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Sample records for language interpreters cart

  1. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Lee; Dubois, Paul F.; Motteler, Zane C.; Yang, Tser-Yuan; Eme, William; Taylor, Lee; Miller, Douglas

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  2. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  3. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  4. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  5. Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

  6. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  7. Entropy, Its Language, and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2007-12-01

    The language of entropy is examined for consistency with its mathematics and physics, and for its efficacy as a guide to what entropy means. Do common descriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder understanding? Can the language of entropy be helpful in cases where entropy is not well defined? We argue in favor of the descriptor spreading, which entails space, time, and energy in a fundamental way. This includes spreading of energy spatially during processes and temporal spreading over accessible microstates states in thermodynamic equilibrium. Various examples illustrate the value of the spreading metaphor. To provide further support for this metaphor’s utility, it is shown how a set of reasonable spreading properties can be used to derive the entropy function. A main conclusion is that it is appropriate to view entropy’s symbol S as shorthand for spreading.

  8. PBS: An Economical Natural Language Query Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samstag-Schnock, Uwe; Meadow, Charles T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the design and implementation of PBS (Parsing, Boolean Recognition, Stemming), a software module used in conjunction with an intermediary program to interpret natural language queries used for online database searching. Results of a test of the initial version, which is designed for use with bibliographic files, are reported. (13…

  9. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  10. Interpreting spatial language in image captions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark M; Smart, Philip D; Jones, Christopher B

    2011-02-01

    The map as a tool for accessing data has become very popular in recent years, but a lot of data do not have the necessary spatial meta-data to allow for that. Some data such as photographs however have spatial information in their captions and if this could be extracted, then they could be made available via map-based interfaces. Towards this goal, we introduce a model and spatio-linguistic reasoner for interpreting the spatial information in image captions that is based upon quantitative data about spatial language use acquired directly from people. Spatial language is inherently vague, and both the model and reasoner have been designed to incorporate this vagueness at the quantitative level and not only qualitatively. PMID:21229288

  11. Comprehension of Sign Language Interpreting: Deciphering a Complex Task Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patricia; Convertino, Carol; Seewagen, Rosemarie; Maltzen, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Remarkably few studies have examined the outcomes of sign language interpreting. Three experiments reported here examine deaf students' comprehension of interpreting in American Sign Language and English-based signing (transliteration) as a function of their sign language skills and preferences. In Experiments 1 and 2, groups of deaf students…

  12. Direction asymmetries in spoken and signed language interpreting*

    PubMed Central

    NICODEMUS, BRENDA; EMMOREY, KAREN

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study (N=1,359) of both unimodal and bimodal interpreters that confirmed these preferences. The L1 to L2 direction preference was stronger for novice than expert bimodal interpreters, while novice and expert unimodal interpreters did not differ from each other. The results indicated that the different direction preferences for bimodal and unimodal interpreters cannot be explained by language productioncomprehension asymmetries or by work or training experiences. We suggest that modality and language-specific features of signed languages drive the directionality preferences of bimodal interpreters. Specifically, we propose that fingerspelling, transcoding (literal word-for-word translation), self-monitoring, and consumers linguistic variation influence the preference of bimodal interpreters for working into their L2. PMID:23833563

  13. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.

  14. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  15. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  16. Interpreting Language Arts Research for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents chapters concerning various aspects of research in language arts and implications for language instruction. The works of individuals are mentioned throughout the book, and 1,168 references are included in a list of works cited in the text. The research topics covered involve language development, oral language, listening, the…

  17. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  18. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  19. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  20. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  1. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  2. The Psychotherapist and the Sign Language Interpreter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT).…

  3. Interpreting natural language queries using the UMLS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S. B.; Aguirre, A.; Peng, P.; Cimino, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes AQUA (A QUery Analyzer), the natural language front end of a prototype information retrieval system. AQUA translates a user's natural language query into a representation in the Conceptual Graph formalism. The graph is then used by subsequent components to search various resources such as databases of the medical literature. The focus of the parsing method is on semantics rather than syntax, with semantic restrictions being provided by the UMLS Semantic Net. The intent of the approach is to provide a method that can be emulated easily in applications that require simple natural language interfaces. PMID:8130481

  4. Martin Heidegger: Interpretation, Language, and the Intrapersonal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Barbara

    The "logos" concept of Martin Heidegger's phenomenological philosophy refers to a perceptual attunement to "Being," or reality as a whole, which is prior to language. Logos includes every way in which people interpret, constitute, and interact with their world. Language is seen as prior to our awareness of Being, as well as constitutive of it.…

  5. Language Impaired Children's Interpretation of PRO: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jennifer R.; And Others

    The study evaluated whether specifically language impaired (SLI) children (N=6 and ages 5-8) manifested atypical or normal but delayed development in their interpretation of PRO (an empty pronomial element which has also been termed "a missing complement subject"). Language samples were taken and analyzed twice over a 9-12 month period. Among

  6. Interpreting Language: An Essential of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegers, J. Conrad, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph points out the difficulties in language development of which teachers should be aware, suggests some methods through which children may be helped to overcome comprehension problems, and presents bibliographies helpful for persons who wish to undertake further reading. Chapters include "Some Possible Origins of the Prevalence of…

  7. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  8. Access to Postsecondary Education through Sign Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patricia; Convertino, Carol; Seewagen, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the importance of sign language interpreting for many deaf students, there is surprisingly little research concerning its effectiveness in the classroom. The limited research in this area is reviewed, and a new study is presented that included 23 interpreters, 105 deaf students, and 22 hearing students. Students saw two interpreted…

  9. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the

  10. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  11. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  12. The Use of Interpreters by Speech-Language Pathologists Conducting Bilingual Speech-Language Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfrey, Carol Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to explore the practices of speech-language pathologists in conducting bilingual assessments with interpreters. Data were obtained regarding the assessment tools and practices used by speech-language pathologists, the frequency with which they work with interpreters, and the procedures…

  13. Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

  14. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an

  15. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  16. Access to postsecondary education through sign language interpreting.

    PubMed

    Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patricia; Convertino, Carol; Seewagen, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    Despite the importance of sign language interpreting for many deaf students, there is surprisingly little research concerning its effectiveness in the classroom. The limited research in this area is reviewed, and a new study is presented that included 23 interpreters, 105 deaf students, and 22 hearing students. Students saw two interpreted university-level lectures, each preceded by a test of prior content knowledge and followed by a post-lecture assessment of learning. A variety of demographic and qualitative data also were collected. Variables of primary interest included the effects of a match or mismatch between student interpreting preferences (interpreting vs. transliteration) and the actual mode of interpreting, student-interpreter familiarity, and interpreter experience. Results clarify previous contradictory findings concerning the importance of student interpreting preferences and extend earlier studies indicating that deaf students acquire less than hearing peers from interpreted college-level lectures. Issues relating to access and success in integrated academic settings are discussed as they relate to relations among student characteristics, interpreter characteristics, and educational settings. PMID:15585747

  17. Social construction of American sign language--English interpreters.

    PubMed

    McDermid, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English interpreters, such as learners' age and education and the characteristics of good citizens within the Deaf community. According to the participants, younger students were adept at language acquisition, whereas older learners more readily understood the purpose of lessons. Children of deaf adults were seen as more culturally aware. The participants' beliefs echoed the theories of P. Freire (1970/1970) that educators consider the reality of each student and their praxis and were responsible for facilitating student self-awareness. Important characteristics in the social construction of students included independence, an appropriate attitude, an understanding of Deaf culture, ethical behavior, community involvement, and a willingness to pursue lifelong learning. PMID:18424772

  18. Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

  19. Interpretation of spatial language in a map navigation task.

    PubMed

    Levit, Michael; Roy, Deb

    2007-06-01

    We have developed components of an automated system that understands and follows navigational instructions. The system has prior knowledge of the geometry and landmarks of specific maps. This knowledge is exploited to infer complex paths through maps based on natural language descriptions. The approach is based on an analysis of verbal commands in terms of elementary semantic units that are composed to generate a probability distribution over possible spatial paths in a map. An integration mechanism based on dynamic programming guides this language-to-path translation process, ensuring that resulting paths satisfy continuity and smoothness criteria. In the current implementation, parsing of text into semantic units is performed manually. Composition and interpretation of semantic units into spatial paths is performed automatically. In the evaluations, we show that the system accurately predicts the speakers' intended meanings for a range of instructions. This paper provides building blocks for a complete system that, when combined with robust parsing technologies, could lead to a fully automatic spatial language interpretation system. PMID:17550120

  20. Interpreting the language of histone and DNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Scott B; Strahl, Brian D

    2014-08-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or 'code' that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins have raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. PMID:24631868

  1. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  2. School Counselor Collaboration with Language Interpreters: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maddux, Cleborne

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase knowledge of current school practices with regard to the use of language interpreters, experiences in collaborative work with interpreters were assessed through a national survey. Outcomes indicated a perceived need for more interpreter assistance, with many indicating a need for full-time language services. Bilingual…

  3. Implementation of Language Assessments for Staff Interpreters in Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    de Jaimes, Fatima Nunez; Batts, Felicia; Noguera, Christine; Guerrero, Lourdes; Moreno, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bilingual staff is used to provide interpreter services in community health centers. Little is known about the language proficiency of dual-role staff interpreters. Golden Valley Health Centers implemented a formal language assessment program to improve the number of qualified dual-role staff interpreters and ultimately improve the quality of patient care. PMID:23974375

  4. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  5. Pointing in Sign Language and Gesture: An Alternative Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukioja, Timo

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between sign language and gesture in language acquisition. Specifically, the question is asked, are sign language and nonlinguistic gestures treated differently by infants acquiring a sign language? The answer is found in reexamining data concerning two deaf children learning American Sign Language (ASL). The data…

  6. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    PubMed Central

    Debevc, Matjaž; Milošević, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers’ comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  7. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions.

    PubMed

    Debevc, Matjaž; Milošević, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers' comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  8. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  9. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity

  10. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

  11. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  12. Interpreting "The Signs of Language." A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Peyton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the book that reports the results of research conducted by Edward Klima, Ursula Bellugi, and others. The book aims to show American Sign Language as a true language and to detail the representational devices that the language employs. A chapter by chapter summary of the reported research is given. (PJM)

  13. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their

  14. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  15. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience

  16. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  17. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  18. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Cai, Guoqing; Mo, Chunheng; Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  19. First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

  20. Intention, Interpretation and the Computational Structure of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    I show how a conversational process that takes simple, intuitively meaningful steps may be understood as a sophisticated computation that derives the richly detailed, complex representations implicit in our knowledge of language. To develop the account, I argue that natural language is structured in a way that lets us formalize grammatical…

  1. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvořák, LukáÅ.¡

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  2. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  3. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,

  4. Characteristics and Practices of Sign Language Interpreters in Inclusive Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bernhardt E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 222 educational sign language interpreters from K-12 public school systems found a lack of certification and adequate training for the majority of respondents and an underrepresentation of males and interpreters from minority groups. Recommendations for providing educational programs and services for students with hearing impairments…

  5. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,

  6. Interpretation of Reflexive Anaphora in Second Language VP Ellipsis: Relevance Theory and Paradigms of Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequeiros, Xose Rosales

    2004-01-01

    This article explores second language (L2) learners' interpretation of reflexive anaphora in VP-Ellipsis by critiquing the work of Ying (2003), who applies Relevance Theory to explain elliptical anaphora. It argues against four claims made in his analysis: that L2 learners apply maximal relevance in anaphoric interpretation; that a procedural…

  7. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

  8. Interpretation of Reflexive Anaphora in Second Language VP Ellipsis: Relevance Theory and Paradigms of Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequeiros, Xose Rosales

    2004-01-01

    This article explores second language (L2) learners' interpretation of reflexive anaphora in VP-Ellipsis by critiquing the work of Ying (2003), who applies Relevance Theory to explain elliptical anaphora. It argues against four claims made in his analysis: that L2 learners apply maximal relevance in anaphoric interpretation; that a procedural

  9. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  10. Oxen Pulling Cart

    Ox-pulled carts are still used on rural dirt roads in Paraguay. The oxen push against a rough log laid in front of their withers. Large wooden wheels work well on dry roads. The Ñeembucú Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 26°34’52’’S, 56...

  11. Oxen Pulling Cart

    Ox-pulled carts are still used on rural dirt roads in Paraguay. The oxen push against a rough log laid in front of their withers. Large wooden wheels work well on dry roads. The eembuc Region is typified by extensive grasslands and wetlands. Near 263452S, 56...

  12. Computers a la Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Robertta H.

    1988-01-01

    Explains uses of computer hardware when it's no longer needed to teach computer literacy. Describes a mini-lab pilot project which consists of several computers mounted on carts used similarly as audiovisual equipment. Lists advantages, disadvantages, and percentages of time used for instruction, interfacing, word processing, graphing, and…

  13. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

  14. Native language governs interpretation of salient speech sound differences at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christiane; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the first steps infants take in learning their native language is to discover its set of speech-sound categories. This early development is shown when infants begin to lose the ability to differentiate some of the speech sounds their language does not use, while retaining or improving discrimination of language-relevant sounds. However, this aspect of early phonological tuning is not sufficient for language learning. Children must also discover which of the phonetic cues that are used in their language serve to signal lexical distinctions. Phonetic variation that is readily discriminable to all children may indicate two different words in one language but only one word in another. Here, we provide evidence that the language background of 1.5-year-olds affects their interpretation of phonetic variation in word learning, and we show that young children interpret salient phonetic variation in language-specific ways. Three experiments with a total of 104 children compared Dutch- and English-learning 18-month-olds' responses to novel words varying in vowel duration or vowel quality. Dutch learners interpreted vowel duration as lexically contrastive, but English learners did not, in keeping with properties of Dutch and English. Both groups performed equivalently when differentiating words varying in vowel quality. Thus, at one and a half years, children's phonological knowledge already guides their interpretation of salient phonetic variation. We argue that early phonological learning is not just a matter of maintaining the ability to distinguish language-relevant phonetic cues. Learning also requires phonological interpretation at appropriate levels of linguistic analysis. PMID:17911262

  15. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  16. Shielding Yourself from the Perils of Empathy: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the psychological mechanisms of empathy with specific reference to sign language interpreters. It stresses that one must achieve a healthy balance of empathizing enough while shielding oneself from its perils to work effectively and ethically with a member of a minority group such as the deaf community. (Contains references.)…

  17. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  18. Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2014-01-01

    The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

  19. [Are deaf patients in Germany informed about their legal rights for a sign language interpreter?].

    PubMed

    Höcker, J T; Letzel, S; Münster, E

    2012-12-01

    Deaf citizens are confronted with barriers in a health-care system shaped by hearing people. Therefore the German legislature provides a supply with sign language interpreters at the expense of the health insurances. The present study initially examines in how far the deaf are informed about this and use said interpreters. Traditional surveys are based on spoken and written language and therefore are unsuitable for the target audience. Because of this, a cross-sectional online study was performed using sign language videos and visually oriented answers to allow a barrier-free participation. With a multivariate analysis, factors increasing deaf people's risks not to be informed of the supply with interpreters were identified: Of 841 deaf participants, 31.4% were not informed of their rights. 41.3% have experience with an interpreter at the doctor's and report a mainly trouble-free reimbursement of costs. Young and modestly educated deaf have a higher risk of not being informed of the interpreter supply. Further information is necessary to provide equality of opportunities to deaf patients utilising medical benefits. PMID:22275064

  20. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  1. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

  2. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  3. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  4. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  5. Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that of hearing peers who saw lectures without any support services. Experiment 2 compared interpreting and two forms of real-time text, C-Print and Communication Access Real-Time Translation, at immediate testing and after a 1-week delay (with study notes). No significant differences among support services were obtained at either testing. Experiment 3 also failed to reveal significant effects at immediate or delayed testing in a comparison of real-time text, direct (signed) instruction, and both. Experiment 4 found no significant differences between interpreting and interpreting plus real-time text on the learning of either new words or the content of television programs. Alternative accounts of the observed pattern of results are considered, but it is concluded that neither sign language interpreting nor real-time text have any inherent, generalized advantage over the other in supporting deaf students in secondary or postsecondary settings. Providing deaf students with both services simultaneously does not appear to provide any generalized benefit, at least for the kinds of materials utilized here. PMID:16928778

  6. Assessing the Level of Performance of Sign Language Interpreters from Impaired Hearing Students' Perspectives at Public and Private Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanikat, Feryal Abdel-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the level of performance of sign language interpreters in both public and private Jordanian universities, as well as to recognize the effect of the study variables specifically gender and qualifications for acoustically disabled and interpreter, and the experience of the interpreter on the level of the performance…

  7. Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  8. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  9. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  10. Text-interpreter language for flexible generation of patient notes and instructions.

    PubMed Central

    Forker, T. S.

    1992-01-01

    An interpreted computer language has been developed along with a windowed user interface and multi-printer-support formatter to allow preparation of documentation of patient visits, including progress notes, prescriptions, excuses for work/school, outpatient laboratory requisitions, and patient instructions. Input is by trackball or mouse with little or no keyboard skill required. For clinical problems with specific protocols, the clinician can be prompted with problem-specific items of history, exam, and lab data to be gathered and documented. The language implements a number of text-related commands as well as branching logic and arithmetic commands. In addition to generating text, it is simple to implement arithmetic calculations such as weight-specific drug dosages; multiple branching decision-support protocols for paramedical personnel (or physicians); and calculation of clinical scores (e.g., coma or trauma scores) while simultaneously documenting the status of each component of the score. ASCII text files produced by the interpreter are available for computerized quality audit. Interpreter instructions are contained in text files users can customize with any text editor. PMID:1483011

  11. Shopping-cart-related injuries to children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gary A

    2006-08-01

    An estimated 24,200 children younger than 15 years, 20,700 (85%) of whom were younger than 5 years, were treated in US hospital emergency departments in 2005 for shopping cart-related injuries. Approximately 4% of shopping cart-related injuries to children younger than 15 years require admission to the hospital. Injuries to the head and neck represent three fourths of all injuries. Fractures account for 45% of all hospitalizations. Deaths have occurred from falls from shopping carts and cart tip-overs. Falls are the most common mechanism of injury and account for more than half of injuries associated with shopping carts. Cart tip-overs are the second most common mechanism, responsible for up to one fourth of injuries and almost 40% of shopping cart-related injuries among children younger than 2 years. Public-awareness initiatives, education programs, and parental supervision, although important, are not enough to prevent these injuries effectively. European Standard EN 1929-1:1998 and joint Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 3847.1:1999 specify requirements for the construction, performance, testing, and safety of shopping carts and have been implemented as national standards in 21 countries. A US performance standard for shopping carts (ASTM [American Society for Testing and Materials] F2372-04) was established in July 2004; however, it does not adequately address falls and cart tip-overs, which are the leading mechanisms of shopping cart-related injuries to children. The current US standard for shopping carts should be revised to include clear and effective performance criteria for shopping cart child-restraint systems and cart stability to prevent falls from carts and cart tip-overs. This is imperative to decrease the number and severity of shopping cart-related injuries to children. Recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding prevention of shopping cart-related injuries are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:16882791

  12. On Interpretative Experiences: Unconcious-to-Unconcious Communication Through Reverie, Language, and the Setting.

    PubMed

    Quagelli, Luca; Solano, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation has been looked upon for decades as the analyst's central tool to promote transformation, and it was intended as a synonym for making the unconscious conscious. Nowadays, work with patients with unrepresented mental areas has become more common and the classical conceptualizations require broadening. Reflecting and retrieving the original acceptations of Freud's word Deutung, we suggest the existence of "unconscious-to-unconscious" communications that we shall call "interpretative experiences," which can promote transformation through nonverbal communicative modes, thus getting in touch with more primitive mental functioning. Drawing on case material, we discuss the transformative function of reverie, language, and the setting within the framework of the post-Kleinian and French psychoanalytic model. PMID:27042980

  13. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  14. ViSlang: A System for Interpreted Domain-Specific Languages for Scientific Visualization.

