 350,000-square-foot facility, staff members were faced with the need to ensure the safety of both drivers and pedestrians. This article describes a safety assessment procedure developed for cart drivers who lived in the assisted living area of the community. Five performance criteria were

Shirley S. Travis; Marlene Hendricks; Lue McClanahan; Amy Osmond; Carlotta Pruett

2001-01-01

99

Fuel-cell-powered golf cart  

SciTech Connect

The implementation of a battery/fuel-cell-powered golf cart test bed designed to verify computer simulations and to gain operational experience with a fuel cell in a vehicular environment is described. A technically untrained driver can easily operate the golf cart because the motor and fuel cell controllers automatically sense and execute the appropriate on/off sequencing. A voltage imbalance circuit and a throttle compress circuit were developed that are directly applicable to electric vehicles in general.

Bobbett, R.E.; McCormick, J.B.; Lynn, D.K.; Kerwin, W.J.; Derouin, C.R.; Salazar, P.H.

1980-01-01

100

Effects of Real-Time Captioning and Sign Language Interpreting on the Learning of College Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College personnel are required to provide accommodations for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (D/HoH), but few empirical studies have been conducted on D/HoH students as they learn under the various accommodation conditions (sign language interpreting, SLI, real-time captioning, RTC, and both). Guided by the experiences of students who…

Smith-Pethybridge, Valorie

2009-01-01

101

Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

Baumgartner, Ilse

2012-01-01

102

Text Based Computer-Mediated Communication: A System for Automated Interpretation of Discussion Threads in Distance Education Fora by Using Formal Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic discussion for a are increasingly becoming part of the distance education process and are an evolving field which needs to be constantly updated and redefined. This paper presents a system development for automated interpretation of messages in distance education for a by using a modelling in formal language.

Kiriakos Patriarcheas; Spyridon Papaloukas; Michalis Xenos

2010-01-01

103

Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language

Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

104

Quantum Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such

A. R. P. Rau

2006-01-01

105

A pendulum-driven cart via internal force and static friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a pendulum driven cart is built using Lego robot parts. It consists of a cart with four passive wheels and a pendulum mounted on top of the cart. A DC motor is attached to the hinge joint between the cart and the pendulum which cart swing forward and backward. The cart motion is generated using its internal

Hongyi Li; Katsuhisa Furuta; Felix L. Chernousko

2005-01-01

106

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Block on Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to frictional forces between a moving cart and a block sitting on top of the cart. Students are required to determine the maximum acceleration of the system so that the block will not slip. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, including conceptual analysis and a thorough discussion of the properties of both static and kinetic friction. As students set up calculations, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-12

107

MIT TechTV: Coupled Air Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video displays normal modes in a vibrating system through the motion of air carts connected by springs on an air track. When this system is at resonant frequency, symmetrical patterns called normal modes appear. The normal modes are shown in both driven and undriven cases, and the demonstration is repeated for systems of two, three, and five coupled carts. The video includes a short explanation of the demonstration. See Related Materials for an interactive Java simulation that addresses the same concept. This resource is part of a video demonstration collection created by the Physics Department at MIT.

Technical Services Group @ MIT Physics

2012-07-12

108

Constant Acceleration: Experiments with a Fan-Driven Dynamics Cart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rebuilding of a Project Physics fan cart on a PASCO dynamics cart chassis for achieving greatly reduced frictional forces. Suggests four experiments for the rebuilt cart: (1) acceleration on a level track, (2) initial negative velocity, (3) different masses and different forces, and (4) inclines. (MVL)

Morse, Robert A.

1993-01-01

109

Promoting Safety Belt Use in Shopping Carts\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple baseline design across two supermarkets examined the effectiveness of prompts on the use of safety belts in shopping carts. At baseline, safety belt use was low at Store 1 (9 days; M = 14.7%) and at Store 2 (13 days; M = 9.9%). However, belt use increased when fliers, posters, a taped message, and buttons were incorporated as

Joseph R. Ferrari; Charles H. Baldwin

1989-01-01

110

Cart-Based Store Imaging System (IBM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olin students on the IBM SCOPE team will work to provide a next-generation retail store solution through the development of a cart based store imaging system. This platform will help determine product restocking schedules as well as report on the shopping experience for store owners and product vendors. The work will encompass a focused user study to identify features and

Matthew Colyer; Robert Quimby; Sean McBride; Timothy Hanna

2007-01-01

111

Quantum Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are\\u000adue to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to\\u000aThe Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic\\u000aworldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in\\u000aabsorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke\\u000aextravagances such

A. R. P. Rau

2006-01-01

112

Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.  

PubMed

The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

2002-07-01

113

Patient evaluation of prone carts used in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury who cannot use a wheelchair due to the risk of aggravating existing pressure ulcers. A prone cart is a flat/horizontal cart with a fixed height, propelled by the user while laying in a prone position. Patients reported that prolonged use of a prone cart resulted in chronic neck, shoulder and back pain. Additionally the existing prone carts lack user accessible angle adjustability, chest support area, as well as a storage, eating or working area. An interdisciplinary research team collaborated to address these concerns. Three prone carts were evaluated: E&J, Gendron, and a newly developed prototype, MIAD/PVA. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers and patients regarding usage and effectiveness of the prone carts as well as the features of an ideal cart. This data led to the design and refinement of a prototype prone cart which was tested on 20 patients and 19 caregivers at the SCI Centers of the Milwaukee and Tampa VAMC's from 1994-1995. The new prone cart enables the user to lie at an angle rather than laying flat. This position has been found to relieve back and neck pressure. With an hydraulic system, the the user can adjust both the front and rear angles of the cart to achieve desired comfort. In addition, a front deck provides an eating and working area. This study resulted in research-based information and criteria for the design of new prone carts. Findings of this pilot study will be incorporated in a development merit review proposal to the VA Rehabilitation Research & Development service for the design of a new manual and motorized prone cart. The researchers are collaborating with Ortho-Kinetics Inc. to promote ease in manufacturing. PMID:8900708

Nelson, A; Malassigné, P; Cors, M; Amerson, T L; Bonifay, R; Schnurr, E

1996-06-01

114

Analysis of the Samus Collimeter Cart  

SciTech Connect

The SAMUS collimator cart is a support for shielding blocks and the vacuum assembly of the Tevatron beam tube as it passes through the D0 End Iron. It slides on linear bearings mounted in the SAMUS toroid as the End Iron moves in and out. There are two collimators designed for the D0 experiment, designated North and South, each identical except for the shimming of the tungsten center blocks, and thereby the relative position of the Tevatron tube. This report contains calculations of the stresses during installation as well as the installed configurations. To support the analysis of the installation case, loads were simulated on the cart held in a mock-up of the lifting fixture.

Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

1991-08-16

115

A WSRF Based Shopping Cart System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF) is a set of specifications that represents a convergence point of the Web services\\u000a and the Grid services communities. This paper presents our early experience with WSRF. A shopping cart system has been implemented\\u000a with WSRF supported Globus toolkit 3.9.2 (GT3.9.2). Based on the system, the performance of the WSRF core in GT3.9.2 has also

Maozhen Li; Man Qi; Masoud Rozati; Bin Yu

2005-01-01

116

From cars to carts. Increasing safety belt usage in shopping carts.  

PubMed

A modified reversal/multiple-baseline design across three supermarkets was used to examine the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in increasing the frequency of safety belt usage in shopping carts. Following low baseline rates, safety belt usage increased significantly during a prompt-plus-personal-contact condition at Stores 1 and 2. Safety belt usage then decreased, but remained above baseline levels, in a prompt-alone condition at both stores. However, at Store 1, usage increased when the personal-contact procedure was reintroduced but reversed to lower levels in a second prompt-alone condition. Finally, social validity scales indicated that adult shoppers with children favored both safety belts on carts and the experimental procedures used in this study and said that they intended to use safety belts on carts in the future. Implications and directions for further research are briefly discussed. PMID:2923613

Ferrari, J R; Baldwin, C H

1989-01-01

117

Understanding the Home Language and Literacy Environments of Head Start Families: Testing the Family Literacy Survey and Interpreting Its Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the nature of Head Start children's home literacy environments and the associations between these resources and children's early-language and literacy skills. At the beginning of the preschool year, families of 302 children completed the Family Literacy Survey. In general, Head Start families reported providing a variety of activities for young children; however, variability was observed across

Barbara A. Wasik; Annemarie H. Hindman

2010-01-01

118

On the Simultaneous Interpretation of Real World Image Sequences and their Natural Language Description: The System Soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of previous attempts at connecting vision systems and natural lan- guage systems has been to provide a retrospective descripti on of the analysed image sequence. The step from such an a posterioriapproach towards simultane- ous natural language description reveals a problem which has not yet been dealt with in generation systems. Automatic generation of simultaneous descriptions calls for

Elisabeth André; Gerd Herzog; Thomas Rist

1988-01-01

119

Semantic Meaning and Pragmatic Interpretation in 5-Year-Olds: Evidence From Real-Time Spoken Language Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on children’s inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of some (implying not all), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly all). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of prior tasks? In 3 experiments, the authors used the visual-world eye-tracking paradigm

Yi Ting Huang; Jesse Snedeker

2009-01-01

120

From Cars to CartsIncreasing Safety Belt Usage in Shopping Carts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified reversal\\/ multiple-baseline design across three supermarkets was used to examine the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in increasing the frequency of safety belt usage in shopping carts. Following low baseline rates, safety belt usage increased significantly during a prompt plus personal contact condition at Stores 1 and 2. Safety belt usage then decreased, but remained above baseline levels, in

Joseph R. Ferrari; Charles H. Baldwin

1989-01-01

121

What is a Faithful Interpretation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fidelity to the source message for both spoken language and sign language interpreters has been at the core of our conception of the role of the interpreter. This article presents a selection of research and reflections on the theme of the faithful interpretation in an effort to bring this research to the attention of the practicing interpreter. It includes brief

Bill Moody

2012-01-01

122

SportsStore: Navigation and Shopping Cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Chapter 4, you set up the majority of the core infrastructure needed to build SportsStore. There’s already a basic product\\u000a list backed by a SQL Server database. However, you’re still several steps away from dominating global online commerce. In\\u000a this chapter, then, you’ll get deep into the ASP.NET MVC development process, adding catalog navigation, a shopping cart,\\u000a and a

Steven Sanderson

123

The Leu34Phe ProCART Mutation Leads to Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Deficiency: A Possible Cause for Obesity in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorexigenic neuropeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus. A Leu34Phe missense mutation in proCART has been found in an obese family in humans. Here we show that humans bear- ing the Leu34Phe mutation in proCART have severely dimin- ished levels of bioactive CART, but elevated amounts of par- tially processed proCART in their serum. Expression

Tulin Yanik; Geraldina Dominguez; Michael J. Kuhar; Emanuele M. Del Giudice; Y. Peng Loh

2005-01-01

124

The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

2011-01-01

125

The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

2011-01-01

126

Velocity and torque feedback control of a nonholonomic cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for designing and analysing velocity and torque feedback controls for a nonholonomic wheeled-cart is presented. A stability analysis of a set of nonlinear systems, the equations of which encompass all stable linear invariant systems, is first proposed. This analysis is then applied to the design and analysis of feedback controls for the wheeled-cart. The control inputs are either

Claude Samson

127

Clearing the supermarket shopping cart: an informal look.  

PubMed

An informal enquiry of the behavior of 500 supermarket shoppers clearing carts of litter prior to entering the store showed that 69% dumped the rubbish into another cart, 26% dropped it on the sidewalk, and 5% deposited it in a trash container. PMID:15362430

Trinkaus, John W

2004-06-01

128

The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. (Union Electric Co., Callaway Nuclear Operations, Fulton, MO (US))

1986-07-01

129

Making Yourself Mobile With a Medical Golf Cart  

PubMed Central

The use of the specially designed and equipped golf cart in sports medicine has become commonplace at the professional and collegiate levels. However, at the high school level, athletic trainers often have been stymied by financial limitations that prevent them from purchasing professionally designed and manufactured medical golf carts. Through this article, I hope to share with high school athletic trainers my experiences in designing, obtaining, and equipping a medical golf cart that is affordable and suitable for use in the high school setting. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3.

Berry, James W.

1993-01-01

130

A Supervisory Control Methodology for a New Pneumatic Cart-Seesaw System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes mechanical configuration and control environment for a new cart-seesaw system. The system consists of a cart, which slides on the pneumatic rodless cylinder. The rodless cylinder is a double-acting one with carrier bracket on which a cart has been pinion mechanism to tracks. The task of the cart-seesaw system is to bring the cart to from any

J. Lin; J. H. Zhan; J. Chang

2007-01-01

131

21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

132

5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

133

Online Shopping Carts: The State-of-the-Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Shopping cart” is a term that has come to mean one of two things: first, an online ordering system that is separate from an e-commerce website, and second, a store-building system that can be used to build and manage both an e-commerce site's web pages and its ordering system. We first describe the feature typically included in all carts-an ordering

Ralph F. Wilson; James B. Pettijohn; Shannon D. McMurtrey

2006-01-01

134

The determinants of consumers’ online shopping cart abandonment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite placing items in virtual shopping carts, online shoppers frequently abandon them —an issue that perplexes online retailers\\u000a and has yet to be explained by scholars. Here, we identify key drivers to online cart abandonment and suggest cognitive and\\u000a behavioral reasons for this non-buyer behavior. We show that the factors influencing consumer online search, consideration,\\u000a and evaluation play a larger

Monika Kukar-Kinney; Angeline G. Close

2010-01-01

135

The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analyzed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artifact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in introductory physics laboratory.

Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

2012-03-01

136

Interpretive Model for a ''A Concurrency Method''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

''A Concurrency Method'' is a language embodying the data flow characteristics of data-drive and single-assignment. The interpreter for ''A Concurrency Method'' models a physical machine with an architecture directed toward this language. The interpreter ...

C. L. Carter

1986-01-01

137

The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

138

Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics.

Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

2013-01-01

139

Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson's Disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics. PMID:23543038

Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K; Thuillier, Philippe; Reddy, P Hemachandra

2013-01-18

140

CARTS: Cultural Arts Resources for Teachers and Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed and maintained by Gail Matthews-DeNatale, CARTS is a collection of online resources pertaining to folklore, anthropology, traditional arts, oral history, and community-based education. CARTS is designed to help K-12 teachers, students, and community members develop links between school curricula and local cultural traditions. At the site users will find a number of resources for this effort, such as an interview with a National Heritage Award-winning artist, a discussion list, teacher institute retrospectives, regional slide shows, and links to relevant regional resources.

141

The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

2004-01-01

142

An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

Kim, Sung-Ho

143

Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project.

Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigne, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

2007-01-01

144

The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

2004-01-01

145

High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous

Glenda L. Keating; Michael J. Kuhar; David B. Rye

2008-01-01

146

An Implementation of Electronic Shopping Cart on the Web System using Component-Object Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new mechanism for implementing the elec- tronic shopping cart system (shortly, the shopping cart sys- tem) on the World Wide Web system (the Web system). The electronic shopping cart system is one of typical client- server systems, and it includes essential tasks to be imple- mented in the typical Web based client-server system. The most important task

Satoru Uehara; Osamu Mizuno; Tohru Kikuno

2001-01-01

147

Cart Auditor: A Compliance and Training Tool for Cashiers at Checkout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shopping carts have traditionally been used as a tool provided to the customers in retail stores to carry items from the shelf to checkout stations. These days shopping carts can also be used as a security checkpoint to prevent store losses. All the items collected in a shopping cart are supposed to be unloaded at the checkout station to be

Charlse A. Otto; Sharath Pankanti

2010-01-01

148

Hybrid control for global stabilization of the cart-pendulum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A globally stabilizing controller for the cart–pendulum system is designed in this paper. The design procedure consists of three parts. First, find a neighborhood of the origin in which a locally stabilizing controller can be used. Second, construct a linear controller for the cart subsystem and steer the position and velocity of the cart to the origin. The last part

Jun Zhao; Mark. W. Spong

2001-01-01

149

What Is a Programming Language?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)|

Wold, Allen

1983-01-01

150

Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

Cross, Beth

2003-01-01

151

Le Carte Blanc or La Carte Blanche? Bilingual Children's Acquisition of French Adjective Agreement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of less exposure to either language, bilingual children's language acquisition can be delayed relative to monolingual children in domains related to input frequency. This study predicted that the acquisition of gender agreement with adjectives in French would be delayed in bilingual children on a picture description task. The results…

Nicoladis, Elena; Marchak, Kristan

2011-01-01

152

The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug addiction.  

PubMed

CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in feeding, drug reward, stress, cardiovascular function, and bone remodeling. CART peptides are abundant but discretely distributed in the brain, pituitary and adrenal glands, pancreas, and gut. High expression of CART in discrete hypothalamic nuclei associated with feeding has led to behavioral and pharmacological studies that strongly support an anorectic action of CART in feeding. Subsequent studies on humans and transgenic animals provide additional evidence that CART is important in the regulation of appetite as mutations in the CART gene are linked to eating disorders, including obesity and anorexia. The expression of CART in the mesolimbic dopamine circuit has lead to functional studies demonstrating CART's psychostimulant-like effects on locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in rats. These and other findings demonstrated that CART modulates mesolimbic dopamine systems and affects psychostimulant-induced reward and reinforcing behaviors. The link between CART and psychostimulants was substantiated by demonstrating alterations of the CART system in human cocaine addicts. CART seems to regulate the mesolimbic dopamine system, which serves as a common mechanism of action for both feeding and addiction. Indeed, recent studies that demonstrated CART projections from specific hypothalamic areas associated with feeding to specific mesolimbic areas linked to reward/motivation behaviors provide evidence that CART may be an important connection between food- and drug-related rewards. Given the enormous public health burden of both obesity and drug addiction, future studies exploring the pharmacotherapies targeting CART peptide represent an exciting and challenging research area. PMID:16840648

Vicentic, Aleksandra; Jones, Douglas C

2006-07-13

153

Acceptance Test Report for Gamma Carts A and B  

SciTech Connect

Report of Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Reports of the hardware and software tests. The objective of the testing was to verify in the shop that the hardware and software operated according to design specifications before field-testing and installation.

FULLER, P.J.

2000-03-16

154

West Valley transfer cart control system design description  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

155

Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a

Al Jaques

1989-01-01

156

McCART: Monte Carlo Code for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCART is a numerical procedure to solve the radiative transfer equation for light propagation through the atmosphere from visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The procedure has been developed to study the effect of the atmosphere in the remote sensing of the Earth, using aerospace imaging spectrometers. The simulation is run for a reference layered plane nonabsorbing atmosphere and a plane ground

Vanni Nardino; Fabrizio Martelli; Piero Bruscaglioni; Giovanni Zaccanti; Samuele Del Bianco; Donatella Guzzi; Paolo Marcoionni; Ivan Pippi

2008-01-01

157

A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

158

Acceptance Test Report for Gamma Carts A and B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report of Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Reports of the hardware and software tests. The objective of the testing was to verify in the shop that the hardware and software operated according to de...

P. Fuller

2000-01-01

159

A Novel Low-Cost Intelligent Shopping Cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative product with societal acceptance is the one that aids the comfort, convenience and efficiency in everyday life. In this paper, we discuss a novel product “A Novel Low-Cost Intelligent Shopping Cart (NLISC)” being developed to assist a person in everyday shopping in terms of reduced time spent while purchasing a product at the best price available. The main

J. Suryaprasad; B. O. Praveen Kumar; D. Roopa; A. K. Arjun

2011-01-01

160

Comparison of Cost and Selected Nutrients of the National School Hot Lunch, a La Carte, and Combination of School Lunch\\/a La Carte Menus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a la carte program increases participation at school sites; however, questions about the nutritional quality and cost remain. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to compare the nutrient intakes of high school students who ate meals from hot lunch (HL) (n=32), a la carte (AC) (n=88), or a combination of hot lunch\\/a la carte (HLA) (n=42) as well

M. C. Gjengdahl; C. D. Seaborn

1999-01-01

161

Unique Responses of Midbrain CART Neurons in Macaques to Ovarian Steroids  

PubMed Central

CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is a neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological processes, such as response to psychostimulants, food intake, depressive diseases and neuroprotection. It is robustly expressed in the brain, mainly in regions that control emotional and stress responses and it is regulated by estrogen in the hypothalamus. There is a distinct population of CART neurons located in the vicinity of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain that also colocalize urocortin-1. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the distribution of CART immunoreactive neurons in the monkey midbrain, 2) to examine the effects of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) on midbrain CART mRNA and peptide expression and 3) to determine whether midbrain CART neurons contain steroid receptors. Adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were spayed and either treated with placebo (OVX), estrogen alone (E), progesterone alone (P) or E + P. Animals were prepared (a) for RNA extraction followed by microarray analysis and quantitative (q) RT-PCR (n=3/group); (b) for immunohistochemical analysis of CART and CART+tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), CART+estrogen receptors (ER) or CART+progesterone receptors (n=5/group) and (c) for western blots (n=3/group). Both E? and E+P-administration decreased CART gene expression on the microarray and with qRT-PCR. Stereological analysis of CART immunostaining at five levels of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus indicated little effect of E or E + P administration on the area of CART immunostaining. However, P administration increased CART-immunopositive area in comparison to the OVX control group with Student’s t-test, but not with ANOVA. CART 55–102 detection on western blot was unchanged by hormone administration. ER?and PR were detected in CART neurons and CART fibers appeared to innervate TPH-positive serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe. In summary, E decreased CART mRNA, but this effect did not translate to the protein level. Moreover, P administration alone had a variable effect on CART mRNA, but it caused an increase in CART immunostaining. Together, the data suggest that CART neurons in the midbrain have a unique steroid response, which may be mediated by nuclear receptors, neuroactive steroids or interneurons.