    PubMed

    Rautek, Peter; Bruckner, Stefan; Gröller, M Eduard; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang, an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization. A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in terms of run-time performance. PMID:26356953

  15. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  16. Mitochondrial mechanism of neuroprotection by CART

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong; Ardeshiri, Ardi; Jacks, Rachel; Yang, Sufang; Hurn, Patricia D.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2008-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is protective against focal cerebral ischemia in vivo and against neuronal cell death in culture induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The mechanism of neuroprotection by CART is unknown, in part due to lack of knowledge regarding its putative receptor. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with CARTs carboxy-terminal to screen a mouse brain cDNA library, we uncovered a potential direct interaction between CART and subunit B of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB). We confirmed CART/SDHB binding using in vitro pull-down assay, and tested the effects of CART peptide on SDH activity, Complex II (CII) activity and ATP production in primary cultured cortical neurons under basal conditions and after OGD. At concentrations between 0.2 and 4 nM, CART significantly increased SDH function, CII activity and ATP generation in purified mitochondria and intact neurons under baseline conditions. Furthermore, pretreatment with CART enhanced mitochondrial mechanisms of neuronal survival and prevented the decline in SDH and CII activities and ATP production after OGD. The findings suggest that CARTs neuroprotective mechanism of action may be linked to preservation of mitochondrial function and prevention of energy failure after ischemiareperfusion injury. PMID:17634068

  17. Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Karen L.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

  18. Natural-Language Syntax as Procedures for Interpretation: The Dynamics of Ellipsis Construal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempson, Ruth; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Meyer-Viol, Wilfried; Purver, Matthew; White, Graham; Cann, Ronnie

    In this paper we set out the preliminaries needed for a formal theory of context, relative to a linguistic framework in which natural-language syntax is defined as procedures for context-dependent interpretation. Dynamic Syntax provides a formalism where both representations of content and context are defined dynamically and structurally, with time-linear monotonic growth across sequences of partial trees as the core structure-inducing notion. The primary data involve elliptical fragments, as these provide less familiar evidence of the requisite concept of context than anaphora, but equally central. As part of our sketch of the framework, we show how apparent anomalies for a time-linear basis for interpretation can be straightforwardly characterised once we adopt a new perspective on syntax as the dynamics of transitions between parse-states. We then take this as the basis for providing an integrated account of ellipsis construal. And, as a bonus, we will show how this intrinsically dynamic perspective extends in a seamless way to dialogue exchanges with free shifting of role between speaking and hearing (split-utterances). We shall argue that what is required to explain such dialogue phenomena is for contexts, as representations of content, to include not merely partial structures but also the sequence of actions that led to such structures.

  19. Connecticut Basic Skills Proficiency Test, 1986-87. Mathematics, Basic Writing Skills in the Language Arts, Reading. Summary and Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.

    This booklet interprets and summarizes the results of the Connecticut Statewide Basic Skills Proficiency Test as administered to ninth graders in October, 1986. The test measures basic skills in reading and mathematics, and basic writing skills in the language arts. The test is used to identify students who require further remediation in order to…

  20. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  1. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Erika

    2012-01-01

    On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

  2. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  3. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable

  4. Native Language Attrition and Developmental Instability at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Data, Interpretations and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2004-01-01

    Montrul's study is an important contribution to a recently emerged research approach to the study of bilingualism and languages in contact, characterized by its sound theoretical basis and its reliance on data from different--and traditionally non-integrated--domains of language development: bilingual first language acquisition (Muller and Hulk,…

  5. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  6. Transportable X-ray cart

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

  7. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  8. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of

  9. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  10. Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Hye-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second…

  11. Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Hye-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second

  12. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  13. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the

  14. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation

  15. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  16. GRAMPS: a graphics language interpreter for real-time, interactive, three-dimensional picture editing and animation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, T.J.; Olson, A.J.

    1981-08-01

    GRAMPS, a graphics language interpreter has been developed in FORTRAN 77 to be used in conjunction with an interactive vector display list processor (Evans and Sutherland Multi-Picture-System). Several of the features of the language make it very useful and convenient for real-time scene construction, manipulation and animation. The GRAMPS language syntax allows natural interaction with scene elements as well as easy, interactive assignment of graphics input devices. GRAMPS facilitates the creation, manipulation and copying of complex nested picture structures. The language has a powerful macro feature that enables new graphics commands to be developed and incorporated interactively. Animation may be achieved in GRAMPS by two different, yet mutually compatible means. Picture structures may contain framed data, which consist of a sequence of fixed objects. These structures may be displayed sequentially to give a traditional frame animation effect. In addition, transformation information on picture structures may be saved at any time in the form of new macro commands that will transform these structures from one saved state to another in a specified number of steps, yielding an interpolated transformation animation effect. An overview of the GRAMPS command structure is given and several examples of application of the language to molecular modeling and animation are presented.

  17. Semantic meaning and pragmatic interpretation in 5-year-olds: evidence from real-time spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2009-11-01

    Recent research on children's inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of some (implying not all), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly all). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of prior tasks? In 3 experiments, the authors used the visual-world eye-tracking paradigm to elicit an implicit measure of adults' and children's abilities to generate scalar implicatures. Although adults' eye-movements indicated that adults had interpreted some with the pragmatic inference, children's looks suggested that children persistently interpreted some as compatible with all (Experiment 1). Nevertheless, both adults and children were able to quickly reject competitors that were inconsistent with the semantics of some; this confirmed the sensitivity of the paradigm (Experiment 2). Finally, adults, but not children, successfully distinguished between situations that violated the scalar implicature and those that did not (Experiment 3). These data demonstrate that children interpret quantifiers on the basis of their semantic content and fail to generate scalar implicatures during online language comprehension. PMID:19899927

  18. Linguistic complex networks: Rationale, application, interpretation, and directions. Reply to comments on "Approaching human language with complex networks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jin; Liu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Amid the enthusiasm for real-world networks of the new millennium, the enquiry into linguistic networks is flourishing not only as a productive branch of the new networks science but also as a promising approach to linguistic research. Although the complex network approach constitutes a potential opportunity to make linguistics a science, the world of linguistics seems unprepared to embrace it. For one thing, linguistics has been largely unaffected by quantitative methods. Those who are accustomed to qualitative linguistic methods may find it hard to appreciate the application of quantitative properties of language such as frequency and length, not to mention quantitative properties of language modeled as networks. With this in mind, in our review [1] we restrict ourselves to the basics of complex networks and the new insights into human language with the application of complex networks. For another, while breaking new grounds and posing new challenges for linguistics, the complex network approach to human language as a new tradition of linguistic research is faced with challenges and unsolved issues of its own. It is no surprise that the comments on our review, especially their skepticism and suggestions, focus on various different aspects of the complex network approach to human language. We are grateful to all the insightful and penetrating comments, which, together with our review, mark a significant impetus to linguistic research from the complex network approach. In this reply, we would like to address four major issues of the complex network approach to human language, namely, a) its theoretical rationale, b) its application in linguistic research, c) interpretation of the results, and d) directions of future research.

  19. Appetite regulation in Schizothorax prenanti by three CART genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dengyue; Wei, Rongbin; Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuanbing; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has received much attention as mediators of appetite regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of CART in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. In this study, three distinct CARTs were cloned from the Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Real-time quantitative PCR were applied to characterize the tissue distribution and appetite regulatory effects of CARTs in S. prenanti. The S. prenanti CART-1, CART-2 and CART-3 full-length cDNA sequences were 597 bp, 694 bp and 749 bp in length, encoding the peptides of 125, 120 and 104 amino acid residues, respectively. All the S. prenanti CARTs consisted of three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the high mRNA levels of S. prenanti CART-1 were observed in the telencephalon and eye, followed by the hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and mesencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-2 mRNA was mainly found in the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, telencephalon and myelencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-3 mRNA was widely distributed among the tissues, with the high levels in the hypothalamus and foregut. In the periprandial experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were highly elevated after a meal, suggesting that CARTs are postprandial satiety signals. In the fasting experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions decreased after fasting and increased after refeeding, suggesting that CARTs might be involved in regulation of appetite in the S. prenanti. PMID:26316039

  20. Prediction of radiation levels in residences: A methodological comparison of CART (Classification and Regression Tree Analysis) and conventional regression

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, I.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, trace and toxic substance concentrations frequently have very highly skewed distributions ranging over one or more orders of magnitude, and prediction by conventional regression is often poor. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) is an alternative in such contexts. To compare the techniques, two Pennsylvania data sets and three independent variables are used: house radon progeny (RnD) and gamma levels as predicted by construction characteristics in 1330 houses; and {approximately}200 house radon (Rn) measurements as predicted by topographic parameters. CART may identify structural variables of interest not identified by conventional regression, and vice versa, but in general the regression models are similar. CART has major advantages in dealing with other common characteristics of environmental data sets, such as missing values, continuous variables requiring transformations, and large sets of potential independent variables. CART is most useful in the identification and screening of independent variables, greatly reducing the need for cross-tabulations and nested breakdown analyses. There is no need to discard cases with missing values for the independent variables because surrogate variables are intrinsic to CART. The tree-structured approach is also independent of the scale on which the independent variables are measured, so that transformations are unnecessary. CART identifies important interactions as well as main effects. The major advantages of CART appear to be in exploring data. Once the important variables are identified, conventional regressions seem to lead to results similar but more interpretable by most audiences. 12 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  2. The Role of University Students' Attitude towards Turkish Language Lesson in Interpreting Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytan, Necmi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to measure the effect of students' reading strategies and attitudes towards Turkish language on reading habits. 323 first grade students receiving education in 2014-2015 semester in International Antalya University located at the center of Antalya were involved in the study. As the method, relational screening model was…

  3. Interpreting Continuity and Change in Secondary School English Language Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains how at the institutional level a teacher preparation agency responds to the changes as mandated by the Ministry of Education in Singapore. In particular, it focuses on how the English Language Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) Programme has been responding to the changes to more effectively prepare pre-service…

  4. Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (ages 4 ; 1 to 6 ; 4) and typically developing (TD) children (ages 3 ; 5 to 6 ; 5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from…

  5. Students Learn about Chinese Culture through the Folktale "Yeh-Shen": Emphasizing Figurative Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.

    2012-01-01

    This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…

  6. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  7. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  8. Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying, Ed.; Zhao, Wei, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    As an area of research that continues to develop, the study of linguistics worldwide presents the opportunity for the improvement of cross-cultural communication through education and research. Language educators are charged with the task of instructing students to effectively communicate across cultures in a multi-lingual world. The…

  9. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-Speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether (i) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and (ii) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM)…

  10. Multimodal Instruction as a Means to Scaffold Literary Interpretation in a Secondary English Language Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldakowski, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates what happens when an English Language Arts teacher implements multimodal instruction in his senior-level World Literature course. The study is grounded in theories of transmediation and New Literacy Studies and examines the following research questions: (1) What does multimodal instruction enable students to do…

  11. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  12. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  13. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in

  14. A framework to identify the costs of providing language interpretation services.

    PubMed

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Gazelle, G Scott; Khaliif, Mursal; Arocha, Izabel S; Hacker, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The availability of language services for patients with limited English proficiency has become a standard of care in the United States. Finding the resources to pay for language programs is challenging for providers, payers, and policymakers. There is no federal payment policy and states are developing policies using different methodologies for determining costs and reimbursement rates. This paper establishes a conceptual framework that identifies program costs, can be used across health care entities, and can be understood by administrators, researchers, and policymakers to guide research and analysis and establish a common ground for informed strategic discussion of payment and reimbursement policy. Using case study methods, a framework was established to identify costs and included determining the perspective of the cost analysis as well as distinguishing between the financial accounting costs (direct, indirect, and overhead costs) and the economic opportunity and subsequent utilization costs. PMID:21551931

  15. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

  16. Rolling friction on a wheeled laboratory cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-05-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of rolling friction is contrasted with the static or kinetic friction that in general is also present, such as for a cylinder or ball rolling along a horizontal or inclined surface.

  17. Constant Acceleration: Experiments with a Fan-Driven Dynamics Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the rebuilding of a Project Physics fan cart on a PASCO dynamics cart chassis for achieving greatly reduced frictional forces. Suggests four experiments for the rebuilt cart: (1) acceleration on a level track, (2) initial negative velocity, (3) different masses and different forces, and (4) inclines. (MVL)

  18. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and transport... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175...

  19. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and transport... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175...

  20. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and transport... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175...

  1. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and transport... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175...

  2. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary emergency cart is a device intended to store and transport... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175...

  3. Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joelle

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

  4. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether 1) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and 2) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM) subjects supports a particular theoretical account of anaphora. Fifty-four native-Russian-speaking children (age M = 7;6, SD = 1;9) were tested on a picture selection task. Children with DLD (n=18) underperformed overall, but displayed similar patterns to the typically developing (TD) group with respect to the extra difficulty of the ECM relative to the transitive and ECM pronouns relative to all other conditions. However, whereas pronouns were more difficult than reflexives for the TD children, this effect was not significant for the DLD group, whose reduced accuracy on reflexives washed out the effect of pronouns in that group. These results are consistent with performance-level vulnerability in DLD, arguably related to weaknesses in lexical processing and with the Reflexivity framework of Binding phenomena. PMID:26640354

  5. Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.

    PubMed

    Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

    2002-07-01

    The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

  6. Potential compromise of hospital hygiene by clinical waste carts.

    PubMed

    Blenkharn, J I

    2006-08-01

    Bulk waste storage carts are common in hospitals and undoubtedly assist in the day-to-day management of clinical wastes. They are used for the transport and interim storage of primary clinical waste containers and are often located close to or within hospital buildings to receive such wastes from clinical departments. Examination of a random selection of bulk clinical waste carts at nine acute hospitals across Greater London revealed external soiling in all of 23 carts. Eight of 13 carts were also soiled on the inner surfaces, with evidence of bloodstains and free fluids in the base of five carts. Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci were recovered in low numbers from the lids (N=7) and wheels (N=10) of carts and Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recovered from the wheels of a further five carts. Two carts were heavily contaminated with Aspergillus spp. Pathogens originating from clinical wastes may be transferred from contaminated bulk waste carts to the wider hospital environment. It may be advisable to keep bulk carts outside clinical areas, and preferably outside all hospital buildings. This becomes particularly important in circumstances where carts supplied by contractors are not dedicated to a single hospital or National Health Service trust. PMID:16759738

  7. Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

    This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

  8. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  9. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  10. Effects of Real-Time Captioning and Sign Language Interpreting on the Learning of College Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Pethybridge, Valorie

    2009-01-01

    College personnel are required to provide accommodations for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (D/HoH), but few empirical studies have been conducted on D/HoH students as they learn under the various accommodation conditions (sign language interpreting, SLI, real-time captioning, RTC, and both). Guided by the experiences of students who

  11. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

  12. Analysis of the Samus Collimeter Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-16

    The SAMUS collimator cart is a support for shielding blocks and the vacuum assembly of the Tevatron beam tube as it passes through the D0 End Iron. It slides on linear bearings mounted in the SAMUS toroid as the End Iron moves in and out. There are two collimators designed for the D0 experiment, designated North and South, each identical except for the shimming of the tungsten center blocks, and thereby the relative position of the Tevatron tube. This report contains calculations of the stresses during installation as well as the installed configurations. To support the analysis of the installation case, loads were simulated on the cart held in a mock-up of the lifting fixture.

  13. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  14. Uses and Interpretations of Non-Word Repetition Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairments (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Evans, Julia L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The non-word repetition task (NRT) has gained wide acceptance in describing language acquisition in both children with normal language development (NL) and children with specific language impairments (SLI). This task has gained wide acceptance because it so closely matches the phonological component of word learning, and correlates…

  15. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    1998-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  16. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  17. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  18. Hindbrain CART induces hypothermia mediated by GLP-1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Skibicka, Karolina P.; Alhadeff, Amber L.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides (CART) are widely distributed throughout the neuraxis, including regions associated with energy balance. CART’s classification as a catabolic neuropeptide is based on its inhibitory effects on feeding, co-expression with arcuate nucleus POMC neurons, and on limited analysis of its energy expenditure effects. Here we investigate whether: 1) caudal brainstem delivery of CART produces energetic, cardiovascular and glycemic effects, 2) forebrain – caudal brainstem neural communication is required for those effects and 3) GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) contribute to the mediation of CART-induced effects. Core temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR), activity and blood glucose were measured in rats injected 4th v. with CART (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0µg). Food was withheld during physiologic recording and returned for overnight measurement of intake and body weight. CART induced a long-lasting (> 6h); hypothermia; a 1.5°C and 1.6°C drop in TC for the 1.0 and 2.0µg doses. Hindbrain CART application reduced food intake and body weight and increased blood glucose levels; no change in HR or activity was observed. Supracollicular decerebration eliminated the hypothermic response observed in intact rats to hindbrain ventricular CART, suggesting that forebrain processing is required for hypothermia. Pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist (exendin-9-39) in control rats attenuated CART hypothermia and hypophagia, indicating that GLP-1R activation contributes to hypothermic and hypophagic effects of hindbrain CART while CART-induced hyperglycemia was not altered by GLP-1R blockade. Data reveal a novel function of CART in temperature regulation and open possibilities for future studies on the clinical potential of the hypothermic effect. PMID:19474324

  19. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, C.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part à la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions à la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'à ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

  20. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  1. Clearing the supermarket shopping cart: an informal look.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, John W

    2004-06-01

    An informal enquiry of the behavior of 500 supermarket shoppers clearing carts of litter prior to entering the store showed that 69% dumped the rubbish into another cart, 26% dropped it on the sidewalk, and 5% deposited it in a trash container. PMID:15362430

  2. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under

  3. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  4. On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čech, Radek

    2014-12-01

    After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

  5. Effects of language concordance and interpreter use on therapeutic alliance in Spanish-speaking integrated behavioral health care patients.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Bianca T; Bridges, Ana J; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Ojeda, Carlos A; Hernandez Rodriguez, Juventino; Gomez, Debbie

    2016-02-01

    The discrepancy between the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and the availability of bilingual providers creates a barrier to accessing quality mental health care. Use of interpreters provides one strategy for overcoming this linguistic barrier; however, concerns about whether sessions with interpreters, versus bilingual providers, impede therapeutic alliance remain. The current study explored associations between the use of interpreters and therapeutic alliance in a sample of 458 Spanish-speaking patients seen for integrated behavioral health visits at primary care clinics. Patients completed a brief (4 item) therapeutic alliance scale at their behavioral health appointment. In addition, to supplement the quantitative study data, a pilot study of 30 qualitative interviews was conducted with a new sample of 10 Spanish-speaking patients, 10 behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and 10 trained interpreters. Quantitative results showed that interpreter use did not relate to therapeutic alliance, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. However, qualitative interviews suggested major themes regarding the relative benefits and challenges of using interpreters for patients, interpreters, and BHCs. In interviews, patients expressed a strong preference for bilingual providers. Benefits included greater privacy, sense of trust, and accuracy of communication. However, in their absence, interpreters were seen as increasing access to services and facilitating communication with providers, thereby addressing the behavioral health needs of patients with limited English proficiency. BHCs and interpreters emphasized the importance of interpreter training and a good collaborative relationship with interpreters to minimize negative effects on the quality of care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26349073

  6. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  7. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  8. Semantic Meaning and Pragmatic Interpretation in 5-Year-Olds: Evidence from Real-Time Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on children's inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of "some" (implying "not all"), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly "all"). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of…

  9. Control of an Omni-directional Power-assisted Cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kitano, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Hideki; Fukunaga, Hideo

    This paper describes an easy-to-operate, omni-directional cart. This cart includes power assist technology that acts for both the longitudinal and rotational motions of the cart. Two objectives are set for this development. The first objective is to overcome the difficulty of shifting the cart laterally. Therefore, the equation for calculating the cart turning speed is modified so that the moment, which is driven by the operating force in the right/left direction, is offset. As a result, it becomes possible to stabilize the balance between the operating force in the right/left direction and the operating moment, and improve the operating performance. The second objective is to overcome the other difficulty whereby, during the one-hand pull-operation, the cart tended to run off course to the right/left. To solve this problem, we add a positional control in the right/left direction. As a result, we reduce the lateral deviation of the cart, and improve the operating performance.

  10. University of Pennsylvania aspiration cart (Penn-A-Cart): an innovative journey in fine needle aspiration service.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prabodh K

    2010-01-01

    On-site evaluation of fine needle aspiration specimens is now considered the standard of care. The procedure is performed at the bedside and at various other locations within the hospital using a mobile cart fitted with essentials, including a microscope, stains and supplies. Earlier, an open specimen cart was used with various supplies and a binocular microscope. The mobile cart during the past 25 years has been variously modified. A second-generation cart containing 2 folding pods, a double-headed microscope, supplies and stains had been used for the past 20 years; it did not meet the current regulatory standards and needs, and little attention was paid to meet the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and infection control standards. Also, the repeated lifting of the microscope resulted in much wear and tear. We have designed Penn-A-Cart, which has a pneumatic lift for the microscope, a high-definition camera with a TV screen and access to the Internet. It has a sharps container and storage space for supplies, stains and slides. This cart meets the various regulatory agency standards. It is user friendly and valuable for multiviewing. The cart is valuable for remote access, telecytopathology and improved patient care. PMID:20391972

  11. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. The Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.

    1985-11-01

    Answers to a circular letter concerning the Astrographic Catalogue and the Carte du Ciel from Alger (A. Ghezloun), Catania (C. Blanco), Cordoba (G. Carranza), Greenwich (P. J. Andrews), Paris (J. Delhaye), Sydney (A. E. Vaughan), Toulouse (R. Nadal).

  13. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Translation and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ian M.

    1989-01-01

    An examination of the logic of second language processing argues that knowledge of language structure does not necessarily result in effective language comprehension. Teachers must help students to bridge the gap between translation, which emphasizes lexical and syntactic meaning, and interpretation, which involves global comprehension. (CB)

  17. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART. PMID:21785720

  18. Neural Dynamics of Animacy Processing in Language Comprehension: ERP Evidence from the Interpretation of Classifier-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yaxu; Zhang, Jinlu; Min, Baoquan

    2012-01-01

    An event-related potential experiment was conducted to investigate the temporal neural dynamics of animacy processing in the interpretation of classifier-noun combinations. Participants read sentences that had a non-canonical structure, "object noun" + "subject noun" + "verb" + "numeral-classifier" + "adjective". The object noun and its classifier

  19. Neural Dynamics of Animacy Processing in Language Comprehension: ERP Evidence from the Interpretation of Classifier-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yaxu; Zhang, Jinlu; Min, Baoquan

    2012-01-01

    An event-related potential experiment was conducted to investigate the temporal neural dynamics of animacy processing in the interpretation of classifier-noun combinations. Participants read sentences that had a non-canonical structure, "object noun" + "subject noun" + "verb" + "numeral-classifier" + "adjective". The object noun and its classifier…

  20. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  1. Reports from the field: engaging learners as interpreters for developing health messages -- designing the 'Familias Sin Plomo' English as a Second Language curriculum project.

    PubMed

    Handley, Margaret A; Santos, Maricel G; McClelland, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    California has a recently documented problem of trans-national environmental lead exposures in imported foods from Mexico but there is limited health information available in immigrant communities about this problem. This report highlights collaborative work with English as a Second Language (ESL) learners to critically review research data on lead exposures and reframe prevention messages about lead contamination of imported foods. These messages are now integrated into ESL curricula for dissemination to Spanish-speaking populations that are disproportionately affected by lead poisoning. This 'learners as interpreters' approach is a participatory method that can be applied across a wide range of public health activities. ESL learners emerged as ideal partners in developing curriculum for lead poisoning prevention for several reasons: the parents expressed strong interest in lead poisoning prevention, several have children under age 6 when lead screenings are recommended, and many have emigrated from regions in Mexico where lead hazards were identified. PMID:19773301

  2. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas.

  3. Overview of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Rupple, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system will operate the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer's console, and facility antennas.

  4. Is Language Education? or Is Education Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfit, Christopher

    This paper outlines the teaching and research program in language and education at the University of Southampton (England) and examines problem areas found in the combination of language and education, including confusion in interpretation of textual material by students. Language and education often involves language teaching, but not language,…

  5. An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Ho

    Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

  6. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  7. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  8. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  9. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  10. The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

  11. Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigné, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

  12. Deafness and Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Labor, Trenton. Div. of the Deaf.

    This paper explains how the hearing loss of deaf persons affects communication, describes methods deaf individuals use to communicate, and addresses the role of interpreters in the communication process. The volume covers: communication methods such as speechreading or lipreading, written notes, gestures, or sign language (American Sign Language,

  13. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  14. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  15. A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorsson, Pall

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

  16. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  17. Acceptance Test Report for Gamma Carts A and B

    SciTech Connect

    FULLER, P.J.

    2000-03-16

    Report of Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Reports of the hardware and software tests. The objective of the testing was to verify in the shop that the hardware and software operated according to design specifications before field-testing and installation.

  18. Le Carte Blanc or La Carte Blanche? Bilingual Children's Acquisition of French Adjective Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marchak, Kristan

    2011-01-01

    Because of less exposure to either language, bilingual children's language acquisition can be delayed relative to monolingual children in domains related to input frequency. This study predicted that the acquisition of gender agreement with adjectives in French would be delayed in bilingual children on a picture description task. The results

  19. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment. PMID:26113836

  20. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment. PMID:26113836

  1. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

  2. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  3. Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1989-08-08

    This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

  4. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

    2011-10-01

    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

  5. Kinin B1 receptor gene ablation affects hypothalamic CART productionb.

    PubMed

    Torres, Hugo A M; Louise Motta, Fabiana; Sales, Vicencia Micheline; Batista, Carolina; da Silva, Joelcimar M; Vignoli, Thiago; Barnabé, Gabriela F; Goeldner, Francine O; D'Almeida, Vânia; Bittencourt, Jackson C; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Bader, Michael; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Pesquero, João Bosco

    2013-07-01

    A role for the kinin B1 receptor in energy-homeostatic processes was implicated in previous studies; notably, the studies where kinin B1 receptor knockout mice (B1-/-) were shown to have impaired adiposity, impaired leptin and insulin production, lower feed efficiency, protection from liver steatosis and diet-induced obesity when fed a high fat diet (HFD). In particular, in a model where the B1 receptor is expressed exclusively in the adipose tissue, it rescues the plasma insulin concentration and the weight gain seen in wild type mice. Taking into consideration that leptin participates in the formation of hypothalamic nuclei, which modulate energy expenditure, and feeding behavior, we hypothesized that these brain regions could also be altered in B1-/- mice. We observed for the first time a difference in the gene expression pattern of cocaine and amphetamine related transcript (CART) in the (lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) resulting from the deletion of the kinin B1 receptor gene. The correlation between CART expression in the LHA and the thwarting of diet-induced obesity corroborates independent correlations between CART and obesity. Furthermore, it seems to indicate that the mechanism underlying the 'lean' phenotype of B1-/- mice does not stem solely from changes in peripheral tissues but may also receive contributions from changes in the hypothalamic machinery involved in energy homeostasis processes. PMID:23585179

  6. A cloud climatology of the Southern Great Plains ARM CART

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, S.M.; Krueger, S.K.; Mace, G.G.

    2000-05-15

    Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in north-central Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Wichita, Kansas) were selected. The ECR data span a 10-yr period from December 1981 to November 1991. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) provided cloud amounts over the SGP CART for an 8-yr period (1983--91). Cloud amounts were also obtained from Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and Belfort Ceilometer (BLC) cloud-base height measurements made at the SGP CART over a 1-yr period. The annual and diurnal cycles of cloud amount as a function of cloud height and type were analyzed. The three datasets closely agree for total cloud amount. Good agreement was found in the ECR and MPL-BLC monthly low cloud amounts. With the exception of summer and midday in other seasons, the ISCCP low cloud amount estimates are generally 5%--10% less than the others. The ECR high cloud amount estimates are typically 10%--15% greater than those obtained from either the ISCCP or MPL-BLC datasets. The observed diurnal variations of altocumulus support the authors' model results of radiatively induced circulations.

  7. CryoCart Restoration and Vacuum Pipe Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaidez, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion systems that utilize hypergolic propellants have been used to power space vehicles since the beginning of the space program. Liquid methane and oxygen propulsion systems have emerged as an alternative and have proven to be more environmentally friendly. The incorporation of liquid methane/liquid oxygen (LOX) into the propulsion system has demonstrated an increase in engine performance, as well as a reduction in the volume, size and complexity of the system. Consequently, reducing the total mass of the vehicle which is a crucial aspect that is considered when planning space missions to both the Moon and Mars [1]. Project Morpheus has made significant advancements in liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion system technologies by incorporating a LOX/methane propulsion system to a vertical test bed. The vehicle consisted of a 5,000 lb main engine and four 20 lb remote control system (RCS) engines that utilize liquid methane/LOX as its propellant [1]. The vehicle completed successful flight testing at Kennedy Space Center in 2014 which marked the completion of the Morpheus project. Subsequent projects utilizing Morpheus' vertical test bed have been developed to make further advancements. One of the subsequent projects consisted of the addition of a smaller 2,000 lb main engine and a cold helium heat exchanger which would make it possible for a pressurant tank systems to be send to Mars or the Moon by significantly decreasing the overall mass and volume of the pressurant tank. The hot fire tests of the integrated system with the smaller main engine and cold helium heat exchanger were successful at sea level, but further studies are being conducted to better understand how the vertical test bed will behave under thermal-vacuum conditions. For this reason, the integrated vehicle will be taken to Plum Brook to be tested in a chamber capable of simulating these conditions. To ensure that the vehicle will function properly under vacuum conditions, testing will be first completed at the component level. During this process, the igniter of the main engine and the RCS thrusters will be tested under a vacuum. To complete the testing of the components, the test setup first needed to be finalized. The CryoCart is being used to feed the propellants to the test article. The CryoCart is a movable test set-up that was developed in 2009 to provide a mobile platform for testing oxygen/methane systems with hot-fire capability up to 100 lbf. The CryoCart consists of three different systems: Oxygen, Methane, and liquid Nitrogen. The Oxygen and Methane systems are placed into two different carts while the liquid nitrogen system is mainly located in the methane cart. Over the years, the CryoCart has been utilized for different projects and has undergone deterioration. For this reason, a new phase has been developed to rebuild it to working conditions once again. During my internship, I was aiding in the construction and restoration of the CryoCart. In the initial stages of the process, I updated the fluid and electrical schematics for the oxygen, methane, and test article systems. The original CryoCart consisted of an electrical panel that utilized electromechanical relays and a terminal to drive the igniter power and signal, as well as the main fuel and oxygen valves. This electrical panel connected to the CryoCart through various wire harnesses that could be found exiting from the CryoCart. First, it was determined how these harnesses connected to the electromechanical relays so that they worked correctly. Once the electrical system was understood, an alternative for the electromechanical relays and the Molex connectors used throughout the system was sought since these components can often prove to be unreliable. Solid State relays and MIL connectors were purchased to serve as replacements. Upon arrival of the parts, crimping and wiring was completed to install the new solid state relays and MIL connectors. During the replacement of the relays and connectors, system checks of the electrical system were ran to ensure that the system was working correctly. While completing system checks, the pressure transducers that were not functioning properly were also replaced and any issue with the wiring or signal was addressed. Once the electrical components were replaced, the restoration of the fluid system began. Parts of the tubing in the CryoCart had to be rebuild and often consisted of sizing, cutting, bending, filing, and sanding the tubing to prepare it to be flared. Many components had to be proof-tested to bring their certifications up to date, and several components had to be replaced. Various flex hoses, valves, and fittings were send to the Clean Lab because they were new, dirty, or had gone through proof-testing. Once they arrived from the cleaning lab they had to be put back to the system and leak checks and functional tests were conducted. In the Nitrogen system, the copper tubing located in the Oxygen cart was rebuild and Aerogel insulation was added to this section. A new gaseous nitrogen system was added to the CryoCart to purge the vacuum tube which will serve as the test chamber. Once the CryoCart was completed, construction of parts of the vacuum tube began. A flange was manufactured with welded fittings to hold the line of the vacuum pump as well as some extra fittings which will serve as extra inlets used to introduce fluid lines to the vacuum tube. Stress analysis was ran in this flange to ensure that it would not fail under vacuum conditions. The fluid lines leading from the air side of the vacuum to the test article were also constructed and added to the mount that had already been manufactured. Three different sets of tubing were constructed to accommodate the seven different RCS thruster and the main engine igniter that are going to be tested. Full electrical system checks were completed to ensure that all the wire harnesses and valves were functioning. Upon the completion of the CryoCart and the vacuum tube, hot fire testing for the RCS thrusters and the main engine igniter are going to begin. During this time any issues encountered with the engines or igniter will be addressed to ensure that the components function under vacuum conditions. After successful completion of testing, the vertical test bed, Morpheus, will be rebuilt and prepared to be sent to Plum Brook. In Plum Brook, the vehicle will be tested in the thermal-vacuum chamber to demonstrate that integrated lox-methane propulsion system operation in space-like conditions. This internship has allowed me the opportunity to gain valuable hands on experience and to develop skills that will aid in my education as well as in the workforce, while at the same time helping me determine that I would like to further pursue a career in propulsion engineering.

  8. Factors affecting minimum push and pull forces of manual carts.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisawi, K W; Kerk, C J; Congleton, J J; Amendola, A A; Jenkins, O C; Gaines, W

    1999-06-01

    The minimum forces needed to manually push or pull a 4-wheel cart of differing weights with similar wheel sizes from a stationary state were measured on four floor materials under different conditions of wheel width, diameter, and orientation. Cart load was increased from 0 to 181.4 kg in increments of 36.3 kg. The floor materials were smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet. Two wheel widths were tested: 25 and 38 mm. Wheel diameters were 51, 102, and 153 mm. Wheel orientation was tested at four levels: F0R0 (all four wheels aligned in the forward direction), F0R90 (the two front wheels, the wheels furthest from the cart handle, aligned in the forward direction and the two rear wheels, the wheels closest to the cart handle, aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction), F90R0 (the two front wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction and the two rear wheels aligned in the forward direction), and F90R90 (all four wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction). Wheel width did not have a significant effect on the minimum push/pull forces. The minimum push/pull forces were linearly proportional to cart weight, and inversely proportional to wheel diameter. The coefficients of rolling friction were estimated as 2.2, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.5 mm for hard rubber wheels rolling on smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet floors, respectively. The effect of wheel orientation was not consistent over the tested conditions, but, in general, the smallest minimum push/pull forces were measured with all four wheels aligned in the forward direction, whereas the largest minimum push/pull forces were measured when all four wheels were aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction. There was no significant difference between the push and pull forces when all four wheels were aligned in the forward direction. PMID:10327087

  9. Online motor fault detection and diagnosis using a hybrid FMM-CART model.

    PubMed

    Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, a hybrid model combining the fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and the classification and regression tree (CART) for online motor detection and diagnosis tasks is described. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed FMM-CART model, an evaluation with a benchmark data set pertaining to electrical motor bearing faults is first conducted. The results obtained are equivalent to those reported in the literature. Then, a laboratory experiment for detecting and diagnosing eccentricity faults in an induction motor is performed. In addition to producing accurate results, useful rules in the form of a decision tree are extracted to provide explanation and justification for the predictions from FMM-CART. The experimental outcome positively shows the potential of FMM-CART in undertaking online motor fault detection and diagnosis tasks. PMID:24807956

  10. Differential expression of CART in feeding and reward circuits in binge eating rat model.

    PubMed

    Bharne, Ashish P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-09-15

    Binge eating (BE) disrupts feeding and subverts reward mechanism. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) mediates satiety as well as reward, its role in BE justifies investigation. To induce BE, rats were provided restricted access to high fat sweet palatable diet (HFSPD) for a period of 4 weeks. Immunoreactivity profile of the CART elements, and accompanying neuroplastic changes were studied in satiety- and reward-regulating brain nuclei. Further, we investigated the effects of CART, CART-antibody or rimonabant on the intake of normal chow or HFSPD. Rats fed on HFSPD showed development of BE-like phenotype as reflected by significant consumption of HFSPD in short time frame, suggestive of dysregulated satiety mechanisms. At the mid-point during BE, CART-immunoreactivity was significantly increased in hypothalamic arcuate (ARC), lateral (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT). However, for next 22-h post-binge time-period, the animals showed no interest in food, and low CART expression. Pre-binge treatment with rimonabant, a drug recommended for the treatment of BE, produced anorexia, increased CART expression in ARC and LH, but not in AcbSh and PVT. Higher dose of CART was required to produce anorexia in binged rats. While neuronal tracing studies confirmed CART fiber connectivity from ARC and LH to AcbSh, increase in CART and synaptophysin immunostaining in this pathway in BE rats suggested strengthening of the CART connectivity. We conclude that CART bearing ARC-LH-PVT-AcbSh reward circuit may override the satiety signaling in ARC-PVN pathway in BE rats. PMID:26008155

  11. Nicotine regulates cocaine-amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (Cart) in the mesocorticolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Ugur, Muzeyyen; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Balkan, Burcu

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are intensely expressed in the brain regions comprising mesocorticolimbic system. Studies suggest that CART peptides may have a role in the regulation of reward circuitry. The present study aimed to examine the effect of nicotine on CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three different doses of nicotine (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg free base) were injected subcutaneously for 5 days, and on day 6, rats were decapitated following a challenge dose. CART mRNA and peptide levels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (DST), amygdala (AMG), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western Blot analysis, respectively. In the mPFC, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine, decreased CART peptide levels whereas there was no effect on CART mRNA levels. In the VTA, a down-regulation of CART peptide expression was observed with 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Conversely, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine increased CART mRNA levels in the AMG without affecting the CART peptide expression. Nicotine did not regulate CART mRNA or CART peptide expression in the NAc, DST, and LHA. We conclude that nicotine regulates CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system and this regulation may play an important role in nicotine reward. Synapse 70:283-292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990424

  12. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and increases cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55-102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55-102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  13. Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

    2014-03-01

    While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

  14. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K.F.; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Major characteristics of Alzheimers disease (AD) include deposits of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate A?-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of A? plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the A? plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD. PMID:25959573

  15. Diglossia and the Present Language Situation in Greece: A Sociological Approach to the Interpretation of Diglossia and Some Hypotheses on Today's Linguistic Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frangoudaki, Anna

    1992-01-01

    An approach to Greek diglossia is proposed, focusing on the differing social functions of the two coexisting Greek languages. Reasons for the success of the 1976 language reform abolishing diglossia, and the resulting revival of the argument questioning Demotic Greek, are examined and concluded to be attributed to a crisis of national identity.…

  16. Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

  17. Shopping-cart-related injuries to children. Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    Shopping cart-related injuries to children are common and can result in severe injury or even death. Most injuries result from falls from carts or cart tip-overs, and injuries to the head and neck represent three fourths of cases. The current US standard for shopping carts should be revised to include clear and effective performance criteria to prevent falls from carts and cart tip-overs. Pediatricians have an important role as educators, researchers, and advocates to promote the prevention of these injuries. PMID:16882847

  18. A Commitment to Professionalism: Educational Interpreting Standards within a Large Public School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Phyllis; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Albuquerque (New Mexico) public school system interpreter service for hearing-impaired students, focusing on costs and benefits, the University of New Mexico's program in sign language interpreting, interpreter evaluation, language policy, and interpreter credentials. (CB)

  19. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  20. Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jongh, Elena M.

    For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

  1. CART modulates the effects of levodopa in rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Manoj A; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related disorder characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra (SN). The neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is known to closely interact with the dopamine system and regulate psychomotor activity. We screened the effectiveness of CART in reversing the symptoms of PD in a rat model. PD like condition was induced by administering 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly in the SN of the right side. Fifteen days later, intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with apomorphine hydrochloride to these rats, resulted in contralateral rotations in the rotation test chamber suggesting induction of PD-like symptoms. This action of apomorphine was significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with CART and potentiated by CART antibody. IP treatment with levodopa also produced contralateral rotation in PD induced rats, and showed anti-Parkinson-like action. Prior treatment with CART via ICV route potentiated the anti-Parkinsonian effects of levodopa, while CART antibody produced opposite effects. CART treatment per se, to PD induced rats produced ipsilateral rotations, suggesting that the peptide may promote the endogenous release of dopamine from intact neurons. While CART-immunoreactivity in arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, striatum, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus was reduced in the PD induced rats, levodopa treatment restored the expression of CART-immunoreactivity in these nuclei. These results suggest that endogenous CART might closely interact with the dopamine containing SN-striatal pathway which is known to profoundly influence the motor system. The study underscores the importance of CART as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of PD. PMID:26771081

  2. Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

  3. Portable Tritium Cleanup Cart. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    The innovative technology demonstrated in the Mound LSDDP was the LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) Clean-Up Cart. Used as a stand-alone cart for scrubbing tritium effluent, it provides a scrubbing process based on catalytic oxidation of tritium. Tritiated water is collected on removable molecular sieve dryers, which can be shipped as low level waste (LLW) below the 1080 curie ''Type A'' limit. Replacement and disposal of the mole sieves and the catalyst-containing reactor is easy and quick. The unit provides a projected decontamination factor of greater than 1000, with a process flow rate of 45 liters/minute. Design features include: mole sieve dryer beds configured in series with moisture monitors to prevent moisture breakthrough, Process flow controllers in the main plumbing loop and air inlet system, process thermocouples which provide process stream and enclosure over-temperature control, and an enclosure which can function as a ventilated hood during normal operating conditions but which can be isolated when tritium concentrations inside the enclosure exceed the pre-selected control setpoint.

  4. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship. PMID:23084786

  5. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may

  6. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  7. CART Peptide Is a Potential Endogenous Antioxidant and Preferentially Localized in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Goldberg, Natalie R. S.; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2012-01-01

    The multifunctional neuropeptide Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) is secreted from hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland and pancreas. It also can be found in circulatory system. This feature suggests a general role for CART in different cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that CART protects mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cellular proteins and lipids against the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide, a widely used oxidant. Using cis-parinaric acid as a sensitive reporting probe for peroxidation in membranes, and a lipid-soluble azo initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2?-Azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) we found that CART is an antioxidant. Furthermore, we found that CART localized to mitochondria in cultured cells and mouse brain neuronal cells. More importantly, pretreatment with CART by systemic injection protects against a mouse oxidative stress model, which mimics the main features of Parkinson's disease. Given the unique molecular structure and biological features of CART, we conclude that CART is an antioxidant peptide (or antioxidant hormone). We further propose that it may have strong therapeutic properties for human diseases in which oxidative stress is strongly involved such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:22235287

  8. The carcinine transporter CarT is required in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons to sustain histamine recycling.