Lima, F.B.; Henderson, J.A.; Reddy, A.P.; Tokuyama, Y.; Hubert, G. W.; Kuhar, M.J.; Bethea, C.L.

2008-01-01

162

On the Interpretation of Earlier Recovery of the Second Language After Injection of Sodium Amytal in the Left Middle Cerebral Artery or Are There Relevant Facts Without Interpretation?: A Response to Paradis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Responds to Paradis's (1990) argument that these authors misreported the facts presented by Berthier, Starkstein, Lylyk, and Leiguarda (1990) regarding the recovery by a bilingual patient of his second language earlier than his native tongue subsequent to injection of a narcotic drug. The article argues that Paradis is incorrect. (nine…

Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Schumann, John H.

1995-01-01

163

Ethnography of Language Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While theoretical conceptualizations of language policy have grown increasingly rich, empirical data that test these models are less common. Further, there is little methodological guidance for those who wish to do research on language policy interpretation and appropriation. The ethnography of language policy is proposed as a method which makes…

Johnson, David Cassels

2009-01-01

164

Speech and Language Delay  

MedlinePLUS

... bilingual home affect my child's language and speech? The brain has to work harder to interpret and use 2 languages, so it may take longer for children to start using either one or both of the languages they're learning. It's not unusual ...

165

Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

1989-08-08

166

McCART: Monte Carlo code for atmospheric radiative transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

McCART is a numerical procedure to solve the radiative transfer equation for light propagation through the atmosphere especially developed to study the effect of the atmosphere on the response of hyperspectral sensors for remote sensing of the earth's surface. McCART is based on a single Monte Carlo simulation run for a reference layered plane non-absorbing atmosphere and a plane ground with uniform reflectance. The spectral response of the sensor for a given distribution of ground reflectance and for a specific profile of scattering and absorption properties of the atmosphere is obtained in a short time from the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, making use of scaling relationships and of symmetry properties. The response includes the effects of adjacent pixels. The results can be used to establish the limits of applicability of approximate algorithms for the processing and analysis of hyperspectral images. The algorithm can be also used to develop procedures of atmospheric compensation.

Nardino, Vanni; Del Bianco, Samuele; Martelli, Fabrizio; Guzzi, Donatella; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan; Bruscaglioni, Piero; Zaccanti, Giovanni

2005-10-01

167

A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students--the ballistic cart,1 i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

2011-10-01

168

Solar semidiurnal tidal wind oscillations above the CART site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmonic analysis of wintertime data from 915- and 404-MHz radar wind profilers at four sites in North America has identified coherent semidiurnal wind oscillations through the entire depth of the troposphere. These winds are readily apparent above the CART site, as evidenced from analyses of data from the Haviland, KS, radar profiler. The characteristics of this wind system match the characteristics of solar semidiurnal atmospheric tides, as predicted by a simple dynamic model.

Whiteman, C. D.; Bian, X.

1995-03-01

169

GO-CART: the GOHSS Calibration and Reduction Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raw images coming from infrared multi-echelle fiber spectrographs are quite complex to be processed, extracted and calibrated. Available procedures are in general not exhaustive or assume high knowledge of command line environments. For the instrument GOHSS, a fiber-fed high resolution NIR spectrograph to be mounted at the Italian National Telescope TNG, we have, therefore, developed GO-CART (GOhss Calibration and Reduction Tool), a tool which automatically performs the whole stage from the assessment of the master instrument calibrations up to the final sky subtracted scientific spectra, by following predefined or user written pipelines, in which an error propagation analysis is envisaged at each step of the process. GO-CART joins together the powerful graphical and imaging capabilities of IDL with the worldwide acknowledged performances of the IRAF spectra extraction packages within an easy-to-use environment. It is fully configurable to be used with different instruments and can work on any platform on which IDL and IRAF can run. A smart data organization and proper file naming rules allow for a convenient management of any final or intermediate result. GO-CART also provides specific capabilities to model and subtract scattered light from highly packed echelle images and a custom optimal matching algorithm to perform residual-free OH subtraction.

Li Causi, Gianluca; De Luca, Massimo; Vitali, Fabrizio; Lorenzetti, Dario

2004-09-01

170

A cloud climatology of the Southern Great Plains ARM CART  

SciTech Connect

Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in north-central Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Wichita, Kansas) were selected. The ECR data span a 10-yr period from December 1981 to November 1991. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) provided cloud amounts over the SGP CART for an 8-yr period (1983--91). Cloud amounts were also obtained from Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and Belfort Ceilometer (BLC) cloud-base height measurements made at the SGP CART over a 1-yr period. The annual and diurnal cycles of cloud amount as a function of cloud height and type were analyzed. The three datasets closely agree for total cloud amount. Good agreement was found in the ECR and MPL-BLC monthly low cloud amounts. With the exception of summer and midday in other seasons, the ISCCP low cloud amount estimates are generally 5%--10% less than the others. The ECR high cloud amount estimates are typically 10%--15% greater than those obtained from either the ISCCP or MPL-BLC datasets. The observed diurnal variations of altocumulus support the authors' model results of radiatively induced circulations.

Lazarus, S.M.; Krueger, S.K.; Mace, G.G.

2000-05-15

171

Kinin B1 receptor gene ablation affects hypothalamic CART productionb.  

PubMed

A role for the kinin B1 receptor in energy-homeostatic processes was implicated in previous studies; notably, the studies where kinin B1 receptor knockout mice (B1-/-) were shown to have impaired adiposity, impaired leptin and insulin production, lower feed efficiency, protection from liver steatosis and diet-induced obesity when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In particular, in a model where the B1 receptor is expressed exclusively in the adipose tissue, it rescues the plasma insulin concentration and the weight gain seen in wild type mice. Taking into consideration that leptin participates in the formation of hypothalamic nuclei, which modulate energy expenditure, and feeding behavior, we hypothesized that these brain regions could also be altered in B1-/- mice. We observed for the first time a difference in the gene expression pattern of cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) in the (lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) resulting from the deletion of the kinin B1 receptor gene. The correlation between CART expression in the LHA and the thwarting of diet-induced obesity corroborates independent correlations between CART and obesity. Furthermore, it seems to indicate that the mechanism underlying the 'lean' phenotype of B1-/- mice does not stem solely from changes in peripheral tissues but may also receive contributions from changes in the hypothalamic machinery involved in energy homeostasis processes. PMID:23585179

Torres, Hugo A M; Louise Motta, Fabiana; Sales, Vicencia Micheline; Batista, Carolina; da Silva, Joelcimar M; Vignoli, Thiago; Barnabé, Gabriela F; Goeldner, Francine O; D'Almeida, Vânia; Bittencourt, Jackson C; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Bader, Michael; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Pesquero, João Bosco

2013-07-01

172

National Conversations in the UK: Using a Language-Based Approach to Interpret Three Key Education Policy Documents (2001-2007) from England, Scotland and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines three key education policy documents from Scotland, England and Wales in the eight years after devolution. A close textual analysis of the language of each document is undertaken, which is supported by the authors' insider knowledge of these countries. Findings are presented from analysis of a group of selected words, as well…

Laugharne, Janet; Baird, Adela

2009-01-01

173

Cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) inhibits context induced reinstatement of reward seeking.  

PubMed

We studied the role of cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) in regulating context induced reinstatement (renewal) of reward seeking. Rats were trained to respond for alcoholic beer in context A before extinction in context B. Rats were tested for responding in context A (ABA) and context B (ABB). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of the active fragment CART55-102 but not the inactive fragment CART1-27 before test prevented ABA renewal of extinguished responding. ICV CART55-102 had no effect on responding in the extinction context (ABB). ICV CART55-102 also altered the profile of behavioral responses observed on test in the training (ABA) but not extinction (ABB) context. These results identify a novel role for CART in preventing reinstatement of reward seeking. PMID:20528087

King, Bradley J; Furlong, Teri M; McNally, Gavan P

2010-06-01

174

RoboCart: toward robot-assisted navigation of grocery stores by the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents RoboCart, a proof-of-concept prototype of a robotic shopping assistant for the visually impaired. The purpose of RoboCart is to help visually impaired customers navigate a typical grocery store and carry purchased items. The current hardware and software components of the system are presented. For localization, RoboCart relies on RFID tags deployed at various locations in the store.

Vladimir Kulyukin; Chaitanya Gharpure; John Nicholson

2005-01-01

175

B-Cart based Agent System for B2B EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the implementation of agent based B2B e-Commerce, we design the b-Cart based B2B agent framework. B-Cart implies a buyer's shopping cart which a buyer carries to the seller's sites. The prototype agent, named AgentB, is designed to provide an effective architecture for employee's direct desktop purchasing from multiple external seller's e-marketplaces. In this paper, we propose the thirteen

Gyoo Gun Lim; Jae Kyu Lee

176

The development of complex sentence interpretation in typically developing children compared with children with specific language impairments or early unilateral focal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre\\/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences 'on-line', choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity (actives, passives, subject clefts and object clefts), and in the presence or

Frederic Dick; Beverly Wulfeck; Magda Krupa-Kwiatkowski; Elizabeth Bates

2004-01-01

177

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and increases cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55-102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55-102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

2012-12-16

178

Investigation report on golf cart fire at the U.S. DOE Pinellas Plant on May 11, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an accident investigation of a golf cart fire that occurred May 11, 1993, at the Pinellas Plant. The direct cause of the fire was determined to be excessive heat generation in the cart`s resistor coil box. The current flow creating the excessive heat was caused by the defeat of cart safety systems and a partially depressed accelerator pedal. The root cause of the fire is inadequate training of golf cart operators. Recommendations to prevent further recurrence of this type of accident include operator training and golf cart inspections.

Not Available

1993-06-01

179

Shopping-cart-related injuries to children. Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics.  

PubMed

Shopping cart-related injuries to children are common and can result in severe injury or even death. Most injuries result from falls from carts or cart tip-overs, and injuries to the head and neck represent three fourths of cases. The current US standard for shopping carts should be revised to include clear and effective performance criteria to prevent falls from carts and cart tip-overs. Pediatricians have an important role as educators, researchers, and advocates to promote the prevention of these injuries. PMID:16882847

2006-08-01

180

AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

WHITE, D.A.

1999-12-29

181

Development of Electric Cart with Function of Maintaining/Improving Exercise Ability—Part I: Design of the Electric Cart System—  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explains the development of a three-wheeled electric cart that not only is a means of transportation, but also provides the driver with a way of getting some physical exercise. Based on an investigation of the physiological decline accompanying aging, pedaling was chosen to implement the function of maintaining or improving physical strength; and an ergonomically designed pedal unit was mounted on a cart. An interface board that handles inputs and outputs was assembled to simplify the design of the system. Finally, a simple bilateral master-slave control system was built to test the cart. Experimental results on a fabricated cart demonstrate the effectiveness of pedaling and the usability of the system structure.

Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Kiyoshi

182

Dangerous activities by children in grocery carts: is adult supervision important?  

PubMed

Systematic observations of 231 children (infancy to 5 years) and the 231 adults accompanying them were made in 29 supermarkets in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The objective of the study was to describe the influence of two indices of adult supervision in supermarkets on children's activities in shopping carts. Adult supervision was measured by whether the adult ever lost sight of the child and whether the adult was 10 feet or more from the child at any time during a shopping trip. 23% of the children stood on the ends or sides of carts; 49% climbed or tried to climb out of carts. Adults lost sight of a child, whether in or outside the cart, a mean of 3.3 times and were 10 feet away 2.7 times during an average shopping trip. Logistic regression showed that a child rather than an adult pushing a shopping cart through the store was the strongest factor related to standing on ends or sides of carts. Pushing by a child was more likely to occur when adult monitoring was low and when children were older. Climbing out was predicted by the number of times an adult was > or = 10 feet away, older children, and a child being in the cart basket as opposed to outside the cart or in the child safety seat. PMID:12841471

Harrell, W Andrew

2003-06-01

183

Human simulating intelligent control and its application to swinging-up of cart-pendulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the human simulating intelligent control (HSIC) proposed by the author this paper discusses the swinging-up control of cart-pendulum. The theoretical analysis and simulation results have verified the universal validity of the HSIC theory which aims at the emulating human “motor sensory preview intelligence” for the nonlinear system such as cart-pendulum, walking robots, etc

Zushu Li; Qingchun Chen; Xuemei Li; H. Inooka

1997-01-01

184

An observer-based neural adaptive control for rolling cart systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolling cart system is a highly nonlinear phenomenon in which links undergo tipping and rolling with no fixed base. This in turn requires that the system running states be predicted correctly. This paper makes a full analysis of the rolling cart states by applying observer-based adaptive wavelet neural network (OBAWNN) tracking sliding mode control scheme with system uncertainties, multiple time-delayed

Wen-Shyong Yu

2010-01-01

185

Rule-Based Classification Systems Using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating ancillary data into image classification can increase classification accuracy and precision. Rule-based classification systems using expert systems or machine learning are a particularly useful means of incorporating ancillary data, but have been difficult to implement. We developed a means for creating a rule-based classification using classification and regression tree analysis (CART), a commonly available statistical method. The CART classifica-

Rick L. Lawrence; Andrea Wrlght

2001-01-01

186

Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

2010-01-01

187

CART Peptide Is a Potential Endogenous Antioxidant and Preferentially Localized in Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The multifunctional neuropeptide Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) is secreted from hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland and pancreas. It also can be found in circulatory system. This feature suggests a general role for CART in different cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that CART protects mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cellular proteins and lipids against the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide, a widely used oxidant. Using cis-parinaric acid as a sensitive reporting probe for peroxidation in membranes, and a lipid-soluble azo initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2?-Azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) we found that CART is an antioxidant. Furthermore, we found that CART localized to mitochondria in cultured cells and mouse brain neuronal cells. More importantly, pretreatment with CART by systemic injection protects against a mouse oxidative stress model, which mimics the main features of Parkinson's disease. Given the unique molecular structure and biological features of CART, we conclude that CART is an antioxidant peptide (or antioxidant hormone). We further propose that it may have strong therapeutic properties for human diseases in which oxidative stress is strongly involved such as Parkinson's disease.

Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Goldberg, Natalie R. S.; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

2012-01-01

188

Does your ED supply interpreter services?  

PubMed

To comply with federal guidelines, your ED must provide language assistance to non-English-speaking patients. Don't use family members as interpreters. Use a closed-circuit TV with a live interpreter or use the services of a telephone translation service. Offer incentives for multilingual staff, and provide tuition reimbursement for language classes. PMID:12827999

2003-06-01

189

Production of recombinant CART peptides in Escherichia coli with agonist and antagonist effects on food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptides modulate food intake and psychostimulant drug actions. Several CART peptides that contain multiple disulfide bonds were produced by overexpression in Escherichia coli bacteria as fusion products with a C-terminal histidine tag. Since these peptides were found denatured in inclusion bodies, in vitro refolding was used to reconstitute their biological activity. These CART peptides were

Pastor R Couceyro; Tammi Fritz

2003-01-01

190

Swing-up and positioning control of an inverted wheeled cart pendulum system with chaotic balancing motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the problem of swinging-up an inverted pendulum formed by a rod attached to a wheeled cart with a hanging bob at its opposite end. The system is driven by the wheeled cart platform system, which is formed by a cart, wheels with counterbalance and connecting-rods. The model of the system is initially obtained under the assumption of

Manuel F. Pérez Polo; Manuel Pérez Molina; Javier Gil Chica

191

Language trees ? gene trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that\\u000a similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history (‘phylogenesis’).\\u000a Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological\\u000a roots for elements of basic vocabulary)

James Steele; Anne Kandler

2010-01-01

192

The ADAMS interactive interpreter  

SciTech Connect

The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

Rietscha, E.R.

1990-12-17

193

Mobile speech-to-speech interpretation system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Interpretation from a first language to a second language via one or more communication devices is performed through a communication network (e.g. phone network or the internet) using a server for performing recognition and interpretation tasks, comprising the steps of: receiving an input speech utterance in a first language on a first mobile communication device; conditioning said input speech utterance; first transmitting said conditioned input speech utterance to a server; recognizing said first transmitted speech utterance to generate one or more recognition results; interpreting said recognition results to generate one or more interpretation results in an interlingua; mapping the interlingua to a second language in a first selected format; second transmitting said interpretation results in the first selected format to a second mobile communication device; and presenting said interpretation results in a second selected format on said second communication device.

2013-07-02

194

Stochastic automata for language modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic language models are widely used in spoken language understanding to recognize and interpret the speech signal: the speech samples are decoded into word transcriptions by means of acoustic and syntactic models and then interpreted according to a semantic model. Both for speech recognition and understanding, search algorithms use stochastic models to extract the most likely uttered sentence and its

Giuseppe Riccardi; Roberto Pieraccini; Enrico Bocchieri

1996-01-01

195

Post-Soviet Language Policy and the Language Utilization Patterns of Kyivan Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of language policy in Ukraine on language utilization patterns of school children in Kyiv. Using quantitative data from student responses to a questionnaire focusing on subject background, native and home language, including reported usage of interactive and interpretive language, examines the extent to which language shift or…

Marshall, Camelot Ann

2002-01-01

196

New analogs of the CART peptide with anorexigenic potency: the importance of individual disulfide bridges.  

PubMed

The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide is an anorexigenic neuropeptide that acts in the hypothalamus. The receptor and the mechanism of action of this peptide are still unknown. In our previous study, we showed that the CART peptide binds specifically to PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells in both the native and differentiated into neuronal phenotype. Two biologically active forms, CART(55-102) and CART(61-102), with equal biological activity, contain three disulfide bridges. To clarify the importance of each of these disulfide bridges in maintaining the biological activity of CART(61-102), an Ala scan at particular S-S bridges forming cysteines was performed, and analogs with only one or two disulfide bridges were synthesized. In this study, a stabilized CART(61-102) analog with norleucine instead of methionine at position 67 was also prepared and was found to bind to PC12 cells with an anorexigenic potency similar to that of CART(61-102). The binding study revealed that out of all analogs tested, [Ala(68,86)]CART(61-102), which contains two disulfide bridges (positions 74-94 and 88-101), preserved a high affinity to both native PC12 cells and those that had been differentiated into neurons. In food intake and behavioral tests with mice after intracerebroventricular administration, this analog showed strong and long-lasting anorexigenic potency. Therefore, the disulfide bridge between cysteines 68 and 86 in CART(61-102) can be omitted without a loss of biological activity, but the preservation of two other disulfide bridges and the full-length peptide are essential for biological activity. PMID:23174349

Blechová, Miroslava; Nagelová, Veronika; Záková, Lenka; Demianová, Zuzana; Zelezná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

2012-11-19

197

Children's Optimal Interpretations of Indefinite Subjects and Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find a general, language-independent pattern in child language acquisition in which there is a clear difference between subject and object noun phrases. On one hand, indefinite objects tend to be interpreted nonreferentially, independently of word order and across experiments and languages. On the other hand, indefinite subjects tend to be interpreted referentially in most contexts, even in contexts where

Helen de Hoop; Irene Kramer

2006-01-01

198

The impact of verbal prompts on child safety-belt use in shopping carts.  

PubMed Central

Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use increased following implementation of the verbal prompt. This study extends the literature on the efficacy of verbal prompting in the promotion of safety-belt use.

Barker, Mae R; Bailey, Jon S; Lee, Natalie

2004-01-01

199

Modeling of the b-Cart Based Agent System in B2B EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In B2B EC area, the need for agent based system for desktop purchasing is increasing. To simulate agent based B2B e-Commerce,\\u000a we model the b-cart based B2B agent framework. B-cart implies a buyer’s shopping cart which a buyer carries to the seller’s\\u000a sites. The modeled system is designed to provide an effective architecture for employee’s direct desktop purchasing from external

Gyoo Gun Lim; Soo-hyun Park; Jinhwa Kim

2004-01-01

200

The impact of verbal prompts on child safety-belt use in shopping carts.  

PubMed

Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use increased following implementation of the verbal prompt. This study extends the literature on the efficacy of verbal prompting in the promotion of safety-belt use. PMID:15669413

Barker, Mae R; Bailey, Jon S; Lee, Natalie

2004-01-01

201

Interpreting Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is to give you practice preparing for and interpreting in math education settings. 1. Activate your extra linguistic knowledge (ELK) in preparation for interpreting a math lesson. Visit the Solving Equations website and familiarize yourself with the steps for solving linear equations. Clarify any concepts you do not understand. (Remember that you cannot interpret what you do not understand.) Solving Equations 2. Begin working on ...

2007-10-01

202

Linguistic Analysis of Changes in Interpreting: 1973-1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The performance of two sign language interpreters in interpreting and transliterating two English texts in 1973 and again in 1985 was analyzed. Both interpreters significantly increased their use of four linguistic features of American Sign Language: classifiers; rhetorical questions; noun-adjective word order; and nonmanual negation. (Author/CB)|

Rudser, Steven Fritsch

1986-01-01

203

Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n?=?15) outperformed the control group (n?=?35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n?=?15) approached, but did not reach,

Stavroula Stavrakaki; Kalliopi Megari; Mary H. Kosmidis; Maria Apostolidou; Eleni Takou

2012-01-01

204

32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of...Georgia Traffic Code. (c) Off-road vehicles will only be operated in areas...will specify conditions for off-road operation. (d)...

2013-07-01

205

Software Modifications to Total Data Reporting Accessory for Metabolic Measurement Cart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Total Data Reporting Accessory available for the Beckman Metabolic Measurement Cart has characteristics which limit its use in a research laboratory. Storage of test results and retrieval for subsequent analysis is awkward. In addition, metabolic data...