    PubMed

    Stenesen, Drew; Moehlman, Andrew T; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic transmission from Drosophila photoreceptors to lamina neurons requires recycling of histamine neurotransmitter. Synaptic histamine is cleared by uptake into glia and conversion into carcinine, which functions as transport metabolite. How carcinine is transported from glia to photoreceptor neurons remains unclear. In a targeted RNAi screen for genes involved in this pathway, we identified carT, which encodes a member of the SLC22A transporter family. CarT expression in photoreceptors is necessary and sufficient for fly vision and behavior. Carcinine accumulates in the lamina of carT flies. Wild-type levels are restored by photoreceptor-specific expression of CarT, and endogenous tagging suggests CarT localizes to synaptic endings. Heterologous expression of CarT in S2 cells is sufficient for carcinine uptake, demonstrating the ability of CarT to utilize carcinine as a transport substrate. Together, our results demonstrate that CarT transports the histamine metabolite carcinine into photoreceptor neurons, thus contributing an essential step to the histamine-carcinine cycle. PMID:26653853

  9. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-12-29

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

  10. Neurological Response to cART vs. cART plus Integrase Inhibitor and CCR5 Antagonist Initiated during Acute HIV

    PubMed Central

    Valcour, Victor G.; Spudich, Serena S.; Sailasuta, Napapon; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Fletcher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene D. M. B.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Allen, Isabel E.; Adams, Collin L.; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Slike, Bonnie M.; Hellmuth, Joanna M.; Kim, Jerome H.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central nervous system (CNS) outcomes in participants treated during acute HIV infection with standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vs. cART plus integrase inhibitor and CCR5 antagonist (cART+). Design 24-week randomized open-label prospective evaluation. Method Participants were evaluated then randomized to initiate cART (efavirenz, tenofovir, and either emtricitabine or lamivudine) vs. cART+ (cART plus raltegravir and maraviroc) during acute HIV and re-evaluated at 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We examined plasma and CSF cytokines, HIV RNA levels, neurological and neuropsychological findings, and brain MRS across groups and compared to healthy controls. Results At baseline, 62 participants were in Fiebig stages I-V. Randomized groups were similar for mean age (27 vs. 25, p = 0.137), gender (each 94% male), plasma log10 HIV RNA (5.4 vs. 5.6, p = 0.382), CSF log10 HIV RNA (2.35 vs. 3.31, p = 0.561), and estimated duration of HIV (18 vs. 17 days, p = 0.546). Randomized arms did not differ at 24 weeks by any CNS outcome. Combining arms, all measures concurrent with antiretroviral treatment improved, for example, neuropsychological testing (mean NPZ-4 of -0.408 vs. 0.245, p<0.001) and inflammatory markers by MRS (e.g. mean frontal white matter (FWM) choline of 2.92 vs. 2.84, p = 0.045) at baseline and week 24, respectively. Plasma neopterin (p<0.001) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (p = 0.007) remained elevated in participants compared to controls but no statistically significant differences were seen in CSF cytokines compared to controls, despite individual variability among the HIV-infected group. Conclusions A 24-week course of cART+ improved CNS related outcomes, but was not associated with measurable differences compared to standard cART. PMID:26555069

  11. CART peptide and opioid addiction: Expression changes in male rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bakhtazad, A; Vousooghi, N; Garmabi, B; Zarrindast, M R

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies have shown the prominence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants. The data regarding the effects of different stages of opioid addiction on CART expression and the interconnection between CART and opioids are not much available. Here we have studied the changes in the expression level of CART mRNA and protein in various parts of the brain reward pathway in different stages of opioid addiction. Groups of male rats received acute low-dose (10mg/kg), acute high-dose (80mg/kg) and chronic escalating doses of morphine. In addition, withdrawal and abstinence states were evaluated after injection of naloxone (1mg/kg) and long-term maintenance of addicted animals, respectively. Expression of CART mRNA in the brain was measured by real-time PCR method. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein level. CART mRNA and protein were both up-regulated in high-dose morphine-administered animals and also in the withdrawal group in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the addicted group, CART mRNA and protein were both down-regulated in NAc and striatum. In the abstinent group, CART mRNA was down-regulated in NAc. In the hippocampus, the only observed change was the up-regulation of CART mRNA in the withdrawal group. We suggest that the modulatory role of CART peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of opioids weakens when opioids are used for a long time and is stimulated when acute stress such as naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome or acute high-dose administration of morphine occurs to the animal. PMID:26955782

  12. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  13. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at

  14. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  15. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  16. Components of Simultaneous Interpreting: Comparing Interpreting with Shadowing and Paraphrasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffels, Ingrid K.; de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production, and transformation of the input. Furthermore,…

  17. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  18. Interpreting the Impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test on Second Language Students within an Argument-Based Validation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Kane's (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading…

  19. The Relationship among Beginning and Advanced American Sign Language Students and Credentialed Interpreters across Two Domains of Visual Imagery: Vividness and Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Linda K.

    2010-01-01

    Given the visual-gestural nature of ASL it is reasonable to assume that visualization abilities may be one predictor of aptitude for learning ASL. This study tested a hypothesis that visualization abilities are a foundational aptitude for learning a signed language and that measurements of these skills will increase as students progress from…

  20. The Development of Complex Sentence Interpretation in Typically Developing Children Compared with Children with Specific Language Impairments or Early Unilateral Focal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Frederic; Wulfeck, Beverly; Krupa-Kwiatkowski, Magda; Bates, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences "on-line", choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity…

  1. The Development of Complex Sentence Interpretation in Typically Developing Children Compared with Children with Specific Language Impairments or Early Unilateral Focal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Frederic; Wulfeck, Beverly; Krupa-Kwiatkowski, Magda; Bates, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences "on-line", choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity

  2. National Conversations in the UK: Using a Language-Based Approach to Interpret Three Key Education Policy Documents (2001-2007) from England, Scotland and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Janet; Baird, Adela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three key education policy documents from Scotland, England and Wales in the eight years after devolution. A close textual analysis of the language of each document is undertaken, which is supported by the authors' insider knowledge of these countries. Findings are presented from analysis of a group of selected words, as well…

  3. CART III: improved camouflage assessment using moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Honke, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2009-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007 and SPIE 2008 [1], [2]). It works with visual-optical, infrared and SAR image sequences. The system comprises a semi-automatic annotation functionality for marking target objects (ground truth generation) including a propagation of those markings over the image sequence for static as well as moving scene objects, where the recording camera may be static or moving. The marked image regions are evaluated by applying user-defined feature extractors, which can easily be defined and integrated into the system via a generic software interface. This article presents further systematic enhancements made in the recent year and addresses particularly the task of the detection of moving vehicles by latest image exploitation methods for objective camouflage assessment in these cases. As a main topic, the loop was closed between the two natural opposites of reconnaissance and camouflage, which was realized by incorporating ATD (Automatic Target Detection) algorithms into the computer aided camouflage assessment. Since object (and sensor) movement is an important feature for many applications, different image-based MTI (Moving Target Indication) algorithms were included in the CART system, which rely on changes in the image plane from an image to the successive one (after camera movements are automatically compensated). Additionally, the MTI outputs over time are combined in a certain way which we call "snail track" algorithm. The results show that their output provides a valuable measurement for the conspicuity of moving objects and therefore is an ideal component in the camouflage assessment. It is shown that image-based MTI improvements lead to improvements in the camouflage assessment process.

  4. Identification and differential distribution of CART in the small intestine depending on the diet.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, I; Olkowski, B; Szczotka-Bochniarz, A

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and locating cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the small intestine of broilers in relation to the diet. The feeding regime of the chicks was based on diets largely consisting of maize and one of four protein sources: post-extraction soya bean meal (SBM) or non-GM seed meal - meal from traditional variety of soy seeds Glicine max (FFS) and meal from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius (LA) and Lupinus luteus L (LY). The presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactive (CART-IR) in the wall of the small intestine of the chicks was determined on the basis of staining patterns produced by the immunohistochemical method (IHC). CART-IR structures were found in the myenteric plexus (MP), submucosus plexus (SP), in endomucosal fibres, and fibres innervating miocytes and blood vessels in the muscularis membrane and adipocytes of the white adipose tissue (WAT) located on the perimeter of the serous membrane and single cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Based on microscopic observation and result analysis, the lowest number of CART-IR structures was identified in the group that was fed the SBM-based diet. This study confirms previous observations concerning CART distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animal and broadens current knowledge by inclusion of chicken in the list of CART-positive species. Moreover, this work provides evidence that dietary composition can be a factor that stimulates post-prandial CART secretion in intestinal nerve structures. PMID:24797515

  5. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  6. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of CART-Containing Cells in Urinary Bladder of Rats with Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Janiuk, I.; Kasacka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question appears about the type of connection between hypertension and the functioning and activity of CART in the urinary tract (UT). The study gives rise to the assumption that high blood pressure can be a factor that intensifies CART secretion. In conclusion, the endocrine system of the urinary tract is modified by renovascular hypertension. This may affect the production of hormones and biologically active substances and contribute to the development of possible hypertension complications. In order to fully comprehend the role of the CART peptide in blood pressure regulation, further analyses are necessary. PMID:26150151

  8. The impact of verbal prompts on child safety-belt use in shopping carts.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Mae R; Bailey, Jon S; Lee, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use increased following implementation of the verbal prompt. This study extends the literature on the efficacy of verbal prompting in the promotion of safety-belt use. PMID:15669413

  9. Measuring the coefficient of friction of a low-friction cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Roger F.

    1998-11-01

    A sonic ranger is used to measure the acceleration of a low-friction cart using data collected from its motion coasting up and down an incline. The uninitiated but experienced physics student may predict the accelerations up and down the incline to be equal. However, when a cart is rolled up an incline, the speed vs time graph produced by sonic ranger clearly shows a point of inflection when the cart reverses direction at its highest point on the ramp. The author then shows how the ratios of the accelerations can be used to determine the coefficient of friction for this event.

  10. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  11. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  12. STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  13. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

  14. Exchange cart and par level supply distribution systems: form follows function.

    PubMed

    Perrin, R A

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the various types of distribution systems, such as exchange cart, par level, and just-in-time, to assist material managers in controlling costs and maximizing patient care. PMID:10131700

  15. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's... applicable Georgia State Law and Fort Stewart traffic laws and regulations contained in this part. (b)...

  16. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  17. Ethnography of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David Cassels

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical conceptualizations of language policy have grown increasingly rich, empirical data that test these models are less common. Further, there is little methodological guidance for those who wish to do research on language policy interpretation and appropriation. The ethnography of language policy is proposed as a method which makes

  18. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  19. Expression of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) in the Porcine Intramural Neurons of Stomach in the Course of Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Michał; Gonkowski, Sławomir; Całka, Jarosław

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) enteric nervous structures was investigated within the porcine stomach. To induce diabetes, the pigs were administered intravenously streptozotocin at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight. A significant decrease of the number of CART-LI perikarya was observed in the myenteric plexus of the gastric antrum, corpus, and pylorus in the experimental group. In contrast, submucous plexus was devoid of CART-positive neuronal cells both in control and experimental animals. In the control group, the highest densities of CART-LI nerve fibers were observed in the circular muscle layer of antrum and slightly less nerve fibers were present in the muscle layer of corpus and pylorus. In turn, submucous layer of all studied stomach regions revealed relatively smaller number of CART-positive nerve fibers. Diabetes caused statistically significant decrease in the expression of CART-LI nerve fibers only in the antrum circular muscle layer. Also, no changes in the CART-like immunoreactivity in the intraganglionic nerve fibers were observed. The obtained results suggest that acute hyperglycemia produced significant reduction of the CART expression in enteric perikarya throughout entire stomach as well as decrease of density the CART-LI fibers in circular muscle layer of the antrum. Additionally, we suggest that CART might be involved in the regulation of stomach function especially in the gastric motility. PMID:26266486

  20. Reciprocal connections between CART-immunoreactive, hypothalamic paraventricular neurons and serotonergic dorsal raphe cells in the rat: Light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji S; Lee, Hyun S

    2014-04-29

    Based on the overlapping physiological roles of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides and serotonin, the present study examined the anatomical connection between the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the dorsal raphe (DR). The first series of experiments were performed to investigate descending projections from the CART-immunoreactive (CART-ir) PVN to serotonergic DR cells. CART-ir varicosities made contact with serotonergic DR neurons. An anterograde tracing study revealed that varicosities originating from the PVN formed close appositions to serotonergic neuronal profiles along the entire rostro-caudal extent of the DR. A retrograde study demonstrated that CART neurons projecting to the DR were mainly localized in the caudal parvicellular PVN, comprising approximately 3.0%0.4% (n=8) of total CART cells. A second series of experiments was performed to investigate ascending projections from the DR to CART-ir PVN cells. Serotonin transporter-ir boutons made contact with CART-ir PVN neurons. Anterograde tracing revealed that varicosities originating from the DR formed close appositions to CART-ir PVN cells. Retrograde examination demonstrated that serotonergic neurons projecting to the parvicellular PVN were located along the entire rostro-caudal extent of the DR. The present observation provided an anatomical basis for accumulating evidence in the literature that suggests a functional interaction between the CART and serotonin systems during the regulation of energy balance, emotional behavior, and arousal. PMID:24642272

  1. Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

  2. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; An, Futing; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Borycz, Janusz; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to β-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA-seq screen for photoreceptor cell-enriched transporters, we identified CG9317, an SLC22 transporter family protein, and named it CarT (Carcinine Transporter). S2 cells that express CarT are able to take up carcinine in vitro. In the compound eye, CarT is exclusively localized to photoreceptor terminals. Null mutations of cart alter the content of histamine and its metabolites. Moreover, null cart mutants are defective in photoreceptor synaptic transmission and lack phototaxis. These findings reveal that CarT is required for histamine recycling at histaminergic photoreceptors and provide evidence for a CarT-dependent neurotransmitter trafficking pathway between glial cells and photoreceptor terminals. PMID:26713872

  3. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C.; Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B.

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  4. Advancing monthly streamflow prediction accuracy of CART models using ensemble learning paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Halil Ibrahim; Karakurt, Onur

    2013-01-01

    SummaryStreamflow forecasting is one of the most important steps in the water resources planning and management. Ensemble techniques such as bagging, boosting and stacking have gained popularity in hydrological forecasting in the recent years. The study investigates the potential usage of two ensemble learning paradigms (i.e., bagging; stochastic gradient boosting) in building classification and regression trees (CARTs) ensembles to advance the streamflow prediction accuracy. The study, initially, investigates the use of classification and regression trees for monthly streamflow forecasting and employs a support vector regression (SVR) model as the benchmark model. The analytic results indicate that CART outperforms SVR in both training and testing phases. Although the obtained results of CART model in training phase are considerable, it is not in testing phase. Thus, to optimize the prediction accuracy of CART for monthly streamflow forecasting, we incorporate bagging and stochastic gradient boosting which are rooted in same philosophy, advancing the prediction accuracy of weak learners. Comparing with the results of bagged regression trees (BRTs) and stochastic gradient boosted regression trees (GBRTs) models possess satisfactory monthly streamflow forecasting performance than CART and SVR models. Overall, it is found that ensemble learning paradigms can remarkably advance the prediction accuracy of CART models in monthly streamflow forecasting.

  5. Research Review: Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 2012 – Neuroscientific studies of intervention for language impairment in children: interpretive and methodological problems

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D V M

    2013-01-01

    Background Our ability to look at structure and function of a living brain has increased exponentially since the early 1970s. Many studies of developmental disorders now routinely include a brain imaging or electrophysiological component. Amid current enthusiasm for applications of neuroscience to educational interventions, we need to pause to consider what neuroimaging data can tell us. Images of brain activity are seductive, and have been used to give credibility to commercial interventions, yet we have only a limited idea of what the brain bases of language disorders are, let alone how to alter them. Scope and findings A review of six studies of neuroimaging correlates of language intervention found recurring methodological problems: lack of an adequate control group, inadequate power, incomplete reporting of data, no correction for multiple comparisons, data dredging and failure to analyse treatment effects appropriately. In addition, there is a tendency to regard neuroimaging data as more meaningful than behavioural data, even though it is behaviour that interventions aim to alter. Conclusion In our current state of knowledge, it would be better to spend research funds doing well-designed trials of behavioural treatment to establish which methods are effective, rather than rushing headlong into functional imaging studies of unproven treatments. PMID:23278309

  6. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). χ² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. PMID:21616201

  7. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  8. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  9. Time optimal control of pendulum-cart system

    SciTech Connect

    Turnau, A.; Korytowski, A.

    1994-12-31

    We consider the synthesis of time optimal control which steers a pendulum hinged to a cart to a given state (e.g., the upright position), starting from arbitrary initial conditions. The control of the pendulum can system has attracted attention of many authors because of its relatively simple structure and at the same time, nontrivial nonlinearity. Various heuristic approaches combined with 1q stabilization in the vicinity of the target state were used to swing the pendulum up to the upright position and to keep it there. However, time-optimality was not achieved. We construct the time optimal control using a sequence of fixed horizon problems in which the norms of terminal states are minimized. The problems with fixed horizons are solved numerically by means of gradient optimization, with gradients determined from the solution of adjoint equations. Due to embedding the synthesis algorithms in the Matlab - Simulink environment, it is possible to track and visualize the control process as well as the results of simulation experiments.

  10. Multidisciplinary approach to converting power chair into motorized prone cart.

    PubMed

    Brose, Steven W; Wali, Eisha

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure from sitting. An innovative, low-cost, multidisciplinary effort was undertaken to maximize quality of life in a veteran with a thoracic-4 level complete spinal cord injury and a stage 4 ischial wound. The person's power wheelchair was converted into a motorized prone cart, allowing navigation of the Department of Veterans Affairs spinal cord injury hospital ward and improved socialization while relieving pressure on the wound. Physical and occupational therapy assisted with the reconfiguration of the power chair and verified safe transfers into the chair and driving of the device. Psychology verified positive psychosocial benefit, while nursing and physician services verified an absence of unwanted pain or skin injury resulting from use of the device. Further investigation of ways to apply this technique is warranted to improve the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers. PMID:25786192

  11. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  12. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

  13. Programming Languages for Microprocessor Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, James A.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests criteria for choosing a programing language in courseware development. Authoring languages (PILOT, TUTOR, BASIC, and PASCAL) are compared; driver programs' compilers and interpreters are discussed; and the tasks of an authoring system are presented. (RAO)

  14. Spending at Mobile Fruit and Vegetable Carts and Using SNAP Benefits to Pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M.; Abrams, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  15. Spending at mobile fruit and vegetable carts and using SNAP benefits to pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  16. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjrkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language

  17. A Preliminary Study on Interpreting for Emergent Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caitlin; Dicus, Danica

    2015-01-01

    Sign language interpreters work with a variety of consumer populations throughout their careers. One such population, referred to as "emergent signers," consists of consumers who are in the process of learning American Sign Language, and who rely on interpreters during their language acquisition period. A gap in the research is revealed

  18. A Preliminary Study on Interpreting for Emergent Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caitlin; Dicus, Danica

    2015-01-01

    Sign language interpreters work with a variety of consumer populations throughout their careers. One such population, referred to as "emergent signers," consists of consumers who are in the process of learning American Sign Language, and who rely on interpreters during their language acquisition period. A gap in the research is revealed…

  19. Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School la Carte Food Availability*

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school la carte lines for schools ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each schools la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicines (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered healthy (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of healthfulness of foods on la carte lines, especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive la carte assessment tool. PMID:19909423

  20. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  1. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth at the ARM CART Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.M.; Cheng, M.D.

    1998-02-01

    In an effort to better characterize the inputs to radiative transfer models and research-grade global climate simulation models (GCMs) the columnar aerosol loading, measured as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), has been computed for five facilities within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site. Characterization of the AOD reported here show clear evidence that the spatial and temporal gradient exists at a much finer linear scale than those of the CART site. The annual variations of median AOD are on the order of 0.30 at all five facilities. The Spearman correlation and varimax-rotated PCA indicated the AOD values vary consistently across the CART site. The Northwest corner facility (EF-1) was the single facility that behaved differently from the rest. This sub-GCM grid variation can not be ignored if the model is to be used to accurately predict future climate change.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth at the ARM CART Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.M.; Cheng, M.D.

    1998-12-31

    In an effort to better characterize the inputs to radiative transfer models and research-grade global climate simulation models (GCMs) the columnar aerosol loading, measured as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), has been computed for five facilities within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site. Characterization of the AOD reported here show clear evidence that the spatial and temporal gradient exists at a much finer linear scale than those of the CART site. The annual variations of median AOD are on the order of 0.30 at all five facilities. The Spearman correlation and varimax-rotated PCA indicated the AOD values vary consistently across the CART site. The Northwest corner facility (EF-1) was the single facility that behaved differently from the rest. This sub-GCM grid variation can not be ignored if the model it to be used to accurately predict future climate change.

  4. The use of ZIP and CART to model cryptosporidiosis in relation to climatic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Tong, Shilu

    2010-07-01

    This research assesses the potential impact of weekly weather variability on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis disease using time series zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and classification and regression tree (CART) models. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Both time series ZIP and CART models show a clear association between weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and cryptosporidiosis disease. The time series CART models indicated that, when weekly maximum temperature exceeded 31°C and relative humidity was less than 63%, the relative risk of cryptosporidiosis rose by 13.64 (expected morbidity: 39.4; 95% confidence interval: 30.9-47.9). These findings may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs for cryptosporidiosis disease.

  5. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  6. Explorations in the Functions of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, M. A. K.

    The five papers included in this book are all concerned with exploring a functional approach to language study. "Relevant Models of Language" suggests a functional interpretation of the child's early language development; "The Functional Basis of Language" related the child's language developmental functions to a functional theory of the adult

  7. Explorations in the Functions of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, M. A. K.

    The five papers included in this book are all concerned with exploring a functional approach to language study. "Relevant Models of Language" suggests a functional interpretation of the child's early language development; "The Functional Basis of Language" related the child's language developmental functions to a functional theory of the adult…

  8. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

  9. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want to talk) Cerebral palsy (a movement disorder caused by brain damage) Why might living in a bilingual home affect my child's language and speech? The brain has to work harder to interpret ...

  10. Foreign Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Jesse O.

    1964-01-01

    This brief review of research in foreign language instruction during 1961-63 summarizes, compares, and interprets related studies dealing withsuch topics as (1) the effects and value of foreign language instruction at different educational levels, (2) methods and materials, (3) testing, and (4) electromechanical aids, such as the language…

  11. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  12. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  13. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  14. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs ...

  15. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

  16. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a

  17. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  18. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect

  19. Redirection of genetically engineered CAR-T cells using bifunctional small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soo; Ma, Jennifer S Y; Yun, Hwayoung; Cao, Yu; Kim, Ji Young; Chi, Victor; Wang, Danling; Woods, Ashley; Sherwood, Lance; Caballero, Dawna; Gonzalez, Jose; Schultz, Peter G; Young, Travis S; Kim, Chan Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells (CAR-Ts) provide a potent antitumor response and have become a promising treatment option for cancer. However, despite their efficacy, CAR-T cells are associated with significant safety challenges related to the inability to control their activation and expansion and terminate their response. Herein, we demonstrate that a bifunctional small molecule "switch" consisting of folate conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (folate-FITC) can redirect and regulate FITC-specific CAR-T cell activity toward folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing tumor cells. This system was shown to be highly cytotoxic to FR-positive cells with no activity against FR-negative cells, demonstrating the specificity of redirection by folate-FITC. Anti-FITC-CAR-T cell activation and proliferation was strictly dependent on the presence of both folate-FITC and FR-positive cells and was dose titratable with folate-FITC switch. This novel treatment paradigm may ultimately lead to increased safety for CAR-T cell immunotherapy. PMID:25692571

  20. Characterization of seven cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CARTs) differentially expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues of Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Martínez, Almudena; Martín-Robles, Águeda J; Muñoz-Cueto, José A; Morais, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a peptide with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions with several key roles, both centrally and peripherally. In mammals there is a single gene that produces two alternatively spliced variants in rat and a single transcript in human but in teleosts multiple genes have been found. In the present study we report the existence of seven transcripts in Senegalese sole and characterize their sequences and phylogenetic relationships, as well as their expression patterns in the brain and peripheral tissues, and in response to feeding. Both cart2a and cart4 showed a ubiquitous expression in the brain, while cart1a, cart1b and cart3a were similarly expressed and had higher transcript levels in the mesencephalon, followed by the diencephalon. On the other hand, cart2b showed a main expression in the olfactory bulbs, and cart3b was predominantly expressed in the spinal cord. The expression profile in peripheral tissues differed substantially between cart's, even between more recently duplicated genes. Collectively, all the tissues examined, except the muscle, express at least one of the different cart's, although the highest transcript levels were found in the brain, gonads (ovary and testis) and, in some cases, eye and kidney. Concerning the feeding response, only brain cart1a, cart2a and cart4 showed a significant postprandial regulation, although future studies are necessary to assess potential confounding effects of stress imposed by the force feeding technique employed. Senegalese sole exhibits the highest number of cart genes reported to date in a vertebrate species. Their differential expression patterns and feeding regulation suggest that multiple cart genes, resulting from at least 3 rounds of whole genome duplication, have been retained in fish genomes through subfunctionalization, or possibly even through neofunctionalization. PMID:26320854

  1. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  2. Foreign Language Day--A Living Language Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Paul W.

    St. Bonaventure University holds a Language Day each spring, hosting some 3,900 area junior high and high school students. The buildings and facilities of the university campus are used, and activities include language competitions (exhibits, interpretative readings, language productions, audio-visual presentations and essays); a fiesta; foreign…

  3. Global stabilization of singularly perturbed mechanical system "inverted pendulum on a cart"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazov, B.

    The nonlinear controlled model system "inverted pendulum on a cart" is one of intensively studied last time. The results of investigation of this system are applicable at analysis of a number of concrete problems of stability for such systems as satellites and underwater vehicles with internal rotors etc. In present work, it is performed a detailed analysis of the behavior of the controlled mechanical system "inverted pendulum on a cart" with discontinious relay-type control on the basis of the method of investigation of the global asymptotic stability of nonlinear dynamical systems with using of two Lyapunov functions [1]. This method permits to perform the stability analysis, in particular, for the case of mechanical systems with dry friction (see, [1]). As a control object it is considered a two-mass system "inverted pendulum on a cart". The control goal is the reducing in asymptotics of controlled "cart" to given state (position) and attached to it "pendulum" to vertical state from any initial state in presence of unmeasured uniformly bounded action of function D(t) [2]. The goal is the finding of control law as a piece-wise function with discontinuity along some surface in a state space. At such analysis the solution of nonlinear system is considered in the sense of Gelig et al.(see, [1]). The numerical simulation of behavior of nonlinear system "inverted pendulum on a cart" with a relay-type control under continuously acting unmeasured perturbation is performed [3]. The comparison with results of recent study of this system on the basis of controlled Lagrangians with Lie group symmetry when control is considered as sum of dissipative and concervative pieces is performed. 1. V.A.Brusin and B.L.Mazov, Differential Equations, v.35, 626-33, 1999 2. B.L.Mazov, in: Proc.of European Control Conference (SF), Porto, Portugal, pp.17-20, 2001 3. B.L.Mazov, math.DS/0312495 (2003) (preprint)

  4. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

  5. Post-Soviet Language Policy and the Language Utilization Patterns of Kyivan Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Camelot Ann

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of language policy in Ukraine on language utilization patterns of school children in Kyiv. Using quantitative data from student responses to a questionnaire focusing on subject background, native and home language, including reported usage of interactive and interpretive language, examines the extent to which language shift or…

  6. SDL: A Surface Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maple, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

  7. Interpreting Nominal Compounds for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, L. S.; Croft, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of nominal compounds in the context of natural language processing for information retrieval. Knowledge-intensive algorithms that can successfully interpret compounds found in technical documents are described, and experiments are reported that indicate these algorithms may be unnecessary for improving retrieval…

  8. Interpreting Nominal Compounds for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, L. S.; Croft, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of nominal compounds in the context of natural language processing for information retrieval. Knowledge-intensive algorithms that can successfully interpret compounds found in technical documents are described, and experiments are reported that indicate these algorithms may be unnecessary for improving retrieval

  9. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  10. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Such contact may be made in the manner indicated in the FCC Section 504 Handbook. The Commission will... Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers,...

  11. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  12. One-dimensional collision carts computer model and its design ideas for productive experiential learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-05-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a consistent simulation world view with a pen and paper representation, (2) a data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and (3) a game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using a physical world setup augmented by simulation by highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment such as a tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and the conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the simulation useful in their own classes.

  13. Using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Random Forests to Analyze Attrition: Results From Two Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Timothy; Usami, Satoshi; Jacobucci, Ross; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe a recent development in the analysis of attrition: using classification and regression trees (CART) and random forest methods to generate inverse sampling weights. These flexible machine learning techniques have the potential to capture complex nonlinear, interactive selection models, yet to our knowledge, their performance in the missing data analysis context has never been evaluated. To assess the potential benefits of these methods, we compare their performance with commonly employed multiple imputation and complete case techniques in 2 simulations. These initial results suggest that weights computed from pruned CART analyses performed well in terms of both bias and efficiency when compared with other methods. We discuss the implications of these findings for applied researchers. PMID:26389526

  14. Demonstration of Launch Vehicle Slosh Instability on Pole-Cart Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Rothhaar, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Liquid propellant makes up a significant portion of the total weight for large launch vehicles such as Saturn V, Space Shuttle, and the Space Launch System (SLS). Careful attention must be given to the influence of fuel slosh motion on the stability of the vehicle. A well-documented slosh danger zone occurs when the slosh mass is between the vehicle center of mass and the center of percussion. Passive damping via slosh baffle is generally required when the slosh mass is within this region. The pole-cart hardware system, typically used for academic purposes, has similar dynamic characteristics as an unstable launch vehicle. This setup offers a simple and inexpensive way of analyzing slosh dynamics and its impact on flight control design. In this paper, experimental and numerical results from the pole-cart system will be shown and direct analogies to launch vehicle slosh dynamics will be made.

  15. Cervical cancer survival prediction using hybrid of SMOTE, CART and smooth support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnami, S. W.; Khasanah, P. M.; Sumartini, S. H.; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    According to the WHO, every two minutes there is one patient who died from cervical cancer. The high mortality rate is due to the lack of awareness of women for early detection. There are several factors that supposedly influence the survival of cervical cancer patients, including age, anemia status, stage, type of treatment, complications and secondary disease. This study wants to classify/predict cervical cancer survival based on those factors. Various classifications methods: classification and regression tree (CART), smooth support vector machine (SSVM), three order spline SSVM (TSSVM) were used. Since the data of cervical cancer are imbalanced, synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used for handling imbalanced dataset. Performances of these methods are evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results of this study show that balancing data using SMOTE as preprocessing can improve performance of classification. The SMOTE-SSVM method provided better result than SMOTE-TSSVM and SMOTE-CART.

  16. Assessing the HIV Care Continuum in Latin America: progress in clinical retention, cART use and viral suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rebeiro, Peter F; Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E; De Boni, Raquel B; Cortés, Claudia P; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Hoces, Daniel; McGowan, Catherine C; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed trends in HIV Care Continuum outcomes associated with delayed disease progression and reduced transmission within a large Latin American cohort over a decade: clinical retention, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use and viral suppression (VS). Methods Adults from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology clinical cohorts in seven countries contributed data between 2003 and 2012. Retention was defined as two or more HIV care visits annually, >90 days apart. cART was defined as prescription of three or more antiretroviral agents annually. VS was defined as HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL at last measurement annually. cART and VS denominators were subjects with at least one visit annually. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to assess temporal trends and examine associations between age, sex, HIV transmission mode, cohort, calendar year and time in care. Results Among 18,799 individuals in retention analyses, 14,380 in cART analyses and 13,330 in VS analyses, differences existed between those meeting indicator definitions versus those not by most characteristics. Retention, cART and VS significantly improved from 2003 to 2012 (63 to 77%, 74 to 91% and 53 to 82%, respectively; p<0.05, each). Female sex (risk ratio (RR)=0.97 vs. males) and injection drug use as HIV transmission mode (RR=0.83 vs. male sexual contact with males (MSM)) were significantly associated with lower retention, but unrelated with cART or VS. MSM (RR=0.96) significantly decreased the probability of cART compared with heterosexual transmission. Conclusions HIV Care Continuum outcomes improved over time in Latin America, though disparities for vulnerable groups remain. Efforts must be made to increase retention, cART and VS, while engaging in additional research to sustain progress in these settings. PMID:27065108

  17. Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, David T; Mazagova, Magdalena; Hampton, Eric N; Cao, Yu; Ramadoss, Nitya S; Hardy, Ian R; Schulman, Andrew; Du, Juanjuan; Wang, Feng; Singer, Oded; Ma, Jennifer; Nunez, Vanessa; Shen, Jiayin; Woods, Ashley K; Wright, Timothy M; Schultz, Peter G; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Young, Travis S

    2016-01-26

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR-T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens. PMID:26759369

  18. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  19. New developments of the CARTE thermochemical code: A two-phase equation of state for nanocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Vincent; Pineau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new equation of state (EOS) for nanocarbons in the thermodynamic range of high explosives detonation products (up to 50 GPa and 4000 K). This EOS was fitted to an extensive database of thermodynamic properties computed by molecular dynamics simulations of nanodiamonds and nano-onions with the LCBOPII potential. We reproduced the detonation properties of a variety of high explosives with the CARTE thermochemical code, including carbon-poor and carbon-rich explosives, with excellent accuracy.

  20. Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, David T.; Mazagova, Magdalena; Hampton, Eric N.; Cao, Yu; Ramadoss, Nitya S.; Hardy, Ian R.; Schulman, Andrew; Du, Juanjuan; Wang, Feng; Singer, Oded; Ma, Jennifer; Nunez, Vanessa; Shen, Jiayin; Woods, Ashley K.; Wright, Timothy M.; Schultz, Peter G.; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Young, Travis S.

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR–T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens. PMID:26759369

  1. La Carte du Ciel : genèse, déroulement et issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinnici, I.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre propose une vue panoramique de la Carte du Ciel en détaillant sa genèse, son déroulement et son issue en insistant sur les objectifs scientifiques initiaux et leur évolution au cours du temps. Les aspects politiques de l'entreprise sont également analysés ; ils permettent de souligner les enjeux nationaux et internationaux qui sous-tendent le projet.

  2. Aspects of the quality of data from SGP cart site broadband radiation sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Wesely, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the performance of broadband radiometers the the southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site to estimate the uncertainties of irradiance observations. Net radiation is observed with net radiometer in the energy balance Bowen ratio station at the central facility and compared with the net radiation computed as the sum of component irradiances recorded by nearby pyranometers and pyrgeometers. This paper observes the uncertainties of readings from net radiometers which are known to be substantial.

  3. Children's Optimal Interpretations of Indefinite Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoop, Helen; Kramer, Irene

    2006-01-01

    We find a general, language-independent pattern in child language acquisition in which there is a clear difference between subject and object noun phrases. On one hand, indefinite objects tend to be interpreted nonreferentially, independently of word order and across experiments and languages. On the other hand, indefinite subjects tend to be…

  4. Temperature dependent changes in cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the brain of tadpole, Sylvirana temporalis.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Swapnil A; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Bhargava, Shobha

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp) has emerged as a novel neurotransmitter in the brain. Although the physiological role of the peptide has been intensely investigated in mammals, its role in amphibians has not been investigated. In the present study, an attempt has been undertaken to study the expression of CART in the tadpole brain of frog Sylvirana temporalis, subjected to thermal stress. Cells with strong CART-immunoreactivity were observed in the nucleus preoptic area (NPO) of tadpoles exposed to high temperature (37±2°C) as compared to those in the tadpoles exposed to low (12±2°C) and normal (24±2°C) temperatures. In the ventromedial thalamic nucleus (VM) and nucleus posterocentralis thalami (NPC), moderate CART-ir cells were observed in the control groups while number of cells and intensity of immunoreactivity was increased in tadpoles at low and high temperatures. In the nucleus infundibularis ventralis (NIV) and raphe nucleus (RA), CART immunoreactivity increased in the low as well as high temperature treated groups. Intensely stained CART cells were observed in the pituitary of tadpoles exposed to high temperature as compared to low temperature and control groups. We suggest that CART system in the brain and pituitary of tadpole may play a very important role in mediating responses to temperature variations in the environment. PMID:24983774

  5. New Strategies for the Treatment of Solid Tumors with CAR-T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Ye, Zhen-long; Yuan, Zhen-gang; Luo, Zheng-qiang; Jin, Hua-jun; qian, Qi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, we have witnessed significant progresses in both basic and clinical studies regarding novel therapeutic strategies with genetically engineered T cells. Modification with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) endows T cells with tumor specific cytotoxicity and thus induce anti-tumor immunity against malignancies. However, targeting solid tumors is more challenging than targeting B-cell malignancies with CAR-T cells because of the histopathological structure features, specific antigens shortage and strong immunosuppressive environment of solid tumors. Meanwhile, the on-target/off-tumor toxicity caused by relative expression of target on normal tissues is another issue that should be reckoned. Optimization of the design of CAR vectors, exploration of new targets, addition of safe switches and combination with other treatments bring new vitality to the CAR-T cell based immunotherapy against solid tumors. In this review, we focus on the major obstacles limiting the application of CAR-T cell therapy toward solid tumors and summarize the measures to refine this new cancer therapeutic modality. PMID:27194949

  6. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  7. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  8. Integration of stress and leptin signaling by CART producing neurons in the rodent midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lu; Janssen, Donny; van der Knaap, Noortje; Roubos, Eric W.; Leshan, Rebecca L.; Myers, Martin G.; Gaszner, Balázs; Kozicz, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Leptin targets the brain to regulate feeding, neuroendocrine function and metabolism. The leptin receptor is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the centrally projecting Edinger–Westphal nucleus (EWcp), a region implicated in the stress response and in various aspects of stress-related behaviors. We hypothesized that the stress response by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-producing EWcp-neurons would depend on the animal’s energy state. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of changes in energy state (mimicked by low, normal and high leptin levels, which were achieved by 24 h fasting, normal chow and leptin injection, respectively) on the response of CART neurons in the EWcp of rats subjected or not to acute restraint stress. Our data show that leptin treatment alone significantly increases CART mRNA expression in the rat EWcp and that in leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice, the number of CART producing neurons in this nucleus is reduced. This suggests that leptin has a stimulatory effect on the production of CART in the EWcp under non-stressed condition. Under stressed condition, however, leptin blunts stress-induced activation of EWcp neurons and decreases their CART mRNA expression. Interestingly, fasting, does not influence the stress-induced activation of EWcp-neurons, and specifically EWcp-CART neurons are not activated. These results suggest that the stress response by the EWcp depends to some degree on the animal’s energy state, a mechanism that may contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between obesity and stress. PMID:24624061

  9. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  10. Mapping of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of elderly human.