R. W. Nolan C. W. Gibson S. D. Livingstone

1987-01-01

206

Analysis of Maryland Poisoning Deaths Using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) Analysis  

PubMed Central

Our study is a cross-sectional analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths for years 2003 and 2004. We used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology to classify 1,204 Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths as either unintentional or suicidal poisonings. The predictive ability of the selected set of variables (i.e., poisoned in the home or workplace, location type where poisoned, place of death, poison type, victim race and age, year of death) was extremely good. Of the 301 test cases, only eight were misclassified by the CART regression tree. Of 1,204 undetermined intent poisoning deaths, CART classified 903 as suicides and 301 as unintentional deaths. The major strength of our study is the use of CART to differentiate with a high degree of accuracy between unintentional and suicidal poisoning deaths among Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths.

Pamer, Carol; Serpi, Tracey; Finkelstein, Joseph

2008-01-01

207

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.  

PubMed

Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

208

Language acquisition from age five onward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the literature on the acquisition of language after 4 yr. of age with emphasis on important developmental changes that occur after the earlier dramatic initiation of language behavior. At all levels significant advances in language were found. The evidence is interpreted as indicating that phonological, syntactic, and semantic levels of analysis are intimately interrelated and that language advances appear

David S. Palermo; Dennis L. Molfese

1972-01-01

209

A Field Guide for Sign Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Field researchers of sign language are the target of this methodological guide. The prospective researcher is briefed on the rationale of sign language study as language study and as distinct from the study of kinesics. Subjects covered include problems of translating, use of interpreters, and ethics. Instruments for obtaining social and language

Stokoe, William; Kuschel, Rolf

210

Expression of AgRP, NPY, POMC and CART in human fetal and adult hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Agouti-Related Protein (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and the Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) are four neuropeptides that play essential roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. CART, POMC and NPY have also been suggested to play a role in the development of the hippocampus. We therefore employed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) to

Fulu Bai; Mehmet Ali Sözen; Walter J. Lukiw; George Argyropoulos

2005-01-01

211

Using Direct Measurement Video to find the acceleration of a rocket-powered cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video of a student accelerating across a stage on a cart powered by a releasing compressed carbon dioxide from a fire extinguisher can be used to analyze constant acceleration. This video includes a to-scale ruler that students can use to find displacement, as well as a frame counter that can be used to find elapsed time. This lesson is meant to be a direct application of using the kinematic equations to solve for the acceleration of the cart.

Johnson, Rebekah

212

The impact of shopping cart restraints and adult supervision on near injuries to children in grocery stores.  

PubMed

Factors influencing the likelihood of near injuries to 235 children in grocery stores were investigated. Two-person research teams observed children and accompanying adults in 29 supermarkets. Injuries, positioning of children in or around a grocery cart, handling of hazards, attempts to climb in or out of the cart, parental monitoring, and demographic features of the child and adult were recorded. Ten of the 235 children (4.3%) suffered minor injuries. The overall injury rate was equivalent to 43 injuries per 1,000 child shopping visits. The major predictor of injuries was being inside the shopping cart versus in the cartseat or outside the cart. Most at risk were children over the age of three inside the cart who attempted to climb out and who received poor adult supervision. Risk of injury for this group was more than six times the risk of injury for the entire sample. A majority of injuries were scrapes, pinches, or bumps that were the result of falling within the cart basket. Attempts to climb out of the cart were also associated with injury. Placing the child outside the grocery cart reduced the risk of injury. In conjunction with this, carts with shallow or small baskets may discourage parents from placing children in carts, thereby reducing the risk of injury. While duration of shopping trip was not significantly related to risk of injury, there was a tendency for accidents to occur when shopping trips exceeded 23 minutes. PMID:7916857

Harrell, W A

1994-08-01

213

Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.  

PubMed

Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). ?² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. PMID:21616201

Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

2011-06-01

214

Analysis of sequence variability in the CART gene in relation to obesity in a Caucasian population  

PubMed Central

Background Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with obesity in a Caucasian population. Results Screening of the entire gene as well as a 3.7 kb region of 5' upstream sequence revealed 31 SNPs and 3 rare variants ; 14 of which were subsequently genotyped in 292 French morbidly obese subjects and 368 controls. Haplotype analysis suggested an association with obesity which was found to be mainly due to SNP-3608T>C (rs7379701) (p = 0.009). Genotyping additional cases and controls also of European Caucasian origin supported further this possible association between the CART SNP -3608T>C T allele and obesity (global p-value = 0.0005). Functional studies also suggested that the SNP -3608T>C could modulate nuclear protein binding. Conclusion CART SNP -3608T>C may possibly contribute to the genetic risk for obesity in the Caucasian population. However confirmation of the importance of the role of the CART gene in energy homeostasis and obesity will require investigation and replication in further populations.

Guerardel, Audrey; Barat-Houari, Mouna; Vasseur, Francis; Dina, Christian; Vatin, Vincent; Clement, Karine; Eberle, Delphine; Vasseur-Delannoy, Valerie; Bell, Christopher G; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Helbecque, Nicole; Potoczna, Natascha; Horber, Fritz F; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

2005-01-01

215

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)|

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

216

Leveraging Virtual Learning Environments for Training Interpreter Trainers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the demand for conference interpreters in traditional language combinations (the more widely used languages) is decreasing, the need for experts in less widely used languages is rapidly increasing with each enlargement of the EU. Post-war peace-keeping operations as well as war- crime tribunals have also increased the need for high-level interpreters in languages hitherto not used in the international

ARBARA MOSER-MERCER; KILIAN G. SEEBER

217

CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

2011-05-01

218

241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)  

SciTech Connect

Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

WHITE, D.A.

2000-03-01

219

Les traces matérielles de la Carte du Ciel. Le cas des observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le chapitre évoque les traces matérielles de la Carte du ciel subsistant dans les observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux. Les auteurs examinent d'abord l'opération d'inventaire du patrimoine astronomique entreprise à partir du milieu des années 1990. Ils examinent ensuite les éléments concrets constituant aujourd'hui le patrimoine de la Carte du Ciel : lunettes, abris, accessoires, laboratoires, réseaux, plaques de verre, registres, machines à mesurer les clichés, et cartes.

Le Guet Tully, F.; Davoigneau, J.; Lamy, J.; de La Noë, J.; Rousseau, J.-M.; Sadsaoud, H.

2008-06-01

220

High-efficiency InGaN-GaN MQW green light-emitting diodes with CART and DBR structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and charge asymmetric resonance tunneling (CART) structures were applied to nitride-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance their output efficiency It was found that we can reduce the forward voltage at 20 mA from 3.7 to 3.2 V with the inclusion of CART structure. It was also found that the electroluminescence peak wavelength of the CART

C. H. Chen; S. J. Chang; Y. K. Su; G. C. Chi; J. K. Sheu; J. F. Chen

2002-01-01

221

Neurochemical classification and projection targets of CART peptide immunoreactive neurons in sensory and parasympathetic ganglia of the head.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to determine if there is neuronal Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcripts (CART) peptide expression (CART+) in parasympathetic (sphenopalatine (SPG); otic (OG)) and sensory (trigeminal (TG)) ganglia of the head and to examine the neurochemical phenotype (calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurofilament 200 (NF200), isolectin B4 (IB4) binding, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) immunoreactivity) and projection targets (lacrimal gland (LG), parotid gland (PG), nasal mucosa (NM), temporomandibular joint (TMJ), middle cerebral artery (MCA) and middle meningeal artery (MMA)) of CART expressing neurons in these ganglia. We found CART+ neurons in both the SPG (5.25±0.07%) and OG (4.32±0.66). A significant proportion of these CART+ neurons contained VIP, NPY or ENK (34%, 26% and 11%, respectively). SPG neurons retrogradely labelled from the lacrimal gland (29%) were CART+, but we were unable to demonstrate CART+ labelling in any of the SPG or OG neurons labelled from other targets. This supports a role for CART peptides in lacrimation or regulation of vascular tone in the lacrimal gland, but not in salivation or nasal congestion. CART+ neurons were also present in the trigeminal ganglion (1.26±0.38%), where their size distribution was confined almost completely to neurons smaller than 800 ?m2 (mean=410 ?m2; 98%<800 ?m2), and were almost always CGRP+, but did not bind IB4. This is consistent with a role for CART peptides in trigeminal pain. However, there were few CART+ neurons amongst any of the trigeminal neurons retrogradely labelled from the targets we investigated and thus we cannot comment on the tissue type where such pain may have originated. Our study shows that some specialization of CART peptide expression (based on neurochemical phenotype and target projection) is evident in sensory and parasympathetic ganglia of the head. PMID:22005173

Ivanusic, Jason J; Goulding, Kate E; Kwok, Matthew M K; Jennings, Ernest A

2011-10-17

222

CART peptide in the nucleus accumbens shell acts downstream to dopamine and mediates the reward and reinforcement actions of morphine.  

PubMed

The opioid-mesolimbic-dopamine circuitry operates between ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (Acb) and serves as a major reward pathway. We hypothesized that the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is involved in the natural reward action mediated by the circuitry. Therefore, the modulation of opioid-mesolimbic-dopamine reward circuitry by CART was investigated using pellet self-administration paradigm in operant chamber. Morphine administered bilaterally in shell region of Acb (AcbSh) significantly increased active lever pressings and pellet self-administration. While CART given bilaterally in the AcbSh significantly increased pellet self-administration, CART antibody produced no effect. Morphine induced pellet self-administration was potentiated by CART, and antagonized by CART antibody administered in AcbSh. A close interaction between dopamine and CART systems was observed. Several tyrosine hydroxylase (marker for dopamine) immunoreactive fibers were seen contacting CART neurons in the AcbSh. Intraperitoneal administration of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, increased pellet self-administration. The effect was blocked by prior treatment with CART antibody targeted at AcbSh. CART-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the AcbSh, and cells but not fibers in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), were significantly increased in the animals trained in operant chamber. However, CART-immunoreactive profile in the medial forebrain bundle, VTA and arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus did not respond. We suggest that CART, released from the axonal terminals in the framework of AcbSh, may serve as the final output of the endogenous opioid-mesolimbic-dopamine circuitry that processes natural reward. PMID:22186082

Upadhya, Manoj A; Nakhate, Kartik T; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Singh, Uday; Singru, Praful S; Subhedar, Nishikant K

2011-12-11

223

241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)  

SciTech Connect

Shop test of the sludge mobilization cart system to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

WHITE, D.A.

2000-01-27

224

Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs?  

PubMed

Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates. Some carts sold outside allowed boundaries; a few sold sugary snacks. Vendor locations and their food offerings suggest possible areas for program improvement. PMID:21691925

Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew; Shanker, Renee; Jordan, William B

2011-10-01

225

Communicative Language Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of communicative language teaching (CLT) in the late 1970s, there have been different definitions and\\u000a interpretations of the communicative approach to second language (L2) instruction. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in\\u000a several misconceptions of CLT and how it is implemented in the L2 classroom. While most descriptions of CLT emphasize the\\u000a communication of messages and meaning, there

Nina Spada

226

29 CFR 780.9 - Related exemptions are interpreted together.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Introductory ...interpreted together. The interpretations contained...several subparts of this part 780 consider...the language and history of a related...

2013-07-01

227

Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School ? la Carte Food Availability*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school à la carte lines for schools’ ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006–May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each school’s à la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered “healthy” (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on à la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of “healthfulness of foods on à la carte lines,” especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive à la carte assessment tool.

Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

2010-01-01

228

Into the Curriculum. Art/Science: Dino Art; Mathematics: Measurement; Reading/Language Arts: Turkey Day!; Reading/Language Arts: Visual Interpretations of Poetry; Reading/Language Arts: Courage, Lyle!; Science: The Thigh Bone's Connected to...; Social Studies: Building a House; Social Studies: Who Lives in This House?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides eight fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, science, mathematics, reading, language arts, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity.…

Santeford, Deborah; Vidor, Constance

2002-01-01

229

Ontogeny of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide system in the brain of zebrafish, Danio rerio.  

PubMed

The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptidergic system is involved in processing diverse neuronal functions in adult animals, including energy metabolism. Although CART is widely distributed in the brain of a range of vertebrates, the ontogeny of this system has not been explored. The CART-immunoreactive system in the zebrafish central nervous system (CNS) was studied across developmental stages until adulthood. The peptide is expressed as early as 24 hours post fertilization and establishes itself in several discrete areas of the brain and spinal cord as development progresses. The trends in CART ontogeny suggest that it may be involved in the establishment of commissural tracts, typically expressing early but subsequently decaying. CART elements are commonly overrepresented in diverse sensory areas like the olfactory, photic, and acoustico-mechanosensory systems, perhaps indicating a role for the peptide in sensory perception. Key neuroendocrine centers, like the preoptic area, hypothalamus, and pituitary, conspicuously show CART innervations, suggesting functions analogous to those demonstrated in other chordates. Uniquely, the epiphysis also appears to employ CART as a neurotransmitter. The entopeduncular nucleus is a major CART-containing group in the adult teleost forebrain that may participate in glucose sensing. This region responds to glucose in the 15-day larvae, suggesting that the energy status sensing CART circuits is active early in development. The pattern of CART expression in zebrafish suggests conserved evolutionary trends among vertebrate species. Developmental expression profiling reveals putative novel functions and establishes zebrafish as a model to investigate CART function in physiology and development. PMID:22009187

Mukherjee, Arghya; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Ghose, Aurnab

2012-03-01

230

Complexity Measures for Programming Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theory of complexity is developed for algorithms implemented in typical programming languages. The complexity of a program may be interpreted in many ways; a method for measuring a specific type of complexity is a complexity measure -- some function of ...

L. I. Goodman

1971-01-01

231

Interpret Rankings  

Cancer.gov

Interpreting Rankings Data A natural reaction of some readers when looking at charts that rank their state's cancer rates is to seek explanations as to why their state has higher incidence rates for some cancers than other states or than the national average. Some may be alarmed that exposure to environmental carcinogens may be responsible when in fact there are several other more likely explanations.

232

The use of ZIP and CART to model cryptosporidiosis in relation to climatic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research assesses the potential impact of weekly weather variability on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis disease using time series zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and classification and regression tree (CART) models. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Both time series ZIP and CART models show a clear association between weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and cryptosporidiosis disease. The time series CART models indicated that, when weekly maximum temperature exceeded 31°C and relative humidity was less than 63%, the relative risk of cryptosporidiosis rose by 13.64 (expected morbidity: 39.4; 95% confidence interval: 30.9-47.9). These findings may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs for cryptosporidiosis disease.

Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Tong, Shilu

2010-07-01

233

The Phonetic Interpretation of Tone in Igbo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a preliminary study of the phonetic interpretation of tone in Igbo, a Kwa language of southeastern Nigeria. The experimental method varies the speaker’s pitch range orthogonally with variation in tonal material, and fits a model to measurements of maxima and minima in the resulting Fo contour. A new interpretation of downstep is proposed as a result.

Mark Liberman; Michael Schultz; Soonhyun Hong; Vincent Okeke

1993-01-01

234

Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal

Julie C. Sedivy; Michael K. Tanenhaus; Craig G. Chambers; Gregory N. Carlson

1999-01-01

235

Improving Safety-Restraint Use by Children in Shopping Carts: Evaluation of a Store-Based Safety Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Approximately 20 700 children who are 5 years old are treated in US hospital emergency departments annually for shopping cart-related injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an in-store intervention to increase the use of restraints in shopping carts by children who are 5 years old. METHODS. The study intervention consisted of greeters at

Gary A. Smith

236

Top Ten Mistakes of Shopping Cart Design Revisited: A Survey of 500 Top E-Commerce Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A list of common mistakes with e-commerce shopping cart design were identified in a previous issue of Usability News. This article revisits that list and reviews how 500 of the top Internet retail sites of today implemented their shopping cart design.

Barbara S. Chaparro; Shivashankar Naidu

237

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) for Kentucky: Horse Farm Owner Dies When Pinned Under Golf Cart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 31, 2004, a 45-year old female horse farm owner (decedent) died when she was pinned under a golf cart. The woman had driven a gas-powered golf cart from her house on the farm to the horse barn to muck stalls and put horses in the barn. After dr...

2005-01-01

238

Effect of two warning signs on adult supervision and risky activities by children in grocery shopping carts.  

PubMed

398 children, 1 to 6 years of age, and the adults accompanying them in two supermarkets were exposed to one of four treatments. Two experimental treatments featured variations on a warning sign, prompting adults to prevent their children from standing while in the cart seat and basket portions of shopping carts. The two control treatments exposed the adults to advertisements rather than warning signs. No effect was observed of either warning on standing while in cart seats, standing while in baskets, climbing on carts, or standing on the ends or sides of carts; nor was any effect noted on three measures of adult supervision. This lack of effect is attributed to adults' perceptions of the low risk of serious injury to children in carts, their familiarity with carts, the costliness of ensuring compliance with the warnings, and the lack of natural contingencies supporting the prompts. Risky activities by children were related to the child's location in the cart, child's sex, and adult supervision. PMID:12841463

Harrell, W Andrew

2003-06-01

239

A Study of Robotizing Daily Items For an Autonomous Carrying System-Development of person following shopping cart robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a person following shopping cart robot. The developed prototype robot is using a shopping cart as the robot's main body and attaching a driving module. The aim of this study is to develop a porting system for large-sized facilities (i.e. shopping mall, airport, etc.), where the object item is autonomously carried by a person following (\\

Soh Nishimura; Keita Itou; Takashi Kikuchi; Hiroshi Takemura; Hiroshi Mizoguchi

2006-01-01

240

Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of

Lenka Maletínská; Jana Maixnerová; Resha Matyšková; Renata Haugvicová; Zdeno Pirník; Alexander Kiss; Blanka Železná

2008-01-01

241

A combined atmospheric radiative transfer (CART) model and its applications for cirrus clouds simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast atmospheric radiative transfer model called Combined Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (CART) has been developed to rapidly calculate atmospheric transmittance and background radiance in the wavenumber range from 1 to 25000 cm-1 with spectral resolution of 1 cm-1. The spectral radiative properties of cirrus clouds at various effective sizes, optical thicknesses, and altitudes from visible to infrared wavelength region are simulated using the CART. The analyses show that the properties of cirrus clouds might be retrieved from the satellite-base spectral characteristics of cirrus clouds based on these simulations.

Wei, Heli; Cao, Ya'nan; Chen, Xiuhong

2012-11-01

242

Lampooning Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Uses trademarks that are calculated misspellings, bumper sticker slogans, the strained and pretentious language of Howard Cosell, and governmental jargon to illustrate how to attune students to the magic and power of language, while poking fun at language abuse. (RL)|

Gillespie, Tim

1982-01-01

243

Language Death or Language Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of disappearing and no longer used languages in anthropomorphic metaphors "language death" and "language suicide." Three stages in the disappearance of several specific languages are described. Ultimately, the direct cause of "language suicide" is not disappearance of rules but disappearance of speakers; parents stop teaching the…

Denison, Norman

1977-01-01

244

The hypothalamic satiety peptide CART is expressed in anorectic and non-anorectic pancreatic islet tumors and in the normal islet of Langerhans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothalamic satiety peptide CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is expressed at high levels in anorectic rat glucagonomas but not in hypoglycemic insulinomas. However, a non-anorectic metastasis derived from the glucagonoma retained high CART expression levels and produced circulating CART levels comparable to that of the anorectic tumors. Moreover, distinct glucagonoma lines derived by stable HES-1 transfection of the

Per B Jensen; Peter Kristensen; Jes T Clausen; Martin E Judge; Sven Hastrup; Lars Thim; Birgitte S Wulff; Christian Foged; Jan Jensen; Jens J Holst; Ole D Madsen

1999-01-01

245

A Computer Language for ECG Contour Analysis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate contructively that criteria for ECG contour analysis can be interpreted directly by a computer. Thereby, the programming task is greatly reduced. Direct interpretation is achieved by the creation of a computer language that is well-suited for the expression of such criteria. Further development of the language is planned.

McConnochie, John W.

1982-01-01

246

Language Endangerment and Language Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)|

Muhlhausler, Peter

2003-01-01

247

Problems of a Theory of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of fashioning a theory of language fall into two broad areas: (1) the neurophysiological correlates of language behavior are still little understood, and (2) the enormous amount of data on language behavior that has been gathered by researchers is subject to varying and differing interpretations. In spite of these problems, the…

Nolte, Edward O.

248

Early epoch stellar positions from the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrometric measurements made by the satellite Hipparcos have brought forth a homogeneous system of precise proper motions of about 105 stars, which is unprecedented in its combination of quality and quantity. Such proper motions are of great importance in various sorts of kinematic studies. However, the proper motion system needs to be disseminated and extended to stars of fainter magnitudes by means of earth-bound observations. Here, photographic records of star positions from the beginning of the 20th century present a valuable and indispensable source of information. A first important step was made with the construction of the ACT Catalogue (Urban et al. 1997), which incorporates the ancient plate measurements of the so-called Astrographic Catalogue (AC). A second series of plates, the so-called Carte du Ciel (CdC), taken as part of the same survey project as the AC, has not been used systematically for astrometry so far. The advantage of the CdC is that it reaches about 3 mag fainter than the AC. It provides however less redundancy from plate overlap. The Observatoire de Bordeaux has initiated a program for the digitisation and measurement of its collection of CdC plates which covers the zone of +11 to +17 declination and contains positions for about 8 × 105 stars at epochs mostly between 1910 and 1920. As a pilot study for this program, we are currently working on two regions near the galactic anticenter, one surrounding the open cluster NGC 2355, the other intersecting the galactic plane at l 195. These regions were selected for practical as well as for scientific reasons. The plates have been digitised on the MAMA machine at the Observatoire de Paris. Object detection was made using the software SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996). The plate limit proves to be at B = 15 and a completeness of 80 percent is reached up to 14th magnitude. The plates of the CdC provide three equal exposures with a small angular separation of 10 arc second. A loss of about 20 percent of stars must be accepted due to interferences between the grid lines and the triple exposures. Refined object positions are derived by fitting a 2-D triple gaussian to the images (cf. Dick et al. 1993). A direct reduction of the measurements to the Hipparcos catalogue is not advisable because of the density of Hipparcos stars being low and because of problems from overexposure. Instead, the use of the ACT as a reference catalogue is appropriate. Rms residuals in the reduction to ACT are typically around 0.15 arc second. Comparing the positions of stars in the overlapping borders of adjacent plates, we obtain consistency on the level of 0.2 arc second for non-corner regions and 0.3 arc second for corner regions. This indicates typical positional accuracies of 0.15 arc second and 0.2 arc second respectively per star and plate. Proper motions are determined in combination with recent observations obtained with the Bordeaux meridian circle (see Colin, this volume, p. 141). With an epoch difference of 80 years, a proper motion accuracy of typically 2.5 mas/y is achieved.

Odenkirchen, Michael; Soubiran, Caroline; Le Campion, J. François

249

Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

2009-01-01

250

CART DIAGNOSIS OF WATERSHED IMPAIRMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many factors ( stressors ) can lead to increased concentrations of nutrients and sediments, and these factors change across watersheds. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a statistical approach that can be used to "diagnose" which factors are important stressors on a pe...

251

Why do shoppers abandon shopping cart? Perceived waiting time, risk, and transaction inconvenience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the factors leading to the consumer's propensity to abandon the shopping cart at the transaction completion stage. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using a self-administered survey distributed through the internet. The sample consisted of consumers who shopped online at least once during the preceding one-year period. Findings – The results

Rajasree K. Rajamma; Audhesh K. Paswan; Muhammad M. Hossain

2009-01-01

252

One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

Wee, Loo Kang

2012-01-01

253

West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

254

Bundling, Product Choice, and Efficiency: Should Cable Television Networks be Offered A La Carte?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a numerical analysis of bundling's impact on a monopolist's pricing and product choices and assess the implications for consumer welfare in cable television markets. Existing theory is ambiguous: for a given set of products, bundling likely transfers surplus from consumers to firms but also encourages products to be offered that might not be under a la carte pricing.

Gregory Crawford; Joseph Cullen

2006-01-01

255

La phase critique de la Carte du Ciel à Paris, 1920-1940.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce chapitre revient sur la "phase critique" de la Carte du Ciel à Paris, entre 1920 et 1940. Il examine en détail la crise que traverse l'astronomie française et l'Observatoire de Paris dans l'entre-deux guerres. La productivité de l'établissement parisien est jugée insuffisante et les conditions climatiques difficiles l'empêchent de développer une activité soutenue. Une délocalisation, loin de la ville, est envisagée. Dans ce contexte délicat, la légitimité de la Carte du Ciel est explicitement remise en cause. En 1930, Henri Mineur se voit confié par Benjamin Baillaud, directeur de l'Observatoire de Paris, un programme de développement de la Carte du Ciel. Il suggère la création d'un laboratoire de statistique stellaire permettant notamment d'inventorier les amas stellaires. Mineur n'est pas soutenu dans son projet et rejoint, en 1933, le service d'astrophysique. Finalement les décisions de l'Union Astronomique Internationale et les financements du CNR prolongent, dans les années 1930, les activités de la Carte du Ciel.

Saint-Martin, A.

2008-06-01

256

Not in the Shopping Cart - On the experiential aspects of retail shopping centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not in the Shopping Cart -On the experiential aspects of retail shopping centers Abstract: It is not hard to imagine that consumers value not only what they have bought in a store and can take home with them, but also the experience that was entailed in the actual purchase. The aim of the study is to investigate and explain what

Hanna Larsson

2011-01-01

257

Identifying Risk for Functional Impairment Using Cognitive Measures: An Application of CART Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive test performance and functional status was assessed in 289 persons with a cognitive impairment diagnosis and in 307 controls from the Alzheimer’s Disease Registry at Mayo Clinic. Classification and regression tree (CART) procedures were used to create decision rules (using cutoff scores) to identify persons most at risk for functional impairment. The results suggest that scores

Carolyn M. Lemsky; Glenn Smith; James F. Malec; Robert J. Ivnik

1996-01-01

258

Development of attachable modules for robotizing daily items Person following shopping cart robot-  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduces a development of attachable module for robotizing daily items. We aim at realization of robotizing daily items aiming at popularization in a robot's everyday life. We set the shopping cart as the concrete target. The aim of this study is to develop a porting system for large- sized facilities, where the object item is autonomously carried by a

Soh Nishimura; Hiroshi Takemura; Hiroshi Mizoguchi

2007-01-01

259

Setup and control architecture for an interactive Shopping Cart in human all day environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the global robotics architecture for a service robot dedicated to commercial centers, i.e. an interactive Shopping Cart. A main focus is the introduction of robots into human all day environments. These environments often have a cluttered and nested character. They are full of dynamic objects. Especially the probable presence of many people is a special challenge to

M. Goller; Thilo Kerscher; J. M. Zollner; R. Dillmann; M. Devy; T. Germa; F. Lerasle

2009-01-01

260

Safety of children in grocery carts: adults' personal health and safety habits.  

PubMed

Observations of 246 children and the adults accompanying them were carried out in supermarkets. Of those arriving and leaving by automobile (n = 194), 36% of adults used safety belts, and 51.1% of children used safety belts or restraining seats. While shopping, 79% of adults lost sight of the children in their care at least once, and 73.2% were 10 feet or more from their children at least once. 48% of children climbed or attempted to climb from carts; 27% stood in carts, and 23.6% handled hazardous products. 24% of adults purchased tobacco products. Poor adult supervision of children was related to adult's nonuse of safety belts and the child's and adult's ages. Climbing from the cart was related in a logistic regression to both poor adult supervision and child's age. Tobacco purchases were related to handling of hazards by children and standing in carts. Child's age and adult's safety belt use related to the restraint of children in vehicles. PMID:12841465

Harrell, W Andrew

2003-06-01

261

Energy and passivity based control of the double inverted pendulum on a cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the design of a nonlinear controller for the double inverted pendulum (DIP), a system consisting of two inverted pendulums mounted on a cart. The swingup controller bringing the pendulums from any initial position to the unstable up-up position is designed based on passivity properties and energy shaping. While the swingup controller drives the DIP into a region

Wei Zhong; Helmut Rock

2001-01-01

262

Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature in the area of language brokering. Language brokers are children of immigrant families who translate and interpret for their parents and other individuals. Results suggest that language brokers possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for their role as the family's translator and interpreter.…

Morales, Alejandro; Hanson, William E.

2005-01-01

263

Towards a Computational Model for Early Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do humans learn language? According to the usage based model of construction grammar, language is inductively learned. Linguistic input can be interpreted by making analogies with previously seen language. However, how does one start to interpret linguistic input before one has experiences to compare it to? In this paper, a computational model for building this first corpus using construction

Andreas van Cranenburgh; Arjan Nusselder; Nadya Peek; Carsten van Weelden

264

Golf cart related injuries in a North Carolina island community, 1992-4.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The use of electric golf carts for roadway transportation is increasing in many regions of the United States, but injuries associated with the operation of these vehicles have not been previously described. In response to reports of golf cart related injuries in a North Carolina island community, we reviewed ambulance call report (ACR) information to identify and describe all injuries related to golf cart operation in this community in 1992-4. We also conducted telephone interviews with the subset of injured people who consented to be contacted. SETTING: Bald Head Island, North Carolina. RESULTS: Twenty two people were included in the case series, and 55% of these provided interview information to supplement ACR data. Fifty nine per cent of the 22 injured people were injured when they fell from a moving golf cart; of those injured in this manner, all with available information on seating position were passengers (rather than drivers). Eighty six per cent received immediate medical treatment at a mainland hospital. Thirty two per cent of injury incidents occurred among children aged 10 or younger. Forty per cent of injured adults were known to have been drinking alcohol before their injuries occurred, while alcohol was not known to have been involved in any of the children's injuries (in terms of drinking either by children or by accompanying adults). CONCLUSIONS: In settings where golf carts are used for road transportation, their users and traffic safety officials should be aware of potential safety hazards associated with the use of these vehicles, and installation of appropriate occupant restraints should be considered seriously.

Passaro, K. T.; Cole, T. B.; Morris, P. D.; Matthews, D. L.; MacKenzie, W. R.

1996-01-01

265

The nucleus accumbens 5-HTR?-CART pathway ties anorexia to hyperactivity.  

PubMed

In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this 'paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT(4) receptors (5-HTR(4)) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR(1B) self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR(4) in the absence of 5-HTR(1B), associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR(4) overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR(4) knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR(4). Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR(4) suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR(4)/CART pathway establishes a 'tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules. PMID:23233022

Jean, A; Laurent, L; Bockaert, J; Charnay, Y; Dusticier, N; Nieoullon, A; Barrot, M; Neve, R; Compan, V

2012-12-11

266

Language Policy and Language Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the problems of language policy and planning in terms of past history. Two principles most basic to language policy orientation are: (1) principle of personality (the state accommodates itself to the individual's language preference), and (2) principle of territoriality (the individual accommodates to the language of the state). (JMF)|

Mackey, William F.

1979-01-01

267

"SIRIUS" Input Language for an Automatic Programming System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The SIRIUS language is intended for solving both numerical and analytical problems. The new language is realized by means of a two-phase translator. The first phase is a translation into an intermediate (Polish-nonparenthetic) language; the second phase is an interpretation from this language. Two modes of program execution are envisaged in the…

Akselrod, I. R.; Belous, L. F.

268

Words Old and New, Used and Abused: Language Study in Advanced Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three language-related assignments for advanced composition which focus on politics and the English language, symbols and dictionaries, and language as a combination of interpretive and manipulative devices using the techniques of new journalism. (HOD)

Bloom, Lynn Z.

1976-01-01

269

Bringing Language to Life: Science Exploration and Inquiry in the Early Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool and early elementary science provides engaging opportunities for integrated content-based language learning. This instruction uses the concepts of other content areas as a springboard for language acquisition and self-expression. It is through the active interpretation of content standards by foreign language teachers that the ideas and…

Seewald, Amanda

2007-01-01

270

Neural Correlates of Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: When Language Conflicts with World Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In individuals with ASD, difficulties with language comprehension are most evident when higher-level semantic-pragmatic language processing is required, for instance when context has to be used to interpret the meaning of an utterance. Until now, it is unclear at what level of processing and for what type of context these difficulties in language

Tesink, Cathelijne M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Hagoort, Peter

2011-01-01

271

Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning.  

PubMed

The influence of adult foreign-language acquisition on human brain organization is poorly understood. We studied cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes of conscript interpreters before and after three months of intense language studies. Results revealed increases in hippocampus volume and in cortical thickness of the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus for interpreters relative to controls. The right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus were structurally more malleable in interpreters acquiring higher proficiency in the foreign language. Interpreters struggling relatively more to master the language displayed larger gray matter increases in the middle frontal gyrus. These findings confirm structural changes in brain regions known to serve language functions during foreign-language acquisition. PMID:22750568

Mårtensson, Johan; Eriksson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindgren, Magnus; Johansson, Mikael; Nyberg, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

2012-06-29

272

Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

2008-01-01

273

JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

274

Programming Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)|

Tesler, Lawrence G.

1984-01-01

275

Language Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of children with learning disabilities and of children without provides a clear picture of the acquisition of language development of children. Language skills are generally typical of children at different age levels who do not have diagnosed learning disabilities. Language skills of the learning disabled are generally atypical due to constraints placed on the child during critical learning

April Dixon

2009-01-01

276

Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1985-01-01

277

Community Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents historical and political contexts for discussing language maintenance and development in Scotland, explaining that research findings rarely have an impact on policy. While good practice exists in the maintenance of Gaelic and British Sign Language, these is a significant lack of support for other languages, and provision for all community…

Landon, John

2001-01-01

278

One-dimensional collision carts computer model and its design ideas for productive experiential learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a consistent simulation world view with a pen and paper representation, (2) a data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and (3) a game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using a physical world setup augmented by simulation by highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment such as a tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and the conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the simulation useful in their own classes.

Wee, Loo K.

2012-05-02

279

One-dimensional collision carts computer model and its design ideas for productive experiential learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a consistent simulation world view with a pen and paper representation, (2) a data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and (3) a game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using a physical world setup augmented by simulation by highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment such as a tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and the conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the simulation useful in their own classes.

Wee, Loo Kang

2012-05-01

280

[The effects of a nutritional information program on the contents of grocery carts].  

PubMed

In 1988, a chain of supermarkets in Quebec organized and sponsored a campaign to promote healthy eating habits and regular physical activity. Over a six-week period, comprehensive articles were published in a free home-delivered flyer. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the program in changing the buying habits of customers, as reflected by the content of their grocery carts. Data were collected at four points in time in one supermarket. Four independent samples of customers (N = 465) answered a brief questionnaire and the grocery receipt was used to analyze the food items in their shopping carts. The major dependent variables were the portions of various food groups, and fiber and lipid densities per dollar. Results show that, over time, customers lowered the lipid content and increased the fiber content of their purchases. This suggests that the food industry can play an effective role in improving the well-being of their clients. PMID:8131139

Laurendeau, H; Battista, R N; Potvin, L

281

The interpretation of disjunction in universal grammar.  

PubMed

Child and adult speakers of English have different ideas of what 'or' means in ordinary statements of the form 'A or B'. Even more far-reaching differences between children and adults are found in other languages. This tells us that young children do not learn what 'or' means by watching how adults use 'or'. An alternative is to suppose that children draw upon a priori knowledge of the meaning of 'or'. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that all languages adopt the same meaning of 'or' in certain structures. For example, statements of the form 'not S[A or B]' have the same meanings in all languages, and disjunctive statements receive a uniform interpretation in sentences that contain certain focus expressions, such as English 'only'. These observations are relevant for the long-standing "nature versus nurture" controversy. A linguistic property that (a) emerges in child language without decisive evidence from experience, and (b) is common to all human languages, is a likely candidate for innate specification. Experience matters, of course. As child speakers grow up, they eventually learn to use 'or' in the same way as adults do. But, based on findings from child language and cross-linguistic research, it looks like certain aspects of language, including the interpretation of disjunction, are part of the human genome. PMID:18561548

Crain, Stephen

2008-01-01

282

Risk factor analysis and spatiotemporal CART model of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background It remains unclear whether it is possible to develop a spatiotemporal epidemic prediction model for cryptosporidiosis disease. This paper examined the impact of social economic and weather factors on cryptosporidiosis and explored the possibility of developing such a model using social economic and weather data in Queensland, Australia. Methods Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and social economic factors in Queensland were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Three-stage spatiotemporal classification and regression tree (CART) models were developed to examine the association between social economic and weather factors and monthly incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia. The spatiotemporal CART model was used for predicting the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia. Results The results of the classification tree model (with incidence rates defined as binary presence/absence) showed that there was an 87% chance of an occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in a local government area (LGA) if the socio-economic index for the area (SEIFA) exceeded 1021, while the results of regression tree model (based on non-zero incidence rates) show when SEIFA was between 892 and 945, and temperature exceeded 32°C, the relative risk (RR) of cryptosporidiosis was 3.9 (mean morbidity: 390.6/100,000, standard deviation (SD): 310.5), compared to monthly average incidence of cryptosporidiosis. When SEIFA was less than 892 the RR of cryptosporidiosis was 4.3 (mean morbidity: 426.8/100,000, SD: 319.2). A prediction map for the cryptosporidiosis outbreak was made according to the outputs of spatiotemporal CART models. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that spatiotemporal CART models based on social economic and weather variables can be used for predicting the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Queensland, Australia.

2010-01-01

283

Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.  

PubMed

Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to the plant on carts to be processed. Two plants in the southeastern United States were sampled. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n=25/visit). A 12x12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated using violet red bile glucose agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There was 100% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae at plant A with an average 3.8 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Plant B had 90% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae with an average 3.2 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Two randomly selected isolates from each positive sample were recultured 3 times to increase the likelihood of clonality and were then identified biochemically. Of the 124 isolates analyzed, genera identified were Citrobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Hafnia spp., Kluyvera spp., Leclercia spp., and Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp. was the only non-Enterobacteriaceae identified by our methods. This work demonstrates that nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:19762864

Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Shaw, J D; Sheppard, M; Harrison, M A

2009-10-01

284

Integrating classification and regression tree (CART) with GIS for assessment of heavy metals pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification and regression tree (CART) model integrated with geographical information systems and the assessment of\\u000a heavy-metals pollution system was developed to assess the heavy metals pollution in Fuyang, Zhejiang, China. The integration\\u000a of the decision tree model with ArcGIS Engine 9 using a COM implementation in Microsoft® Visual Basic 6.0 provided an approach\\u000a for assessing the spatial distribution of

Wei Cheng; Xiuying Zhang; Ke Wang; Xuelong Dai

2009-01-01

285

Endogenous CART peptide regulates mu opioid and serotonin 5HT 2A receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments conducted in this laboratory showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of IgG antibodies directed against selected neuropeptides changed the density of CNS receptors, suggesting that neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal fluid can perform a regulatory role. To further test this hypothesis, we administered anti-CART peptide (the peptide product of cocaine amphetamine related transcript) IgG to rats via the i.c.v. route,

Richard B. Rothman; Nga Vu; Xiaoying Wang; Heng Xu

2003-01-01

286

Language in shadow.  

PubMed

The recent finding that Broca's area, the motor center for speech, is activated during action observation lends support to the idea that human language may have evolved from neural substrates already involved in gesture recognition. Although fascinating, this hypothesis can be questioned because while observing actions of others we may evoke some internal, verbal description of the observed scene. Here we present fMRI evidence that the involvement of Broca's area during action observation is genuine. Observation of meaningful hand shadows resembling moving animals induces a bilateral activation of frontal language areas. This activation survives the subtraction of activation by semantically equivalent stimuli, as well as by meaningless hand movements. Our results demonstrate that Broca's area plays a role in interpreting actions of others. It might act as a motor-assembly system, which links and interprets motor sequences for both speech and hand gestures. PMID:18633777

Fadiga, Luciano; Craighero, Laila; Destro, Maddalena Fabbri; Finos, Livio; Cotillon-Williams, Nathalie; Smith, Andrew T; Castiello, Umberto

2006-01-01

287

Investigating spatial climate relations using CARTs: An application to persistent hot days in a multimodel ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study introduces Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) as a new tool to explore spatial relationships between different climate patterns in a multimodel ensemble. We demonstrate the potential of CARTs by a simple case study based on time-aggregated patterns of circulation (represented by average levels and variabilities of sea level pressure, SLP) and land surface conditions (diagnosed from the time-averaged surface water balance) from regional climate model simulations (ENSEMBLES) over Europe. These patterns are systematically screened for their relevance to the spatial distribution of persistent hot days. Present-day (ERA40) and future (A1B) climate conditions are analyzed. A CART analysis of the ERA40 reanalysis complements the results for the present-day simulations. In many models, long persistent hot days concur with low variabilities of SLP and high water balance deficits both in present and future. However, for the change patterns (A1B minus ERA40) the analysis indicates that the most robust feature is the link between aggravating persistent hot days and increasing surface water deficits. These results highlight that the factors controlling (in our case spatial) variability are not necessarily the same as those controlling associated climate change signals. Since the analysis yields a rather qualitative output, the model bias problems encountered when studying ensemble averages are alleviated.

Orlowsky, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

2011-07-01

288

HIV-Associated Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Prognosis and Therapy in the Era of cART  

PubMed Central

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are at increased risk for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a risk that has not decreased despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the modern era. HIV-associated HL (HIV-HL) differs from HL in non-HIV-infected patients in that it is nearly always associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and more often presents with high-risk features of advanced disease, systemic “B” symptoms, and extranodal involvement. Before the introduction of cART, patients with HIV-HL had lower response rates and worse outcomes than non-HIV-infected HL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. The introduction of cART, however, has allowed for the delivery of full-dose and dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens with improved outcomes that approach those seen in non-HIV infected patients. Despite these significant advances, HIV-HL patients remain at increased risk for treatment-related toxicities and drug-drug interactions which require careful attention and supportive care to insure the safe administration of therapy. This paper will address the modern diagnosis, risk stratification, and therapy of HIV-associated HL.

Jacobson, Caron A.; Abramson, Jeremy S.

2012-01-01

289

Design of the CART data system for the US Department of Energy's ARM Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a major atmospheric research effort to reduce the uncertainties found in general circulation and other models due to the effects of clouds and radiation. The objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and testing parameterizations of the processes for use in atmospheric models. This experimental testbed, known as the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART), will include a complex data system, the CART Data Environment (CDE). The major functions of the CDE will be to: acquire environments from instruments and external data sources; perform quality assessments of the data streams; create data streams of known quality to be used as model input compared to model output; execute the models and capture their predictions; and make data streams associated with model tests available to ARM investigators in near real-time. The CDE will also be expected to capture ancillary information ( meta-data'') associated with the data streams, provide data management facilities for design of ARM experiments, and provide for archival data storage. The first section of this paper presents background information on CART. Next the process for the functional design of the system is described, the functional requirements summarized, and the conceptual architecture of the CDE is presented. Finally, the status of the CDE design activities is summarized, and major technical challenges are discussed.

Melton, R.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Campbell, A.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Edwards, D.M. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Kanciruk, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Tichler, J.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

290

Detection of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of Curitiba, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4%) were positive: 2/29 (6.9%) were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2%) between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4%) older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%). Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas. PMID:22534949

Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Furman, Keiko Endo; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Finger, Mariane Angélica; Busch, Ana Paula Brenner; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Biondo, Alexander Welker

291

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

Whittier, Mrs.