    PubMed

    Charnay, Y; Perrin, C; Vallet, P G; Greggio, B; Kovari, E; Bouras, C

    1999-11-01

    The expression of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of aged humans was studied by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Formalin fixed coronal sections through the hypothalamus were hybridized with [35S]dATP 3' end-labeled deoxyoligonucleotide probes complementary to sequences of the CART encoding gene. Large populations of cells expressing CART messenger RNA were mainly detected in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Other hypothalamic subdivisions displaying numerous radiolabeled cells were the dorsomedial, ventromedial, infundibular and tuberomammillary nuclei, and the dorsal hypothalamic area. Additionally, a few labeled cells were observed in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamic areas. Hybridizing cells were occasionally seen in the supraoptic nucleus. Overall, the pattern of distribution of CART expressing cells observed throughout the human hypothalamus, with few exception, e.g. the supraoptic nucleus, is comparable to that previously reported in the rat brain. These anatomical results suggest that in human, hypothalamic CART expression could be involved a variety of neuroendocrine functions including food-intake. PMID:10609861

  11. Neuroretinal Degeneration in HIV Patients Without Opportunistic Ocular Infections in the cART Era.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand; Schlingemann, Reinier; Verbraak, Franciscus

    2015-10-01

    Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 counts<100 cells/μL are most at risk for neuroretinal damage, with a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, subtle loss of color vision and/or contrast sensitivity, visual field deficits, and subnormal electrophysiological responses. In contrast, alterations in retinal vascular calibers and retinal blood flow were not associated with nadir CD4 counts, but instead with detectable viremia, suggesting a role for (chronic) inflammation in microvascular damage. Although the alterations in visual function are subtle, they can lead to difficulties in activities, such as reading or driving, thereby affecting quality of life. Since HIV has become a chronic disease, its long-term effects with respect to visual function loss become more important, as is recently emphasized by a longitudinal study, reporting that AIDS patients with HIV-NRD have higher risks of developing bilateral visual impairment and even blindness than patients without HIV-NRD. The question remains whether patients with high (>350 cells/μL) nadir CD4 counts and well-suppressed HIV infection on cART remain at risk for HIV-NRD, as this group constitutes a growing part of the aging HIV-infected population. PMID:26258992

  12. Description and analysis of hand forces in medicine cart pushing tasks.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jon; Lin, Jia-Hua; Chang, Chien-Chi

    2013-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to describe and analyze the hand force exertion patterns of experienced nursing home nurses and nursing students during dynamic medicine cart pushing tasks in Initial, Sustained, Turning, and Stopping motion phases. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with 22 participants to estimate the effects of lane congestion, precision cart control, and floor surface on horizontal hand forces. Root mean squared (RMS) lane deviation patterns were also described to provide an indicator of cart handling difficulty across the different study conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed that nurses exerted greater mean hand force (10%) and made more (12%) lane deviation than students and that the highest two-hand forces of 147N were measured in the Turning phase on carpet. Strong correlations between work experience group, body mass, and BMI required that force data for nurses and students be collapsed in analytical models where no group differences existed. Predicted pushing forces on carpeted floor surface were significantly greater than on tile in Initial (14N), Sustained (14N) and Turning (18N), except in stopping where pulling forces were 37N lower. High lane congestion predicted significant peak force increases of 4N and 7N in Sustained and Turning, respectively, but decreased by 20N in Initial. High precision control led to significant decreases in two-hand forces that ranged from 4 to 20N across motion phases. Complex interactions among the experimental factors suggest that work environment (lane congestion and floor surface) and work demands (precision control) should be included in the evaluation of pushing tasks and considered prior to making renovations to nursing home environments. PMID:22607837

  13. Liver Fibrosis in HIV Patients Receiving a Modern cART: Which Factors Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Mohr, Raphael; Schierwagen, Robert; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Liver-related death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is about 10 times higher compared with the general population, and the prevalence of significant liver fibrosis in those with HIV approaches 15%. The present study aimed to assess risk factors for development of hepatic fibrosis in HIV patients receiving a modern combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). This cross-sectional prospective study included 432 HIV patients, of which 68 (16%) patients were anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive and 23 (5%) were HBsAg positive. Health trajectory including clinical characteristics and liver fibrosis stage assessed by transient elastography were collected at inclusion. Liver stiffness values >7.1 kPa were considered as significant fibrosis, while values >12.5 kPa were defined as severe fibrosis. Logistic regression and Cox regression uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with liver fibrosis. Significant liver fibrosis was detected in 10% of HIV mono-infected, in 37% of HCV co-infected patients, and in 18% of hepatitis B virus co-infected patients. The presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6) and FIB4 score (OR = 2.4) were independently associated with presence of significant fibrosis in the whole cohort. Similarly, diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.4), adiposity (OR = 4.6), and the FIB4 score (OR = 3.3) were independently associated with significant fibrosis in HIV mono-infected patients. Importantly, cumulative cART duration protected, whereas persistent HIV viral replication promoted the development of significant liver fibrosis along the duration of HIV infection. Our findings strongly indicate that besides known risk factors like metabolic disorders, HIV may also have a direct effect on fibrogenesis. Successful cART leading to complete suppression of HIV replication might protect from development of liver fibrosis. PMID:26683921

  14. Mesure des magnitudes stellaires sur les plaques de la Carte du Ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoust, E.

    2008-06-01

    Le chapitre détaille la mesure des magnitudes stellaires sur les plaques de la Carte du Ciel. La méthode qui a été mise au point pour déterminer les magnitudes apparentes des étoiles des plaques de la Carte du Ciel est exposée. La plaque photographique est d'abord numérisée par un scanner du commerce, avec une résolution de 2400 dpi. Le fichier obtenu est analysé par le logiciel Sextractor, couramment utilisé pour créer des catalogues d'objets dans des images CCD grand champ. En parallèle, un catalogue des étoiles de magnitude connue dans la zone est créé, qui sert d'abord à calibrer le système de coordonnées de la plaque. Les objets détectés par Sextractor dont les coordonnées correspondent à celles d'étoiles connues servent ensuite à établir la relation entres les densités photographiques mesurées et les magnitudes stellaires bleues. En tenant compte d'un effet lié à la distance des étoiles au centre de la plaque, il est possible de déterminer des magnitudes apparentes avec une précision d'environ un tiers de magnitude. L'objectif est de rechercher des étoiles variables sur les dix mille plaques de la Carte du Ciel de la zone de Toulouse.

  15. Influence of the Biosphere on Precipitation: July 1995 Studies with the ARM-CART Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, D. M.; Walker, G. K.; Koster, Randal D.

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble sets of simulation experiments were conducted with a single column model (SCM) using the Goddard GEOS II GCM physics containing a recent version of the Cumulus Scheme (McRAS) and a biosphere based land-fluxes scheme (SSiB). The study used the 18 July to 5 August 1995 ARM-CART (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Test-bed) data, which was collected at the ARM-CART site in the mid-western United States and analyzed for single column modeling (SCM) studies. The new findings affirm the earlier findings that the vegetation, which increases the solar energy absorption at the surface together with soil and soil-moisture dependent processes, which modulate the surface, fluxes (particularly evapotranspiration) together help to increase the local rainfall. In addition, the results also show that for the particular study period roughly 50% of the increased evaporation over the ARM-CART site would be converted into rainfall with the Column, while the remainder would be advected out to the large-scale. Notwithstanding the limitations of only one-way interaction (i.e., the large-scale influencing the regional physics and not vice versa), the current SCM simulations show a very robust relationship. The evaporation-precipitation relationship turns out to be independent of the soil types, and soil moisture; however, it is weakly dependent on the vegetation cover because of its surface-albedo effect. Clearly, these inferences are prone to weaknesses of the SCM physics, the assumptions of the large-scale being unaffected by gridscale (SCM-scale) changes in moist processes, and other limitations of the evaluation procedures.

  16. Engineers inspect STS-37 CETA manual hand over hand cart in JSC's MAIL Bldg 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    From left, Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) John Gustafson and JSC's Charles E. Whitsett, Steven Poulos, and James O'Kane inspect the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart, mounted on CETA track or rail, in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. CETA is scheduled for evaluation aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37. The four engineers have headed a team of hundreds that have contributed to the CETA project. CETA is being planned for usage on Space Station Freedom (SSF). NOTE: SSF mockup in the background.

  17. An exchange cart supply-distribution system employed on an institution-wide basis.

    PubMed

    Coarse, J F; Pierpaoli, P

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes a drug distribution system developed for replenishment of stock supplies for hospital patient-care units, ambulatory care areas, and clinical support service areas. The method employed, a modified exchange cart system in which duplicate sets of supplies are exchanged at regular and predetermined intervals, utilizes unit-of-use packaging whenever feasible and is an extension of our centralized unit dose drug distribution system. Various supply-distribution techniques and inventory surveillance and control techniques, as well as cost identification and charge recovery procedures, are discussed. PMID:10309240

  18. Computer-interpretable Guideline Formalisms

    PubMed Central

    CLERCQ, Paul DE; KAISER, Katharina; HASMAN, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Implementing Computer-Interpretable Guidelines (CIGs) in active computer-based decision support systems promises to improve the acceptance and application of guidelines in daily practice. The model and underlying language are the core characteristics of every CIG approach. However, currently no standard model or language has been accepted by the CIG community. This aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of well-known approaches and to formulate a set of (minimal) requirements that can be used in the process of developing new CIG approaches or improving existing ones. It presents five CIG approaches (the Arden Syntax, GLIF, PROforma, Asbru and EON), followed by a general discussion of the strong points of each approach as well as their implications for future research. PMID:18806319

  19. Identifying Depiction in American Sign Language Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thumann, Mary Agnes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines depiction in American Sign Language (ASL) presentations. The impetus for this study came from my work as an instructor in an interpreter education program. The majority of ASL/English interpreters are second language learners of ASL, and many of them find some features of ASL challenging to learn. These features are…

  20. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  1. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  2. Heterogeneous surface fluxes and their effects on the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Hu, Q.; Hubbe, J.M.; Liljegren, J.C.; Shaw, W.J.; Zhong, S.; Collatz, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    The treatment of subgrid-scale variations of surface properties and the resultant spatial variations of sensible and latent heat fluxes has received increasing attention in recent years. Mesoscale numerical simulations of highly idealized conditions, in which strong flux contrasts exist between adjacent surfaces, have shown that under some circumstances the secondary circulations induced by land-use differences can significantly affect the properties of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the region of the atmosphere above the PBL. At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, the fluxes from different land-surface types are not expected to differ as dramatically as those found in idealized simulations. Although the corresponding effects on the atmosphere should thus be less dramatic, they are still potentially important. From an ARM perspective, in tests of single column models (SCMs) it would be useful to understand the effects of the lower boundary conditions on model performance. We describe here our initial efforts to characterize the variable surface fluxes over the CART site and to assess their effects on the PBL that are important for the performance of SCMs.

  3. Evaluation of alternative model selection criteria in the analysis of unimodal response curves using CART

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Miller, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated CART performance with a unimodal response curve for one continuous response and four continuous explanatory variables, where two variables were important (ie directly related to the response) and the other two were not. We explored performance under three relationship strengths and two explanatory variable conditions: equal importance and one variable four times as important as the other. We compared CART variable selection performance using three tree-selection rules ('minimum risk', 'minimum risk complexity', 'one standard error') to stepwise polynomial ordinary least squares (OLS) under four sample size conditions. The one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity methods performed about as well as stepwise OLS with large sample sizes when the relationship was strong. With weaker relationships, equally important explanatory variables and larger sample sizes, the one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity rules performed better than stepwise OLS. With weaker relationships and explanatory variables of unequal importance, tree-structured methods did not perform as well as stepwise OLS. Comparing performance within tree-structured methods, with a strong relationship and equally important explanatory variables, the one-standard-error-rule was more likely to choose the correct model than were the other tree-selection rules 1) with weaker relationships and equally important explanatory variables; and 2) under all relationship strengths when explanatory variables were of unequal importance and sample sizes were lower.

  4. A Case Illustrating the Costs of Quality Improvement: Nine Months to Move Needles and Syringes on the Anesthesia Cart.

    PubMed

    Quick, Alexander K; Macario, Alex; Brock-Utne, John G; Jaffe, Richard A; Kadry, Bassam

    2015-09-01

    Powerful entities are pushing physicians to become more involved with quality improvement (QI). We report a QI project to standardize and improve the ergonomics of the anesthesia medication and supply cart. Simply obtaining approval to make minor changes to the cart involved 54 phone calls, 164 e-mails, 4 presentations, 2 forms, 9 meetings, and 4 months of time. Confusion over fiscal matters further delayed the project by an additional 3 months. A combination of competing regulations, administrative overprocessing, and the lack of dedicated QI financial resources made simple improvements a challenge. The costs of participating in QI deserve attention. PMID:26323036

  5. Interpretation Training Influences Memory for Prior Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Salemink, Elske; Hertel, Paula; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined themselves in emotionally ambiguous scenarios to which they provided endings that often revealed their interpretations. Then they were trained to resolve the ambiguity in other situations in a consistently positive (n = 37) or negative way (n = 38) before they tried to recall the initial scenarios and endings. Results indicated that memory for the endings was imbued with the emotional tone of the training, whereas memory for the scenarios was unaffected. PMID:21171760

  6. Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased…

  7. Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week an...

  8. Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased

  9. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

  10. Language Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the relationship between language teaching and research begins by defining research as a systematic process of inquiry in which the researcher poses a question or questions, collects relevant data, analyzes and interprets it, and makes the results accessible to others. It looks at the simplistic but persistent distinction between…

  11. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to

  12. Generating Alternatives: Interpreting Focus in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christina S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates a class of context-dependent expressions--focus-sensitive particles--as a way of addressing how language users draw on contextual information to interpret expressions whose meanings are underdetermined by their forms. While the problem of context dependence has been widely studied, the question of precisely what

  13. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  14. 38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the veteran: (i) Can benefit from language and speech training; and (ii) Agrees to undertake language and speech training. (b) Periods during which interpreter service may be provided....

  15. 38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determines that the veteran: (i) Can benefit from language and speech training; and (ii) Agrees to undertake language and speech training. (b) Periods during which interpreter service may be provided....

  16. Medicare program; Medicare prescription drug benefit; interpretation. Final rule; interpretation.

    PubMed

    2005-03-21

    This final rule modifies or clarifies our interpretations in several areas of the final rule titled "Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit" published in the Federal Register on January 28, 2005. First, it clarifies our interpretation of "entity", to respond to inquiries we received subsequent to the publication of the Prescription Drug Benefit (Part D) final rule on January 28, 2005. We were asked whether a joint enterprise could be considered an "entity" under section 1860D-12(a)(1) of the Social Security Act (the Act), for purposes of offering a prescription drug plan (PDP). Our interpretation is discussed in the Supplementary Information section of this final rule. Second, also subsequent to the publication of the Prescription Drug Benefit (Part D) final rule on January 28, 2005, we received inquiries from parties about our discussion of the actuarial equivalence standard and the manner in which an employee health plan sponsor could apply the aggregate net value test in the regulatory text of the final rule. Our interpretation is discussed in the "Provisions" section of this final rule. In addition, subsequent to publishing the August 3, 2004 proposed rule (69 FR 46684), we received comments on how the late enrollment penalty would be coordinated with the late enrollment penalty for Part B, and whether the one percent penalty would be sufficient to control for adverse selection. We clarify in the Provisions section of this final rule that the example given in the proposed rule, published on August 3, 2004, did not accord with the proposed or final regulatory language because it did not account for the fact that the base beneficiary premium increases on an annual basis. To remedy this error and in response to comments received on the proposed rule, we provide an interpretation that as the base beneficiary premium increases, the late enrollment penalty must also increase, and is in keeping with how the Part B penalty is calculated. Finally, we are providing clarifying language related to transitioning Part D enrollees from their prior drug coverage to their new Part D plan coverage. The Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit final rule will take effect on March 22, 2005. Our interpretations are deemed to be included in that final rule. PMID:15786588

  17. Language Brokering: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Alejandro; Hanson, William E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the literature in the area of language brokering. Language brokers are children of immigrant families who translate and interpret for their parents and other individuals. Results suggest that language brokers possess unique characteristics that make them suitable for their role as the family's translator and interpreter.…

  18. Lampooning Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Tim

    1982-01-01

    Uses trademarks that are calculated misspellings, bumper sticker slogans, the strained and pretentious language of Howard Cosell, and governmental jargon to illustrate how to attune students to the magic and power of language, while poking fun at language abuse. (RL)

  19. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

  20. Language Death or Language Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Norman

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of disappearing and no longer used languages in anthropomorphic metaphors "language death" and "language suicide." Three stages in the disappearance of several specific languages are described. Ultimately, the direct cause of "language suicide" is not disappearance of rules but disappearance of speakers; parents stop teaching the

  1. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  2. "It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

  3. Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to…

  4. Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to

  5. The Effects of Direction of Exertion, Path, and Load Placement in Nursing Cart Pushing and Pulling Tasks: An Electromyographical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huei Chu; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung Hui; Chen, Su Huang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of direction of exertion (DOE) (pushing, pulling), path (walking in a straight line, turning left, walking uphill), and load placement (LP) (the 18 blocks were indicated by X, Y and Z axis; there were 3 levels on the X axis, 2 levels on the Y axis, and 3 levels on the Z axis) on muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion in nursing cart pushing and pulling tasks. Ten participants who were female students and not experienced nurses were recruited to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 108 experimental trials in the study, consisting of 2 directions of exertion (push and pull), 3 paths, and 18 load placements (indicated by X, Y and Z axes). A 23kg load was placed into one load placement. The dependent variables were electromyographic (EMG) data of four muscles collected bilaterally as follows: Left (L) and right (R) trapezius (TR), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum (ED), and erector spinae (ES) and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Split-split-plot ANOVA was conducted to analyze significant differences between DOE, path, and LP in the EMG and RPE data. Pulling cart tasks produced a significantly higher activation of the muscles (RTR:54.4%, LTR:50.3%, LFDS:57.0%, LED:63.4%, RES:40.7%, LES:36.7%) than pushing cart tasks (RTR:42.4%, LTR:35.1%, LFDS:32.3%, LED:55.1%, RES:33.3%, LES:32.1%). A significantly greater perceived exertion was found in pulling cart tasks than pushing cart tasks. Significantly higher activation of all muscles and perceived exertion were observed for walking uphill than walking in a straight line and turning left. Significantly lower muscle activity of all muscles and subject ratings were observed for the central position on the X axis, the bottom position on the Y axis, and the posterior position on the Z axis. These findings suggest that nursing staff should adopt forward pushing when moving a nursing cart, instead of backward pulling, and that uphill paths should be avoided in the design of work environments. In terms of distribution of the load in a nursing cart, heavier materials should be positioned at bottom of the cabinet, centered on the horizontal plane and close to the handle, to reduce the physical load of the nursing staff. PMID:26485039

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and... requirements of the language constitutes a violation of the regulatory prohibition of boycott-based refusals to... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and... requirements of the language constitutes a violation of the regulatory prohibition of boycott-based refusals to... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and... requirements of the language constitutes a violation of the regulatory prohibition of boycott-based refusals to... the ultimate selection may be boycott-based. To be permissible such services: (1) Must be...

  9. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  10. Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

  11. [Current status and future development of CAR-T gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of a target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3ζ receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and malignant lymphoma. PMID:26458458

  12. Stabilization of an inverted pendulum-cart system by fractional PI-state feedback.

    PubMed

    Bettayeb, M; Boussalem, C; Mansouri, R; Al-Saggaf, U M

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with pole placement PI-state feedback controller design to control an integer order system. The fractional aspect of the control law is introduced by a dynamic state feedback as u(t)=K(p)x(t)+K(I)I(?)(x(t)). The closed loop characteristic polynomial is thus fractional for which the roots are complex to calculate. The proposed method allows us to decompose this polynomial into a first order fractional polynomial and an integer order polynomial of order n-1 (n being the order of the integer system). This new stabilization control algorithm is applied for an inverted pendulum-cart test-bed, and the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control are examined by experiments. PMID:24315056

  13. Digitalización de placas Carte du Ciel con MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    Fifteen Carte du Ciel plates and four Astrographic Catalog plates from Córdoba Zone were scanned with MAMA (Machine Automatique á Mesurer pour l'Astronomie) on July 1999. Those plates were taken between 1912 and 1924, therefore they are a good source of first epoch positions for the determination of proper motions. The fields correspond to some of the open clusters in CdC Córdoba zone -NGC 2527, NGC 2587, VdBergh 83, Coll 132 and Blanco 1- and two low-extinction windows in the galactic bulge. MAMA fulfils the requirements of accuracy and repetitivity at 1 micron level as needed for obtaining the highest profit from the astrometric information given by this photographic material. The catalogues of `objects' detected on every plate were automatically built by software SExtractor. Those catalogues must be filtered in order to reject spurious objects and retain only stellar images that will be used in the astrometric reduction.

  14. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  15. Differences in CART expression and cell cycle behavior discriminate sympathetic neuroblast from chromaffin cell lineages in mouse sympathoadrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Hei Chan, Wing; Gonsalvez, David G; Young, Heather M; Michelle Southard-Smith, E; Cane, Kylie N; Anderson, Colin R

    2016-02-01

    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and peripheral sympathetic neurons originate from a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell. The timing and phenotypic changes that mark this lineage diversification are not fully understood. The present study investigated the expression patterns of phenotypic markers, and cell cycle dynamics, in the adrenal medulla and the neighboring suprarenal ganglion of embryonic mice. The noradrenergic marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), was detected in both presumptive adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglion cells, but with significantly stronger immunostaining in the former. There was intense cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunostaining in most neuroblasts, whereas very few adrenal chromaffin cells showed detectable CART immunostaining. This phenotypic segregation appeared as early as E12.5, before anatomical segregation of the two cell types. Cell cycle dynamics were also examined. Initially, 88% of Sox10 positive (+) neural crest progenitors were proliferating at E10.5. Many SA progenitor cells withdrew from the cell cycle at E11.5 as they started to express TH. Whereas 70% of neuroblasts (TH+/CART+ cells) were back in the cell cycle at E12.5, only around 20% of chromaffin (CART negative) cells were in the cell cycle at E12.5 and subsequent days. Thus, chromaffin cell and neuroblast lineages showed differences in proliferative behavior from their earliest appearance. We conclude that the intensity of TH immunostaining and the expression of CART permit early discrimination of chromaffin cells and sympathetic neuroblasts, and that developing chromaffin cells exhibit significantly lower proliferative activity relative to sympathetic neuroblasts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 137-149, 2016. PMID:25989220

  16. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  17. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/μL and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ≥500/μL), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ≥500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/μL at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  18. Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fern L.