2010-01-28

292

Resolving Conflict Across Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

English is increasingly used as an indispensable interlanguage, the commonthird language of non-native speakers, in international negotiations.In technical or commercial talks, where interlocutors share a stock ofexpert knowledge, semantic problems are relatively easily overcome. Inemotive and complex negotiations to resolve protracted international conflict,however, intriguing problems of interpretation arise. Though interlocutorsspeak in English, they are unlikely to think or work in

Raymond Cohen

2001-01-01

293

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

294

Language Ideology and Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the language-related educational policies of South Asia, and particularly of India, finds that language policies among colonial administrators and the native elite for over a century has left a deep imprint on contemporary language ideologies of different nations. The discussion begins with a look at the Indian dual education…

Khubchandani, L. M.

1997-01-01

295

Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters' Roles and Functions  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care.

Kramer, Eric M.

2012-01-01

296

Computer-interpretable Guideline Formalisms  

PubMed Central

Implementing Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) in active computer-based decision support systems promises to improve the acceptance and application of guidelines in daily practice. The model and underlying language are the core characteristics of every CIG approach. However, currently no standard model or language has been accepted by the CIG community. This aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of well-known approaches and to formulate a set of (minimal) requirements that can be used in the process of developing new CIG approaches or improving existing ones. It presents five CIG approaches (the Arden Syntax, GLIF, PROforma, Asbru and EON), followed by a general discussion of the strong points of each approach as well as their implications for future research.

CLERCQ, Paul DE; KAISER, Katharina; HASMAN, Arie

2010-01-01

297

Language skills in low-SES rural Appalachian children: Kindergarten to middle childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the development of language in low-SES rural Appalachian children from kindergarten through middle childhood. Findings showed that the children's language skills improved significantly between kindergarten and middle childhood, with all middle childhood language means within the average range. However, all areas of language except the ability to correctly interpret nonliteral language remained significantly below normative population means.

Mary E. Reynolds; Margaret Fish

2010-01-01

298

The Naivasha language policy: the language of politics and the politics of language in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political\\u000a discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive\\u000a framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped by the historically\\u000a mediated relationships between the south and

Ashraf Kamal Abdelhay; Busi Makoni; Sinfree Bullock Makoni

2011-01-01

299

Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons: histochemical relationship to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin\\/hypocretin and neuropeptide Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demonstrations of the feeding-inhibitory properties of putative peptides derived from cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) raise the question of interactions between CART peptides and other messenger molecules implicated in the control of food intake. The present study investigated the histochemical relationship of CART to the neuropeptides thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), orexin\\/hypocretin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the

Christian Broberger

1999-01-01

300

Evidence for the participation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the fluoxetine-induced anti-hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats.  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) has a role in chronic pain, and also in the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) employed in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Herein, we test the hypothesis that CART may mediate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of the SSRI, fluoxetine, in neuropathic rats. Sciatic nerve in the right hind paw of rat was ligated to induce neuropathic pain, and the paw withdrawal latency was evaluated using Hargreaves apparatus. Fluoxetine [5-25mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip)] or CART (54-102) [0.1-1.5?g/rat, intracerebroventricular (icv)] dose-dependently attenuated the hyperalgesic response observed in neuropathic rats, indicating anti-nociceptive properties of each agent. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of fluoxetine was potentiated by the subeffective dose of CART, and attenuated by CART-antibody (1:500 dilution; 5?l/rat, icv); CART-antibody had no effect per se. Isobolographic analysis showed a significant synergism between fluoxetine and CART, and antagonism between fluoxetine and CART-antibody. Immunocytochemical labeling with monoclonal antibodies against CART showed drastic increase in CART-immunoreactive fibers in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG; 116%), dorsal subdivision of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD; 176%), and locus coeruleus (LC; 733%) of neuropathic animals. Fluoxetine treatment significantly reduced the immunoreactivity in these areas. However, CART-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the arcuate nucleus did not respond to neuropathy or fluoxetine treatments. We suggest that the CART innervation of DRD, LC and VLPAG may be involved in the (i) central processing of neuropathic pain and (ii) fluoxetine-induced anti-hyperalgesic effect in neuropathic pain. PMID:21167239

Upadhya, Manoj A; Dandekar, Manoj P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Singru, Praful S; Subhedar, Nishikant K

2010-12-15

301

Interpretive media study and interpretive social science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described by their proponents as an alternative to positivistic perspectives on media effects that ignore audience activity, interpretive approaches center on the interpretive processes employed by audience members in their decoding of media content. Meaning is viewed as a product of the interaction between media texts and the varied, at times contradictory, interpretive strategies employed by audience members. This article

Kevin M. Carragee

1990-01-01

302

SRI International: Natural Language Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

303

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)|

Stedt, Joe D.

1989-01-01

304

Interpreter for FEM-Solver Interfacing Purposes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interpreter for a simple data manipulation language is described. The objects handled are tables containing real or integer numbers or strings of characters, which are referred to by symbolic names. The tables can have zero (scalar), one or two dimensi...

J. Freund A. Lempinen

1994-01-01

305

Implementation is semantic interpretation: further thoughts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the implications of the thesis that implementation is semantic interpretation. Implementation is (at least) a ternary rela- tion: I is an implementation of an 'Abstraction' A in some medium M. Examples are presented from the arts, from language, from computer science and from cognitive science, where both brains and computers can be understood as implementing a 'mind

William J. Rapaport

2005-01-01

306

Interpreting Comparative Constructions in Biomedical Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a methodology using underspecified semantic interpretation to process comparative constructions in MEDLINE citations, concentrating on two structures that are prevalent in the research literature reporting on clinical trials for drug therapies. The method exploits an existing semantic processor, SemRep, which constructs predications based on the Unified Medical Language System. Results of a preliminary evaluation were recall of 70%,

Marcelo Fiszman; Dina Demner-Fushman; Francois M. Lang; Philip Goetz; Thomas C. Rindflesch

2007-01-01

307

Some paradoxes in Kripke's interpretation of Wittgenstein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kripke's skeptical interpretation of Wittgenstein's project in the Philosophical Investigations attributes to Wittgenstein a radical skepticism about the objectivity of rules and thus the meanings of words and the existence of language as well as a skepticism about the truth conditions underlying our alleged facts about the world. Kripke then contends that Wittgenstein solves this skeptical paradox by committing himself

Patricia H. Werhane

1987-01-01

308

The flowchart interpreter for introductory programming courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introductory programming course offers students problem solving analysis and design experience as well as exposure to the basic tenets of algorithmic thinking. Unfortunately, most introductory programming courses tend to concentrate on the syntax of a programming language (such as Basic, Pascal, C++, Java, etc.) at the expense of problem solving activities. The Flowchart Interpreter (FLINT) program supports problem solving

U. Ziegler

1998-01-01

309

CART-CONTAINING NEURONS IN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS PROJECT TO THE VENTRAL PALLIDUM IN THE RAT AND MAY INHIBIT COCAINE-INDUCED LOCOMOTION  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide colocalizes with GABA, dynorphin, D1 receptors, and substance P in some neurons in the nucleus accumbens. One of the main nuclei that receive accumbal efferents is the ventral pallidum, and both dynorphin and substance P have been shown to be present in the cell bodies and terminals of this projection. Thus, we investigated whether CART peptide is also present in the ventral pallidum in terminals that originate in the accumbens. The anterograde tracer PHA-L colocalized with CART in neuronal processes in the ventral pallidum when injected into the nucleus accumbens. Also, CART colocalized with the retrograde tracer r-BDA in accumbens cell bodies after the tracer was injected into the ventral pallidum. Using electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, we examined CART terminals in the ventral pallidum and found that CART-immunoreactive terminals formed symmetric synapses consistent with inhibitory GABAergic synapses. These synapses closely resemble GABAergic synapses in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, another nucleus that receives some CART–containing accumbal efferents. Lastly, we found that intra-pallidal injection of CART 55–102 inhibited cocaine-induced locomotion, indicating that CART peptide in the ventral pallidum can have functional effects.

Hubert, G. W.; Manvich, D. F.; Kuhar, M. J.

2009-01-01

310

Fuzzy Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal\\u000a power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages\\u000a is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages\\u000a over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent

George Rahonis

2009-01-01

311

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Writers use figurative language to create images in the minds of readers. Explore the following information and complete the activities to master the art of figurative language! Figurative Language contains images created by comparing unlike items to make things clear to the reader or listener. It is not meant to be taken literally. If I say my pillow is a fluffy cloud, I'm comparing my pillow to a cloud, but it's ...

Devitry, Mrs.

2010-03-12

312

Wold Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be exposed to a number of different languages through the viewing of the following websites. HELLO! BONJOUR! SABAAI-DII! HOLA! DZIEN DOBRY! BUON GIORNO! KONNICHI WA! ZDRAVSTVUITE! At the following website look up words and find their translation into other languages. The New Logos Dictionary Browse though this next website and see how to express some things in American Sign Language. ASL Explore how to say ...

Schroeder, M.

2007-10-12

313

Mediating Academic Language Learning Through Classroom Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

For school-aged students who are learning ESL, the discourse of the classroom must simultaneously construct curriculum knowledge\\u000a and be a site for second language development. This chapter focuses on academic language learning in the ESL school context,\\u000a in particular on how language learning is mediated through classroom discourse. While linguistic, social, and sociocognitive\\u000a traditions have interpreted the nature of interaction

Pauline Gibbons

314

Lacan: An Adapted Approach to Postmodern Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper sets out to highlight the interconnectedness between philosophy and language through a demonstration on how Lacanian psychoanalysis can add texture to literary analysis. Because discourse is in constant flux, it is only natural that adapting a suitably compatible interpretive methodology becomes the norm for the study of language and literature. Unfortunately, adjusting one’s methods of literary critique

Elvis Buckwalter

2007-01-01

315

Language and the newborn brain: does prenatal language experience shape the neonate neural response to speech?  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that by the time of birth, the neonate brain responds specially to the native language when compared to acoustically similar non-language stimuli. In the current study, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to ask how prenatal language experience might shape the brain response to language in newborn infants. To do so, we examine the neural response of neonates when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar language, as well as to non language stimuli. Twenty monolingual English-exposed neonates aged 0-3?days were tested. Each infant heard low-pass filtered sentences of forward English (familiar language), forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language), and backward English and Tagalog (non-language). During exposure, neural activation was measured across 12 channels on each hemisphere. Our results indicate a bilateral effect of language familiarity on neonates' brain response to language. Differential brain activation was seen when neonates listened to forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language) as compared to other types of language stimuli. We interpret these results as evidence that the prenatal experience with the native language gained in utero influences how the newborn brain responds to language across brain regions sensitive to speech processing. PMID:21960980

May, Lillian; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F

2011-09-21

316

Language and the Newborn Brain: Does Prenatal Language Experience Shape the Neonate Neural Response to Speech?  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that by the time of birth, the neonate brain responds specially to the native language when compared to acoustically similar non-language stimuli. In the current study, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to ask how prenatal language experience might shape the brain response to language in newborn infants. To do so, we examine the neural response of neonates when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar language, as well as to non language stimuli. Twenty monolingual English-exposed neonates aged 0–3?days were tested. Each infant heard low-pass filtered sentences of forward English (familiar language), forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language), and backward English and Tagalog (non-language). During exposure, neural activation was measured across 12 channels on each hemisphere. Our results indicate a bilateral effect of language familiarity on neonates’ brain response to language. Differential brain activation was seen when neonates listened to forward Tagalog (unfamiliar language) as compared to other types of language stimuli. We interpret these results as evidence that the prenatal experience with the native language gained in utero influences how the newborn brain responds to language across brain regions sensitive to speech processing.

May, Lillian; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

2011-01-01

317

Salmonella collected from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.  

PubMed

Salmonella, a member of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Salmonella. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to a central processing facility before they are washed, graded, and packed. Two plants in the Southeastern United States were sampled; one was a mixed operation and the other was an off-line operation. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n = 25/visit). A 12 × 12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Each swab was preenriched in buffered peptone at 37°C for 24 h, selectively enriched using TT and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth at 42°C overnight, then plated onto brilliant green sulfa and XLT-4 incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive colonies were transferred to lysine iron agar and triple sugar iron slants for 24 h at 37°C. Isolates with presumptive reactions were confirmed using commercial polyclonal antisera. After initial confirmation, serogrouping was performed using commercial antisera. Mixed-operation swab samples were 12% positive for Salmonella, whereas off-line samples were 36% positive for Salmonella; isolates were confirmed as serogroups B, C1, and C2. Kauffman-White serotyping was performed by a contract laboratory. Serotypes (n = 30) recovered were Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandanka, and Typhimurium. This work demonstrated that nest run egg carts may serve as reservoirs for Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:22912478

Musgrove, M T; Shaw, J D; Harrison, M A

2012-09-01

318

Predicting acute kidney injury among burn patients in the 21st century: a CART analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Historically, acute kidney injury (AKI) carried a deadly prognosis in the burn population. Our aim with this study was to provide a modern description of AKI in the burn population and to develop a prediction tool for identifying patients at risk for late AKI. Methods A large multi-institution database, the Glue Grant's trauma related database (TRDB), was used to characterize AKI in a cohort of critically ill burn patients. We defined AKI according to the RIFLE criteria and categorized AKI as early, late or progressive. We then used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis to create a decision tree with data obtained from the first 48 hours of admission to predict which subset of patients would develop late AKI. We tested the accuracy of this decision tree in a separate, single-institution cohort of burn patients who met the same criteria for entry into the Glue Grant study Results Of the 220 total patients analyzed from the Glue Grant cohort, 49 (22.2%) developed early AKI, 39 (17.7%) developed late AKI, and 16 (7.2%) developed progressive AKI. The group with progressive AKI was statistically older, with more comorbidities, and with the worst survival when compared to those with early or late AKI. Using CART analysis, we developed a decision tree with an overall accuracy of 80% for the development of late AKI for the Glue Grant dataset. We then tested this decision tree on a smaller dataset from our own institution to validate this tool, and found it to be 73% accurate. Conclusions AKI is common in severe burns with notable differences between early, late, and progressive AKI. Additionally, CART analysis provided a predictive model for early identification of patients at highest risk for developing late AKI with proven clinical accuracy.

Schneider, David F.; Dobrowolsky, Adrian; Shakir, Irshad A.; Sinacore, James M.; Mosier, Michael J.; Gamelli, Richard L.

2011-01-01

319

Virologic and Immunologic Response to cART by HIV-1 Subtype in the CASCADE Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to compare rates of virologic response and CD4 changes after combination antiretroviral (cART) initiation in individuals infected with B and specific non-B HIV subtypes. Methods Using CASCADE data we analyzed HIV-RNA and CD4 counts for persons infected ?1996, ?15 years of age. We used survival and longitudinal modeling to estimate probabilities of virologic response (confirmed HIV-RNA <500 c/ml), and failure (HIV-RNA>500 c/ml at 6 months or ?1000 c/ml following response) and CD4 increase after cART initiation. Results 2003 (1706 B, 142 CRF02_AG, 55 A, 53 C, 47 CRF01_AE) seroconverters were included in analysis. There was no evidence of subtype effect overall for response or failure (p?=?0.075 and 0.317, respectively) although there was a suggestion that those infected with subtypes CRF01_AE and A responded sooner than those with subtype B infection [HR (95% CI):1.37 (1.01–1.86) and 1.29 (0.96–1.72), respectively]. Rates of CD4 increase were similar in all subtypes except subtype A, which tended to have lower initial, but faster long-term, increases. Conclusions Virologic and immunologic response to cART was similar across all studied subtypes but statistical power was limited by the rarity of some non-B subtypes. Current antiretroviral agents seem to have similar efficacy in subtype B and most widely encountered non-B infections in high-income countries.

Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Bucher, Heiner C.; Zangerle, Robert; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Kucherer, Claudia; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud

2013-01-01

320

Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language acquisition that are part of a continuum of receptivity and communication every child experiences in the first 3 years of life. Suggests parents assist language development by being sympathetic to each developmental turning point, providing the right emotional climate for expression, and…

Montanaro, Silvana

2001-01-01

321

Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language acquisition that are part of a continuum of receptivity and communication every child experiences in the first 3 years of life. Suggests parents assist language development by being sympathetic to each developmental turning point, providing the right emotional climate for expression, and…

Montanaro, Silvana

2001-01-01

322

Autism and Pragmatics of Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes different aspects of Autism and attempts to explain the syndrome using the theoretical framework of Modular Pragmatics of Language. We review definitions and classifications of the disorder from the first description of the syndrome by Kanner (1943), through the Theory of Mind (Leslie, 1987) interpretation of the core impairments in Autism, to the most recent DSM-IV (Volkmar

Asa Kasher; Sara Meilijson

323

Adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding control for the double-pendulum-and-cart system.  

PubMed

In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding controller (AFSSSC) is proposed for the swing-up and position controls of a double-pendulum-and-cart system. The proposed AFSSSC consists of a fuzzy switching controller (FSC), an adaptive fuzzy swing-up controller (FSUC), and an adaptive hybrid fuzzy sliding controller (HFSC). To simplify the design of the adaptive HFSC, the double-pendulum-and-cart system is reformulated as a double-pendulum and a cart subsystem with matched time-varying uncertainties. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is provided to learn the parameters of the output fuzzy sets for the adaptive HFSC. The FSC is designed to smoothly switch between the adaptive FSUC and the adaptive HFSC. Moreover, the sliding mode and the stability of the fuzzy sliding control systems are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFSSSC. PMID:19661002

Tao, Chin Wang; Taur, Jinshiuh; Chang, J H; Su, Shun-Feng

2009-08-04

324

The Unity of Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is interpretation? One can imagine a range of answers to this question. One answer might begin with the observation that the English word “interpretation” is used to refer to a variety of human activities. Translators at the United Nations interpret remarks made in French when they offer an English translation. Literary critics interpret novels when they investigate the deep

Lawrence B. Solum

2010-01-01

325

Our Perception of Woman as Determined by Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of gender as a significant factor in the social parameters of language is a very recent phenomonon. The external aspects of language as they relate to sexism have social and political ramifications. Using Peirce's definition of sign, which encompasses the representation, the object, and its interpretation, sexually stereotypic language

Ayim, Maryann

326

Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

327

Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week an...

328

Evidence for the participation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the fluoxetine-induced anti-hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) has a role in chronic pain, and also in the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) employed in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Herein, we test the hypothesis that CART may mediate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of the SSRI, fluoxetine, in neuropathic rats. Sciatic nerve in the right hind paw of rat was ligated

Manoj A. Upadhya; Manoj P. Dandekar; Dadasaheb M. Kokare; Praful S. Singru; Nishikant K. Subhedar

2011-01-01

329

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Kentucky: 15-Year-Old Dies in Utility Gulf Cart Overturn, FACE-00-KY-119.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fifteen-year-old golf course worker (the victim) was killed when the utility golf cart he was operating overturned. The victim was employed by the golf club adjacent to which he and his family resided and had driven the utility golf cart to his home loc...

2002-01-01

330

Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week and daily during the 6-week intervention. Intervention goals included reducing

Jill Hartstein; Karen W. Cullen; Kim D. Reynolds; Joanne Harrell; Ken Resnicow; Phyllis Kennel

2008-01-01

331

Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language

Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

332

Language of political socialization: language of resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the notion of language as resistance for Palestinian children living in the West Bank. Drawing from the global\\/local language discourse, children constructed meaning of language that echoed the Palestinian political environment. The study examines the Palestinian children's language usage and language meaning as a method of political resistance, resilience and reworking. Children's conceptualization of language meaning emerged

Janette Habashi

2008-01-01

333

Assessing the Need for a Medical Interpreter: Are all Questions Created Equal?  

PubMed

Language preference is currently being used in clinical practice to determine whether an interpreter is needed. The concordance of ability to communicate and language proficiency with each other and to language preference was measured with kappa agreement scores, sensitivity and specificity among 1,000 patients surveyed in Montreal, Canada. Though concordance between language preference and language proficiency or ability to communicate was moderate, both variables had low sensitivity (69 and 55 % respectively). A total of 25 % of persons with limited language proficiency and 15 % of those with limited ability to communicate were not identified to have a language preference for their mother tongue. Also, 31 and 45 % of those who preferred to be served in their mother tongue had good language proficiency and good ability to communicate. When assessing a patients' need for an interpreter, language preference is insufficient as a stand-alone question. PMID:23564398

Okrainec, Karen; Miller, Mark; Holcroft, Christina; Boivin, Jean-François; Greenaway, Christina

2013-04-01

334

Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

Melchor, Rosemary Laura

2008-01-01

335

EXPERIMENTAL USE OF MACHINES IN THE TRAINING OF INTERPRETERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|AN EXPERIMENT TO IMPROVE THE METHOD OF TRAINING INTERPRETERS TO INCREASE SPEED OF TRANSLATION FROM ONE LANGUAGE TO ANOTHER, ONCE THE VOCABULARY BUILDUP HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED, INVOLVED THE USE OF THE TACHISTOSCOPE AND THE CONTROLLED READER, MACHINES USED IN SPEEDREADING COURSES. THIS INNOVATIVE PRACTICE HELPED TRAIN THE INTERPRETERS TO INCREASE…

WHITING, C.

336

Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

Melchor, Rosemary Laura

2008-01-01

337

Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

Leung, Janny

2012-01-01

338

Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

Funston, Richard

339

Interpreting in Mental Health Settings: Issues and Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines expectations and stresses placed on sign language interpreters in mental health settings within a framework of demand and control theory. Translations of some specific psychological screening instruments and issues related to the Code of Ethics of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf are considered relative to…

Vernon, McCay; Miller, Katrina

2001-01-01

340

Language and cognition.  

PubMed

What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research. PMID:19419838

Perlovsky, Leonid

2009-03-24

341

Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.  

PubMed

The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members. PMID:22792852

Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

2012-01-01

342

Implementation of a structured English query language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relational model of data, the XRM Relational Memory System, and the SEQUEL language have been covered in previous papers and are reviewed. SEQUEL is a relational data sublanguage intended for ad hoc interactive problem solving by non-computer specialists. A version of SEQUEL that has been implemented in a prototype interpreter is described. The interpreter is designed to minimize the

Morton M. Astrahan; Donald D. Chamberlin

1975-01-01

343

Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates. PMID:20624353

Freitas, Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira; Grycajuk, Marcelly; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Bonacin, José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

344

The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

Peter Bosch

1991-01-01

345

Language Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On his journey to discover the human spark, Alan Alda speaks with Dr. Elizabeth Spelke from Harvard University and Professor Neville from the University of Oregon about the development of language in this video from The Human Spark.

Wnet

2011-08-08

346

Shark Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch and observe skulls of sharks and rays to learn about their diversity (over 400 species of sharks alone!). Background information is provided about the types and functions of shark teeth. Additional information is provided about specific types of sharks: Great White, Bull Shark, Mako Shark, Zebra Shark, and Rays. The goal of the activity is to make sharks better understood and appreciated.

Pacific, Aquarium O.

2009-01-01

347

Deaf Students, Teachers, and Interpreters in the Chemistry Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes an undergraduate research program at James Madison University that includes deaf and hard-of-hearing students from Gallaudet University, deaf teachers from schools for the Deaf, and both professional interpreters and students engaged in sign language interpreter training. Methods used over a three-year period to maximize participation and expand research opportunities for the students, teachers, and interpreters are shared with the hope that similar projects might be encouraged and replicated in other programs.

Seal, Brenda C.; Wynne, Dorothy H.; MacDonald, Gina

2002-02-01

348

Neural correlates of language comprehension in autism spectrum disorders: When language conflicts with world knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In individuals with ASD, difficulties with language comprehension are most evident when higher-level semantic–pragmatic language processing is required, for instance when context has to be used to interpret the meaning of an utterance. Until now, it is unclear at what level of processing and for what type of context these difficulties in language comprehension occur. Therefore, in the current fMRI

Cathelijne M. J. Y. Tesink; Jan K. Buitelaar; Karl Magnus Petersson; Rutger Jan van der Gaag; Jan-Pieter Teunisse; Peter Hagoort

2011-01-01

349

Double Trouble, and Three Is a Crowd: Languages in Education and Official Languages in Vanuatu.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the official system of trilingualism and the dual-language education system in Vanuatu, suggesting that these place enormous strains on Vanuatu's infrastructure. Appropriate multilingual development for the future requires that fundamental issues of constitutional interpretation and definition of language policy be resolved.…

Early, Robert

1999-01-01

350

Resources for Interpreters: Bibliographies for Historical Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains fourteen bibliographies on a variety of topics. These bibliographies are designed as basic references for park interpreters. Each bibliography has two parts: a key list of ten annotated references followed by other less significant wor...

H. Huyck

1982-01-01

351

Image Interpretation Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Image Interpretation Cell is to generate forward echelon accurate intelligence data in the form of Flash and Immediate Photo Interpretation Reports. The IIC is a completely self-contained, deployable and adaptable image data system. It ...

V. Abraham A. Dobbs J. K. Libby

1964-01-01

352

Genetic Regulation of Hypothalamic Cocaine and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) in BxD Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptides are implicated in a wide range of behaviors including in the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants, feeding and energy balance and stress and anxiety responses. We conducted a complex trait analysis to examine natural variation in the regulation of CART transcript abundance (CARTta) in the hypothalamus. CART transcript abundance was measured in total hypothalamic RNA from 26 BxD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains. The strain distribution pattern for CARTta was continuous across the RI panel, which is consistent with this being a quantitative trait. Marker regression and interval mapping revealed significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on mouse chromosome 4 (around 58.2cM) and chromosome 11 (between 20–36cM) that influence CARTta and account for 31% of the between strain variance in this phenotype. There are numerous candidate genes and QTL in these chromosomal regions that may indicate shared genetic regulation between CART expression and other neurobiological processes referable to known actions of this neuropeptide.

Hawks, Brian W.; Li, Wei; Garlow, Steven J.

2009-01-01

353

Examining the Effects of Language Brokering on Student Identities and Learning Opportunities in Dual Immersion Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In settings where speakers of two or more different languages coexist, language brokering, the act of interpreting and translating between culturally and linguistically different speakers, is commonly practiced. Yet the examination of language brokering and its implications in classroom settings have not received much attention in the literature. The purpose of this study is to better understand how language brokering

Jin Sook Lee; Laura Hill-Bonnet; Jason Raley

2011-01-01

354

Security issues surrounding programming languages for mobile code: JAVA vs. Safe-Tcl  

Microsoft Academic Search

JAVA is claimed to be a system programming language having a number of advantages over traditional programming languages. These advantages stem from the fact that it is a platform - independent language, thus promising truly network oriented computing as long as a nearly universal system for distributing applications. On the other hand, although being an interpreted, much simpler, scripting language,

Stefanos Gritzalis; George Aggelis

1998-01-01

355

Journalists as interpretive communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the notion of “profession” may not offer the most fruitful way of examining community among American journalists. It proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community instead, one united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. The article applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events

Barbie Zelizer

1993-01-01

356

Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

357

Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)|

Zelizer, Barbie

1993-01-01

358

Second Language Transfer During Third Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence is the role of transfer during third language acquisition. How do the learner's first and second languages influence the acquisition of a third language? Current research suggests that the multilingual dynamic differs from L1 effects during second language acquisition. This literature review will examine L2 transfer during third language acquisition within

Shirin Murphy

359

Languages and Language Policy in Ireland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special member of the Journal Teangeolas is devoted to the theme of languages and language policy in Ireland. It contains the following articles: "English as a Foreign Language - Preparing for 1992" (Tom Doyle); "A Language Policy for Irish Schools" (Helen O Murchu); "Don't Disturb the Ancestors" (R. L. Davis); "Towards a National Language

Teangeolas, 1990

1990-01-01

360

Invented rule with English language learners.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to utilize an invented rule with English language learners (ELLs) in a clinical setting to determine differences based on language and age of the children. The performance was correlated with teacher reports of strong and weak language learning. Using a within-participants design, ELLs of age three to five were taught to apply a nonsense morpheme to signal a semantic difference. The invented rule was taught and responses were elicited in both English and English with Spanish interpretation. No significant difference for language was identified. Effect sizes for age were large (English, eta = 0.389, and English + Spanish, eta = 0.430) with five-year-old participants more likely to apply the rule to novel stimuli regardless of language. The performance of the majority of the participants correlated with teacher reports. The invented rule may provide a mechanism for assessing processing independent of prior language knowledge. PMID:22690717

Boyer, Valerie E; Martin, Kathryn Y

2012-07-01

361

A Nocturnal Boundary Layer Simulation over the ARM-CART Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is characterized by strong inversions and weak turbulent motions. It is during this time that low-level jets (LLJs) often form as the winds aloft reach speeds approaching 15-25m/s at levels below 1000m. During the daytime, turbulent mixing quickly damps such organized motion, but at night the surface cooling establishes an inversion which reduces turbulence and allows jets to form uninhibited. A field project over the ARM-CART site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the jet evolution. Data was collected from a tower and analyzed for turbulent behavior. With data limited to a single location, however, the full range of NBL behavior is difficult to determine. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is therefore used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model can provide information throughout the NBL - with a larger domain, a simulation of the NBL can provide information over a large range of locations and heights. In particular, we are interested in the way that the simulated NBL eddies are affected by their height and proximity to the LLJ, and how this compares to the tower results. The eddy sizes that exist in the model are limited by its grid spacing, but a series of smaller, finer nests allow us to study eddy motion at the relevant scales for short periods.

Werth, D.; Leclerc, M.; Duarte, H.; Fischer, M.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

2008-12-01

362

Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations  

PubMed Central

Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation.

Squires, A.

2009-01-01

363

Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses of genomic signatures reveal sets of tetramers that discriminate temperature optima of archaea and bacteria  

PubMed Central

Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was applied to genome-wide tetranucleotide frequencies (genomic signatures) of 195 archaea and bacteria. Although genomic signatures have typically been used to classify evolutionary divergence, in this study, convergent evolution was the focus. Temperature optima for most of the organisms examined could be distinguished by CART analyses of tetranucleotide frequencies. This suggests that pervasive (nonlinear) qualities of genomes may reflect certain environmental conditions (such as temperature) in which those genomes evolved. The predominant use of GAGA and AGGA as the discriminating tetramers in CART models suggests that purine-loading and codon biases of thermophiles may explain some of the results.

Dyer, Betsey D.; Kahn, Michael J.; LeBlanc, Mark D.

2008-01-01

364

Human Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you put an English speaker, a Mandarin Chinese speaker, and a Swahili speaker in the same room, chances are they'd have trouble communicating. But according to one scientific theory, they're really all speaking the same language.

Science Update;

2004-04-19

365

Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The language arts course content guides presented in this manual cover English, oral communications, and journalism in grades 9-12 and provide a framework from which a curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and at each grade level, skills are identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The basic…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

366

You and Your Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The structure, complexity, and peculiarities of the English language are examined in this book, which begins with a discussion of the nature of language. Chapters are devoted to (1) naming--"Language as Answer to a Need"; (2) grammar--"Language as Economy"; (3) words--"Language as the Finding of Minds"; (4) etymology--"Language to Stretch Brains…

Laird, Charlton

367

Language and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

Gibbons, John

1999-01-01

368

The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

Ellis, Nick C.

2008-01-01

369

Prepraring to Interpret: AA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about Alcoholics Anonymous and prepare to interpret for a deaf member at a traditional AA meeting. Interpreting for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) requires that the interpreter have an understanding of the purpose of the meetings, prepares adequately for frozen text and informal register that will be used, and has respect for the organization and its members. It can be a difficult, but rewarding assignment. Preparing to ...

2007-10-03

370

Interpreting Technical Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpreting Technical Drawings introduces students to the various sources of information found within technical drawings and provides practice interpreting various projections. After completing this module, students should be able to identify orthographic, isometric, and sectional views and interpret key information on technical drawings. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-08-11

371

CART peptide-immunoreactive projection from the nucleus accumbens targets substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons in the rat.  

PubMed

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) was originally identified as a mRNA which increases in the striatum after acute cocaine or amphetamine administration in rats. In addition, intra-ventral tegmental (VTA) area injections of CART peptides produce psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. CART peptide immunoreactivity (CARTir) has been localized in discrete nuclei throughout the brain, and, within the striatum, it is located only ventrally in a subpopulation of medium spiny projection neurons in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens. To better understand the potential role of CART peptides in the mechanism of action of psychomotor stimulants, we analyzed the distribution and synaptic connectivity of CARTir terminals in the ventral midbrain. CARTir terminal-like varicosities were located throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the substantia nigra (SN), VTA, and retrorubral field (RRF). They were particularly abundant in the dorsomedial SN where they overlapped with non-dopaminergic substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) neurons and proximal dendrites of dopaminergic substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons. CARTir terminals were also in register with dopaminergic perikarya in the ventromedial part of the rostral SNc. In many instances, CARTir terminals ensheathed dendrites of SNr neurons. To characterize the postsynaptic targets and potential sources of CARTir terminals in the SN, electron microscopic observations were conducted. Ninety percent of the CARTir terminals examined displayed the ultrastructural features of boutons of striatal origin and 80% of them formed symmetric synapses with distal dendrites of SNr neurons. To further elucidate the source of CARTir terminals in the SN, unilateral excitotoxic lesions directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens (Acc) were produced; this led to a dramatic, almost complete loss of CARTir terminal staining in the ipsilateral SN, whereas the density of CARTir terminals was relatively unchanged in the VTA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the presence of CART peptides in a direct pathway from the accumbens to the SNr, thus illustrating a unique feature of CART peptides in that they delineate a specific anatomical circuit of the basal ganglia. PMID:11329127

Dallvechia-Adams, S; Smith, Y; Kuhar, M J

2001-05-21

372

Putting the Cart before the Horse: Interrogating Media Literacy Education in School English Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: In response to the changing demands of new times, media literacy has been incorporated into the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore. Although media literacy is mentioned in the syllabus, what this term means needs more clarification. What is clear from the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore is the…

Tan Lee Wee, Lynde

2010-01-01

373

Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Refugees and asylum seekers experience language barriers in general practice. Qualitative studies have found that responses to language barriers in general practice are ad hoc with use of both professional interpreters and informal interpreters (patients' relatives or friends). However, the scale of the issues involved is unknown. This study quantifies the need for language assistance in general practice consultations

Anne MacFarlane; Liam G Glynn; Phillip I Mosinkie; Andrew W Murphy

2008-01-01

374

FIRST LANGUAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, different measures derived from 41 3- to 4-year-old children's self- generated picture-book narratives and their performance on a general measure of language development (TELD-2, Hresko, Reid & Hammill, 1991) were evaluated with respect to their possible predictive relation two years later with 5 areas of academic achievement (General information, Reading recognition, Reading comprehension, Math, Spelling) assessed using

Daniela K. O'Neill; Michelle J. Pearce; Jennifer L. Pick

375

Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

1991-01-01

376

Language, cognition, and second language grammaticality judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In first language research, there appear to be two predominant positions relating metalinguistic awareness to language development. One suggests that since metalinguistic awareness is related to primary language acquisition (comprehension and production), general cognitive processes perform a limited role in metalinguistic awareness. The other suggests that since metalinguistic awareness is more closely related to secondary language acquisition (reading and writing),

Diana Masny; Alison d'Anglejan

1985-01-01

377

Language Lateralization in a Bimanual Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike spoken languages, sign languages of the deaf make use of two primary articulators, the right and left hands, to produce signs. This situation has no obvious parallel in spoken languages, in which speech articulation is carried out by symmetrical unitary midline vocal structures. This arrangement affords a unique opportunity to examine the robustness of linguistic systems that underlie language

David P. Corina; Lucila San Jose-Robertson; Andre Guillemin; Julia High; Allen R. Braun

2003-01-01

378

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in the brain of the CCK-1 receptor deficient obese OLETF rat  

PubMed Central

Cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in homeostatic regulation and reward. CART has been shown to reduce food intake but the underlying mechanisms and the relevance of this effect to obesity yet remain unknown. Therefore, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate expression of CART peptide in various brain regions of the obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats lacking the CCK-1 receptor. Analysis revealed that whereas the distribution of CART peptide-immunoreactive neurons and axonal networks was identical in OLETF rats and lean controls, intensity of CART immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.01), the basolateral complex of the amygdala (p<0.05), and the rostro-medial nucleus of solitary tract (p<0.001) of the OLETF rats. These areas are involved in reward and integration of taste and viscerosensory information and have been previously associated with altered functions in this strain. The findings suggest that in addition to previously described deficits in peripheral satiety signals and augmented orexigenic regulation, the anorectic effect of CART peptide may also be diminished in OLETF rats.

Abraham, Hajnalka; Covasa, Mihai; Hajnal, Andras

2013-01-01

379

Effects of reboxetine and citalopram pretreatment on changes in cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) expression in rat brain induced by the forced swimming test.  

PubMed

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) has been implicated in the regulation of the stress response. Although the forced swimming test (FST), in which rats are forced to swim for 15 min (pretest swim) and then again for 5 min (test swim) 24 h later, has been used to study the effects of antidepressants, there have been few studies examining the effects of antidepressants on FST-induced changes in CART mRNA levels in the brain. To answer this question, we injected reboxetine and citalopram into male Sprague-Dawley rats 1, 5, and 23.5 h before the test swim and then sacrificed rats 2 h after the test swim, at the peak of the FST-induced increase in CART expression. The FST significantly increased CART mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens, central nucleus of the amygdala, and locus ceruleus 2 h after the test session. Both reboxetine and citalopram pretreatment blocked FST-induced increases in CART mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens, central nucleus of the amygdala, and locus ceruleus, despite the fact these antidepressants exert their therapeutic effect by different mechanisms. In addition, the FST significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and this effect was also blocked by reboxetine and citalopram pretreatment. These results suggest that inhibition of FST-induced increases in CART expression in the nucleus accumbens, central nucleus of the amygdala, and locus ceruleus may be a common mechanism of antidepressant effects during the FST. PMID:20826136

Kang, Seungwoo; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shin, Seung Keon; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

2010-09-06

380

On Boundaries of the Language of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to outline a method of reconstruction of the historical development of the language of physical theories. We will apply the theory presented in Patterns of Change, Linguistic Innovations in the Development of Classical Mathematics to the analysis of linguistic innovations in physics. Our method is based on a reconstruction of the following potentialities of language: analytical power, expressive power, integrative power, and explanatory power, as well as analytical boundaries and expressive boundaries. One of the results of our reconstruction is a new interpretation of Kant's antinomies of pure reason. If we relate Kant's antinomies to the language, they retain validity.

Kvasz, Ladislav

381

CART: an Hrs/actinin-4/BERP/myosin V protein complex required for efficient receptor recycling.  

PubMed

Altering the number of surface receptors can rapidly modulate cellular responses to extracellular signals. Some receptors, like the transferrin receptor (TfR), are constitutively internalized and recycled to the plasma membrane. Other receptors, like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), are internalized after ligand binding and then ultimately degraded in the lysosome. Routing internalized receptors to different destinations suggests that distinct molecular mechanisms may direct their movement. Here, we report that the endosome-associated protein hrs is a subunit of a protein complex containing actinin-4, BERP, and myosin V that is necessary for efficient TfR recycling but not for EGFR degradation. The hrs/actinin-4/BERP/myosin V (CART [cytoskeleton-associated recycling or transport]) complex assembles in a linear manner and interrupting binding of any member to its neighbor produces an inhibition of transferrin recycling rate. Disrupting the CART complex results in shunting receptors to a slower recycling pathway that involves the recycling endosome. The novel CART complex may provide a molecular mechanism for the actin-dependence of rapid recycling of constitutively recycled plasma membrane receptors. PMID:15772161

Yan, Qing; Sun, Wei; Kujala, Pekka; Lotfi, Yasmin; Vida, Thomas A; Bean, Andrew J

2005-03-16

382

CART: An Hrs/Actinin-4/BERP/Myosin V Protein Complex Required for Efficient Receptor Recycling  

PubMed Central

Altering the number of surface receptors can rapidly modulate cellular responses to extracellular signals. Some receptors, like the transferrin receptor (TfR), are constitutively internalized and recycled to the plasma membrane. Other receptors, like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), are internalized after ligand binding and then ultimately degraded in the lysosome. Routing internalized receptors to different destinations suggests that distinct molecular mechanisms may direct their movement. Here, we report that the endosome-associated protein hrs is a subunit of a protein complex containing actinin-4, BERP, and myosin V that is necessary for efficient TfR recycling but not for EGFR degradation. The hrs/actinin-4/BERP/myosin V (CART [cytoskeleton-associated recycling or transport]) complex assembles in a linear manner and interrupting binding of any member to its neighbor produces an inhibition of transferrin recycling rate. Disrupting the CART complex results in shunting receptors to a slower recycling pathway that involves the recycling endosome. The novel CART complex may provide a molecular mechanism for the actin-dependence of rapid recycling of constitutively recycled plasma membrane receptors.

Yan, Qing; Sun, Wei; Kujala, Pekka; Lotfi, Yasmin; Vida, Thomas A.; Bean, Andrew J.

2005-01-01

383

The CARTS study: Chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer in the distal rectum followed by organ-sparing transanal endoscopic microsurgery  

PubMed Central

Background The CARTS study is a multicenter feasibility study, investigating the role of rectum saving surgery for distal rectal cancer. Methods/Design Patients with a clinical T1-3 N0 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma below 10 cm from the anal verge will receive neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (25 fractions of 2 Gy with concurrent capecitabine). Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) will be performed 8 - 10 weeks after the end of the preoperative treatment depending on the clinical response. Primary objective is to determine the number of patients with a (near) complete pathological response after chemoradiation therapy and TEM. Secondary objectives are the local recurrence rate and quality of life after this combined therapeutic modality. A three-step analysis will be performed after 20, 33 and 55 patients to ensure the feasibility of this treatment protocol. Discussion The CARTS-study is one of the first prospective multicentre trials to investigate the role of a rectum saving treatment modality using chemoradiation therapy and local excision. The CARTS study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01273051)

2011-01-01

384

Comparison of satellite-derived and observer-based determinations of cloud cover amount at the SGP CART site  

SciTech Connect

Cloud-climate feedback is one of the most important factors in predicting the timing and magnitude of global climate change and its regional effects. Recent satellite measurements indicate that global effects of clouds on solar and infrared radiation are large. The experimental objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to characterize, empically, the radiative processes in the Earth`s atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. Therefore, the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties is crucial for reliable climate prediction. This study focuses on the analysis of cloud cover data for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site central facility. The data set was obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellites 11 and 12, and cloud observations made by SGP CART site operators. Such an analysis provides a basis for future evaluations with whole-sky cameras and provides a means of assessing the reliability of surface-based observations of cloud cover at the SGP CART site.

Liaw, Y.P. [North Central College, Naperville, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cook, D.R.; Sisterson, D.L.; Gao, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-06-01

385

[Pragmatic language impairment in children].  

PubMed

When a child's language development does not follow the normal developmental course for no known reasons specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed. In contrast, pragmatic language impairment (PLI) refers to children who experience significant difficulties with the use of language. Clinical accounts of PLI have suggested that unlike children with more typical SLI, children with PLI have adequate syntax and phonology and are often verbally fluent. However, they may exhibit a range of linguistic and communicative deficits such as comprehension deficits for connected speech, conversational inadequacies, poor turn-taking, atypical word choices, literal interpretation of figurative language, and poor topic maintenance. There also may be fundamental deficits in social cognition, such as appreciating the thoughts and feelings of others. PLI may be found in SLI children, children with learning disabilities, autism and traumatic brain injuries. Here we review aspects of pragmatic communication skills, the development of emotion recognition, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Otolaryngologists have to be aware of PLI in case children with communication problems are referred to them. This may enable a timely diagnosis and early intervention. PMID:15909145

Ptok, M

2005-11-01

386

Metaphor: An Inescapable Phenomenon in Natural Language Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpreting metaphors is an integral and inescapable process in human understanding of natural language. This paper discusses a method of analyzing metaphors based on the existence of a small number of generalized metaphor mappings. Each generalized meta...