    Using a language-centered perspective about culture, this book aims to provide culture-based interpretations for language-in-use and for broader discourse issues. The first three chapters present an overview of language and culture in the United States and introduce the concepts and vocabulary for understanding language and cultural complexity.…

  19. Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members. PMID:22792852

  20. Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

  1. The effects of infusions of CART 55–102 into the basolateral amygdala on amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Elyse M.; Figge, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The affective aspects of d-amphetamine (AMPH) may be mediated, in part, by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The formation of context-drug associations produces either conditioned place preference (CPP) or conditioned place aversion (CPA). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine whether intra-BLA infusions of CART 55–102 are either rewarding or aversive and modulate AMPH reward. Materials and methods Rats were implanted with bilateral cannulae in the BLA, were subjected to place conditioning, and were tested for CPP or CPA. Rats were conditioned with either intra-BLA infusions of artificial cerebral spinal fluid or one of three dose of CART 55–102 (1, 2, or 4 µg/side), intra-BLA infusions of a subrewarding dose of CART 55–102 (1 µg/side) plus injections of a subrewarding dose of AMPH (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), or intra-BLA infusions of an aversive dose of CART 55–102 (4 µg/side) plus injections of a rewarding dose of AMPH (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Results Intra-BLA infusions of 2 µg/side CART 55–102 produced CPP, 4 µg/side produced CPA, and 1 µg/side produced neither CPP nor CPA. Intra-BLA infusions of a subrewarding dose of CART 55–102 (1 µg/side) plus injections of a subrewarding dose of AMPH (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) produced CPP. Intra-BLA infusions of an aversive dose of CART 55–102 (4 µg/side) plus injections of a rewarding dose of AMPH (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) produced neither CPP nor CPA. Conclusions Both the affective properties of intra-BLA CART 55–102 and its ability to either facilitate or block AMPH reward are dose dependent. PMID:20013112

  2. Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny

    2012-01-01

    A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

  3. Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…

  4. Priming the Interpretation of Noun-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffray, Claudine N.; Pickering, Martin J.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2007-01-01

    Noun-noun combinations like "dog scarf" are common in everyday discourse but often have more than one interpretation. How do language users arrive at an interpretation of the relationship between the two nouns? This paper reports three expression-picture matching experiments that used a priming paradigm to investigate the influence of modifier and…

  5. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  6. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses of genomic signatures reveal sets of tetramers that discriminate temperature optima of archaea and bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Betsey D.; Kahn, Michael J.; LeBlanc, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was applied to genome-wide tetranucleotide frequencies (genomic signatures) of 195 archaea and bacteria. Although genomic signatures have typically been used to classify evolutionary divergence, in this study, convergent evolution was the focus. Temperature optima for most of the organisms examined could be distinguished by CART analyses of tetranucleotide frequencies. This suggests that pervasive (nonlinear) qualities of genomes may reflect certain environmental conditions (such as temperature) in which those genomes evolved. The predominant use of GAGA and AGGA as the discriminating tetramers in CART models suggests that purine-loading and codon biases of thermophiles may explain some of the results. PMID:19054742

  7. Les traces matérielles de la Carte du Ciel. Le cas des observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guet Tully, F.; Davoigneau, J.; Lamy, J.; de La Noë, J.; Rousseau, J.-M.; Sadsaoud, H.

    2008-06-01

    Le chapitre évoque les traces matérielles de la Carte du ciel subsistant dans les observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux. Les auteurs examinent d'abord l'opération d'inventaire du patrimoine astronomique entreprise à partir du milieu des années 1990. Ils examinent ensuite les éléments concrets constituant aujourd'hui le patrimoine de la Carte du Ciel : lunettes, abris, accessoires, laboratoires, réseaux, plaques de verre, registres, machines à mesurer les clichés, et cartes.

  8. Professional Language in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

  9. Language Learning and Language Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Richard D.

    The benefits of learning a foreign language and arguments in support of language requirements in the college curriculum are discussed. The arguments concerning the acquisition of indirect benefits not inherent in the language skill itself through the learning of a foreign language prove inconvincing and only serve to divert one's attention from…

  10. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  11. Crossing the language chasm.

    PubMed

    Brach, Cindy; Fraser, Irene; Paez, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The quality of communication between patients and clinicians can have a major impact on health outcomes, and limited English proficiency can interfere with effective communication. More than ten million U.S. residents speak English poorly or not at all, constituting a language chasm in the health care system. This paper reviews the evidence on the link between linguistic competence and health care quality and the impact of particular language-assistance strategies. Drawing on the experiences of fourteen health plans that have been at the forefront of linguistic competence efforts, we identify lessons for plans, purchasers, policymakers, and researchers on ways to improve the availability and quality of interpreter services. PMID:15757927

  12. Deaf Students, Teachers, and Interpreters in the Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Brenda C.; Wynne, Dorothy H.; MacDonald, Gina

    2002-02-01

    This report describes an undergraduate research program at James Madison University that includes deaf and hard-of-hearing students from Gallaudet University, deaf teachers from schools for the Deaf, and both professional interpreters and students engaged in sign language interpreter training. Methods used over a three-year period to maximize participation and expand research opportunities for the students, teachers, and interpreters are shared with the hope that similar projects might be encouraged and replicated in other programs.

  13. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  14. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  15. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  16. Accessing University Education: Perceptions, Preferences, and Expectations for Interpreting by Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of deaf education in Australia, Australian Sign Language (Auslan), and Auslan interpreting. A panel of Australian deaf university students from diverse linguistic and educational backgrounds provides insights into their perceptions of sign language interpreting provision in university lectures.…

  17. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. This study emphasizes the need for further countrywide serological surveys and isolation of circulating leptospires in animals and humans in order to understand the role of horses in the epidemiology of this disease. PMID:26809943

  18. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matrosov, Sergey

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  19. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  20. Interpretation domestic and foreign.

    PubMed

    Vega, Jason A Wheeler

    2012-10-01

    Verbal and nonverbal behavior are on all fours when it comes to interpretation. This idea runs counter to an intuition that, to borrow a phrase, speech is cooked but action is raw. The author discusses some of the most compelling psychoanalytic work on the interpretation of action and presents empirical and philosophical findings about understanding speech. These concepts generate reciprocal implications about the possibility of interpreting the exotics of action and the necessity of interpreting the domestics of speech, treating both as equally dignified aspects of human behavior. The author presents a number of clinical examples to further illustrate these ideas. PMID:23326999

  1. Dual projections of single orexin- or CART-immunoreactive, lateral hypothalamic neurons to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and nucleus accumbens shell in the rat: Light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Y; Lee, Hyun S

    2016-03-01

    The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) is a major relay station to the limbic forebrain areas such as the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). Both PVT and AcbSh are known to receive feeding/arousal-related peptidergic fibers including orexin (ORX) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide. In the first series of experiments, we examined the peptidergic fiber distribution in the AcbSh; the density of ORX (or CART) fibers in the AcbSh was substantially lower than that in the PVT. At the light microscopic level, ORX (or CART) terminals formed close appositions to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-, or enkephalin (Enk)-immunoreactive neuronal elements in the AcbSh. In the second series of experiments, we addressed the question of whether single ORX (or CART) cells in the hypothalamus provided divergent axon collaterals to the PVT and AcbSh. ORX neurons with dual projections were found in the medial, central, and lateral subdivisions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which amounted to an average of 1.6% of total ORX cells. CART neurons with divergent axon collaterals were observed in the LH, zona incerta, dorsal hypothalamic area, and retrochiasmatic nucleus, which represented a mean of 2.5% of total CART cells. None of arcuate CART cells sent dual projections. These data suggested that a portion of ORX (or CART) neurons in the hypothalamus, via divergent axon collaterals, might concurrently modulate the activity of PVT and AcbSh cells to affect feeding and drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:26778175

  2. Putting the Cart before the Horse: Interrogating Media Literacy Education in School English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan Lee Wee, Lynde

    2010-01-01

    Background: In response to the changing demands of new times, media literacy has been incorporated into the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore. Although media literacy is mentioned in the syllabus, what this term means needs more clarification. What is clear from the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore is the…

  3. Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

  4. Endangered Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  5. Learning Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

  6. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  7. Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

  8. Comparison of satellite-derived and observer-based determinations of cloud cover amount at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Y.P.; Cook, D.R.; Sisterson, D.L.; Gao, W.

    1995-06-01

    Cloud-climate feedback is one of the most important factors in predicting the timing and magnitude of global climate change and its regional effects. Recent satellite measurements indicate that global effects of clouds on solar and infrared radiation are large. The experimental objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to characterize, empically, the radiative processes in the Earth`s atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. Therefore, the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties is crucial for reliable climate prediction. This study focuses on the analysis of cloud cover data for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site central facility. The data set was obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellites 11 and 12, and cloud observations made by SGP CART site operators. Such an analysis provides a basis for future evaluations with whole-sky cameras and provides a means of assessing the reliability of surface-based observations of cloud cover at the SGP CART site.

  9. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L.; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  10. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  11. CARTS biogenesis requires VAP-lipid transfer protein complexes functioning at the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi interface.

    PubMed

    Wakana, Yuichi; Kotake, Richika; Oyama, Nanako; Murate, Motohide; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Arasaki, Kohei; Inoue, Hiroki; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2015-12-15

    Vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident integral membrane protein that controls a nonvesicular mode of ceramide and cholesterol transfer from the ER to the Golgi complex by interacting with ceramide transfer protein and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), respectively. We report that VAP and its interacting proteins are required for the processing and secretion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor, whose transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface is mediated by transport carriers called "carriers of the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface" (CARTS). In VAP-depleted cells, diacylglycerol level at the TGN was decreased and CARTS formation was impaired. We found that VAP forms a complex with not only OSBP but also Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase at specialized ER subdomains that are closely apposed to the trans-Golgi/TGN, most likely reflecting membrane contact sites. Immobilization of ER-Golgi contacts dramatically reduced CARTS production, indicating that association-dissociation dynamics of the two membranes are important. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the ER-Golgi contacts play a pivotal role in lipid metabolism to control the biogenesis of transport carriers from the TGN. PMID:26490117

  12. CARTS biogenesis requires VAP–lipid transfer protein complexes functioning at the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi interface

    PubMed Central

    Wakana, Yuichi; Kotake, Richika; Oyama, Nanako; Murate, Motohide; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Arasaki, Kohei; Inoue, Hiroki; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Vesicle-associated membrane protein–associated protein (VAP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident integral membrane protein that controls a nonvesicular mode of ceramide and cholesterol transfer from the ER to the Golgi complex by interacting with ceramide transfer protein and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), respectively. We report that VAP and its interacting proteins are required for the processing and secretion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor, whose transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface is mediated by transport carriers called “carriers of the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface” (CARTS). In VAP-depleted cells, diacylglycerol level at the TGN was decreased and CARTS formation was impaired. We found that VAP forms a complex with not only OSBP but also Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase at specialized ER subdomains that are closely apposed to the trans-Golgi/TGN, most likely reflecting membrane contact sites. Immobilization of ER–Golgi contacts dramatically reduced CARTS production, indicating that association–dissociation dynamics of the two membranes are important. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the ER–Golgi contacts play a pivotal role in lipid metabolism to control the biogenesis of transport carriers from the TGN. PMID:26490117

  13. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Xu-Yong; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  14. Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

  15. Prosody and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  16. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  17. Equilibrium cycle pin by pin transport depletion calculations with DeCART

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, B.; Downar, T.; Taiwo, T.

    2012-07-01

    As the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has matured it has become more important to utilize more advanced simulation methods. The work reported here was performed as part of the AFCI fellowship program to develop and demonstrate the capability of performing high fidelity equilibrium cycle calculations. As part of the work here, a new multi-cycle analysis capability was implemented in the DeCART code which included modifying the depletion modules to perform nuclide decay calculations, implementing an assembly shuffling pattern description, and modifying iteration schemes. During the work, stability issues were uncovered with respect to converging simultaneously the neutron flux, isotopics, and fluid density and temperature distributions in 3-D. Relaxation factors were implemented which considerably improved the stability of the convergence. To demonstrate the capability two core designs were utilized, a reference UOX core and a CORAIL core. Full core equilibrium cycle calculations were performed on both cores and the discharge isotopics were compared. From this comparison it was noted that the improved modeling capability was not drastically different in its prediction of the discharge isotopics when compared to 2-D single assembly or 2-D core models. For fissile isotopes such as U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 the relative differences were 1.91%, 1.88%, and 0.59%), respectively. While this difference may not seem large it translates to mass differences on the order of tens of grams per assembly, which may be significant for the purposes of accounting of special nuclear material. (authors)

  18. Leptin regulation of bone resorption by the sympathetic nervous system and CART.

    PubMed

    Elefteriou, Florent; Ahn, Jong Deok; Takeda, Shu; Starbuck, Michael; Yang, Xiangli; Liu, Xiuyun; Kondo, Hisataka; Richards, William G; Bannon, Tony W; Noda, Masaki; Clement, Karine; Vaisse, Christian; Karsenty, Gerard

    2005-03-24

    Bone remodelling, the mechanism by which vertebrates regulate bone mass, comprises two phases, namely resorption by osteoclasts and formation by osteoblasts; osteoblasts are multifunctional cells also controlling osteoclast differentiation. Sympathetic signalling via beta2-adrenergic receptors (Adrb2) present on osteoblasts controls bone formation downstream of leptin. Here we show, by analysing Adrb2-deficient mice, that the sympathetic nervous system favours bone resorption by increasing expression in osteoblast progenitor cells of the osteoclast differentiation factor Rankl. This sympathetic function requires phosphorylation (by protein kinase A) of ATF4, a cell-specific CREB-related transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation and function. That bone resorption cannot increase in gonadectomized Adrb2-deficient mice highlights the biological importance of this regulation, but also contrasts sharply with the increase in bone resorption characterizing another hypogonadic mouse with low sympathetic tone, the ob/ob mouse. This discrepancy is explained, in part, by the fact that CART ('cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript'), a neuropeptide whose expression is controlled by leptin and nearly abolished in ob/ob mice, inhibits bone resorption by modulating Rankl expression. Our study establishes that leptin-regulated neural pathways control both aspects of bone remodelling, and demonstrates that integrity of sympathetic signalling is necessary for the increase in bone resorption caused by gonadal failure. PMID:15724149

  19. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    The southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six-months beginning on July 1, 1993, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides a planning focus for the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the current plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six-months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  2. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  4. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  5. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  6. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  7. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  8. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  9. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  10. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  11. Observations and Stochastic Modeling of Shortwave Radiative Transfer at the ARM CART Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane-Veron, D.; Secora, J.; Somerville, R.

    2003-12-01

    Preliminary single-column model (SCM) studies have indicated that the SCM often predicts clear sky conditions when low-level scattered cloudiness actually occurs. Stochastic modeling is a promising technique for representing shortwave radiative transfer through broken cloud fields. Results from the stochastic model may be used to impove the performance of the SCM. To this end, one year of continuously sampled data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Programs Clouds and Radiative Testbed (CART) sites (Southern Great Plains, Tropical Western Pacific and North Slopes of Alaska) have been analyzed for input to the stochastic radiative transfer model. The cloud optical and geometric properties were determined using the techniques detailed in Lane, Goris and Somerville (2002). The resulting climatology for all three sites, including cloud height, thickness, fraction and optical properties, will be discussed and results will be compared to similar studies where appropriate (e.g. Lazarus et al. 2000). The output domain-averaged, shortwave radiation fields from the stochastic model will be evaluated using both observations and parallel plane model results to determine appropriateness of this technique as a correction to current shortwave cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  12. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  13. Centralised interpretation of electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, P W; Watts, M P; Lawrie, T D; Walker, R S

    1977-01-01

    A system was devised so that a peripheral hospital could transmit electrocardiograms (ECGs) to a central computer for interpretation. The link that transmits both ECGs and reports is provided by the telephone network. Initial results showed that telephone transmission did not significantly affect the accuracy of the ECG interpretation. The centralised computer programme could be much more widely used to provide ECG interpretations. A telephone link would not be justified in health centres, where the demand for ECGs is fairly small, but ECGs recorded at a health centre can be sent to the computer for interpretation and returned the next day. The most cost-effective method of providing computer interpretation for several health centres in a large city would be to have a portable electrocardiograph and transmission facilities, which could be moved from centre to centre. PMID:319866

  14. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant

  15. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  16. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  17. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Lelyveld, Steven F. L.; Otto, Sigrid A.; Richter, Clemens; Soetekouw, Robin; Prins, Jan M.; Brinkman, Kees; Mulder, Jan Willem; Kroon, Frank; Middel, Ananja; Symons, Jori; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Nijhuis, Monique; Borghans, José A. M.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Methods Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients) or placebo (44 patients) to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint) and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models. Results No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51) or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm. Conclusions Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368 PMID:26208341

  18. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  19. Rethinking language in autism.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory. PMID:24916453

  20. The Fifth Skill: Hearing the Unspoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilarrubla, Montserrat

    Aspects of nonverbal communication are examined as they relate to business communication and to the instruction of business language. Relevant literature on nonverbal communication is reviewed, focusing on gestures and body language and the problems inherent in interpretation of their meaning. Suggestions for educators include: training students…

  1. Culture and Language: The Black American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William S.; Freedle, Roy O.

    The express focus of this book is primarily on black American language. However, it is asserted, a comprehensive interpretation of this language requires an understanding of its social and cultural context. This book reviews the various ways in which the black experience in the United States has been treated in social science. It points out a…

  2. Chamorro Reference Grammar. Pali Language Texts: Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.

    This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…

  3. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  4. Programs for Training Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. programs for training interpreters for individuals with deafness. Schools are listed by state and include director and degree information. (Author/CR)

  5. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  6. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  7. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in feeding- and reward-related brain areas of young OLETF rats

    PubMed Central

    Armbruszt, Simon; Abraham, Hajnalka; Figler, Maria; Kozicz, Tamas; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in the control of appetite, drug reward and homeostatic regulation and it has an overall anorexigenic effect. Recently, we have shown that CART peptide immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens and in the rostro-medial part of the nucleus of the solitary tract in adult CCK-1 receptor deficient obese diabetic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats compared to Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) lean controls. It is not clear, however, whether altered CART expression is caused primarily by the deficiency in CCK-1 signaling or whether is related to the obese and diabetic phenotype of the OLETF strain which develops at a later age. Therefore, in the present study, CART-immunoreaction in feeding-related areas of the brain was compared in young, age-matched (6-7 weeks old) non-obese, non-diabetic OLETF rats and in LETO controls. We found that, young, non-diabetic OLETF rats revealed unaltered distribution of CART-peptide expressing neurons and axons throughout the brain when compared to age-matched LETO rats. In contrast to previous results observed in the obese diabetic adult rats, intensity of CART immunoreaction did not differ in the areas related to control of food-intake and reward in the young OLETFs compared to young LETO rats. Our findings suggest that factors secondary to obesity and/or diabetes rather than impaired CCK-1 receptor signaling may contribute to altered CART expression in the OLETF strain. PMID:23545074

  8. The interpretation of IPCC probabilistic statements around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budescu, David V.; Por, Han-Hui; Broomell, Stephen B.; Smithson, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) uses verbal descriptions of uncertainty (for example, Unlikely) to convey imprecision in its forecasts and conclusions. Previous studies showed that the American public misinterprets these probabilistic statements. We report results from a multi-national study involving 25 samples in 24 countries and 17 languages. As predicted, laypeople interpret IPCC statements as conveying probabilities closer to 50% than intended by the IPCC authors. We show that an alternative presentation format supplementing the verbal terms with numerical ranges increases the correspondence between the public's interpretations and the IPCC guidelines, and the terms are better differentiated. These qualitative patterns are remarkably stable across all samples and languages. In fact, interpretations of the terms in various languages are more similar under the new presentation format. These results suggest changing the way the IPCC communicates uncertainty.

  9. QUANTIFYING HYDROMETEOR ADVECTION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FRACTION OVER THE SGP CART SITE

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,M.; VERLINDE,J.

    1998-03-23

    A single column model (SCM) is, in essence, an isolated grid column of a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, SCMs have rather demanding input data requirements, but do not suffer from problems associated with balance of a GCM. Among the initial conditions that must be used to describe the initial state of the SCM column are the vertical profile of the horizontal wind components and the vertical profiles of cloud water and ice. In addition, the large-scale divergence and advective tendencies of cloud water and ice must be supplied as external parameters. Finally, the liquid and ice cloud amount as a function of height within the SCM column are required for model evaluation. The scale of the SCM column over which the initial conditions, external parameters, and model evaluation fields must apply is relatively large ({approximately}300 km). To quantify atmospheric structure on this scale, the ARM SGP CART site is located within the NOAA wind profiler network and has boundary and extended measurement facilities in an area compatible with the scale requirements of SCMs. Over an area this size, however, there is often rich mesoscale structure. This mesoscale variability creates a sampling problem that can thwart even the most sophisticated attempts to quantify the initial conditions and external parameters, and to evaluate model performance. There are two approaches that can be used to quantify the time varying quantities required for SCMs: objective analysis and data assimilation. The latter relies on products produced for operational forecasting, while the former involves methods that can be used to combine measurements from various sources to produce synoptic descriptions of the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic fields. Since data assimilation from operational models introduces the uncertainty of the parameterizations used in the models, most of the focus in the SCM effort has been on developing objective analysis techniques.

  10. Does First Language Maintenance Hamper Nativelikeness in a Second Language?: A Study of Ultimate Attainment in Early Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly…

  11. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  12. "IR-Spectroscopy" - computer-program for the interpretation of infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Ehrentreich, F; Dietze, U; Meyer, U; Schulz, H; Klötzer, H M; Abbas, S; Otto, M

    1996-03-01

    A computer-program "IR-Spectroscopy" for the interpretation of infrared spectra of organic compounds is described. It contains the following basic items for preprocessing and execution of the computer based interpretation process: handling of the rule-base CorTab, routines for automatic rule generation and interpretation modules on the basis of the programming languages PROLOG and C. PMID:15048396

  13. EVALUATING THE CHILD'S LANGUAGE COMPETENCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLIMA, URSULA BELLUGI

    LANGUAGE ABILITY IS ESSENTIAL TO A CHILD'S SUCCESS IN SCHOOL, AND THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF COMMUNICATION IS THE CHILD'S ABILITY TO PUT WORDS TOGETHER IN MEANINGFUL PATTERNS. THE ABILITY OF ADULTS TO GIVE AN INTERPRETATION TO NONSENSE LIKE "JABBERWOCKY" DEPENDS ON THE SYNTACTIC CUES GIVEN BY RELATIONAL WORDS AND WORD ORDER. IN ORDER TO FIND OUT

  14. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  15. Identifying Second Language Errors: How Plausible are Plausible Reconstructions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, Obaidul

    2007-01-01

    The research reported in the study was undertaken to measure English language teachers' ability to interpret second language learners' intended meanings in idiosyncratic utterances in written English. In doing so, it also aimed at verifying Corder's (1981) speculation that language teachers can correctly guess the intended meanings of learners in…

  16. Language Universals and Language Particulars: Implications for Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakada, Seiichi

    This paper explores the implications of presumed language universals and language particulars for second language teaching and learning. It is felt that an awareness of the universal features of language design builds confidence in the student who can concentrate on features which distinguish the target language from the native language. Examples…

  17. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f(d,m) successfully has been inferred, we are able to simulate how the geological expert would perform an interpretation given some external information m, through f(d|m). We will demonstrate this method applied on geological interpretation and densely sampled airborne electromagnetic data. In short, our goal is to build a statistical model describing how a geological expert performs geological interpretation given some geophysical data. We then wish to use this statistical model to perform semi automatic interpretation, everywhere where such geophysical data exist, in a manner consistent with the choices made by a geological expert. Benefits of such a statistical model are that 1. it provides a quantification of how a geological expert performs interpretation based on available diverse data 2. all available geophysical information can be used 3. it allows much faster interpretation of large data sets.

  18. Leptin-Induced CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) Is a Novel Intraovarian Mediator of Obesity-Related Infertility in Females.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoting; Hayes, Emily; Prizant, Hen; Srivastava, Rajesh K; Hammes, Stephen R; Sen, Aritro

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is considered detrimental to women's reproductive health. Although most of the attention has been focused on the effects of obesity on hypothalamic function, studies suggest a multifactorial impact. In fact, obesity is associated with reduced fecundity even in women with regular cycles, indicating that there may be local ovarian effects modulating fertility. Here we describe a novel mechanism for leptin actions directly in the ovary that may account for some of the negative effects of obesity on ovarian function. We find that normal cycling, obese, hyperleptinemic mice fed with a high-fat diet are subfertile and ovulate fewer oocytes compared with animals fed with a normal diet. Importantly, we show that leptin induces expression of the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the granulosa cells (GCs) of ovarian follicles both in vitro and in vivo. CART then negatively affects intracellular cAMP levels, MAPK signaling, and aromatase mRNA expression, which leads to lower estradiol synthesis in GCs and altered ovarian folliculogenesis. Finally, in human samples from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, we show a significant positive correlation between patient body mass index, CART mRNA expression in GCs, and CART peptide levels in follicular fluid. These observations suggest that, under obese conditions, CART acts as a local mediator of leptin in the ovary to cause ovarian dysfunction and reduced fertility. PMID:26730935

  19. Interpreter use in an inner city accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Leman, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of communication problems that arose from patients whose primary language was non-English presenting to an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: A prospective survey over seven consecutive days during September 1995. All adult patients other than those directly referred by their general practitioner to an inpatient team had a questionnaire completed by the A&E doctor first seeing the patient. The doctor recorded language ability and form of interpreter used, and estimated any prolongation of the consultation and ability to improve communication by the use of additional services. RESULTS: 103 patients (17%) did not speak English as their primary language; 55 patients (9.1% of the study population) had an English language ability rated as other than good, and 16 (29%) of these consultations could have been improved by the use of additional interpreter services; 28 patients overall (4.6% of the study population) required the use of an interpreter, who was usually a relative. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of patients presenting to A&E have difficulty in communicating in English. These consultations could often have been improved by the use of additional interpreter services. Telephone interpreter services may provide the answer for use in A&E departments because of their instant and 24 hour availability. Images p99-a PMID:9132201

  20. The Philological and Exegetical Approach to Language and Culture in the History of Language Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eto, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In the history of language study in Japan, there are two main streams: foreign language study and an inquiry into the mother tongue. For both types of language study, the philological and exegetical interpretation of texts had generally been the central approach for many centuries, particularly in the "koku-gaku" movement--a fierce Nativist…

  1. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  2. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  3. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy. PMID:27148031

  4. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy. PMID:27148031

  5. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  6. Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanaro, Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Discusses pre-linguistic and linguistic stages of language acquisition that are part of a continuum of receptivity and communication every child experiences in the first 3 years of life. Suggests parents assist language development by being sympathetic to each developmental turning point, providing the right emotional climate for expression, and…

  7. Selling Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela-Ibarra, Jose L.

    1975-01-01

    To reverse trends toward reductions in the number of foreign language teaching positions, it is necessary to change the negative image associated with foreign languages and to try to attract more students. A four-point selling program is suggested. (Author/RM)

  8. Interpreting Astronomical Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, D.

    1996-06-01

    Interpreting Astronomical Spectra D. Emerson Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edingurgh "Interpreting Astronomical Spectra" describes how physical conditions such as temperature, density and composition can be obtained from the spectra of a broad range of astronomical environments ranging from the cold interstellar medium to very hot coronal gas and from stellar atmospheres to quasars. In this book the author has succeeded in providing a coherent and integrated approach to the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopy, placing the emphasis on the physical understanding of spectrum formation rather than on instrumental considerations. MKS units and consistent symbols are employed throughout so that the fundamental ideas common to diverse environments are made clear and the importance of different temperature ranges and densities can be seen. Aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates studying physics, astronomy and astrophysics, this book will also appeal to the professional astronomer.

  9. Interpreting Astronomical Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, D.

    1999-03-01

    Interpreting Astronomical Spectra D. Emerson Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edingurgh "Interpreting Astronomical Spectra" describes how physical conditions such as temperature, density and composition can be obtained from the spectra of a broad range of astronomical environments ranging from the cold interstellar medium to very hot coronal gas and from stellar atmospheres to quasars. In this book the author has succeeded in providing a coherent and integrated approach to the interpretation of astronomical spectroscopy, placing the emphasis on the physical understanding of spectrum formation rather than on instrumental considerations. MKS units and consistent symbols are employed throughout so that the fundamental ideas common to diverse environments are made clear and the importance of different temperature ranges and densities can be seen. Aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates studying physics, astronomy and astrophysics, this book will also appeal to the professional astronomer.

  10. Copenhagen and Transactional Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grnitz, Th.; von Weizscker, C. F.

    1988-02-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation (CI) never received an authoritative codification. It was a minimum semantics of quantum mechanics. We assume that it expresses a theory identical with the Transactional Interpretation (TI) when the observer is included into the system described by the theory. A theory consists of a mathematical structure with a physical semantics. Now, CI rests on an implicit description of the modes of time which is also presupposed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Essential is the futuric meaning of probability as a prediction of a relative frequency. CI can be shown to be fully consistent on this basis. The TI and CI can be translated into each other by a simple dictionary. The TI describes all events as CI describes past events; CI calls future events possibilities, which TI treats like facts. All predictions of both interpretations agree; we suppose the difference to be linguistic.

  11. Interpretations of Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Martin

    2002-04-01

    The peculiar statistical correlations between spatially separated systems which arise in quantum mechanics, and which the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper of 1935 thrust into the limelight, have been the focus of much interpretive speculation and disagreement in the years since then. Amongst the questions raised along the way have been questions about the possibility of superluminal causation, the limits of quantum mechanics and its relation to relativity theory, the nature of and need for causal explanation, realism, determinism, and the presence of holism in quantum mechanics. This talk will provide an historically structured overview of these debates including discussion of the Bohm theory, the many worlds interpretation, and more recent developments and will suggest a way of dividing many of the interpretations of entanglement into clusters of like-minded views.

  12. Considerations When Working with Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

  13. T-Cell Phenotypes, Apoptosis and Inflammation in HIV+ Patients on Virologically Effective cART with Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Suardi, Elisa; Barassi, Alessandra; Cerrone, Maddalena; Martínez, Javier Sánchez; Bai, Francesca; D’Eril, Gian Vico Melzi; Monforte, Antonella D’Arminio; Marchetti, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the potential relationship between T-cell phenotype, inflammation, endotoxemia, and atherosclerosis evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a cohort of HIV-positive patients undergoing long-term virologically suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Design We studied 163 patients receiving virologically suppressive cART. Methods We measured IMT (carotid ultrasound); CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation (CD38, CD45R0), differentiation (CD127), apoptosis (CD95), and senescence (CD28, CD57) (flow cytometry); plasma sCD14, IL-6, TNF- α, sVCAM-1, hs-CRP, anti-CMV IgG (ELISA); LPS (LAL). The results were compared by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests, and factors associated with IMT were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients, 112 demonstrated normal IMT (nIMT), whereas 51 (31.3%) had pathological IMT (pIMT: ≥1 mm). Of the patients with pIMT, 22 demonstrated an increased IMT (iIMT), and 29 were shown to have plaques. These patient groups had comparable nadir and current CD4+, VLs and total length of time on cART. Despite similar proportions of CD38-expressing CD8+ cells (p = .95), pIMT patients exhibited higher activated memory CD8+CD38+CD45R0+ cells (p = .038) and apoptotic CD4+CD95+ (p = .01) and CD8+CD95+ cells (p = .003). In comparison to nIMT patients, iIMT patients tended to have lower numbers of early differentiated CD28+CD57− memory CD4+ (p = .048) and CD28–CD57−CD8+ cells (p = .006), both of which are associated with a higher proliferative potential. Despite no differences in plasma LPS levels, pIMT patients showed significantly higher circulating levels of sCD14 than did nIMT patients (p = .046). No differences in anti-CMV IgG was shown. Although circulating levels of sCD14 seemed to be associated with a risk of ATS in an unadjusted analysis, this effect was lost after adjusting for classical cardiovascular predictors. Conclusions Despite the provision of full viral suppression by cART, a hyperactivated, pro-apoptotic T-cell profile characterizes HIV-infected patients with early vascular damage, for whom the potential contribution of subclinical endotoxemia and anti-CMV immunity should be investigated further. PMID:23029393

  14. Language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-04-01

    What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research. PMID:19419838

  15. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  16. Getting By: Underuse of Interpreters by Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Fernandez, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Background Language barriers complicate physician–patient communication and adversely affect healthcare quality. Research suggests that physicians underuse interpreters despite evidence of benefits and even when services are readily available. The reasons underlying the underuse of interpreters are poorly understood. Objective To understand the decision-making process of resident physicians when communicating with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants Internal medicine resident physicians ( = 20) from two urban teaching hospitals with excellent interpreter services. Approach An interview guide was used to explore decision making about interpreter use. Results Four recurrent themes emerged: 1) Resident physicians recognized that they underused professional interpreters, and described this phenomenon as “getting by;” 2) Resident physicians made decisions about interpreter use by weighing the perceived value of communication in clinical decision making against their own time constraints; 3) The decision to call an interpreter could be preempted by the convenience of using family members or the resident physician’s use of his/her own second language skills; 4) Resident physicians normalized the underuse of professional interpreters, despite recognition that patients with LEP are not receiving equal care. Conclusions Although previous research has identified time constraints and lack of availability of interpreters as reasons for their underuse, our data suggest that the reasons are far more complex. Residents at the study institutions with interpreters readily available found it easier to “get by” without an interpreter, despite misgivings about negative implications for quality of care. Findings suggest that increasing interpreter use will require interventions targeted at both individual physicians and the practice environment. PMID:19089503

  17. A Non-Intuitionist's Approach To The Interpretation Problem Of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelland, Hans Herlof

    2005-02-01

    A philosophy of physics called "linguistic empiricism" is presented and applied to the interpretation problem of quantum mechanics. This philosophical position is based on the works of Jacques Derrida. The main propositions are (i) that meaning, included the meaning attached to observations, are language-dependent and (ii) that mathematics in physics should be considered as a proper language, not necessary translatable to a more basic language of intuition and immediate experience. This has fundamental implications for quantum mechanics, which is a mathematically coherent and consistent theory; its interpretation problem is associated with its lack of physical images expressible in ordinary language.

  18. Software development without languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Haywood S.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

  19. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    PubMed Central

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  20. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

  1. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  2. Fractal interpretation of intermittency

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, R.C.

    1991-12-01

    Implication of intermittency in high-energy collisions is first discussed. Then follows a description of the fractal interpretation of intermittency. A basic quantity with asymptotic fractal behavior is introduced. It is then shown how the factorial moments and the G moments can be expressed in terms of it. The relationship between the intermittency indices and the fractal indices is made explicit.

  3. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  4. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  5. The interpretation of fuzziness.

    PubMed

    Wang, P

    1996-01-01

    By analyzing related issues in psychology and linguistics, two basic types of fuzziness can be attributed to similarity and relativity, respectively. In both cases, it is possible to interpret grade of membership as the proportion of positive evidence, so as to treat fuzziness and randomness uniformly. PMID:18263034

  6. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  7. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint

  8. Once a Broker, Always a Broker: Non-Professional Interpreting as Identity Accomplishment in Multigenerational Italian-English Bilingual Family Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Torto, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores interpreting in three-generational Italian-English bilingual families as a complex language brokering activity. Recent studies approach non-professional interpreting as language brokering in which bilinguals (often children) interpret for non-bilinguals (adults) in institutional settings (Hall 2004; Valdes 2003). These studies…

  9. Once a Broker, Always a Broker: Non-Professional Interpreting as Identity Accomplishment in Multigenerational Italian-English Bilingual Family Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Torto, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores interpreting in three-generational Italian-English bilingual families as a complex language brokering activity. Recent studies approach non-professional interpreting as language brokering in which bilinguals (often children) interpret for non-bilinguals (adults) in institutional settings (Hall 2004; Valdes 2003). These studies

  10. Language Planning and Language Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an ecological approach to language planning, which sees human communication embedded in a complex socio-historical, spatial, and interpersonal ecology. Contains a number of new ideas for language planners as well as suggestions for how to transform them into practice. (Author/VWL)

  11. Jeu de cartes or Jeu Descartes: Business Cards in a French Course for the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegerias, Mary

    This paper discusses the use of French business cards in a college-level French language and culture course for professionals. Among other assignments, students were each given a different card and asked to speak about the design of their card, the business represented, idiomatic expressions and historical allusions on the card, and the use of…

  12. Neural Correlates of Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: When Language Conflicts with World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesink, Cathelijne M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with ASD, difficulties with language comprehension are most evident when higher-level semantic-pragmatic language processing is required, for instance when context has to be used to interpret the meaning of an utterance. Until now, it is unclear at what level of processing and for what type of context these difficulties in language…

  13. Culture, Language, and Literacy: The Effects of Child Brokering on Language Minority Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Lucy; McQuillan, Jeff

    Three studies of language brokering among linguistic minority (LM) children are reviewed and discussed. In child language brokering, children act as linguistic mediators, not translators or interpreters, for their limited-English-proficient parents and relatives. The purpose of the studies was to describe brokering in LM communities and to examine

  14. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  15. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Expression is Differentially Regulated in the Hypothalamic Para ventricular Nucleus of Lactating Rats Exposed to Suckling or Cold Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Edith; Fekete, Csaba; Lechan, Ronald M.; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Neural stimuli, such as suckling or cold exposure, increase TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat hypothalamus, yet only suckling induces prolactin secretion. As TRH co-localizes with cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in hypophysiotropic neurons of the PVN, and CART inhibits TRH-induced prolactin release but not TRH-induced TSH release in adenohypophyseal cell cultures, we raised the possibility that differential regulation of CART gene expression in the PVN may explain the differences in prolactin secretion following each of the two stimuli. Primiparous female rats were mated and handled daily during the pre- and postpartum periods. After delivery, the litter was adjusted to 8 pups and at mid-lactation, dams were separated from their pups for 8 hours and exposed to either 1h of cold or 30 min of suckling. Long term effects of suckling were studied by separating pups from their mothers for 24h, followed by a 12h period of continuous suckling. Serum TSH levels increased in response to cold exposure, while prolactin levels were increased by suckling and diminished by cold exposure. CART mRNA levels increased in rostral and mid parts of the medial parvocellular PVN following cold exposure but not after suckling stimulation. These data demonstrate a differential regulation of CART gene expression in hypophysiotropic neurons in response to stimuli that increase TRH mRNA levels, and suggest that CART activation in the PVN may contribute to the decrease in PRL release when the thyroid axis is activated by cold exposure. Section: Regulatory systems PMID:17174283

  16. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Regression Tree (CART) applications for the indirect estimation of unsaturated soil shear strength parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, D. P.; Sharma, Shaifaly; Pain, Anindya

    2014-09-01

    The shear strength parameters of soil (cohesion and angle of internal friction) are quite essential in solving many civil engineering problems. In order to determine these parameters, laboratory tests are used. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Regression Tree (CART) techniques for the indirect estimation of these parameters. Four different models, considering different combinations of 6 inputs, such as gravel %, sand %, silt %, clay %, dry density, and plasticity index, were investigated to evaluate the degree of their effects on the prediction of shear parameters. A performance evaluation was carried out using Correlation Coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error measures. It was observed that for the prediction of friction angle, the performance of both the techniques is about the same. However, for the prediction of cohesion, the ANN technique performs better than the CART technique. It was further observed that the model considering all of the 6 input soil parameters is the most appropriate model for the prediction of shear parameters. Also, connection weight and bias analyses of the best neural network (i.e., 6/2/2) were attempted using Connection Weight, Garson, and proposed Weight-bias approaches to characterize the influence of input variables on shear strength parameters. It was observed that the Connection Weight Approach provides the best overall methodology for accurately quantifying variable importance, and should be favored over the other approaches examined in this study.

  17. BEYSIK: Language description and handbook for programmers (system for the collective use of the Institute of Space Research, Academy of Sciences USSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.

    1979-01-01

    The BASIC algorithmic language is described, and a guide is presented for the programmer using the language interpreter. The high-level algorithm BASIC is a problem-oriented programming language intended for solution of computational and engineering problems.

  18. Neuron-restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) Represses Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Transcription and Antagonizes cAMP-response Element-binding Protein Signaling through a Dual NRSE Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Sihan; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Yinxiang; Zhang, Bowen; Liu, Qingbin; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Li, Yanhua; Pei, Xuetao

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide plays a pivotal role in neuroprotection against stroke-related brain injury. However, the regulatory mechanism on CART transcription, especially the repression mechanism, is not fully understood. Here, we show that the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSF, also known as REST) represses CART expression through direct binding to two NRSF-binding elements (NRSEs) in the CART promoter and intron 1 (named pNRSE and iNRSE, respectively). EMSA show that NRSF binds to pNRSE and iNRSE directly in vitro. ChIP assays show that NRSF recruits differential co-repressor complexes including CoREST and HDAC1 to these NRSEs. The presence of both NRSEs is required for efficient repression of CART transcription as indicated by reporter gene assays. NRSF overexpression antagonizes forskolin-mediated up-regulation of CART mRNA and protein. Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) enhances NRSF mRNA levels and then NRSF antagonizes the CREB signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death. Depletion of NRSF in combination with forskolin treatment increases neuronal survival after ischemic insult. These findings reveal a novel dual NRSE mechanism by which NRSF represses CART expression and suggest that NRSF may serve as a therapeutic target for stroke treatment. PMID:23086924

  19. Service, Profits, and Stimulus: A Case for a "Language Line" in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the value of a service called "Language Line" and its potential to attract and educate business about the benefits derived from hiring employees with language skills. Language Line provides a national telephone-based service that provides interpretation for speakers of different languages. The article makes a case for the use of Language…

  20. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.