J. G. Carbonell

1981-01-01

387

Questioning Interrogative Interpretation in Some Indo-European Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares indirect "wh"-questions and independent relatives, points to the absence of a clear-cut boundary between these two types of construction, and argues for the indispensability of semantic and pragmatic analysis for syntactic theory. The article emphasizes that it is the answer to a question that supplies the determinate element sought by…

Fava, Elisabetta

1996-01-01

388

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-07-01

389

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-01-01

390

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-01-01

391

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-07-01

392

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

393

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-07-01

394

Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-01

395

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-07-01

396

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-01-01

397

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

1999-03-10

398

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six-months beginning on July 1, 1993, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides a planning focus for the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the current plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six-months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

399

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

1997-08-28

400

CdC-SF: Proper motion catalogue from Carte du Ciel plates, San Fernando Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an astrometric catalogue of positions and proper motions derived from the Carte du Ciel plates of the San Fernando zone, which has a mean epoch 1901.4 and a limiting magnitude V 15. Digitization has been made using a conventional flatbed scanner. Special techniques have been developed to handle the combination of plate material and the large distortion introduced by the scanner. A variety of post-scan corrections are shown to be necessary. The equatorial coordinates are obtained on the ICRS system defined by Tycho-2. Comparison with the reference catalog indicates external errors of 0''.2. The UCAC2 Catalogue was used for second-epoch positions to derive proper motions with a mean accuracy of 1.2 mas yr-1 for the the well-measured stars. The usefulness of the resulting proper motion catalog is demonstrated by means of a proper-motion analysis of seven open clusters, ASCC 30, BOCHUM 3, NGC 2215, NGC 2302, NGC 2311, NGC 2323 and NGC 2548, determining individual membership probabilities and characterizing the gross properties of each cluster.

Vicente, B.

2008-12-01

401

Hybrid thermochemical/biological processing: putting the cart before the horse?  

PubMed

The conventional view of biorefineries is that lignocellulosic plant material will be fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and terpenes before these components are biochemically converted into market products. Occasionally, these plants include a thermochemical step at the end of the process to convert recalcitrant plant components or mixed waste streams into heat to meet thermal energy demands elsewhere in the facility. However, another possibility for converting high-fiber plant materials is to start by thermochemically processing it into a uniform intermediate product that can be biologically converted into a bio-based product. This alternative route to bio-based products is known as hybrid thermochemical/biological processing. There are two distinct approaches to hybrid processing: (a) gasification followed by fermentation of the resulting gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H(2)), and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by hydrolysis and/or fermentation of the anhydrosugars found in the resulting bio-oil. This article explores this "cart before the horse" approach to biorefineries. PMID:18478447

Brown, Robert C

2007-04-01

402

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1993-12-01

403

Improvements of the CARTE thermochemical code dedicated to the computation of properties of explosives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting the thermodynamic properties of detonation products and the detonation parameters of explosives with thermochemical codes requires both the use of very accurate theoretical equations of state of fluid species and a precise calibration of the parameters of the species potentials. In this work, we present the methods used in the CARTE^(1) thermochemical code. The detonation product mixture is split in two phases (fluid phase plus condensed phase for the carbon). The improved KLRR^(2) method and a modified Van der Waals -- one fluid model^(3) are used to compute the properties of the mixture. The usual Ree -- Van Thiel equation of state for carbon is used. Ionic/polar species are taken into account by the use of methods already published in the literature^(4). We also consider a multiphase EOS model of carbon which evolves with the chemical composition of the explosives. The calibration of the parameters is then performed with a Monte Carlo minimisation method against a wide range of both theoretical and experimental data. This reference data base is mainly composed of shock or static compression data. Finally, we present some results obtained on a wide range of explosives. (1) Dubois et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 494, 2010, p 306 (2) Victorov et al., Proc. of the 13^th Int. Deto. Symp., 2006 (3) Desbiens et al., Proc. of 8^th New Models and Hydrocodes, 2010 (4) Bastea et al., Proc. of the 13^th Int. Deto. Symp., 2006

Desbiens, Nicolas; Dubois, Vincent; Matignon, Christophe; Sorin, Remy

2011-06-01

404

Development of a cart for independent mobility assistance for non-ambulatory children.  

PubMed

Some parents of non-ambulatory children are not eager to allow their children to use powered wheelchairs because of apprehension of further deterioration of their functionality and the risk for accidents. The authors think that not all but some such children could develop their ability to operate powered wheelchairs and might expand their knowledge about the circumstances and interests in them. Thus we made a prototype cart for them eventually to experience motion by themselves. Based on a 6-wheeled chassis, the two middle wheels are driven with a traction roller drive system. We had been testing this prototype with a child with cerebral palsy for one year. Acquisition of skills in pushing switches and enjoyment of motion were confirmed. However, we encountered several problems such as difficulty in rolling on a carpet and in handling due to its weight. The ability to record moving speed and operation of input devices helps rehabilitation experts to conduct quantitative performance evaluation. To solve these problems, we manufactured another prototype. The second prototype was tested with another child with cerebral palsy for one year. The problems were solved. She acquired the operation skills necessary to operate the prototype with four switch operation. PMID:19965102

Kakimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Sekiguchi, Yukio

2009-01-01

405

Language Trends 2010 Secondary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Language Trends survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,…

CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010

2010-01-01

406

Papers on Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this publication deal with English language study and other aspects of the English curriculum. Topics include the role of English in the secondary curriculum, a whole school language policy, information on language and language acquisition published in the past ten years that should be incorporated into language study courses, an…

Teaching English, 1977

1977-01-01

407

Immigrant Languages in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers from a 1990 Dutch colloquium on immigrant language varieties in Europe are presented in four categories: (1) use of immigrant language varieties in Europe; (2) first language acquisition in a second language context; (3) code-switching; and (4) language maintenance and loss. Papers include: "Sweden Finnish" (Jarmo Lainio); "South Asian…

Extra, Guus, Ed.; Verhoeven, Ludo, Ed.

408

Interpreting Laboratory Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Interpreting Laboratory Test Results A laboratory test is a medical procedure in which a sample of blood , urine , or other tissues or substances in the ...

409

Interpretation of Extraterrestrial Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Imagery interpretation is playing an important role in the investigation of celestial bodies. Astronomers utilize terrestrially based photography in the identification and mensuration of celestial objects such as galaxies, planetary nebulae, supernova rem...

P. M. Merifield J. M. Saari R. W. Shorthill R. L. Wildey D. E. Wilhems

1969-01-01

410

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)|

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

1994-01-01

411

Working Effectively with Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, so early childhood educators are often among the first to work with families whose primary languages are other than English. Many parents, guardians, and family members do speak English but not fluently enough to feel comfortable communicating with teachers or administrators. When educators and…

Cellitti, Anarella

2010-01-01

412

Entrance : Interpretation and Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When we try to understand our surroundings - places, systems, situations, behaviors - we interpret the stimuli we receive.\\u000a Starting with a clue, shaped by our memories and our knowledge, we construct a narrative, linking together familiar forms,\\u000a and an interpretation emerges… we understand, more or less. This complex process, never completely explicit, leaves a particular\\u000a impression: there is meaning.

Nicolas Bouleau

413

FASTBUS Diagnostic Language users manual. Version 3(74)  

SciTech Connect

FASTBUS Diagnostic Language (FDL) is an interactive interpretive language designed to aid the engineer or physicist/user in the testing and debugging of FASTBUS modules and systems. Since FASTBUS systems involve a variety of devices and data paths, it is frequently more efficient to utilize a high-level language system such as FDL for diagnostics, rather than to develop device-specific programs. FDL can also be used to a limited extent for both device control and data acquisition.

Lesny, D.

1983-07-01

414

Understanding and Developing Good Practice: Language Teaching in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This new book supports the professional development and training of Modern Languages teachers in higher education. It links insights from pedagogical and applied linguistic research to the practicalities of the undergraduate language syllabus. The aim is to interpret research for the classroom practitioner so that teaching can be based on…

Klapper, John

2006-01-01

415

Ethnolinguistically Relevant Pedagogy: Empowering English Language Learners in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People from diverse cultures interpret languages and gestures differently (Columna & Lieberman, 2011). It is not surprising, therefore, that communication differences may have negative implications for teachers and English language learners in K-12 physical education environments. To address this issue, we advocate preparing physical education…

Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Columna, Luis; Hodge, Samuel R.; Mansilla, Patricia Martinez de la Vega

2013-01-01

416

Training a Multilingual Sportscaster: Using Perceptual Context to Learn Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel framework for learning to interpret and generate language using only per- ceptual context as supervision. We demonstrate its capabilities by developing a system that learns to sportscast simulated robot soccer games in both English and Korean without any language-specific prior knowledge. Training employs only ambiguous supervision consisting of a stream of descrip- tive textual comments and

David L. Chen; Joohyun Kim; Raymond J. Mooney

2010-01-01

417

Pictorial Representation and Metaphor in Visual Language Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of seven different experiments, assessing the benefit that users gain from the inclusion of pictorial features such as pictorial metaphor, visual mnemonics or support for visual imagery in visual languages. The experiments are based on typical programming tasks such as problem solving, construction and interpretation. They employed a number of experimental languages, including both implicit

Alan F. Blackwell

2001-01-01

418

Understanding and Developing Good Practice: Language Teaching in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new book supports the professional development and training of Modern Languages teachers in higher education. It links insights from pedagogical and applied linguistic research to the practicalities of the undergraduate language syllabus. The aim is to interpret research for the classroom practitioner so that teaching can be based on sound…

Klapper, John

2006-01-01

419

Interfacing the Experimenter to the Computer: Languages for Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination and comparison of the computer languages which behavioral scientists are most likely to use: SCAT, INTERACT, SKED, OS/8 Fortran IV, RT11/Fortran, RSX-11M, Data General's Real-Time; Disk Operating System and its Fortran, and interpretative Languages. (EH)|

Wood, Ronald W.; And Others

1975-01-01

420

The Reflective "I": Language Awareness and Freshman Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the writing process consists of perception, recognition of the limits and resources of language, and development of the ability to capitalize on the resources of language to express our perceptions at any given moment. Perception includes two essential aspects of good writing, specific detail and interpretation of the…

Oelke, Karl E.

421

Deep Integration of Python with Web Ontology Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web is a vision for the future of the Web in which information is given explicit meaning, making it easier for ma- chines to automatically process and integrate information available on the Web. Semantic Web will build on the well known Semantic Web language stack, part of which is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Python is an interpreted,

Marian Babik; Ladislav Hluchy

422

The concurrent logic programming language CP: Definition and operational semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present some of the control constructs of the language CP, which is based on a concurrent interpretation of Horn logic programming. We present a formal structural operational semantics and relate the meaning of programs in this language to the underlying (pure) Horn clause axioms.

Vijay A. Saraswat

1987-01-01

423

Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements  

PubMed Central

Objectives CD4 cell count and plasma viral load are well known predictors of AIDS and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This study investigated, in patients treated for at least 3 years, the respective prognostic importance of values measured at cART initiation, and 6 and 36 months later, for AIDS and death. Methods Patients from 15 HIV cohorts included in the ART Cohort Collaboration, aged at least 16 years, antiretroviral-naive when they started cART and followed for at least 36 months after start of cART were eligible. Results Among 14 208 patients, the median CD4 cell counts at 0, 6 and 36 months were 210, 320 and 450 cells/µl, respectively, and 78% of patients achieved viral load less than 500 copies/ml at 6 months. In models adjusted for characteristics at cART initiation and for values at all time points, values at 36 months were the strongest predictors of subsequent rates of AIDS and death. Although CD4 cell count and viral load at cART initiation were no longer prognostic of AIDS or of death after 36 months, viral load at 6 months and change in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months were prognostic for rates of AIDS from 36 months. Conclusions Although current values of CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA are the most important prognostic factors for subsequent AIDS and death rates in HIV-1-infected patients treated with cART, changes in CD4 cell count from 6 to 36 months and the value of 6-month HIV-1 RNA are also prognostic for AIDS.

2011-01-01

424

Revisiting Plain Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the plain language movement and its origins. Reviews past and current resources related to plain language writing. Examines criticism of the movement while examining past and current plain language literature, with particular attention to the information design field. (SR)

Mazur, Beth

2000-01-01

425

ASPEN Language Specifications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ASPEN is a 'toy' language that can be used as a sample source language in the teaching of compiler construction. As such, its design incorporates language constructs that can be handled by fundamental compiler construction techniques and yet are expressiv...

T. R. Wilcox

1976-01-01

426

Rhetorical and Lexico-Grammatical Features of Argumentative Writing in Spanish as a Heritage Language and as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student academic writing in higher education is a central component of language programs whose purpose is to promote advanced literacy in the target language. At this level, students are required to produce texts that are analytical-argumentative in nature. This type of genre requires writers to formulate an interpretative statement or thesis and…

Paredes, Sofia M.

2011-01-01

427

Students' alternative frameworks: towards a linguistic and cultural interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study attempts to show how students’ alternative frameworks can be explained in terms of linguistic and cultural effects. The interpretations are based on data provided by student dialogue associated with the theme: the nature of matter. Comparable groups of students in Tasmania and the Philippines were interviewed in their home languages: English, Tagalog and Ilocano, respectively. Two strategies were

Patrick P. Lynch; Brian L. Jones

1995-01-01

428

Interpreting Ambiguous Advertisements: The Effect of Frontal Lobe Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intact primary language processes patients with frontal lobe deficits often have impaired communication skills including impaired capacity to understand conversational inference. This study examined the ability of three patients with demonstrated frontal lobe pathology to interpret lexically ambiguous advertisements. When compared to a nonbrain-damaged control group it was found that the frontal lobe patients were poorer at comprehending the

Samantha Pearce; Skye McDonald; Max Coltheart

1998-01-01

429

Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

430

November 8, 2013: Ear, Nose and Throat Devices Panel of the ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Requests for sign language interpretation or Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART)/captioning must be made 2 weeks in advance of ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/calendar

431

Considerations When Working with Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

2003-01-01

432

Interpretation for Discussions about End-of-Life Issues: Results from a National Survey of Health Care Interpreters  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Communication about end-of-life issues is difficult across language barriers. Little is known about the experience of health care interpreters in these discussions. Objectives Objectives of this study were to: 1) assess the experiences of healthcare interpreters when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues; 2) identify interpreter characteristics and experiences that may be associated with improved satisfaction and comfort with interpreting these discussions; and 3) describe interpreter training needs. Methods The study utilized an electronically administered survey distributed nationally to health care interpreters in the United States. One hundred and forty-two health care interpreters participated. Measurements included general experiences, attitudes, and perceived training needs when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues. Results Most respondents had received a certificate in interpretation (71%, 101/142), completed more than 40 hours of training (89%, 127/142), and had more than 5 years of interpreting experience (65%, 93/142). Overall, 85% (121/142) of respondents had interpreted discussions about end-of-life issues and most interpreted multiple discussions per week. Of those interpreters who had experience with these discussions, the majority (85%, 103/121) reported feeling comfortable, but only half (48%, 58/121) reported that these discussions usually went well. Interpreters who felt clear about their role were more likely than interpreters who did not feel clear about their role to think that discussions went well (51% [57/112] versus 11% [1/9], p=0.02) and to feel comfortable interpreting (88% [98/112] versus 56% [5/9], p=0.01). Eighty percent (97/121) of respondents with experience in end-of-life discussions were personally interested in more specific training for these discussions. Attitudes and perceived training needs did not differ by interpreter demographics or qualifications. Conclusions The majority of interpreters have experience with end-of-life discussions but, independent of interpreter training and experience, only half report that these discussions usually go well. Interpreters want and may benefit from targeted educational interventions that could improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and families in these difficult situations. Health systems and interpreter certification programs should incorporate specific training on how to interpret discussion about end-of-life issues.

Fernandez, Alicia; Kerr, Kathleen; O'Riordan, David; Pantilat, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

433

Can Body Language Shape Body Image?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central themes in autonomous robot research con- cerns the question how visual images of body movements by others can be interpreted and related to one's own body movements and to language describing these body move- ments. The discovery of mirror neurons has shown that there are brain circuits which become active both in the percep- tion and

Luc Steels; Michael Spranger

2008-01-01

434

The Language of the Bilingual Medical Consultation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated translation problems arising in physician-patient interviews conducted in two languages with the help of an interpreter. Subjects were four adult native speakers of Gujarati, aged 42-70, whose physician interviews were videotape-recorded and translated, and the discourse was analyzed. Patients spoke in Gujarati, and the…

Harrison, Brian; And Others

435

A Functional Analysis of Courseware Authoring Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the rationale for sharing courseware between educators, describes the problems of hardware incompatibility associated with software sharing, and introduces a multilingual interpreter system which allows instructional software implemented in different computer languages and on different machines to be shared with a minimum of work. A…

Voyce, Stanley

1982-01-01

436

The gradual emergence of language 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language is a unique hallmark of the human species. Although many species can communicate about things that are physically present, only humans can use communication to construct a full narrative characterization of events occurring outside of the here and now. The religions of the world have interpreted this unique endowment as a Special Gift bestowed directly by the Creator. Scientists

Brian MacWhinney

437

AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES, GERMAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A SERIES OF FILMS HAVE BEEN PRODUCED ON AUDIOLINGUAL TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES. IN THIS MANUAL THE FILM ON GERMAN IS DISCUSSED. THE MANUAL HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO PROVIDE DISCUSSION, INTERPRETATION, CRITICISM, AND A FULL UNDERSTANDING OF THE TECHNIQUES PORTRAYED ON THE SCREEN AND OF THE LEARNING PROCESS AS A WHOLE. THE FILM IS…

CAPRETZ, PIERRE J.

438

Lost in Translation: The Power of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of…

Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

2011-01-01

439

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra D. Emerson Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edingurgh "Interpreting Astronomical Spectra" describes how physical conditions such as temperature, density and composition can be obtained from the spectra of a broad range of astronomical environments ranging from the cold interstellar medium to very hot coronal gas and from stellar atmospheres to quasars. In this book the author has succeeded in providing a coherent and integrated approach to the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopy, placing the emphasis on the physical understanding of spectrum formation rather than on instrumental considerations. MKS units and consistent symbols are employed throughout so that the fundamental ideas common to diverse environments are made clear and the importance of different temperature ranges and densities can be seen. Aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates studying physics, astronomy and astrophysics, this book will also appeal to the professional astronomer.

Emerson, D.

1996-06-01

440

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpreting Astronomical Spectra D. Emerson Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edingurgh "Interpreting Astronomical Spectra" describes how physical conditions such as temperature, density and composition can be obtained from the spectra of a broad range of astronomical environments ranging from the cold interstellar medium to very hot coronal gas and from stellar atmospheres to quasars. In this book the author has succeeded in providing a coherent and integrated approach to the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopy, placing the emphasis on the physical understanding of spectrum formation rather than on instrumental considerations. MKS units and consistent symbols are employed throughout so that the fundamental ideas common to diverse environments are made clear and the importance of different temperature ranges and densities can be seen. Aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates studying physics, astronomy and astrophysics, this book will also appeal to the professional astronomer.

Emerson, D.

1999-03-01

441

Interpretations of Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiar statistical correlations between spatially separated systems which arise in quantum mechanics, and which the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper of 1935 thrust into the limelight, have been the focus of much interpretive speculation and disagreement in the years since then. Amongst the questions raised along the way have been questions about the possibility of superluminal causation, the limits of quantum mechanics and its relation to relativity theory, the nature of and need for causal explanation, realism, determinism, and the presence of holism in quantum mechanics. This talk will provide an historically structured overview of these debates including discussion of the Bohm theory, the many worlds interpretation, and more recent developments and will suggest a way of dividing many of the interpretations of entanglement into clusters of like-minded views.

Jones, Martin

2002-04-01

442

Ethnoveterinary practices of owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad City (Pakistan).  

PubMed

The present study was planned to investigate the ethnoveterinary methods practiced by the owners of pneumatic-cart pulling camels in Faisalabad Metropolis (Pakistan). During a 7-year-period (November 1992-November 1999), 200 owners of draught camels working in the city were interviewed. Information concerning the ethnoveterinary practices for the treatment of common disorders of digestive tract (indigestion, colic and diarrhea), respiratory tract (cold/rhinitis, pneumonia), skin problems (mange, ulceration of nostrils with or without nasal myiasis, ticks and lice, harness sores), systemic states (fever, ze/rba/d, anhidrosis) and preventive therapy of indigestion and halitosis was collected through interviews and collated with those documented for the treatment of desert-dwelling camels. Familiarity of owners with two traditional methods of surra (trypanosomiasis) diagnosis ('Sand-ball test' and 'Hair-stick test') known to pastorilists was also probed. In addition, the dose and frequency of use of common salt was investigated. Traditional inputs utilized by the camel owners included various plant products, insecticides, sulphur, sump oil, common salt, aspirin, naphthalene balls and milk fat. Different owners used different combinations of traditional drugs for the treatment of disorders/conditions investigated. None of the camel owners was found familiar with the 'Sand-ball test' or 'Hair-stick test' of trypanosomiasis diagnosis. For the prevention of indigestion and halitosis all camel owners had practiced administration of 'massaulas' (physic drench/balls) along with common salt (average 250 g) on weekly basis. Firing had not been used by any owner. In general, the ethnoveterinary treatment practices used by the owners of city-dwelling camels appear to be different from those documented for the treatment of diseases of desert-dwelling camels. PMID:15707760

Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Iqbal, Muhammad; Athar, Muhammad

2004-12-30

443

QUANTIFYING HYDROMETEOR ADVECTION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FRACTION OVER THE SGP CART SITE  

SciTech Connect

A single column model (SCM) is, in essence, an isolated grid column of a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, SCMs have rather demanding input data requirements, but do not suffer from problems associated with balance of a GCM. Among the initial conditions that must be used to describe the initial state of the SCM column are the vertical profile of the horizontal wind components and the vertical profiles of cloud water and ice. In addition, the large-scale divergence and advective tendencies of cloud water and ice must be supplied as external parameters. Finally, the liquid and ice cloud amount as a function of height within the SCM column are required for model evaluation. The scale of the SCM column over which the initial conditions, external parameters, and model evaluation fields must apply is relatively large ({approximately}300 km). To quantify atmospheric structure on this scale, the ARM SGP CART site is located within the NOAA wind profiler network and has boundary and extended measurement facilities in an area compatible with the scale requirements of SCMs. Over an area this size, however, there is often rich mesoscale structure. This mesoscale variability creates a sampling problem that can thwart even the most sophisticated attempts to quantify the initial conditions and external parameters, and to evaluate model performance. There are two approaches that can be used to quantify the time varying quantities required for SCMs: objective analysis and data assimilation. The latter relies on products produced for operational forecasting, while the former involves methods that can be used to combine measurements from various sources to produce synoptic descriptions of the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic fields. Since data assimilation from operational models introduces the uncertainty of the parameterizations used in the models, most of the focus in the SCM effort has been on developing objective analysis techniques.

MILLER,M.; VERLINDE,J.

1998-03-23

444

Spontaneous Language Markers of Spanish Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Spanish-speaking (SS) children with language impairment (LI) present with deficits in morphology and verb argument structure. These language areas may be useful for clinical identification of affected children. This study aimed to evaluate the discrimination accuracy of spontaneous language measures with SS preschoolers to tease out what…

Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.

2007-01-01

445

Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage…

Johnston, Trevor

2003-01-01

446

Language Processes and Second-Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature and research concerning the language processes of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and an analysis of the findings regarding the characteristics of these processes and their relationship to the second-language learner led to the following conclusions: (1) the circumstances under which the first language is…

Collins, Larry Lloyd

447

Global health language and culture competency.  

PubMed

This article presents findings from a survey conducted to examine the availability of foreign language and culture training to Civil Affairs health personnel and the relevance of that training to the tasks they perform. Civil Affairs forces recognize the value of cross-cultural communication competence because their missions involve a significant level of interaction with foreign governments? officials, military, and civilians. Members of the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) who had a health-related military occupational specialty code were invited to participate in the survey. More than 45% of those surveyed were foreign language qualified. Many also received predeployment language and culture training specific to the area of deployment. Significantly more respondents reported receiving cultural training and training on how to work effectively with interpreters than having received foreign language training. Respondents perceived interpreters as important assets and were generally satisfied with their performance. Findings from the survey highlight a need to identify standard requirements for predeployment language training that focuses on medical and health terminology and to determine the best delivery platform(s). Civil Affairs health personnel would benefit from additional cultural training that focuses on health and healthcare in the country or region of deployment. Investing in the development of distance learning capabilities as a platform for delivering health-specific language and culture training may help ease the time and resources constraints that limit the ability of Civil Affairs health personnel to access the training they need. PMID:23536451

Beadling, Charles; Maza, John; Nakano, Gregg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Jawad, Shakir; Al-Ameri, Ali; Zuerlein, Scott; Anderson, Warner

2012-01-01

448

Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

2000-01-01

449

Language and Language Policy in Singapore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)|

Baxter, William H., III

1985-01-01

450

Language trees not equal gene trees.  

PubMed

Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history ('phylogenesis'). Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological roots for elements of basic vocabulary) are analysed using tree-building techniques and found to be well-explained by a phylogenetic model. In this article, we question the demographic assumption which is sometimes made when a tree-building approach has been taken to a set of cultures or languages, namely that the resulting tree is also representative of a bifurcating population history. Using historical census data relating to Gaelic- and English-speaking inhabitants of Sutherland (Highland Scotland), we have explored the dynamics of language death due to language shift, representing the extreme case of lack of congruence between the genetic and the culture-historical processes. Such cases highlight the important role of selective cultural migration (or shifting between branches) in determining the extinction rates of different languages on such trees. PMID:20532998

Steele, James; Kandler, Anne

2010-06-09

451

Language policy and language planning in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this monograph is to provide a detailed account of language policy and language planning in Cyprus. Using both historical and synchronic data and adopting a mixed-methods approach (archival research, ethnographic tools and insights from sociolinguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis), this study attempts to trace the origins and the trajectories of language polices in Cyprus and to relate

Xenia Hadjioannou; Stavroula Tsiplakou; Matthias Kappler

2011-01-01

452

Spontaneous language markers of Spanish language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spanish-speaking (SS) children with language impairment (LI) present with deficits in morphology and verb argument structure. These language areas may be useful for clinical identification of affected children. This study aimed to evaluate the discrimination accuracy of spontaneous language measures with SS preschoolers to tease out what combination of grammatical measure(s) were responsible for the LI deficits, and to determine

GABRIELA SIMON-CEREIJIDO; VERA F. GUTIÉRREZ-CLELLEN

2007-01-01

453

From Refugee Camp to Solitary Confinement: Illiterate adults learn Swedish as a second language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study, based upon 22 interviews, of the factors that govern immigrants' acquisition of a second language. Half of the interviewees are illiterate quota refugees from a Kurdish refugee camp and the other half are immigrants with at least six years of school education. The interpretation framework consists of theories of language and language learning with the emphasis

Elisabeth Elmeroth

2003-01-01

454

Inclusive education for Deaf students: Literacy practices and South African Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the feasibility of inclusive education for Deaf students in a mainstream Further Education and Training (FET) classroom through the use of a South African Sign Language interpreter. It revisits the centrality of language in Deaf students’ education and reports on progressive policy changes in the areas of language, education and disability in South Africa. The article surveys

Meryl Glaser; Ermien van Pletzen

2012-01-01

455

The Familial Context of Adolescent Language Brokering within Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language brokering, whereby children of immigrants provide informal translation and interpretation for others, is considered commonplace. However, the research evidence remains inconsistent concerning how language brokering relates to the psychological health of child language brokers and their relationships with their parents. Furthermore, few…

Hua, Josephine M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

2012-01-01

456

Examining the Effects of Language Brokering on Student Identities and Learning Opportunities in Dual Immersion Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In settings where speakers of two or more different languages coexist, language brokering, the act of interpreting and translating between culturally and linguistically different speakers, is commonly practiced. Yet the examination of language brokering and its implications in classroom settings have not received much attention in the literature.…

Lee, Jin Sook; Hill-Bonnet, Laura; Raley, Jason

2011-01-01

457

Individual Differences in Integrating Information from Word Parts and Context in Interpreting Novel Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the combined effects of morphological clues and contextual clues in the interpretation of novel words while reading in a second language. More specifically, it examined the ability of 74 less-proficient English-speaking learners of Japanese (college students learning Japanese during a summer intensive language program in Japan) to…

Mori, Yoshiko

458

A Method to Resolve Ambiguity of Interpretation of English Sentences for Intelligent English Learning Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of ambiguity resolution for natural language processing in intelligent English learning support systems. Ambiguity of interpretation of sentences is one of the most important problems for intelligent language learning support systems which allow learners input composed sentences freely. Our system has a question and answer function which asks learners the contents of a story. Our

Hidenobu KUNICHIKA; Minoru HONDA; Tsukasa HIRASHIMA; Akira TAKEUCHI

459

Design of a Parallel Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concurr is a new language for parallel systems. The language is designed as an easy-to-use parallel programming facility. The language also attempts to overcome some 'unnatural' restrictions of previous sequential languages. Clearly, new languages are nee...

J. R. Weisbecker

1988-01-01

460

Modeling the Interpretive Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and compares three models used in planning interpretive environmental experiences: an intuitive program-planning model; an interactive communications model; and Cherem's model, in which the audience directly influences program goals and techniques. Cherem's model includes managerial realities, but doesn't recognize the social aspect of…

McKean, Barbara

1999-01-01

461

Food sustainability : Diverging interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In sessions on food security – the focus in developing countries – and food safety – primarily a preoccupation

Harry Aiking; Joop de Boer

2004-01-01

462

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

463

Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

1993-01-01

464

Kinematics Graph Interpretation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary goal of the Kinematics Graphing Project is to investigate the ability of students to interpret kinematics graphs and to generate a set of suggestions for faculty teaching the subject. Evaluation instruments are used to uncover the common misconceptions of students.

Beichner, Robert J.

2003-10-10

465

Professionalism as Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Article, I defend the interpretive attitude of professionalism. Professionalism is a stance toward the law which accepts that a lawyer is not merely an agent of her client. Rather, in carrying out her client's lawful instructions, a lawyer has an obligation to apply the law to her client's situation with due regard to the meaning of legal norms,

W. Bradley Wendel

2005-01-01

466

Seclusion: Definitional interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seclusion of psychiatric patients means different things to different people and different organizations. Without a clear definitional framework misunderstanding can occur and comparative analyses are made difficult. In an attempt to establish universal themes 166 international articles and books on seclusion were reviewed and their definitional interpretations evaluated. The results highlight a wide disparity between studies and there is little

Tom Mason

1992-01-01

467

Interpreting Genesis One  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like other parts of Scripture, Genesis 1 must be interpreted in terms of its historical and literary context. This creation account was given to the Israelites in the wilderness, after the exodus from Egypt but before the conquest of Canaan. What the message meant then to the original hearers must govern the application of what it means now to us

CHARLES E. HUMMEL

1986-01-01

468

Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

2001-01-01

469

The ADAMS interactive interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS

Rietscha

1990-01-01

470

Deep Language and Persistent Culture: Learning to Speak the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

My concern in this paper is to explore how religious practitioners' approaches to learning, using, and interpreting Santería's esoteric ritual language, Lucumí, impact Lucumí's ritual efficacy as the sacred speech of the deities and ancestors. In particular, I wish to argue that distinct interpretive practices, situated in different contexts or deployed by differently situated actors, provide alternate visions of Lucumí's

Kristina Wirtz

471

Are languages digital codes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language use is commonly understood to involve digital signalling, which imposes certain constraints and restrictions on linguistic communication. Two papers by Ross [Ross, D., 2004. Metalinguistic signalling for coordination amongst social agents. Language Sciences 26, 621–642; Ross, D., this issue. H. sapiens as ecologically special: what does language contribute? Language Sciences 29] are discussed in this connection. It is evident

Nigel Love

2007-01-01

472

Using Language Sample Databases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Over the past 50 years, language sample analysis (LSA) has evolved from a powerful research tool that is used to document children's linguistic development into a powerful clinical tool that is used to identify and describe the language skills of children with language impairment. The Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT;…

Heilmann, John J.; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann

2010-01-01

473

The Quechua language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quechua language is a life language which is used in Andes area of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Its vocabulary, gramatic rules, pronontiation and a written form are diferent in various areas. The Quechua language is an aglutinative language, it means we add suffixes to the basic word which can be cumulated. Every suffix has the only one expression -

Olga Vilímková

2006-01-01

474

The Common Command Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common command language has been proposed for use by systems designers and those developing new user interfaces. There is controversy over the appropriateness of a standard command language, and those who are working in artificial intelligence believe that natural language interfaces will make it unnecessary for users to learn such a language,…

Fayen, Emily Gallup

475

First computer languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first computer language that a student learns will set the tone for every computer class that follows. The real issue is not what language to teach first, but how to approach the teaching of the language. The ideal class has the following five elements: 1) A special introduction lab to expose the student to the language interface without regard

Kris Howell

2003-01-01

476

Urban Wall Languaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graffiti constitutes a medium through which the youth express opposition to authorities, as well as desires, dreams, and hopes. Graffiti shows many of the linguistic characteristics of youth language, including playfulness and, first and foremost, polylingual languaging. Graffiti in almost every city, at least in Europe, uses English and one or more local language, and almost everywhere additional languages are

J. Normann Jørgensen

2008-01-01

477

Languages for Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The strategy of the Department for Education and Skills'(DfES) 2002 strategy document, "Languages for All: Languages for Life" called for improving the quality of language teaching and learning; enhancing qualifications and credit recognition arrangements; and increasing demand for language learning. This principle was to extends to adult…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

478

Language in South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

479

Speaking of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourteen selected speeches dating from 1955 to 1969 cover a broad range of information relevant to the history of language instruction in American schools. A state-of-the-art review of language instruction, written in 1955, precedes papers on: (1) language proficiency; (2) school and college language program cooperation; (3) motion pictures in…

Brooks, Nelson

480

Language in South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

481

Feminist Language Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Feminist language planning is an active engagement with the ways in which language represents and reproduces gender. It is not specifically concerned with the ways in which language presents women, although this is a major focus, but rather how language positions both males and females and how it enters into the social practices that gender…

Liddicoat, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

482

Dynamically Typed Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamically typed languages such as Python and Ruby have experienced a rapid grown in popularity in recent times. However, there is much confusion as to what makes these languages interesting relative to statically typed languages, and little knowledge of their rich history. In this chapter I explore the general topic of dynamically typed languages, how they differ from statically typed

Laurence Tratt

2009-01-01

483

Endangered Language Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.

2012-01-01

484

Endangered Language Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguists have increased their documentation efforts in response to the sharp decline in the number of languages. Greater awareness and new sources of funding have led to an upsurge in language documentation. While individual languages make unique contributions to the world's linguistic heritage, language families, by virtue of their shared…

Whalen, D. H.; Simons, Gary F.

2012-01-01

485

On Explaining Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author's purpose in this article is to discuss the aspects of language (especially the development of language in children) to which biological concepts are most appropriately applied. While results of past studies would seem to show that language development is contingent on specific language training, it is important to distinguish between…

Lenneberg, Eric H.

1969-01-01

486

Jeu de cartes or Jeu Descartes: Business Cards in a French Course for the Professions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the use of French business cards in a college-level French language and culture course for professionals. Among other assignments, students were each given a different card and asked to speak about the design of their card, the business represented, idiomatic expressions and historical allusions on the card, and the use of…

Gegerias, Mary

487

Language and Linguistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though it may be a universal human attribute, language is hardly simple. For decades, linguistsâ main task was to track and record languages. But, like so many areas of science, the field of linguistics has evolved dramatically over the past 50 years or so. This special report touches on nearly all of these areas by answering questions such as: How does language develop and change? Can the language apparatus be "seen" in the brain? Does it matter if a language disappears? What exactly is a dialect? How can sign language help us to understand languages in general?

488

Inhibiting Your Native Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—After immersion in a foreign language, speakers,often have difficulty retrieving native-language words—a,phenomenon,known,as first-language attrition. We propose,that first-language attrition arises in part from thesuppression,of native-language phonologyduring second-language use, and thus is a case of phonological retrieval-induced forgetting. In two experiments, we in- vestigated,this hypothesis,by,having,native,English speakers,name,visual objects in a language,they were learning,(Spanish). Repeatedly,naming,the objects in Spanish reduced,the accessibility of the corresponding English

Benjamin J. Levy; Nathan D. Mcveigh; Alejandra Marful; Michael C. Anderson

489

Embodied language comprehension requires an enactivist paradigm of cognition.  

PubMed

Two recurrent concerns in discussions on an embodied view of cognition are the "necessity question" (i.e., is activation in modality-specific brain areas necessary for language comprehension?) and the "simulation constraint" (i.e., how do we understand language for which we lack the relevant experiences?). In the present paper we argue that the criticisms encountered by the embodied approach hinge on a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. We argue that the data relating sensorimotor activation to language comprehension can best be interpreted as supporting a non-representationalist, enactivist model of language comprehension, according to which language comprehension can be described as procedural knowledge - knowledge how, not knowledge that - that enables us to interact with others in a shared physical world. The enactivist view implies that the activation of modality-specific brain areas during language processing reflects the employment of sensorimotor skills and that language comprehension is a context-bound phenomenon. Importantly, an enactivist view provides an embodied approach of language, while avoiding the problems encountered by a cognitivist interpretation of embodiment. PMID:21833288

van Elk, Michiel; Slors, Marc; Bekkering, Harold

2010-12-27

490

Curbing language intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language plays an enormous part in an audience's perception of a writer, particularly when such language is highly intense. High-intensity language tends to be more colorful, subjective, emotionally charged and personal (e.g. “plot”, “scheme”), while low-intensity language tends to be more bland, objective, dispassionate and impersonal (e.g. “plan”). High-intensity language can be good for the professional writer since color and

LYNNA DUNN PENEGUY; J. W. Bowers; R. K. Aune; T. Kikuchi

1999-01-01

491

Geometry Constructions Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometry Constructions Language (gcl) is a language for explicit descriptions of constructions in Euclidean plane and of their properties. Other mathematical\\u000a objects can also be described in the language. The language gcl is intuitive and simple, yet it supports arrays, flow control structures, user-defined procedures, etc. The processors for\\u000a the gcl language—applications gclc and Wingclc—enable visualization of described objects and

Predrag Janicic

2010-01-01

492

Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

Hinton, Leanne

2011-01-01

493

Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Expression is Differentially Regulated in the Hypothalamic Para ventricular Nucleus of Lactating Rats Exposed to Suckling or Cold Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Neural stimuli, such as suckling or cold exposure, increase TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat hypothalamus, yet only suckling induces prolactin secretion. As TRH co-localizes with cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in hypophysiotropic neurons of the PVN, and CART inhibits TRH-induced prolactin release but not TRH-induced TSH release in adenohypophyseal cell cultures, we raised the possibility that differential regulation of CART gene expression in the PVN may explain the differences in prolactin secretion following each of the two stimuli. Primiparous female rats were mated and handled daily during the pre- and postpartum periods. After delivery, the litter was adjusted to 8 pups and at mid-lactation, dams were separated from their pups for 8 hours and exposed to either 1h of cold or 30 min of suckling. Long term effects of suckling were studied by separating pups from their mothers for 24h, followed by a 12h period of continuous suckling. Serum TSH levels increased in response to cold exposure, while prolactin levels were increased by suckling and diminished by cold exposure. CART mRNA levels increased in rostral and mid parts of the medial parvocellular PVN following cold exposure but not after suckling stimulation. These data demonstrate a differential regulation of CART gene expression in hypophysiotropic neurons in response to stimuli that increase TRH mRNA levels, and suggest that CART activation in the PVN may contribute to the decrease in PRL release when the thyroid axis is activated by cold exposure. Section: Regulatory systems

Sanchez, Edith; Fekete, Csaba; Lechan, Ronald M.; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

2007-01-01

494

Classificação geométrica de galáxias bianeladas através do metódo CART (Classification And Regression Trees)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A importância deste trabalho deve-se à seleção de objetos ainda não tratados particularmente como uma família e ao emprego de procedimento estatístico robusto que não precisa de pressupostos ou condições de contorno. Contribui, assim, ao melhor entendimento do cenário das Galáxias Aneladas do diagrama de Hubble via classificação e estudo de subclasses. Selecionaram-se 100 galáxias possuidoras de dois anéis do Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies compilado por Ronald Buta, de modo a construir uma amostra completa em termos de conhecimento dos semi-eixos dos anéis interno e externo projetados no plano do céu. Visando uma possível classificação destas galáxias aneladas normais em famílias de acordo com as características geométricas dos anéis, empregou-se primeiramente a Análise de Aglomerados (ferramenta de classificação: medições de semelhança em um espaço bidimensional) para explorar a possível existência de famílias. As variáveis analisadas foram: os diâmetros interiores menores d(I) e maiores D(I), os diâmetros exteriores menores d(E) e maiores D(E), e os ângulos de inclinação dos semi-eixos maiores interiores q(I) e exteriores q(E) dos anéis. Como metodologia de discriminação, empregou-se a construção de Árvores de Classificação. As árvores de classificação constituem um método de discriminação alternativo aos modelos clássicos, tais como a Análise Discriminante e a Regressão Logística, onde uma base de dados é dividida em partições (subgrupos) da árvore por ação de um predictor (variável específica). Os pacotes estatísticos utilizados para o processamento da informação foram: SAS versão 8.0 (Statistical Analisys System) e CART versão 3.6.3. Esta análise estatística sugere a existência de três possíveis famílias de galáxias bianeladas, com base apenas na geometria dos anéis. Como forma exploratória inicial deste resultado, a construção de um diagrama BT (magnitude total) versus o índice de cor (B-R), mostra que os três grupos distribuem-se de forma praticamente contínua, porém discriminadas entre si, ocupando três regiões distintas. A classe 3, por exemplo, é geralmente a mais azul, sendo a Classe 1 a mais avermelhada.

Ormeño, M. I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Cavada, G.

2003-08-01

495

Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

Braun, Mark

2007-03-02

496

Interpreter-mediated neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish speakers with limited English proficiency, aged 18-65 years (M?=?39.7, SD?=?13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending on whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient's target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

2011-12-20

497

Trained interpretive bias and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between anxiety and interpretive bias has been studied extensively, but the causal direction of this relationship remains largely unexplored. Do negative interpretations cause anxiety or is anxiety the cause of negative interpretations? Or are the two mutually reinforcing? The present study addressed this issue by experimentally inducing either a negative or a positive interpretive bias using Mathews and

Elske Salemink; Marcel van den Hout; Merel Kindt

2007-01-01

498

Interpretive Historical Archaeologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In agreeing to do this chapter, I convinced myself that the task would be easier than it actually has been. I found that it\\u000a was easier to recognize what made an interpretive historical archaeology than to explicitly define what made one so. As I\\u000a sat at my computer, agonizing how to begin, I realized that perhaps I needed to begin

Laurie A. Wilkie

499

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul