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Sample records for language interpreters cart

  1. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  2. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  3. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  4. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  5. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  6. Entropy, Its Language, and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2007-12-01

    The language of entropy is examined for consistency with its mathematics and physics, and for its efficacy as a guide to what entropy means. Do common descriptors such as disorder, missing information, and multiplicity help or hinder understanding? Can the language of entropy be helpful in cases where entropy is not well defined? We argue in favor of the descriptor spreading, which entails space, time, and energy in a fundamental way. This includes spreading of energy spatially during processes and temporal spreading over accessible microstates states in thermodynamic equilibrium. Various examples illustrate the value of the spreading metaphor. To provide further support for this metaphor’s utility, it is shown how a set of reasonable spreading properties can be used to derive the entropy function. A main conclusion is that it is appropriate to view entropy’s symbol S as shorthand for spreading.

  7. PBS: An Economical Natural Language Query Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samstag-Schnock, Uwe; Meadow, Charles T.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the design and implementation of PBS (Parsing, Boolean Recognition, Stemming), a software module used in conjunction with an intermediary program to interpret natural language queries used for online database searching. Results of a test of the initial version, which is designed for use with bibliographic files, are reported. (13…

  8. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  9. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  10. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  11. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  12. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  13. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  14. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  15. Interpreting Language Arts Research for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Harold G., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents chapters concerning various aspects of research in language arts and implications for language instruction. The works of individuals are mentioned throughout the book, and 1,168 references are included in a list of works cited in the text. The research topics covered involve language development, oral language, listening, the…

  16. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon...

  17. Sign Language Interpreter Training, Testing, and Accreditation: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina

    2004-01-01

    The article explores sign language interpreter training, testing, and accreditation in three major English-speaking countries, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, by providing an overview of the training and assessment of sign language interpreters in each country. The article highlights the reasons these countries can be…

  18. Cart Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  19. The Psychotherapist and the Sign Language Interpreter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT).…

  20. Interpreting Language: An Essential of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegers, J. Conrad, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph points out the difficulties in language development of which teachers should be aware, suggests some methods through which children may be helped to overcome comprehension problems, and presents bibliographies helpful for persons who wish to undertake further reading. Chapters include "Some Possible Origins of the Prevalence of…

  1. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  2. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  3. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the aphasia history it has been well established that there are two major aphasic syndromes (Wernicke's-type and Broca's-type aphasia); each one of them is related to the disturbance at a specific linguistic level (lexical/semantic and grammatical) and associated with a particular brain damage localization (temporal and frontal-subcortical). It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: (a) primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; (b) initial communication systems using sound combinations (lexicon) but without relationships among the elements (grammar); and (c) advanced communication systems including word-combinations (grammar). It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. It is concluded that while the lexical/semantic language system (vocabulary) probably appeared during human evolution long before the contemporary man (Homo sapiens sapiens), the grammatical language historically represents a recent acquisition and is correlated with the development of complex cognition (metacognitive executive functions). PMID:26124540

  4. Design and coding considerations of the soil data language interpreter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, V. J.; Kollias, J. G.

    A query language, named Soil Data Language (SDL), for retrieving information from a Soil. Data Bank, is part of the ARSIS (A Relational Soil Information System) system, currently being developed in Greece. The interpreter of the language accepts input programs, expressed as SDL commands, and outputs the requested information. This paper describes design principles employed during the coding of the interpreter of the language. The derived program can be modified to cover eventual alterations to the specifications of language or the content and structure of the data bank. The study may be seen as an initiative to the design of Generalized Soil and Land Information Systems that primarily are concerned with the easy adaptation to a variety of National processing requirements.

  5. Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

  6. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  7. Interpreting medicine: lessons from a Spanish-language clinic.

    PubMed

    Brown, Benjamin P

    2014-01-01

    Caring for patients is an act of interpretation: we labor to understand the significance of a particular symptom and, when we have reached a diagnosis, we convert our medical jargon into plain language for the benefit of the patient. Caring for patients of limited English proficiency-a population that needs a very literal form of interpretation-underscores this lesson. Working with predominantly Spanish-speaking patients has shown me the importance of bearing witness to patients' struggles and has brought me to realize that good physicians must work to forge a common language with all their patients, not only with those who do not speak English. PMID:25201742

  8. Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

  9. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  10. School Counselor Collaboration with Language Interpreters: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maddux, Cleborne

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase knowledge of current school practices with regard to the use of language interpreters, experiences in collaborative work with interpreters were assessed through a national survey. Outcomes indicated a perceived need for more interpreter assistance, with many indicating a need for full-time language services. Bilingual…

  11. A basic interpretation of the technical language of radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeley, Catherine M.

    2004-09-01

    For the food producer contemplating the purchase of radiation processing equipment the task of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the available technologies, electron beam (E-beam), X-ray and gamma, to determine the best option for their application, is onerous. Not only is the level of investment daunting but also, to be sure of comparing like with like, the evaluator requires a basic understanding of the science underpinning radiation processing. There have been many papers published that provide technical specialists with a rigorous interpretation of this science (In: Gaughran, E.R.L., Goudie, A.J. (Eds.), Technical Developments and Prospects of Sterilization by Ionizing Radiation, International Conference, Vienna. Multiscience Publications Ltd., pp. 145-172). The objective for this paper is to give non-specialists an introduction to the language of radiation processing and to clarify some of the terminology associated with the use of radioactive sources for this application.

  12. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    PubMed Central

    Debevc, Matjaž; Milošević, Danijela; Kožuh, Ines

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers’ comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, they answered ten questions. The results showed that the presence of captions positively affected their rates of comprehension, which increased by 24% among deaf viewers and 42% among hard of hearing viewers. The most obvious differences in comprehension between watching sign language interpreter videos with and without captions were found for the subjects of hiking and culture, where comprehension was higher when captions were used. The results led to suggestions for the consistent use of captions in sign language interpreter videos in various media. PMID:26010899

  13. Emergency-Evacuation Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Otto H.; Owens, Lester J.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed cart designed to remove injured worker from vicinity of hazardous chemical spill. Self-propelled cart enables rescuer to move victim of industrial accident quickly away from toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, carcinogenic, asphyxiating, or extremely cold liquids. Intended for use where too dangerous for ambulances and other vehicles to approach accident site. Constructed of high-strength tubing, rides on bicycle wheels with balloon tires. Rescuer steers cart with handle at rear. Estimated mass of fully equipped vehicle is 650 lb.

  14. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  15. Language at work: children's gendered interpretations of occupational titles.

    PubMed

    Liben, Lynn S; Bigler, Rebecca S; Krogh, Holleen R

    2002-01-01

    A large literature has shown that children's beliefs and aspirations about occupations reflect cultural gender stereotypes. One channel that may create or sustain occupational stereotypes is language. Two studies were designed to examine whether children interpret occupational titles as gender specific or gender neutral. In Study 1, children (6- to 11-year-olds, N = 64) were asked directly if various job titles could be used for both men and women doing the job. In Study 2, children (6- to 10-year-olds, N = 51) were shown pictures of men and women engaged in job activities and asked which one(s) showed someone who could be called a(n)__. Titles were linguistically unmarked for gender (e.g., doctor), strongly marked (e.g., policeman), or weakly marked (e.g., postmaster). Marked titles were given in masculine and feminine forms. Findings reinforced past work showing that marked titles are exclusionary, revealed that some children harbor confusions about even unmarked titles, and demonstrated the mediating role of individual differences in attitudes. Implications for the changing lexicon and for educational programs are discussed. PMID:12038553

  16. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

  17. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  18. Deriving Meaning through Context: Interpreting Bare Nominals in Second Language Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the second language acquisition of telicity have suggested that learners can use morphosyntactic cues to interpret sentences as telic or atelic even in cases where the cues differ in the first language (L1) and second language (L2) (Slabakova, 2001, 2005; Gabriele, 2008; Kaku et al., 2008a, 2008b). The present study extends…

  19. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  20. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  1. First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

  2. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  3. Characterization of the Two CART Genes (CART1 and CART2) in Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is implicated in the control of avian energy balance, however, the structure and expression of CART gene(s) remains largely unknown in birds. Here, we cloned and characterized two CART genes (named cCART1 and cCART2) in chickens. The cloned cCART1 is predicted to generate two bioactive peptides, cCART1(42-89) and cCART1(49-89), which share high amino acid sequence identity (94-98%) with their mammalian counterparts, while the novel cCART2 may produce a bioactive peptide cCART2(51-91) with 59% identity to cCART1. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that cCART1 is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and less abundantly in the hypothalamus. In accordance with this finding, cCART1 peptide was easily detected in the anterior pituitary by Western blot, and its secretion from chick pituitaries incubated in vitro was enhanced by ionomycin and forskolin treatment, indicating that cCART1 is a novel peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Moreover, cCART1 mRNA expression in both the pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by 48-h fasting, suggesting its expression is affected by energy status. Unlike cCART1, cCART2 is only weakly expressed in most tissues examined by RT-PCR, implying a less significant role of cCART2 in chickens. As in chickens, 2 or more CART genes, likely generated by gene and genome duplication event(s), were also identified in other non-mammalian vertebrate species including coelacanth. Collectively, the identification and characterization of CART genes in birds helps to uncover the roles of CART peptide(s) in vertebrates and provides clues to the evolutionary history of vertebrate CART genes. PMID:25992897

  4. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvořák, LukáÅ.¡

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  5. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  6. American Sign Language-English Interpreting Program Faculty: Characteristics, Tenure Perceptions, and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreting education, which began as a community apprenticeship and vetting process, has within the last several decades moved into higher education. Most recently, the number of baccalaureate-granting ASL-English interpreting programs have continued to increase while the number of associate's degree…

  7. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

  8. Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

  9. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  10. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

  11. Native language governs interpretation of salient speech sound differences at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christiane; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

    2007-01-01

    One of the first steps infants take in learning their native language is to discover its set of speech-sound categories. This early development is shown when infants begin to lose the ability to differentiate some of the speech sounds their language does not use, while retaining or improving discrimination of language-relevant sounds. However, this aspect of early phonological tuning is not sufficient for language learning. Children must also discover which of the phonetic cues that are used in their language serve to signal lexical distinctions. Phonetic variation that is readily discriminable to all children may indicate two different words in one language but only one word in another. Here, we provide evidence that the language background of 1.5-year-olds affects their interpretation of phonetic variation in word learning, and we show that young children interpret salient phonetic variation in language-specific ways. Three experiments with a total of 104 children compared Dutch- and English-learning 18-month-olds' responses to novel words varying in vowel duration or vowel quality. Dutch learners interpreted vowel duration as lexically contrastive, but English learners did not, in keeping with properties of Dutch and English. Both groups performed equivalently when differentiating words varying in vowel quality. Thus, at one and a half years, children's phonological knowledge already guides their interpretation of salient phonetic variation. We argue that early phonological learning is not just a matter of maintaining the ability to distinguish language-relevant phonetic cues. Learning also requires phonological interpretation at appropriate levels of linguistic analysis. PMID:17911262

  12. Interpreting as a Language Teaching Technique. Proceedings of a Conference (University of Salford, England, January 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Noel, Ed.; Towell, Richard, Ed.

    Papers presented at a conference on the use of simultaneous, consecutive, and other forms of interpreting as features of foreign language teaching and learning in British higher education include the following: "Liaison Interpreting as a Communicative Language-Learning Exercise" (H. A. Keith); "Interpreting and Communicating: Problems for the…

  13. A Hierarchical Generative Framework of Language Processing: Linking Language Perception, Interpretation, and Production Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Language and thought dysfunction are central to the schizophrenia syndrome. They are evident in the major symptoms of psychosis itself, particularly as disorganized language output (positive thought disorder) and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and they also manifest as abnormalities in both high-level semantic and contextual processing and low-level perception. However, the literatures characterizing these abnormalities have largely been separate and have sometimes provided mutually exclusive accounts of aberrant language in schizophrenia. In this review, we propose that recent generative probabilistic frameworks of language processing can provide crucial insights that link these four lines of research. We first outline neural and cognitive evidence that real-time language comprehension and production normally involve internal generative circuits that propagate probabilistic predictions to perceptual cortices — predictions that are incrementally updated based on prediction error signals as new inputs are encountered. We then explain how disruptions to these circuits may compromise communicative abilities in schizophrenia by reducing the efficiency and robustness of both high-level language processing and low-level speech perception. We also argue that such disruptions may contribute to the phenomenology of thought-disordered speech and false perceptual inferences in the language system (i.e., AVHs). This perspective suggests a number of productive avenues for future research that may elucidate not only the mechanisms of language abnormalities in schizophrenia, but also promising directions for cognitive rehabilitation. PMID:26640435

  14. Your Case Will Now Be Heard: Sign Language Interpreters as Problematic Accommodations in Legal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Jeremy L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were…

  15. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  16. Shielding Yourself from the Perils of Empathy: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the psychological mechanisms of empathy with specific reference to sign language interpreters. It stresses that one must achieve a healthy balance of empathizing enough while shielding oneself from its perils to work effectively and ethically with a member of a minority group such as the deaf community. (Contains references.)…

  17. Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2014-01-01

    The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

  18. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  19. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

  20. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  1. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  2. Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning

    PubMed Central

    Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that of hearing peers who saw lectures without any support services. Experiment 2 compared interpreting and two forms of real-time text, C-Print and Communication Access Real-Time Translation, at immediate testing and after a 1-week delay (with study notes). No significant differences among support services were obtained at either testing. Experiment 3 also failed to reveal significant effects at immediate or delayed testing in a comparison of real-time text, direct (signed) instruction, and both. Experiment 4 found no significant differences between interpreting and interpreting plus real-time text on the learning of either new words or the content of television programs. Alternative accounts of the observed pattern of results are considered, but it is concluded that neither sign language interpreting nor real-time text have any inherent, generalized advantage over the other in supporting deaf students in secondary or postsecondary settings. Providing deaf students with both services simultaneously does not appear to provide any generalized benefit, at least for the kinds of materials utilized here. PMID:16928778

  3. Your case will now be heard: sign language interpreters as problematic accommodations in legal interactions.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Jeremy L

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were problematic. Three major themes emerged from the informants' narratives: difficulty obtaining the desired accommodation, dealing with a problematic accommodation, and enduring a partial accommodation. These findings suggest that accommodations involving sign language interpreters are not neutral and transparent and that they often have tangible effects on the experiences of and outcomes for deaf persons in the context of dealing with legal matters. Deaf people have very little control over the accommodation they receive and yet are held fully responsible for ensuring its efficacy. These results are discussed in relation to policies and procedures for ensuring that deaf persons have full access in their interactions with American legal institutions. PMID:17595172

  4. Assessing the Level of Performance of Sign Language Interpreters from Impaired Hearing Students' Perspectives at Public and Private Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanikat, Feryal Abdel-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the level of performance of sign language interpreters in both public and private Jordanian universities, as well as to recognize the effect of the study variables specifically gender and qualifications for acoustically disabled and interpreter, and the experience of the interpreter on the level of the performance…

  5. 77 FR 12055 - Comment Sought on Petition for Declaratory Ruling Interpreting the Definition of “Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) and other ``small-cell solutions.'' Petitioner states that in operating... and Other ``Small-Cell'' Solutions AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by email: FCC504@fcc.gov or phone:...

  6. FMIT alignment cart

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance.

  7. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  8. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  9. On Interpretative Experiences: Unconcious-to-Unconcious Communication Through Reverie, Language, and the Setting.

    PubMed

    Quagelli, Luca; Solano, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation has been looked upon for decades as the analyst's central tool to promote transformation, and it was intended as a synonym for making the unconscious conscious. Nowadays, work with patients with unrepresented mental areas has become more common and the classical conceptualizations require broadening. Reflecting and retrieving the original acceptations of Freud's word Deutung, we suggest the existence of "unconscious-to-unconscious" communications that we shall call "interpretative experiences," which can promote transformation through nonverbal communicative modes, thus getting in touch with more primitive mental functioning. Drawing on case material, we discuss the transformative function of reverie, language, and the setting within the framework of the post-Kleinian and French psychoanalytic model. PMID:27042980

  10. The rain-powered cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungan, Carl E.; Lipscombe, Trevor C.

    2016-09-01

    A frictionless cart in the shape of a right triangle (with the vertical side forward) is elastically impacted by vertically falling raindrops. The speed of the cart as a function of time can be analytically deduced as an exercise in the use of trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. A characteristic time defines the approach to a terminal speed which is a sizeable fraction of the speed of the rain. The treatment is accessible to a student in a calculus-based mechanics course.

  11. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  12. Park a La Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susie; Roell, Amy

    1998-01-01

    Using discovery stations offers solutions for increasing attendance at park interpretive programs. Compact, portable stations can be used in playgrounds, special events, trailheads, picnic areas, campgrounds, nursing homes, and scouts and day camps. Describes a case in which stations were used 85 times and reached 4,927 visitors between July 1996…

  13. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  14. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic…

  15. Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Karen L.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

  16. Validity of the KABC-II Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix: A Comparison of Native English Speakers and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deth, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of the Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) when applied to scores from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (KABC-II; Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004). Data were analyzed from the KABC-II standardization sample as well as…

  17. La Interpretacion Consecutiva y la Ensenanza Avanzada de Idiomas (Delayed Interpretation and Advanced Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of interpretation. The importance of delayed interpretation, as opposed to simultaneous interpretation, is stressed, because of the emphasis on semantic meaning. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  18. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period. PMID:15830245

  19. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  20. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Erika

    2012-01-01

    On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

  1. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  2. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  3. Native Language Attrition and Developmental Instability at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Data, Interpretations and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2004-01-01

    Montrul's study is an important contribution to a recently emerged research approach to the study of bilingualism and languages in contact, characterized by its sound theoretical basis and its reliance on data from different--and traditionally non-integrated--domains of language development: bilingual first language acquisition (Muller and Hulk,…

  4. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  5. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  6. Facilitation of Language Acquisition Viewed through an Interpretative Lens: The Role of Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Melanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    A paradigm is the conceptual framework or lens one uses to view reality. The field of speech-language pathology is traditionally rooted in the empirical paradigm, which believes that language can be fragmented into isolated skills and taught in a hierarchal fashion. This belief has resulted in service delivery models that remove students from…

  7. Research on Language Intervention for Disadvantaged Children: Rationale, Results, and Recommendations. Interpretive Study I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Vernon C.; Mery, Michael

    This paper on intervention research critically reviews evaluations of experimental procedures designed to effect changes in the language development of disadvantaged children. It includes a summary of intervention projects and survey of present knowledge and theory about language which constitute the rationale for such projects. Specific…

  8. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  9. Transportable X-ray cart

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The main body of the report summarizes the project scope, project milestones, highlights any unresolved problems encountered during the project and includes a summary of the financial information. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Digiray Corporation in the development and evaluation of a Transportable Reverse Geometry X-Ray 0 (RGX-T) cart for aircraft inspection Scope: LLNL was to provide a review of the RGX-T engineering drawing package supplied by Digiray, suggest and incorporate design modifications, fabricate, assemble and provide performance evaluation testing of the RGX-T prototype. Major deliverables were (a) engineering design analysis and evaluation (b) cart prototype hardware, and (c) performance evaluation. Schedule: Procurement and technical delays extended the project twelve months past than the original four month project duration estimate. LLNL reviewed engineering drawings of the RGX-T prototype provided by Digiray, performed a engineering design analysis and evaluation, suggested and incorporated modifications to improve design safety factors, fabricated and assembled the prototype system, and evaluated the motion and positioning capabilities of the assembled system. The RGX-T provides a limited set of positioning orientations for the Digiray x-ray tube head that do not meet the overall Digiray requirements for aircraft inspection. In addition, mechanical stability concerns remain for positioning the tube head with the mechanical arm and for rolling the assembly with arbitrary orientation of the mechanical arm.

  10. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  11. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  12. Elementary Teachers' Use of Language to Label and Interpret Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how three teachers of upper elementary students used science vocabulary in their lessons. The data revealed that teachers used vocabulary to label science phenomena and interpret scientific concepts for students. The practice of labeling was used more extensively than interpreting. Teachers did not help their…

  13. Linguistic complex networks: Rationale, application, interpretation, and directions. Reply to comments on "Approaching human language with complex networks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jin; Liu, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Amid the enthusiasm for real-world networks of the new millennium, the enquiry into linguistic networks is flourishing not only as a productive branch of the new networks science but also as a promising approach to linguistic research. Although the complex network approach constitutes a potential opportunity to make linguistics a science, the world of linguistics seems unprepared to embrace it. For one thing, linguistics has been largely unaffected by quantitative methods. Those who are accustomed to qualitative linguistic methods may find it hard to appreciate the application of quantitative properties of language such as frequency and length, not to mention quantitative properties of language modeled as networks. With this in mind, in our review [1] we restrict ourselves to the basics of complex networks and the new insights into human language with the application of complex networks. For another, while breaking new grounds and posing new challenges for linguistics, the complex network approach to human language as a new tradition of linguistic research is faced with challenges and unsolved issues of its own. It is no surprise that the comments on our review, especially their skepticism and suggestions, focus on various different aspects of the complex network approach to human language. We are grateful to all the insightful and penetrating comments, which, together with our review, mark a significant impetus to linguistic research from the complex network approach. In this reply, we would like to address four major issues of the complex network approach to human language, namely, a) its theoretical rationale, b) its application in linguistic research, c) interpretation of the results, and d) directions of future research.

  14. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  15. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-Speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether (i) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and (ii) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM)…

  16. Handbook of Research on Teaching Methods in Language Translation and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Ying, Ed.; Zhao, Wei, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    As an area of research that continues to develop, the study of linguistics worldwide presents the opportunity for the improvement of cross-cultural communication through education and research. Language educators are charged with the task of instructing students to effectively communicate across cultures in a multi-lingual world. The…

  17. The Role of University Students' Attitude towards Turkish Language Lesson in Interpreting Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aytan, Necmi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to measure the effect of students' reading strategies and attitudes towards Turkish language on reading habits. 323 first grade students receiving education in 2014-2015 semester in International Antalya University located at the center of Antalya were involved in the study. As the method, relational screening model was…

  18. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  19. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  20. Enhancing the Interpretability of the Overall Results of an International Test of English-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, Spiros; Morgan, Rick; Becker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the meaning of the scores of an English-language test by developing performance levels and descriptors for reporting overall test performance. The levels and descriptors were intended to accompany the total scale scores of TOEFL Junior® Standard, an international test of English as a second/foreign…

  1. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  2. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  3. Teachers' Pets II--Circling Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes a demonstration which illustrates that a body moving with constant speed can be accelerating. The students ride in a circle on a cart made with plywood and roller skates and equipped with bubble accelerometers. (MLH)

  4. A framework to identify the costs of providing language interpretation services.

    PubMed

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Gazelle, G Scott; Khaliif, Mursal; Arocha, Izabel S; Hacker, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The availability of language services for patients with limited English proficiency has become a standard of care in the United States. Finding the resources to pay for language programs is challenging for providers, payers, and policymakers. There is no federal payment policy and states are developing policies using different methodologies for determining costs and reimbursement rates. This paper establishes a conceptual framework that identifies program costs, can be used across health care entities, and can be understood by administrators, researchers, and policymakers to guide research and analysis and establish a common ground for informed strategic discussion of payment and reimbursement policy. Using case study methods, a framework was established to identify costs and included determining the perspective of the cost analysis as well as distinguishing between the financial accounting costs (direct, indirect, and overhead costs) and the economic opportunity and subsequent utilization costs. PMID:21551931

  5. Comparability of Writing Assessment Scores across Languages: Searching for Evidence of Valid Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevigny, Serge; Savard, Denis; Beaudoin, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Very few empirically based studies have denied or confirmed the validity of holistic score interpretations and the validity of French-English writing scores comparisons. The present study addresses these important issues. Part I investigates if adjacent holistic scores represent different writing skills. Part II evaluates if variations exposed in…

  6. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

  7. Fuel-cell-powered golf cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbett, R.E.; McCormick, J.B.; Lynn, D.K.; Kerwin, W.J.; Derouin, C.R.; Salazar, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a battery/fuel-cell-powered golf cart test bed designed to verify computer simulations and to gain operational experience with a fuel cell in a vehicular environment is described. A technically untrained driver can easily operate the golf cart because the motor and fuel cell controllers automatically sense and execute the appropriate on/off sequencing. A voltage imbalance circuit and a throttle compress circuit were developed that are directly applicable to electric vehicles in general.

  8. Appetite regulation in Schizothorax prenanti by three CART genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dengyue; Wei, Rongbin; Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuanbing; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has received much attention as mediators of appetite regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of CART in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. In this study, three distinct CARTs were cloned from the Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Real-time quantitative PCR were applied to characterize the tissue distribution and appetite regulatory effects of CARTs in S. prenanti. The S. prenanti CART-1, CART-2 and CART-3 full-length cDNA sequences were 597 bp, 694 bp and 749 bp in length, encoding the peptides of 125, 120 and 104 amino acid residues, respectively. All the S. prenanti CARTs consisted of three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the high mRNA levels of S. prenanti CART-1 were observed in the telencephalon and eye, followed by the hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and mesencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-2 mRNA was mainly found in the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, telencephalon and myelencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-3 mRNA was widely distributed among the tissues, with the high levels in the hypothalamus and foregut. In the periprandial experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were highly elevated after a meal, suggesting that CARTs are postprandial satiety signals. In the fasting experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions decreased after fasting and increased after refeeding, suggesting that CARTs might be involved in regulation of appetite in the S. prenanti. PMID:26316039

  9. Prediction of radiation levels in residences: A methodological comparison of CART (Classification and Regression Tree Analysis) and conventional regression

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, I.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, trace and toxic substance concentrations frequently have very highly skewed distributions ranging over one or more orders of magnitude, and prediction by conventional regression is often poor. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) is an alternative in such contexts. To compare the techniques, two Pennsylvania data sets and three independent variables are used: house radon progeny (RnD) and gamma levels as predicted by construction characteristics in 1330 houses; and {approximately}200 house radon (Rn) measurements as predicted by topographic parameters. CART may identify structural variables of interest not identified by conventional regression, and vice versa, but in general the regression models are similar. CART has major advantages in dealing with other common characteristics of environmental data sets, such as missing values, continuous variables requiring transformations, and large sets of potential independent variables. CART is most useful in the identification and screening of independent variables, greatly reducing the need for cross-tabulations and nested breakdown analyses. There is no need to discard cases with missing values for the independent variables because surrogate variables are intrinsic to CART. The tree-structured approach is also independent of the scale on which the independent variables are measured, so that transformations are unnecessary. CART identifies important interactions as well as main effects. The major advantages of CART appear to be in exploring data. Once the important variables are identified, conventional regressions seem to lead to results similar but more interpretable by most audiences. 12 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Interpretation of Anaphoric Dependencies in Russian-speaking Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether 1) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and 2) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM) subjects supports a particular theoretical account of anaphora. Fifty-four native-Russian-speaking children (age M = 7;6, SD = 1;9) were tested on a picture selection task. Children with DLD (n=18) underperformed overall, but displayed similar patterns to the typically developing (TD) group with respect to the extra difficulty of the ECM relative to the transitive and ECM pronouns relative to all other conditions. However, whereas pronouns were more difficult than reflexives for the TD children, this effect was not significant for the DLD group, whose reduced accuracy on reflexives washed out the effect of pronouns in that group. These results are consistent with performance-level vulnerability in DLD, arguably related to weaknesses in lexical processing and with the Reflexivity framework of Binding phenomena. PMID:26640354

  11. CART peptide diurnal variations in blood and brain.

    PubMed

    Vicentic, Aleksandra

    2006-08-01

    The central role of CART peptide in feeding, drug abuse and stress has been widely researched however, CART's role in the peripheral system are less explored. CART peptide is present in a variety of peripheral tissues including sympathetic ganglion neurons, adrenal glands, gut, pancreas and blood. Studies that examined circulating CART demonstrated that the active fragment with a molecular weight of CART55-102 is present in the blood of rats and rhesus macaques. Interestingly, CART expression in these species exhibits a distinctive diurnal rhythm which correlates with the respective daily rhythms of corticosterone and feeding. In the rat, adrenalectomy significantly reduces blood CART levels and abolishes its daily rhythm while corticosterone replacement reinstates CART expression to control levels. In addition, direct administration of corticosterone significantly increases CART blood levels while administration of corticosterone synthesis blocker metyrapone, inhibits CART blood levels. These data suggest that the adrenal gland could be a source of blood CART and that glucocorticoids may play a role in the generation of CART's diurnal rhythm. Moreover, fuel availability may be important in the control of CART levels and its daily rhythm, since 24 h food restriction alters CART levels and abolishes its rhythm. In addition to blood, both CART peptide and mRNA exhibit food-dependent diurnal rhythm in discrete rat brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hypothalamus. Altogether, these findings suggest that CART is influenced by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal interactions and that it may play a role in multiple physiological processes possibly involving feeding, stress, reward and motivation. PMID:16697078

  12. Constant Acceleration: Experiments with a Fan-Driven Dynamics Cart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the rebuilding of a Project Physics fan cart on a PASCO dynamics cart chassis for achieving greatly reduced frictional forces. Suggests four experiments for the rebuilt cart: (1) acceleration on a level track, (2) initial negative velocity, (3) different masses and different forces, and (4) inclines. (MVL)

  13. Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

    This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

  14. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  15. Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative…

  16. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  17. Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joelle

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

  18. Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.

    PubMed

    Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

    2002-07-01

    The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

  19. Uses and Interpretations of Non-Word Repetition Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairments (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Evans, Julia L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The non-word repetition task (NRT) has gained wide acceptance in describing language acquisition in both children with normal language development (NL) and children with specific language impairments (SLI). This task has gained wide acceptance because it so closely matches the phonological component of word learning, and correlates…

  20. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART): A New Statewide Autism Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    GERBER, ALAN; MORROW, ERIC M.; SHEINKOPF, STEPHEN J.; ANDERS, THOMAS

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interaction, language and repetitive behaviors. The need for services is rising sharply as the number of children identified with autism increases. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) was founded in 2009 with the goal of increasing communication among autism researchers throughout the state and improving treatment for children with autism. RI-CART members have several exciting projects in progress, with its larger aim being the creation of a statewide research registry. A statewide registry would benefit research in Rhode Island and allow for larger collaborations nationally. PMID:24791265

  1. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART): a new statewide autism collaborative.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Alan; Morrow, Eric; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Anders, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interaction, language and repetitive behaviors. The need for services is rising sharply as the number of children identified with autism increases. The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI-CART) was founded in 2009 with the goal of increasing communication among autism researchers throughout the state and improving treatment for children with autism. RI-CART members have several exciting projects in progress, with its larger aim being the creation of a statewide research registry. A statewide registry would benefit research in Rhode Island and allow for larger collaborations nationally. PMID:24791265

  2. Analysis of the Samus Collimeter Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-16

    The SAMUS collimator cart is a support for shielding blocks and the vacuum assembly of the Tevatron beam tube as it passes through the D0 End Iron. It slides on linear bearings mounted in the SAMUS toroid as the End Iron moves in and out. There are two collimators designed for the D0 experiment, designated North and South, each identical except for the shimming of the tungsten center blocks, and thereby the relative position of the Tevatron tube. This report contains calculations of the stresses during installation as well as the installed configurations. To support the analysis of the installation case, loads were simulated on the cart held in a mock-up of the lifting fixture.

  3. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  4. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  5. CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, G.; Jones, D.; Hubert, G. W.; Lin, Y.; Kuhar, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing and functions of CART peptides, but additional studies aimed at elucidating the physiological effects of the peptides and at characterizing the CART receptor(s) are needed to take advantage of possible therapeutic applications. PMID:18802445

  6. On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čech, Radek

    2014-12-01

    After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

  7. Using CART to segment road images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  8. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  9. Effects of language concordance and interpreter use on therapeutic alliance in Spanish-speaking integrated behavioral health care patients.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Bianca T; Bridges, Ana J; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Ojeda, Carlos A; Hernandez Rodriguez, Juventino; Gomez, Debbie

    2016-02-01

    The discrepancy between the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and the availability of bilingual providers creates a barrier to accessing quality mental health care. Use of interpreters provides one strategy for overcoming this linguistic barrier; however, concerns about whether sessions with interpreters, versus bilingual providers, impede therapeutic alliance remain. The current study explored associations between the use of interpreters and therapeutic alliance in a sample of 458 Spanish-speaking patients seen for integrated behavioral health visits at primary care clinics. Patients completed a brief (4 item) therapeutic alliance scale at their behavioral health appointment. In addition, to supplement the quantitative study data, a pilot study of 30 qualitative interviews was conducted with a new sample of 10 Spanish-speaking patients, 10 behavioral health consultants (BHCs), and 10 trained interpreters. Quantitative results showed that interpreter use did not relate to therapeutic alliance, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. However, qualitative interviews suggested major themes regarding the relative benefits and challenges of using interpreters for patients, interpreters, and BHCs. In interviews, patients expressed a strong preference for bilingual providers. Benefits included greater privacy, sense of trust, and accuracy of communication. However, in their absence, interpreters were seen as increasing access to services and facilitating communication with providers, thereby addressing the behavioral health needs of patients with limited English proficiency. BHCs and interpreters emphasized the importance of interpreter training and a good collaborative relationship with interpreters to minimize negative effects on the quality of care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26349073

  10. Use of Semantic Information to Interpret Thematic Information for Real-Time Sentence Comprehension in an SOV Language

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Takahashi, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Recently, sentence comprehension in languages other than European languages has been investigated from a cross-linguistic perspective. In this paper, we examine whether and how animacy-related semantic information is used for real-time sentence comprehension in a SOV word order language (i.e., Japanese). Twenty-three Japanese native speakers participated in this study. They read semantically reversible and non-reversible sentences with canonical word order, and those with scrambled word order. In our results, the second argument position in reversible sentences took longer to read than that in non-reversible sentences, indicating that animacy information is used in second argument processing. In contrast, for the predicate position, there was no difference in reading times, suggesting that animacy information is NOT used in the predicate position. These results are discussed using the sentence comprehension models of an SOV word order language. PMID:23409134

  11. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  12. Shoulder joint loading and posture during medicine cart pushing task.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; Boyer, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Excessive physical loads and awkward shoulder postures during pushing and pulling are risk factors for shoulder pain. Pushing a medicine cart is a major component of a work shift for nurses and medical assistants in hospitals and other health care facilities. A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of common factors (e.g., lane congestion, cart load stability, floor surface friction) on shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle of participants during cart pushing. Participants pushed a medicine cart on straight tracks and turning around right-angle corners. Peak shoulder joint moments reached 25.1 Nm, 20.3 Nm, and 26.8 Nm for initial, transition, and turning phases of the pushing tasks, indicating that shoulder joint loading while pushing a medical cart is comparable to levels previously reported from heavy manual activities encountered in industry (e.g., garbage collection). Also, except for user experience, all other main study factors, including congestion level, cart load stability, location of transition strip, shoulder tendency, surface friction, and handedness, significantly influenced shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle. The findings provide a better understanding of shoulder exposures associated with medicine cart operations and may be helpful in designing and optimizing the physical environment where medicine carts are used. PMID:23767931

  13. Establishing guidelines for CAR-T cells: challenges and considerations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Di-Yuan; Zhang, Bing-Lan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-04-01

    T cells, genetically modified by chimeric antigen receptors (CAR-T), are endowed with specificity to a desired antigen and are cytotoxic to cells expressing the targeted antigen. CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising therapy for curing hematological malignancy, such as acute lymphoid leukemia, and is promising for extending their efficacy to defeat solid tumors. To date, dozens of different CAR-T cells have been evaluated in clinical trials to treat tumors; this necessitates the establishment of guidelines for the production and application of CAR-T cells. However, it is challenging to standardize CAR-T cancer therapy because it involves a combination of gene therapy and cell therapy. In this review, we compare the existing guidelines for CAR-T cells and discuss the challenges and considerations for establishing guidance for CAR-T-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26965523

  14. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  15. Understanding the Home Language and Literacy Environments of Head Start Families: Testing the Family Literacy Survey and Interpreting Its Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Barbara A.; Hindman, Annemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of Head Start children's home literacy environments and the associations between these resources and children's early-language and literacy skills. At the beginning of the preschool year, families of 302 children completed the Family Literacy Survey. In general, Head Start families reported providing a…

  16. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  17. Carte du Ciel, San Fernando zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, C.

    2014-06-01

    An updated summary of a future large astrometric catalogue is presented, based on the two most important astrometric projects carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando (ROA). The goal is to make a catalogue of positions and proper motions based on ROA's Cart du Ciel (CdC) and the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) San Fernando zone plates, and the HAMC2 meridian circle catalogue. The CdC and AC plates are being reduced together to provide first-epoch positions while HAMC2 will provide second-epoch ones. New techniques have been applied, that range from using a commercial flatbed scanner to the proper reduction schemes to avoid systematics from it. Only thirty plates (out of 540) remain to be processed, due to scanning problems that are being solved.

  18. Neural Dynamics of Animacy Processing in Language Comprehension: ERP Evidence from the Interpretation of Classifier-Noun Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yaxu; Zhang, Jinlu; Min, Baoquan

    2012-01-01

    An event-related potential experiment was conducted to investigate the temporal neural dynamics of animacy processing in the interpretation of classifier-noun combinations. Participants read sentences that had a non-canonical structure, "object noun" + "subject noun" + "verb" + "numeral-classifier" + "adjective". The object noun and its classifier…

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  1. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. PMID:27067907

  2. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA Cape Canaveral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL CART, WEST SHED AREA - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  5. Potential Antidepressant Role of Neurotransmitter CART: Implications for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong

    2011-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating public health concerns. Although no single cause of depression has been identified, it appears that interaction among genetic, epigenetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychosocial factors may explain its etiology. Further, only a fraction of depressed patients show full remission while using current antidepressants. Therefore, identifying common pathways of the disorder and using that knowledge to develop more effective pharmacological treatments are two primary targets of research in this field. Brain-enriched neurotransmitter CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) has multiple functions related to emotions. It is a potential neurotrophic factor and is involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress response as well as in energy homeostasis. CART is also highly expressed in limbic system, which is considered to have an important role in regulating mood. Notably, adolescents carrying a missense mutation in the CART gene exhibit increased depression and anxiety. Hence, CART peptide may be a novel promising antidepressant agent. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in depression and CART. In particular, we emphasize a new antidepressant function for CART. PMID:21785720

  6. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2012-03-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analyzed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artifact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in introductory physics laboratory.

  7. The retarding force on a fan-cart reversing direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analysed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artefact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in the introductory physics laboratory.

  8. Object Transportation by Two Mobile Robots with Hand Carts

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tatsunori

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology by which two small mobile robots can grasp, lift, and transport large objects using hand carts. The specific problems involve generating robot actions and determining the hand cart positions to achieve the stable loading of objects onto the carts. These problems are solved using nonlinear optimization, and we propose an algorithm for generating robot actions. The proposed method was verified through simulations and experiments using actual devices in a real environment. The proposed method could reduce the number of robots required to transport large objects with 50–60%. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of this task in real environments where errors occur in robot sensing and movement. PMID:27433499

  9. Object Transportation by Two Mobile Robots with Hand Carts.

    PubMed

    Sakuyama, Takuya; Figueroa Heredia, Jorge David; Ogata, Taiki; Hara, Tatsunori; Ota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology by which two small mobile robots can grasp, lift, and transport large objects using hand carts. The specific problems involve generating robot actions and determining the hand cart positions to achieve the stable loading of objects onto the carts. These problems are solved using nonlinear optimization, and we propose an algorithm for generating robot actions. The proposed method was verified through simulations and experiments using actual devices in a real environment. The proposed method could reduce the number of robots required to transport large objects with 50-60%. In addition, we demonstrated the efficacy of this task in real environments where errors occur in robot sensing and movement. PMID:27433499

  10. Enhancing the Interpretation of a Norm-Referenced Second-Language Test through Criterion Referencing: A Research Assessment of Experience in the TOEIC Testing Context. TOEIC Research Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    This study was undertaken to develop guidelines for making interpretive inferences from scores on the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC), a norm-referenced test of English-language listening comprehension (LC) and reading (R) skills, about level of ability to use English in face-to-face conversation, indexed by performance in…

  11. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  12. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  13. Interdisciplinary development of an ergonomic prone mobility cart.

    PubMed

    Brose, Steven W; Kilbane, Martin J; Harpster, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Steven J; Ho, Chester; Gustafson, Ken J

    2016-01-01

    Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in Veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure during sitting. An innovative, iterative design process was undertaken to improve prone cart design for persons with spinal cord injury and pressure ulceration. Further investigation of ways to improve prone carts is warranted to enhance the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers. PMID:27533301

  14. The Impact of Verbal Prompts on Child Safety-Belt Use in Shopping Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Mae R.; Bailey, Jon S.; Lee, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Each year thousands of children are injured by falling from shopping carts. Buckling children into the seats of shopping carts could prevent many of these injuries. A combined reversal and multiple baseline across settings design was used to evaluate the impact of verbal prompts on shopping cart safety-belt use in two stores. Safety-belt use…

  15. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's). (a) Operators of “go-carts,” “minibikes,” and ATV's 16 years of age or older, must comply...

  16. Art on a Cart: A National Mixed Methods Investigation of Elementary Art Teacher Experiences and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lung, Heidi K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the practice of elementary art teachers who utilize carts for the delivery of art lessons; to understand how the art on a cart practice influences art educators' approaches to curriculum development and instruction; and to identify challenges, benefits, and best practices. The practice of art on a cart is defined as the…

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigné, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

  18. An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Ho

    Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

  19. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  20. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  1. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  2. A New Dynamics Cart on an Inclined Plane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorsson, Pall

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment to study the acceleration of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane. Demonstrates how multitiming and the study of the movement in both directions allows the determination of the component of gravitational force along an inclined plane without any assumptions about friction. (JRH)

  3. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  4. A La Carts: You Want Wireless Mobility? Have a COW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Computers on wheels, or COWs, combine the wireless technology of today with the audio/visual carts of yesteryear for an entirely new spin on mobility. Increasingly used by districts with laptop computing initiatives, COWs are among the hottest high-tech sellers in schools today, according to market research firm Quality Education Data. In this…

  5. The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Vicentic, Aleksandra; Jones, Douglas C

    2007-02-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in feeding, drug reward, stress, cardiovascular function, and bone remodeling. CART peptides are abundant but discretely distributed in the brain, pituitary and adrenal glands, pancreas, and gut. High expression of CART in discrete hypothalamic nuclei associated with feeding has led to behavioral and pharmacological studies that strongly support an anorectic action of CART in feeding. Subsequent studies on humans and transgenic animals provide additional evidence that CART is important in the regulation of appetite as mutations in the CART gene are linked to eating disorders, including obesity and anorexia. The expression of CART in the mesolimbic dopamine circuit has lead to functional studies demonstrating CART's psychostimulant-like effects on locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in rats. These and other findings demonstrated that CART modulates mesolimbic dopamine systems and affects psychostimulant-induced reward and reinforcing behaviors. The link between CART and psychostimulants was substantiated by demonstrating alterations of the CART system in human cocaine addicts. CART seems to regulate the mesolimbic dopamine system, which serves as a common mechanism of action for both feeding and addiction. Indeed, recent studies that demonstrated CART projections from specific hypothalamic areas associated with feeding to specific mesolimbic areas linked to reward/motivation behaviors provide evidence that CART may be an important connection between food- and drug-related rewards. Given the enormous public health burden of both obesity and drug addiction, future studies exploring the pharmacotherapies targeting CART peptide represent an exciting and challenging research area. PMID:16840648

  6. Unique responses of midbrain CART neurons in macaques to ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Lima, F B; Henderson, J A; Reddy, A P; Tokuyama, Y; Hubert, G W; Kuhar, M J; Bethea, C L

    2008-08-28

    CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is a neuropeptide involved in the control of several physiological processes, such as response to psychostimulants, food intake, depressive diseases and neuroprotection. It is robustly expressed in the brain, mainly in regions that control emotional and stress responses and it is regulated by estrogen in the hypothalamus. There is a distinct population of CART neurons located in the vicinity of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain that also colocalize urocortin-1. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the distribution of CART immunoreactive neurons in the monkey midbrain, 2) to examine the effects of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) on midbrain CART mRNA and peptide expression and 3) to determine whether midbrain CART neurons contain steroid receptors. Adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were spayed and either treated with placebo (OVX), estrogen alone (E), progesterone alone (P) or E+P. Animals were prepared (a) for RNA extraction followed by microarray analysis and quantitative (q) RT-PCR (n=3/group); (b) for immunohistochemical analysis of CART and CART+tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), CART+estrogen receptors (ER) or CART+progesterone receptors (n=5/group) and (c) for Western blots (n=3/group). Both E- and E+P-administration decreased CART gene expression on the microarray and with qRT-PCR. Stereological analysis of CART immunostaining at five levels of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus indicated little effect of E or E+P administration on the area of CART immunostaining. However, P administration increased CART-immunopositive area in comparison to the OVX control group with Student's t-test, but not with ANOVA. CART 55-102 detection on Western blot was unchanged by hormone administration. ERbeta and PR were detected in CART neurons and CART fibers appeared to innervate TPH-positive serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe. In summary, E decreased CART mRNA, but this effect did not translate to the

  7. Wind Tunnel Model Support Cart with Telescoping Mast and Cable Yaw Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Monroe, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    The 14-by-22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center uses model carts to support and position models in the test section. The carts are portable through the use of air bearings and can be moved from the test to the Model Prep Area (MPA) to change models in preparation for a new test. This paper describes the design of a new model cart that is three feet shorter than existing carts. This will eliminate clearance problems when moving the model and cart from the MPA to the test section.

  8. Effect of CART in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus on feeding and uncoupling protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Billington, C J; Levine, A S; Kotz, C M

    2000-09-28

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) decreases feeding and body weight after ventricular injection. CART mRNA and peptide are found in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The purpose of the present study was to determine effects of PVN-injected CART on feeding and thermogenic capacity. PVN-injected CART (55-102, 100 pmol) significantly decreased NPY-induced feeding at 1, 2 and 4 h, but did not significantly affect deprivation-induced feeding. CART induced gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), UCP2, and UCP3 in brown and white adipose tissue and biceps femoris muscle respectively. These results indicate the PVN as a specific site of CART action, and suggest that CART in the PVN may have an important influence on energy metabolism. PMID:11043558

  9. Testing of the West Valley Vitrification Facility transfer cart control system

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1995-02-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and tested the control system for the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility transfer cart. The transfer cart will transfer canisters of vitrified high-level waste remotely within the Vitrification Facility. The control system operates the cart under battery power by wireless control. The equipment includes cart-mounted control electronics, battery charger, control pendants, engineer`s console, and facility antennas. Testing was performed in several phases of development: (1) prototype equipment was built and tested during design, (2) board-level testing was then performed at ORNL during fabrication, and (3) system-level testing was then performed by ORNL at the fabrication subcontractor`s facility for the completed cart system. These tests verified (1) the performance of the cart relative to design requirements and (2) operation of various built-in cart features. The final phase of testing is planned to be conducted during installation at the West Valley Vitrification Facility.

  10. Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1989-08-08

    This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

  11. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

    2011-10-01

    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

  12. Communication Policy at the Chalk Face in Scotland and Jamaica: Complexity as a New Paradigm for Understanding Language Policy Interpretation and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth

    2003-01-01

    Examples from upper primary classrooms in Scotland and Jamaica demonstrate the subtle ways in which teachers support or restrict the classroom use of community languages (Scots and Patwa) through their broad or narrow implementation of language policy. The metaphor of fractals, derived from complexity theory, can form a sensitive and appropriate…

  13. Factors affecting minimum push and pull forces of manual carts.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisawi, K W; Kerk, C J; Congleton, J J; Amendola, A A; Jenkins, O C; Gaines, W

    1999-06-01

    The minimum forces needed to manually push or pull a 4-wheel cart of differing weights with similar wheel sizes from a stationary state were measured on four floor materials under different conditions of wheel width, diameter, and orientation. Cart load was increased from 0 to 181.4 kg in increments of 36.3 kg. The floor materials were smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet. Two wheel widths were tested: 25 and 38 mm. Wheel diameters were 51, 102, and 153 mm. Wheel orientation was tested at four levels: F0R0 (all four wheels aligned in the forward direction), F0R90 (the two front wheels, the wheels furthest from the cart handle, aligned in the forward direction and the two rear wheels, the wheels closest to the cart handle, aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction), F90R0 (the two front wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction and the two rear wheels aligned in the forward direction), and F90R90 (all four wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction). Wheel width did not have a significant effect on the minimum push/pull forces. The minimum push/pull forces were linearly proportional to cart weight, and inversely proportional to wheel diameter. The coefficients of rolling friction were estimated as 2.2, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.5 mm for hard rubber wheels rolling on smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet floors, respectively. The effect of wheel orientation was not consistent over the tested conditions, but, in general, the smallest minimum push/pull forces were measured with all four wheels aligned in the forward direction, whereas the largest minimum push/pull forces were measured when all four wheels were aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction. There was no significant difference between the push and pull forces when all four wheels were aligned in the forward direction. PMID:10327087

  14. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  15. Online motor fault detection and diagnosis using a hybrid FMM-CART model.

    PubMed

    Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, a hybrid model combining the fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and the classification and regression tree (CART) for online motor detection and diagnosis tasks is described. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed FMM-CART model, an evaluation with a benchmark data set pertaining to electrical motor bearing faults is first conducted. The results obtained are equivalent to those reported in the literature. Then, a laboratory experiment for detecting and diagnosing eccentricity faults in an induction motor is performed. In addition to producing accurate results, useful rules in the form of a decision tree are extracted to provide explanation and justification for the predictions from FMM-CART. The experimental outcome positively shows the potential of FMM-CART in undertaking online motor fault detection and diagnosis tasks. PMID:24807956

  16. The Private Language Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the private language argument (PLA)--the argument against the possibility of a private language. Raises questions about the PLA, suggesting there are a number of problems that PLA interpretation generates and fails to resolve. (Author/JL)

  17. Nicotine regulates cocaine-amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (Cart) in the mesocorticolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Ugur, Muzeyyen; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Balkan, Burcu

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are intensely expressed in the brain regions comprising mesocorticolimbic system. Studies suggest that CART peptides may have a role in the regulation of reward circuitry. The present study aimed to examine the effect of nicotine on CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three different doses of nicotine (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/kg free base) were injected subcutaneously for 5 days, and on day 6, rats were decapitated following a challenge dose. CART mRNA and peptide levels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (DST), amygdala (AMG), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western Blot analysis, respectively. In the mPFC, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine, decreased CART peptide levels whereas there was no effect on CART mRNA levels. In the VTA, a down-regulation of CART peptide expression was observed with 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Conversely, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg nicotine increased CART mRNA levels in the AMG without affecting the CART peptide expression. Nicotine did not regulate CART mRNA or CART peptide expression in the NAc, DST, and LHA. We conclude that nicotine regulates CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system and this regulation may play an important role in nicotine reward. Synapse 70:283-292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990424

  18. Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

    2014-03-01

    While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

  19. Reduced ethanol consumption and preference in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Armando G; Nguyen, Chinh T Q; Ahmadi-Tehrani, Dara; Morrisett, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Several studies have characterized the role of CART in addiction to psychostimulants, but few have examined the role of CART in alcohol use disorders including alcoholism. The current study utilized a CART knockout (KO) mouse model to investigate the role of CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol appetitive behaviors between CART wild type (WT) and KO mice. The mice were presented with an ethanol solution (3%-21%) and water, each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of quinine (bitter) and saccharin (sweet) solutions was measured following the ethanol preference tests. In addition, ethanol metabolism rates and ethanol sensitivity were compared between genotypes. CART KO mice consumed and preferred ethanol less than their WT counterparts in both sexes. This genotype effect could not be attributed to differences in bitter or sweet taste perception or ethanol metabolism rates. There was also no difference in ethanol sensitivity in male mice; however, CART KO female mice showed a greater ethanol sensitivity than the WT females. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for CART in ethanol appetitive behaviors and as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and abstinence enhancement. PMID:22823101

  20. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Protects Beta Cells against Glucotoxicity and Increases Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55–102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55–102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  1. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and increases cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David; Göransson, Olga; Wierup, Nils

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an islet peptide that promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells via cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways. In addition, CART is a regulator of neuronal survival. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous CART 55-102 on beta cell viability and dissected its signaling mechanisms. Evaluation of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation revealed that CART 55-102 reduced glucotoxicity-induced apoptosis in both INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets. Glucotoxicity in INS-1 (832/13) cells also caused a 50% reduction of endogenous CART protein. We show that CART increased proliferation in INS-1 (832/13) cells, an effect that was blocked by PKA, PKB, and MEK1 inhibitors. In addition, CART induced phosphorylation of CREB, IRS, PKB, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK, and p90RSK in INS-1 (832/13) cells and isolated rat islets, all key mediators of cell survival and proliferation. Thus, we demonstrate that CART 55-102 protects beta cells against glucotoxicity and promotes proliferation. Taken together our data point to the potential use of CART in therapeutic interventions targeted at enhancing functional beta cell mass and long-term insulin secretion in T2D. PMID:23250745

  2. CryoCart Restoration and Vacuum Pipe Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaidez, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    first completed at the component level. During this process, the igniter of the main engine and the RCS thrusters will be tested under a vacuum. To complete the testing of the components, the test setup first needed to be finalized. The CryoCart is being used to feed the propellants to the test article. The CryoCart is a movable test set-up that was developed in 2009 to provide a mobile platform for testing oxygen/methane systems with hot-fire capability up to 100 lbf. The CryoCart consists of three different systems: Oxygen, Methane, and liquid Nitrogen. The Oxygen and Methane systems are placed into two different carts while the liquid nitrogen system is mainly located in the methane cart. Over the years, the CryoCart has been utilized for different projects and has undergone deterioration. For this reason, a new phase has been developed to rebuild it to working conditions once again. During my internship, I was aiding in the construction and restoration of the CryoCart. In the initial stages of the process, I updated the fluid and electrical schematics for the oxygen, methane, and test article systems. The original CryoCart consisted of an electrical panel that utilized electromechanical relays and a terminal to drive the igniter power and signal, as well as the main fuel and oxygen valves. This electrical panel connected to the CryoCart through various wire harnesses that could be found exiting from the CryoCart. First, it was determined how these harnesses connected to the electromechanical relays so that they worked correctly. Once the electrical system was understood, an alternative for the electromechanical relays and the Molex connectors used throughout the system was sought since these components can often prove to be unreliable. Solid State relays and MIL connectors were purchased to serve as replacements. Upon arrival of the parts, crimping and wiring was completed to install the new solid state relays and MIL connectors. During the replacement of the relays

  3. Investigation report on golf cart fire at the U.S. DOE Pinellas Plant on May 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the results of an accident investigation of a golf cart fire that occurred May 11, 1993, at the Pinellas Plant. The direct cause of the fire was determined to be excessive heat generation in the cart`s resistor coil box. The current flow creating the excessive heat was caused by the defeat of cart safety systems and a partially depressed accelerator pedal. The root cause of the fire is inadequate training of golf cart operators. Recommendations to prevent further recurrence of this type of accident include operator training and golf cart inspections.

  4. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  5. CART modulates the effects of levodopa in rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Manoj A; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related disorder characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra (SN). The neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is known to closely interact with the dopamine system and regulate psychomotor activity. We screened the effectiveness of CART in reversing the symptoms of PD in a rat model. PD like condition was induced by administering 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) directly in the SN of the right side. Fifteen days later, intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with apomorphine hydrochloride to these rats, resulted in contralateral rotations in the rotation test chamber suggesting induction of PD-like symptoms. This action of apomorphine was significantly attenuated by intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with CART and potentiated by CART antibody. IP treatment with levodopa also produced contralateral rotation in PD induced rats, and showed anti-Parkinson-like action. Prior treatment with CART via ICV route potentiated the anti-Parkinsonian effects of levodopa, while CART antibody produced opposite effects. CART treatment per se, to PD induced rats produced ipsilateral rotations, suggesting that the peptide may promote the endogenous release of dopamine from intact neurons. While CART-immunoreactivity in arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, striatum, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus was reduced in the PD induced rats, levodopa treatment restored the expression of CART-immunoreactivity in these nuclei. These results suggest that endogenous CART might closely interact with the dopamine containing SN-striatal pathway which is known to profoundly influence the motor system. The study underscores the importance of CART as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of PD. PMID:26771081

  6. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  7. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  8. Development of Electric Cart with Function of Maintaining/Improving Exercise Ability—Part I: Design of the Electric Cart System—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Kiyoshi

    This paper explains the development of a three-wheeled electric cart that not only is a means of transportation, but also provides the driver with a way of getting some physical exercise. Based on an investigation of the physiological decline accompanying aging, pedaling was chosen to implement the function of maintaining or improving physical strength; and an ergonomically designed pedal unit was mounted on a cart. An interface board that handles inputs and outputs was assembled to simplify the design of the system. Finally, a simple bilateral master-slave control system was built to test the cart. Experimental results on a fabricated cart demonstrate the effectiveness of pedaling and the usability of the system structure.

  9. National Conversations in the UK: Using a Language-Based Approach to Interpret Three Key Education Policy Documents (2001-2007) from England, Scotland and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Janet; Baird, Adela

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three key education policy documents from Scotland, England and Wales in the eight years after devolution. A close textual analysis of the language of each document is undertaken, which is supported by the authors' insider knowledge of these countries. Findings are presented from analysis of a group of selected words, as well…

  10. The Relationship among Beginning and Advanced American Sign Language Students and Credentialed Interpreters across Two Domains of Visual Imagery: Vividness and Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Linda K.

    2010-01-01

    Given the visual-gestural nature of ASL it is reasonable to assume that visualization abilities may be one predictor of aptitude for learning ASL. This study tested a hypothesis that visualization abilities are a foundational aptitude for learning a signed language and that measurements of these skills will increase as students progress from…

  11. Interpreting the Impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test on Second Language Students within an Argument-Based Validation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Kane's (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading…

  12. [Localized prostate cancer Focal Therapy: "A la carte" Model].

    PubMed

    Linares Espinós, E; Barret, E; Sivaraman, A; Pérez-Reggeti, J I; Sánchez-Salas, R; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2016-07-01

    Focal therapy has settled as an alternative to radical treatment in selected cases of localized prostate cancer. The selection of patients who are candidates for focal therapy is based on imaging diagnosis relying on multiparametric MRI and image fusion techniques. Thanks to the oncological results and safety profiles of initial series, various energy sources have been developed over the last years. The availability of multiple types of energy sources for focal therapy, commits us to evaluate what type of energy would be the optimal depending on patient's profile and type of lesion. A unique energy for focal therapy would be ideal, but facing the research of the various types of energy we must identify which one is recommended for each lesion. With the experience of our center in different approaches of focal therapy we propose the "A LA CARTE" MODEL based on localization of the lesion. We present the criteria the "a la carte" model is based on, supported by the published evidence on the use of different ablative therapies for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Lesion localization, technical characteristics of each type of energy, patient's profile and secondary effects must be considered in every choice of focal therapy. PMID:27416638

  13. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  14. The carcinine transporter CarT is required in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons to sustain histamine recycling

    PubMed Central

    Stenesen, Drew; Moehlman, Andrew T; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic transmission from Drosophila photoreceptors to lamina neurons requires recycling of histamine neurotransmitter. Synaptic histamine is cleared by uptake into glia and conversion into carcinine, which functions as transport metabolite. How carcinine is transported from glia to photoreceptor neurons remains unclear. In a targeted RNAi screen for genes involved in this pathway, we identified carT, which encodes a member of the SLC22A transporter family. CarT expression in photoreceptors is necessary and sufficient for fly vision and behavior. Carcinine accumulates in the lamina of carT flies. Wild-type levels are restored by photoreceptor-specific expression of CarT, and endogenous tagging suggests CarT localizes to synaptic endings. Heterologous expression of CarT in S2 cells is sufficient for carcinine uptake, demonstrating the ability of CarT to utilize carcinine as a transport substrate. Together, our results demonstrate that CarT transports the histamine metabolite carcinine into photoreceptor neurons, thus contributing an essential step to the histamine–carcinine cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10972.001 PMID:26653853

  15. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; Młynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship. PMID:23084786

  16. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-12-29

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

  17. Neurological Response to cART vs. cART plus Integrase Inhibitor and CCR5 Antagonist Initiated during Acute HIV

    PubMed Central

    Valcour, Victor G.; Spudich, Serena S.; Sailasuta, Napapon; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Fletcher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene D. M. B.; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Allen, Isabel E.; Adams, Collin L.; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Slike, Bonnie M.; Hellmuth, Joanna M.; Kim, Jerome H.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central nervous system (CNS) outcomes in participants treated during acute HIV infection with standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vs. cART plus integrase inhibitor and CCR5 antagonist (cART+). Design 24-week randomized open-label prospective evaluation. Method Participants were evaluated then randomized to initiate cART (efavirenz, tenofovir, and either emtricitabine or lamivudine) vs. cART+ (cART plus raltegravir and maraviroc) during acute HIV and re-evaluated at 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We examined plasma and CSF cytokines, HIV RNA levels, neurological and neuropsychological findings, and brain MRS across groups and compared to healthy controls. Results At baseline, 62 participants were in Fiebig stages I-V. Randomized groups were similar for mean age (27 vs. 25, p = 0.137), gender (each 94% male), plasma log10 HIV RNA (5.4 vs. 5.6, p = 0.382), CSF log10 HIV RNA (2.35 vs. 3.31, p = 0.561), and estimated duration of HIV (18 vs. 17 days, p = 0.546). Randomized arms did not differ at 24 weeks by any CNS outcome. Combining arms, all measures concurrent with antiretroviral treatment improved, for example, neuropsychological testing (mean NPZ-4 of -0.408 vs. 0.245, p<0.001) and inflammatory markers by MRS (e.g. mean frontal white matter (FWM) choline of 2.92 vs. 2.84, p = 0.045) at baseline and week 24, respectively. Plasma neopterin (p<0.001) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) (p = 0.007) remained elevated in participants compared to controls but no statistically significant differences were seen in CSF cytokines compared to controls, despite individual variability among the HIV-infected group. Conclusions A 24-week course of cART+ improved CNS related outcomes, but was not associated with measurable differences compared to standard cART. PMID:26555069

  18. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  19. CART peptide and opioid addiction: Expression changes in male rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bakhtazad, A; Vousooghi, N; Garmabi, B; Zarrindast, M R

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies have shown the prominence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants. The data regarding the effects of different stages of opioid addiction on CART expression and the interconnection between CART and opioids are not much available. Here we have studied the changes in the expression level of CART mRNA and protein in various parts of the brain reward pathway in different stages of opioid addiction. Groups of male rats received acute low-dose (10mg/kg), acute high-dose (80mg/kg) and chronic escalating doses of morphine. In addition, withdrawal and abstinence states were evaluated after injection of naloxone (1mg/kg) and long-term maintenance of addicted animals, respectively. Expression of CART mRNA in the brain was measured by real-time PCR method. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein level. CART mRNA and protein were both up-regulated in high-dose morphine-administered animals and also in the withdrawal group in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the addicted group, CART mRNA and protein were both down-regulated in NAc and striatum. In the abstinent group, CART mRNA was down-regulated in NAc. In the hippocampus, the only observed change was the up-regulation of CART mRNA in the withdrawal group. We suggest that the modulatory role of CART peptide in rewarding and reinforcing effects of opioids weakens when opioids are used for a long time and is stimulated when acute stress such as naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome or acute high-dose administration of morphine occurs to the animal. PMID:26955782

  20. Distribution of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide in mature and developing marsupial brain.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, K W S; Mai, J K

    2010-01-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a neuromodulator involved in feeding, drug reward, stress and cardiovascular function. We have immunohistochemically studied the distribution of the CART peptide in the brains of two adult marsupial species: the brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii) as a representative of polyprotodont marsupials and the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a representative of diprotodont marsupials. We have also examined the distribution of CART during postnatal development in the tammar wallaby. There were similarities and differences both between the two marsupial species and between the marsupials and eutherians in CART distribution. Both marsupials showed immunoreactivity to CART in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, extended amygdala, the supraoptic, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus, somatosensory and auditory nuclei of the brainstem, vagal/solitary complex, raphe obscurus and raphe pallidus and presumptive presympathetic neurons of the ventrolateral medulla, as has been seen in eutherians. On the other hand, immunoreactivity to CART was weak in or absent from isocortical areas, and immunoreactivity to CART was poor or minimal in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens of both species; regions where immunoreactivity to CART is very strong in the brains of eutherians. During development, CART was present at birth (P0) in the lateral trigeminal ganglion, spinal trigeminal tract and the vagal sensorimotor complex, but did not appear in mid- or forebrain regions until much later (from P37). These anatomical findings indicate that although CART is likely to serve very similar functions in both eutherians and marsupials, there are potentially functionally significant differences between the two mammalian groups. PMID:20881368

  1. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  2. The Interpretation of Pronouns in Spanish Language Acquisition and Breakdown: Evidence for the "Principle B Delay" as a Non-Unitary Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baauw, Sergio; Cuetos, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that English and Dutch children often allow pronouns to refer to local ccommanding antecedents, the so-called Principle B Delay. A similar observation has been made for English agrammatics. This phenomenon, which we call the Pronoun Interpretation Problem (PIP), has been argued to be due to children's and agrammatics' difficulties…

  3. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  4. Ethnography of Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David Cassels

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical conceptualizations of language policy have grown increasingly rich, empirical data that test these models are less common. Further, there is little methodological guidance for those who wish to do research on language policy interpretation and appropriation. The ethnography of language policy is proposed as a method which makes…

  5. Minority Language Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  6. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  7. [Neuro-AIDS in the cART era].

    PubMed

    Arendt, G; Nolting, T

    2012-08-01

    After the introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infection in 1996 (highly active antiretroviral therapy = HAART, nowadays called combination antiretroviral therapy = cART), a steady decline in infection associated complications had been expected, especially with respect to central and peripheral nervous system manifestations. Until the beginning of the new millenium this hope came in fact true, but since then there has been a slow, but constant rise in the prevalence, and later on also in the incidence of directly virus-associated neurological complications in HIV infected patients. HIV-associated diseases that neurologists might see in their routine work include HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and its precursor stages, HIV-associated myelopathy, HIV-associated polyneuropathies and myopathies as well as the opportunistic brain infections and immune reconstitution phenomena (IRIS). This article describes practical diagnostic procedures according to the guidelines of the German Neurological Society and the respective therapeutic options. PMID:22895840

  8. Readings in natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

  9. CART III: improved camouflage assessment using moving target indication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Honke, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2009-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007 and SPIE 2008 [1], [2]). It works with visual-optical, infrared and SAR image sequences. The system comprises a semi-automatic annotation functionality for marking target objects (ground truth generation) including a propagation of those markings over the image sequence for static as well as moving scene objects, where the recording camera may be static or moving. The marked image regions are evaluated by applying user-defined feature extractors, which can easily be defined and integrated into the system via a generic software interface. This article presents further systematic enhancements made in the recent year and addresses particularly the task of the detection of moving vehicles by latest image exploitation methods for objective camouflage assessment in these cases. As a main topic, the loop was closed between the two natural opposites of reconnaissance and camouflage, which was realized by incorporating ATD (Automatic Target Detection) algorithms into the computer aided camouflage assessment. Since object (and sensor) movement is an important feature for many applications, different image-based MTI (Moving Target Indication) algorithms were included in the CART system, which rely on changes in the image plane from an image to the successive one (after camera movements are automatically compensated). Additionally, the MTI outputs over time are combined in a certain way which we call "snail track" algorithm. The results show that their output provides a valuable measurement for the conspicuity of moving objects and therefore is an ideal component in the camouflage assessment. It is shown that image-based MTI improvements lead to improvements in the camouflage assessment process.

  10. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy––a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4+ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8+ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4+ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  11. Identification and differential distribution of CART in the small intestine depending on the diet.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, I; Olkowski, B; Szczotka-Bochniarz, A

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and locating cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the small intestine of broilers in relation to the diet. The feeding regime of the chicks was based on diets largely consisting of maize and one of four protein sources: post-extraction soya bean meal (SBM) or non-GM seed meal - meal from traditional variety of soy seeds Glicine max (FFS) and meal from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius (LA) and Lupinus luteus L (LY). The presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactive (CART-IR) in the wall of the small intestine of the chicks was determined on the basis of staining patterns produced by the immunohistochemical method (IHC). CART-IR structures were found in the myenteric plexus (MP), submucosus plexus (SP), in endomucosal fibres, and fibres innervating miocytes and blood vessels in the muscularis membrane and adipocytes of the white adipose tissue (WAT) located on the perimeter of the serous membrane and single cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Based on microscopic observation and result analysis, the lowest number of CART-IR structures was identified in the group that was fed the SBM-based diet. This study confirms previous observations concerning CART distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animal and broadens current knowledge by inclusion of chicken in the list of CART-positive species. Moreover, this work provides evidence that dietary composition can be a factor that stimulates post-prandial CART secretion in intestinal nerve structures. PMID:24797515

  12. Different Subsets of T Cells, Memory, Effector Functions, and CAR-T Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Wu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    This review is focused on different subsets of T cells: CD4 and CD8, memory and effector functions, and their role in CAR-T therapy--a cellular adoptive immunotherapy with T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor. The CAR-T cells recognize tumor antigens and induce cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. Recently, differences in T cell functions and the role of memory and effector T cells were shown to be important in CAR-T cell immunotherapy. The CD4⁺ subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, and Tfh) and CD8⁺ memory and effector subsets differ in extra-cellular (CD25, CD45RO, CD45RA, CCR-7, L-Selectin [CD62L], etc.); intracellular markers (FOXP3); epigenetic and genetic programs; and metabolic pathways (catabolic or anabolic); and these differences can be modulated to improve CAR-T therapy. In addition, CD4⁺ Treg cells suppress the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy, and different approaches to overcome this suppression are discussed in this review. Thus, next-generation CAR-T immunotherapy can be improved, based on our knowledge of T cell subsets functions, differentiation, proliferation, and signaling pathways to generate more active CAR-T cells against tumors. PMID:26999211

  13. Engineer pedals STS-37 CETA electrical cart along track in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineer Gary Peters operates crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. The electrical cart is moved by electricity generated from turning hand pedals. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  14. STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  15. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

  16. Analysis of Maryland Poisoning Deaths Using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pamer, Carol; Serpi, Tracey; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Our study is a cross-sectional analysis of Maryland poisoning deaths for years 2003 and 2004. We used Classification and Regression Tree (CART) methodology to classify 1,204 Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths as either unintentional or suicidal poisonings. The predictive ability of the selected set of variables (i.e., poisoned in the home or workplace, location type where poisoned, place of death, poison type, victim race and age, year of death) was extremely good. Of the 301 test cases, only eight were misclassified by the CART regression tree. Of 1,204 undetermined intent poisoning deaths, CART classified 903 as suicides and 301 as unintentional deaths. The major strength of our study is the use of CART to differentiate with a high degree of accuracy between unintentional and suicidal poisoning deaths among Maryland undetermined intent poisoning deaths. PMID:18999168

  17. STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  18. Exchange cart and par level supply distribution systems: form follows function.

    PubMed

    Perrin, R A

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the various types of distribution systems, such as exchange cart, par level, and just-in-time, to assist material managers in controlling costs and maximizing patient care. PMID:10131700

  19. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  20. CART mRNA expression in rat monkey and human brain: relevance to cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Fagergren, Pernilla; Hurd, Yasmin

    2007-09-10

    The neuropeptide CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is suggested to be regulated by psychostimulant administration. We review here the localization of CART mRNA expression in the human brain and its possible relevance to human cocaine abuse. Except for strong hypothalamic expression, the CART transcript is predominately expressed in target regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, such as the nucleus accumbens shell, amygdala complex, extended amygdala and orbitofrontal, enthorhinal and piriform cortices. The discrete limbic localization strongly implies involvement in reward and reinforcement behaviors. We therefore examined CART mRNA expression in both Sprague Dawley rats and Rhesus monkeys that had self-administered cocaine. Cocaine self-administration in the rat (1.5 mg/kg/inj, on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement for 1 week) and monkey (0.03 or 0.3 mg/kg/inj on a fixed 3 min interval schedule of reinforcement for 5 or 100 days) did not alter transcript levels in CART expressing nucleus accumbens (monkey not studied), amygdala nuclei or cortical areas. However, in the monkey sublenticular extended amygdala, low dose cocaine self-administration resulted in increased CART transcript levels after both 5 and 100 days of self-administration, whereas no difference was found after high dose self-administration. In conclusion, we found no substantial alterations CART mRNA expression during cocaine self-administration, but this neuropeptide has the anatomical and functional potential to modulate brain areas relevant for cocaine abuse. Further studies are needed to evaluate the involvement of CART in other components of the cocaine abuse cycle. PMID:17631364

  1. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C.; Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B.

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  2. Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

  3. Histamine Recycling Is Mediated by CarT, a Carcinine Transporter in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; An, Futing; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Borycz, Janusz; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is an important chemical messenger that regulates multiple physiological processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Even so, how glial cells and neurons recycle histamine remains to be elucidated. Drosophila photoreceptor neurons use histamine as a neurotransmitter, and the released histamine is recycled through neighboring glia, where it is conjugated to β-alanine to form carcinine. However, how carcinine is then returned to the photoreceptor remains unclear. In an mRNA-seq screen for photoreceptor cell-enriched transporters, we identified CG9317, an SLC22 transporter family protein, and named it CarT (Carcinine Transporter). S2 cells that express CarT are able to take up carcinine in vitro. In the compound eye, CarT is exclusively localized to photoreceptor terminals. Null mutations of cart alter the content of histamine and its metabolites. Moreover, null cart mutants are defective in photoreceptor synaptic transmission and lack phototaxis. These findings reveal that CarT is required for histamine recycling at histaminergic photoreceptors and provide evidence for a CarT-dependent neurotransmitter trafficking pathway between glial cells and photoreceptor terminals. PMID:26713872

  4. Advancing monthly streamflow prediction accuracy of CART models using ensemble learning paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Halil Ibrahim; Karakurt, Onur

    2013-01-01

    SummaryStreamflow forecasting is one of the most important steps in the water resources planning and management. Ensemble techniques such as bagging, boosting and stacking have gained popularity in hydrological forecasting in the recent years. The study investigates the potential usage of two ensemble learning paradigms (i.e., bagging; stochastic gradient boosting) in building classification and regression trees (CARTs) ensembles to advance the streamflow prediction accuracy. The study, initially, investigates the use of classification and regression trees for monthly streamflow forecasting and employs a support vector regression (SVR) model as the benchmark model. The analytic results indicate that CART outperforms SVR in both training and testing phases. Although the obtained results of CART model in training phase are considerable, it is not in testing phase. Thus, to optimize the prediction accuracy of CART for monthly streamflow forecasting, we incorporate bagging and stochastic gradient boosting which are rooted in same philosophy, advancing the prediction accuracy of weak learners. Comparing with the results of bagged regression trees (BRTs) and stochastic gradient boosted regression trees (GBRTs) models possess satisfactory monthly streamflow forecasting performance than CART and SVR models. Overall, it is found that ensemble learning paradigms can remarkably advance the prediction accuracy of CART models in monthly streamflow forecasting.

  5. CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Kowalczyk, Alex S; Griffin, Luana L; Bales, Karen L

    2011-09-26

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 min, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

  6. CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Kowalczyk, Alex S.; Griffin, Luana L.; Bales, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 minutes, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

  7. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). χ² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. PMID:21616201

  8. A Preliminary Study on Interpreting for Emergent Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Caitlin; Dicus, Danica

    2015-01-01

    Sign language interpreters work with a variety of consumer populations throughout their careers. One such population, referred to as "emergent signers," consists of consumers who are in the process of learning American Sign Language, and who rely on interpreters during their language acquisition period. A gap in the research is revealed…

  9. Multidisciplinary approach to converting power chair into motorized prone cart.

    PubMed

    Brose, Steven W; Wali, Eisha

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcers remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in veterans with neurologic impairment. Management of pressure ulcers typically involves pressure relief over skin regions containing wounds, but this can lead to loss of mobility and independence when the wounds are located in regions that receive pressure from sitting. An innovative, low-cost, multidisciplinary effort was undertaken to maximize quality of life in a veteran with a thoracic-4 level complete spinal cord injury and a stage 4 ischial wound. The person's power wheelchair was converted into a motorized prone cart, allowing navigation of the Department of Veterans Affairs spinal cord injury hospital ward and improved socialization while relieving pressure on the wound. Physical and occupational therapy assisted with the reconfiguration of the power chair and verified safe transfers into the chair and driving of the device. Psychology verified positive psychosocial benefit, while nursing and physician services verified an absence of unwanted pain or skin injury resulting from use of the device. Further investigation of ways to apply this technique is warranted to improve the quality of life of persons with pressure ulcers. PMID:25786192

  10. Time optimal control of pendulum-cart system

    SciTech Connect

    Turnau, A.; Korytowski, A.

    1994-12-31

    We consider the synthesis of time optimal control which steers a pendulum hinged to a cart to a given state (e.g., the upright position), starting from arbitrary initial conditions. The control of the pendulum can system has attracted attention of many authors because of its relatively simple structure and at the same time, nontrivial nonlinearity. Various heuristic approaches combined with 1q stabilization in the vicinity of the target state were used to swing the pendulum up to the upright position and to keep it there. However, time-optimality was not achieved. We construct the time optimal control using a sequence of fixed horizon problems in which the norms of terminal states are minimized. The problems with fixed horizons are solved numerically by means of gradient optimization, with gradients determined from the solution of adjoint equations. Due to embedding the synthesis algorithms in the Matlab - Simulink environment, it is possible to track and visualize the control process as well as the results of simulation experiments.

  11. Resident selection: are we putting the cart before the horse?

    PubMed

    White, Augustus A

    2002-06-01

    The selection of orthopaedic residents is a formidable task. We must put the horse, namely, the consideration of certain societal goals and responsibilities, before the cart, namely, the selection criteria and processes themselves. The recommendation is that the outcomes of our training programs produce, in addition to excellent clinical orthopaedists, some graduates with competence and talent in contribution to diversity, culturally competent care, assistance with elimination of healthcare disparities, skills in research, talent in leadership, skills in administration, and abilities in education. Once specific outcome goals are identified, efforts can be directed to learning to recognize and evaluate the potentials and success foreshadowing characteristics of applicants that predict, or are associated with, the desired outcome competencies. Traditional screening and selection of applicants based largely on grades, test scores, and election to Alpha Omega Alpha honorary society have certain historically based biases and limitations. The historic ethnocentric impacts on Western medical culture are profound, long-standing, and thoroughly interwoven into the fabric of our profession. It is necessary to substantially change our residency selection if we are to achieve some highly significant humanitarian and pragmatic societal goals. PMID:12011718

  12. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.; Uttal, T.; Clark, K.A.; Cupp, R.E.; Dutton, E.G.; Fedor, L.S.; Intrieri, J.M.; Matrosov, S.Y.; Snider, J.B.; Willis, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological, and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. CART V: recent advancements in computer-aided camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2011-05-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007-2010 [1], [2], [3], [4]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors as well as methods to assess the object's movement conspicuity. In this fifth part in an annual series at the SPIE conference in Orlando, this paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses the camouflage assessment of static and moving objects in multispectral image data that can show noise or image artefacts. The presented methods fathom the correlations between image processing and camouflage assessment. A novel algorithm is presented based on template matching to assess the structural inconspicuity of an object objectively and quantitatively. The results can easily be combined with an MTI (moving target indication) based movement conspicuity assessment function in order to explore the influence of object movement to a camouflage effect in different environments. As the results show, the presented methods contribute to a significant benefit in the field of camouflage assessment.

  14. CART IV: improving automatic camouflage assessment with assistance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2010-04-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007, SPIE 2008 and SPIE 2009 [1], [2], [3]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors. The conspicuity of camouflaged objects due to their movement can be assessed with a purpose-built processing method named MTI snail track algorithm. This paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses procedures to assist the camouflage assessment of moving objects for image data material with strong noise or image artefacts. This extends the evaluation methods significantly to a broader application range. For example, some noisy infrared image data material can be evaluated for the first time by applying the presented methods which fathom the correlations between camouflage assessment, MTI (moving target indication) and dedicated noise filtering.

  15. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  16. Brief History of Canadian ASL-English Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermid, Campbell

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript provides a synopsis of the written history of American Sign Language-English interpreters in Canada and adds to the limited resources available to interpreter educators, to students, and to the field of visual language interpreting. Within a qualitative framework, this review of the literature identified major themes in sign…

  17. 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test Gamma Cart Acceptance Test Procedure and Quality Test Plan (ATP and QTP)

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    Shop Test of the Gamma Cart System to be used in the AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Test. Tests hardware and software. This procedure involves testing the Instrumentation involved with the Gamma Cart System, local and remote, including: depth indicators, speed controls, interface to data acquisition software and the raising and lowering functions. This Procedure will be performed twice, once for each Gamma Cart System. This procedure does not test the accuracy of the data acquisition software.

  18. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  19. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  20. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  1. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  2. Effects of HIV and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) on Cortico-Striatal Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Brier, Matthew R.; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether HIV and cART affect resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) between the striatum and cortical regions. Methods 49 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and 132 HIV infected (HIV+) (65% receiving combination anti-retroviral treatment [cART]) had laboratory studies (current and nadir CD4 T-cell counts, and plasma HIV viral load), neuropsychological performance (NP) testing, and neuroimaging. Rs-fc, which examines the coordination of neural activity in distant brain regions, was used to investigate cortico-striatal functional connections. The effect of cART was assessed comparing HIV+ individuals on cART (HIV+/cART+), and HIV+ individuals not currently receiving cART (HIV+/cART−). Relationships between laboratory tests, cognitive performance, and cART on subcortical-cortical rs-fc were assessed by an analysis of variance. Results HIV+ individuals had lower cortico-striatal functional connectivity than HIV− controls, specifically between the striatum and default mode network (DMN; p <0.001) and ventral attention network (VATT; p <0.001). HIV+/cART+ individuals had higher functional connectivity between the striatum and DMN (p=0.02) and VATT (p = 0.01) compared to HIV+/cART− subjects. Laboratory (current and nadir CD4 T-cell counts, plasma viral load) and NP were not correlated with cortico-striatal rs-fc. Conclusions HIV was associated with disrupted cortico-striatal networks, consistent with HIV’s known impact on subcortical areas. Interestingly, within certain networks HIV+/cART+ individuals had similar rs-fc compared to HIV− controls, suggesting possible improvements in HIV related neural dysfunction due to medications. Rs-fc may be a sensitive biomarker of neural insult and its recovery following cART. Additional studies may show rs-fc has utility in measuring acute inflammation caused by HIV. PMID:25849834

  3. Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs?

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew; Shanker, Renee; Jordan, William B

    2011-10-01

    Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates. Some carts sold outside allowed boundaries; a few sold sugary snacks. Vendor locations and their food offerings suggest possible areas for program improvement. PMID:21691925

  4. Spending at mobile fruit and vegetable carts and using SNAP benefits to pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  5. Spending at Mobile Fruit and Vegetable Carts and Using SNAP Benefits to Pay, Bronx, New York, 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Breck, Andrew; Kiszko, Kamila M.; Abrams, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This study examines purchases at fruit and vegetable carts and evaluates the potential benefits of expanding the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. Customers at 4 Green Carts in the Bronx, New York, were surveyed in 3 waves from June 2013 through July 2014. Customers who used Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits spent on average $3.86 more than customers who paid with cash. This finding suggests that there may be benefits to increasing the availability of electronic benefit transfer machines at Green Carts. PMID:26043302

  6. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART. PMID:27446990

  7. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  8. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  9. Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

    The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

  10. Spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth at the ARM CART Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.M.; Cheng, M.D.

    1998-02-01

    In an effort to better characterize the inputs to radiative transfer models and research-grade global climate simulation models (GCMs) the columnar aerosol loading, measured as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), has been computed for five facilities within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site. Characterization of the AOD reported here show clear evidence that the spatial and temporal gradient exists at a much finer linear scale than those of the CART site. The annual variations of median AOD are on the order of 0.30 at all five facilities. The Spearman correlation and varimax-rotated PCA indicated the AOD values vary consistently across the CART site. The Northwest corner facility (EF-1) was the single facility that behaved differently from the rest. This sub-GCM grid variation can not be ignored if the model is to be used to accurately predict future climate change.

  11. Spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth at the ARM CART Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.M.; Cheng, M.D.

    1998-12-31

    In an effort to better characterize the inputs to radiative transfer models and research-grade global climate simulation models (GCMs) the columnar aerosol loading, measured as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), has been computed for five facilities within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site. Characterization of the AOD reported here show clear evidence that the spatial and temporal gradient exists at a much finer linear scale than those of the CART site. The annual variations of median AOD are on the order of 0.30 at all five facilities. The Spearman correlation and varimax-rotated PCA indicated the AOD values vary consistently across the CART site. The Northwest corner facility (EF-1) was the single facility that behaved differently from the rest. This sub-GCM grid variation can not be ignored if the model it to be used to accurately predict future climate change.

  12. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  13. Foreign Language Day--A Living Language Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Paul W.

    St. Bonaventure University holds a Language Day each spring, hosting some 3,900 area junior high and high school students. The buildings and facilities of the university campus are used, and activities include language competitions (exhibits, interpretative readings, language productions, audio-visual presentations and essays); a fiesta; foreign…

  14. Post-Soviet Language Policy and the Language Utilization Patterns of Kyivan Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Camelot Ann

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of language policy in Ukraine on language utilization patterns of school children in Kyiv. Using quantitative data from student responses to a questionnaire focusing on subject background, native and home language, including reported usage of interactive and interpretive language, examines the extent to which language shift or…

  15. STS-37 crewmembers with CETA mechanical cart during simulation in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), operates the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) mechanical pump cart during an underwater simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. EMU-suited MS Jerry L. Ross manipulates tether shuttle at the end of the CETA rail or track. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA-equipped divers monitor the astronauts' activity.

  16. Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  17. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  18. SDL: A Surface Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maple, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

  19. Fasting induces CART down-regulation in the zebrafish nervous system in a cannabinoid receptor 1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Shin-Ichi; Gibert, Yann; Berekelya, Liubov; Bernard, Laure; Brunet, Frédéric; Guillot, Etienne; Le Bail, Jean-Christophe; Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Galzin, Anne Marie; Triqueneaux, Gerard; Laudet, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    Central and peripheral mechanisms modulate food intake and energy balance in mammals and the precise role of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) in these processes is still being explored. Using the zebrafish, Danio rerio, we show that rimonabant, a CB1-specific antagonist with an EC(50) of 5.15 × 10(-8) m, decreases embryonic yolk sac reserve use. We reveal a developmental overlap between CART genes and CB1 expression in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata, two brain structures that play crucial roles in appetite regulation in mammals. We show that morpholino knockdown of CB1 or fasting decreases cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)-3 expression. Strikingly, this down-regulation occurs only in regions coexpressing CB1 and CART3, reinforcing the link between CB1, CART, and appetite regulation. We show that rimonabant treatment impairs the fasting-induced down-regulation of CART expression in specific brain regions, whereas vehicle alone-treated embryos do not display this rescue of CART expression. Our data reveal that CB1 lies upstream of CART and signals the appetite through the down-regulation of CART expression. Thus, our results establish the zebrafish as a promising system to study appetite regulation. PMID:22700585

  20. Involvement of oxidative stress in the regulation of NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Tsung-Ta; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) treatment can suppress appetite and increase oxidative stress in the brain. AMPH-induced appetite suppression is associated with the regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus. The present study explored whether antioxidants, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), were involved in this NPY/CART-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in food intake and expression levels of hypothalamic NPY, CART, GST, and GP were examined and compared. Results showed that, in AMPH-treated rats, (1) food intake and NPY expression decreased, while CART, GST, and GP expression increased; (2) NPY knockdown in the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and the increases in CART, GST, and GP expression; and (3) central inhibition of reactive oxygen species production decreased GST and GP and modulated AMPH anorexia and the expression levels of NPY and CART. The present results suggest that oxidative stress in the brain participates in regulating NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results may advance the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of AMPH-evoked or NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression. PMID:25825358

  1. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  2. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

  3. CART DIAGNOSIS OF WATERSHED IMPAIRMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many factors ( stressors ) can lead to increased concentrations of nutrients and sediments, and these factors change across watersheds. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a statistical approach that can be used to "diagnose" which factors are important stressors on a pe...

  4. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  5. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs ...

  6. Inventory versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School a la Carte Food Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school a la carte lines for schools' ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. Methods: This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006-May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect…

  7. 32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's... applicable Georgia State Law and Fort Stewart traffic laws and regulations contained in this part. (b) “Go... of this part and the Georgia Traffic Code. (c) Off-road vehicles will only be operated in...

  8. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

  9. Biomechanical loading of the shoulder complex and lumbosacral joints during dynamic cart pushing task.

    PubMed

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Sun, Yun; Jaridi, Majid; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the effect of dynamic cart pushing exertions on the biomechanical loading of shoulder and low back. Ten participants performed cart pushing tasks on flat (0°), 5°, and 10° ramped walkways at 20 kg, 30 kg, and 40 kg weight conditions. An optoelectronic motion capturing system configured with two force plates was used for the kinematic and ground reaction force data collection. The experimental data was modeled using AnyBody modeling system to compute three-dimensional peak reaction forces at the shoulder complex (sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and glenohumeral) and low back (lumbosacral) joints. The main effect of walkway gradient and cart weight, and gradient by weight interaction on the biomechanical loading of shoulder complex and low back joints was statistically significant (all p < 0.001). At the lumbosacral joint, negligible loading in the mediolateral direction was observed compared to the anterioposterior and compression directions. Among the shoulder complex joints, the peak reaction forces at the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints were comparable and much higher than the sternoclavicular joint. Increased shear loading of the lumbosacral joint, distraction loading of glenohumeral joint and inferosuperior loading of the acromioclavicular joint may contribute to the risk of work-related low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorder with prolonged and repetitive use of carts. PMID:23566675

  10. Performance of radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and surface flux stations at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.; Lesht, B.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Holdridge, D.J.; Martin, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    The performance of several routinely operating observational systems at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has been evaluated. The results of a few specific investigations are shown here for Radar Wind Profilers (RWPs) and Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASSs), Balloon-Borne Sounding Systems (BBSSs), and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) stations.

  11. Convergence of Acquired Mutations and Alternative Splicing of CD19 Enables Resistance to CART-19 Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sotillo, Elena; Barrett, David M.; Black, Kathryn L; Bagashev, Asen; Oldridge, Derek; Wu, Glendon; Sussman, Robyn; Lanauze, Claudia; Ruella, Marco; Gazzara, Matthew R.; Martinez, Nicole M.; Harrington, Colleen T.; Chung, Elaine Y.; Perazzelli, Jessica; Hofmann, Ted J.; Maude, Shannon L.; Raman, Pichai; Barrera, Alejandro; Gill, Saar; Lacey, Simon F.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Allman, David; Jacoby, Elad; Fry, Terry; Mackall, Crystal; Barash, Yoseph; Lynch, Kristen W.; Maris, John M.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Thomas-Tikhonenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The CD19 antigen, expressed on most B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALL), can be targeted with chimeric antigen receptor–armed T cells (CART-19), but relapses with epitope loss occur in 10% to 20% of pediatric responders. We detected hemizygous deletions spanning the CD19 locus and de novo frameshift and missense mutations in exon 2 of CD19 in some relapse samples. However, we also discovered alternatively spliced CD19 mRNA species, including one lacking exon 2. Pull-down/siRNA experiments identified SRSF3 as a splicing factor involved in exon 2 retention, and its levels were lower in relapsed B-ALL. Using genome editing, we demonstrated that exon 2 skipping bypasses exon 2 mutations in B-ALL cells and allows expression of the N-terminally truncated CD19 variant, which fails to trigger killing by CART-19 but partly rescues defects associated with CD19 loss. Thus, this mechanism of resistance is based on a combination of deleterious mutations and ensuing selection for alternatively spliced RNA isoforms. Significance CART-19 yield 70% response rates in patients with B-ALL, but also produce escape variants. We discovered that the underlying mechanism is the selection for preexisting alternatively spliced CD19 isoforms with the compromised CART-19 epitope. This mechanism suggests a possibility of targeting alternative CD19 ectodomains, which could improve survival of patients with B-cell neoplasms. PMID:26516065

  12. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Neas, Barbara R; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Van Horn, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community resilience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention. PMID:24187884

  13. Characterization of seven cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CARTs) differentially expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues of Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Martínez, Almudena; Martín-Robles, Águeda J; Muñoz-Cueto, José A; Morais, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) is a peptide with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions with several key roles, both centrally and peripherally. In mammals there is a single gene that produces two alternatively spliced variants in rat and a single transcript in human but in teleosts multiple genes have been found. In the present study we report the existence of seven transcripts in Senegalese sole and characterize their sequences and phylogenetic relationships, as well as their expression patterns in the brain and peripheral tissues, and in response to feeding. Both cart2a and cart4 showed a ubiquitous expression in the brain, while cart1a, cart1b and cart3a were similarly expressed and had higher transcript levels in the mesencephalon, followed by the diencephalon. On the other hand, cart2b showed a main expression in the olfactory bulbs, and cart3b was predominantly expressed in the spinal cord. The expression profile in peripheral tissues differed substantially between cart's, even between more recently duplicated genes. Collectively, all the tissues examined, except the muscle, express at least one of the different cart's, although the highest transcript levels were found in the brain, gonads (ovary and testis) and, in some cases, eye and kidney. Concerning the feeding response, only brain cart1a, cart2a and cart4 showed a significant postprandial regulation, although future studies are necessary to assess potential confounding effects of stress imposed by the force feeding technique employed. Senegalese sole exhibits the highest number of cart genes reported to date in a vertebrate species. Their differential expression patterns and feeding regulation suggest that multiple cart genes, resulting from at least 3 rounds of whole genome duplication, have been retained in fish genomes through subfunctionalization, or possibly even through neofunctionalization. PMID:26320854

  14. Sign Language From the Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

  15. CART attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress response induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion through upregulating BDNF synthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Hu, Shengdi; Liu, Libing; Chen, Man; Wang, Lai; Zeng, Xianwei; Zhu, Shigong

    2013-07-12

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), a neuropeptide, has shown strong neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report a new effect of CART on ER stress which is induced by cerebral I/R in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured cortical neurons, as well as a new functionality of BDNF in the neuroprotection by CART against the ER stress in cerebral I/R. The results showed that CART was effective in reducing the neuronal apoptosis and expression of ER stress markers (GRP78, CHOP and cleaved caspase12), and increasing the BDNF expression in I/R injury rat cortex both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the effects of CART on ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis and ER stress were suppressed by tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) IgG, whereas the effects of CART on BDNF transcription, synthesis and secretion were abolished by CREB siRNA. This work suggests that CART is functional in inhibiting the cerebral I/R-induced ER stress and neuronal apoptosis by facilitating the transcription, synthesis and secretion of BDNF in a CREB-dependent way. PMID:23770418

  16. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, Ż; Knaś, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands. PMID:25151991

  17. Anorexia induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors is mediated by increases in CART in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Alexandra; Conductier, Grégory; Manrique, Christine; Bouras, Constantin; Berta, Philippe; Hen, René; Charnay, Yves; Bockaert, Joël; Compan, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a growing concern in mental health, often inducing death. The potential neuronal deficits that may underlie abnormal inhibitions of food intake, however, remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that anorexia may involve altered signaling events within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure involved in reward. We show here that direct stimulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 4 receptors (5-HT4R) in the NAc reduces the physiological drive to eat and increases CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) mRNA levels in fed and food-deprived mice. It further shows that injecting 5-HT4R antagonist or siRNA-mediated 5-HT4R knockdown into the NAc induced hyperphagia only in fed mice. This hyperphagia was not associated with changes in CART mRNA expression in the NAc in fed and food-deprived mice. Results include that 5-HT4R control CART mRNA expression into the NAc via a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Considering that CART may interfere with food- and drug-related rewards, we tested whether the appetite suppressant properties of 3,4-N-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) involve the 5-HT4R. Using 5-HT4R knockout mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT4R are required for the anorectic effect of MDMA as well as for the MDMA-induced enhancement of CART mRNA expression in the NAc. Directly injecting CART peptide or CART siRNA into the NAc reduces or increases food consumption, respectively. Finally, stimulating 5-HT4R- and MDMA-induced anorexia were both reduced by injecting CART siRNA into the NAc. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 5-HT4R-mediated up-regulation of CART in the NAc triggers the appetite-suppressant effects of ecstasy. PMID:17913892

  18. Increase in cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in specific areas of the mouse brain by acute caffeine administration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Hyo Young; Cha, Seung Ha; Ryu, Hyun; Jang, Wooyoung; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Caffeine produces a variety of behavioral effects including increased alertness, reduced food intake, anxiogenic effects, and dependence upon repeated exposure. Although many of the effects of caffeine are mediated by its ability to block adenosine receptors, it is possible that other neural substrates, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), may be involved in the effects of caffeine. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that repeated caffeine administration increases CART in the mouse striatum. However, it is not clear whether acute caffeine administration alters CART in other areas of the brain. To explore this possibility, we investigated the dose- and time-dependent changes in CART immunoreactivity (CART-IR) after a single dose of caffeine in mice. We found that a high dose of caffeine (100 mg/kg) significantly increased CART-IR 2 h after administration in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), and locus coeruleus (LC), and returned to control levels after 8 h. But this increase was not observed in other brain areas. In addition, caffeine administration at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg appears to produce dose-dependent increases in CART-IR in these brain areas; however, the magnitude of increase in CART-IR observed at a dose of 50 mg/kg was similar or greater than that observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg. This result suggests that CART-IR in AcbSh, dBNST, CeA, PVN, Arc, and LC is selectively affected by caffeine administration. PMID:25820086

  19. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed CREB and serine 133 phospho-CREB binding to the CART gene proximal promoter

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, George A; Shen, Li-Ling; Kuhar, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Both over expression of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and intra-accumbal injection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, have been shown to decrease cocaine reward. Also, over expression of CREB in the rat NAc increased CART mRNA and peptide levels, but it is not known if this was due to a direct action of P-CREB on the CART gene promoter. The goal of this study was to test if CREB and P-CREB bound directly to the CRE site in the CART promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. ChIP assay with anti-CREB antibodies showed an enrichment of the CART promoter fragment containing the CRE region over IgG precipitated material, a non-specific control. Forskolin, which was known to increase CART mRNA levels in GH3 cells, was utilized to show that the drug increased levels of P-CREB protein and P-CREB binding to the CART promoter CRE-containing region. A region of the c-Fos promoter containing a CRE cis-regulatory element was previously shown to bind P-CREB, and it was used here as a positive control. These data suggest that the effects of CREB over expression on blunting cocaine reward could be, at least in part, attributed to the increased expression of the CART gene by direct interaction of P-CREB with the CART promoter CRE site, rather than by some indirect action. PMID:20451507

  20. Bridging Two Worlds: Reading Comprehension, Figurative Language Instruction, and the English-Language Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Shackelford, Vikki S.; Miller, Sharmane C.; Leclere, Judith T.

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the challenges encountered by English-language learners (ELLs) as they attempt to interpret the figurative language of their new cultures. Providing ELL students with explicit instruction in interpreting figurative language--a bridge to reading comprehension--is a significant goal for teachers who design instruction for…

  1. Sentence Interpretation by Typically Developing Vietnamese-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    We examined developing bilinguals' use of animacy and word order cues during sentence interpretation tasks administered in each of their languages. Participants were 6- to 8-year-old children who learned Vietnamese as a first language and English as a second language (n = 23). Participants listened to simple sentences and identified the agent or…

  2. Children's Optimal Interpretations of Indefinite Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoop, Helen; Kramer, Irene

    2006-01-01

    We find a general, language-independent pattern in child language acquisition in which there is a clear difference between subject and object noun phrases. On one hand, indefinite objects tend to be interpreted nonreferentially, independently of word order and across experiments and languages. On the other hand, indefinite subjects tend to be…

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Analysis of Additional Contractual Language The Office of Antiboycott Compliance has learned of the... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection”...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Analysis of Additional Contractual Language The Office of Antiboycott Compliance has learned of the... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection”...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 13 to Part 760 - Interpretation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Analysis of Additional Contractual Language The Office of Antiboycott Compliance has learned of the... interpretation considers boycott-based contractual language dealing with the selection of suppliers and subcontractors. While this language borrows terms from the “unilateral and specific selection”...

  6. Into the Curriculum. Art/Science: Dino Art; Mathematics: Measurement; Reading/Language Arts: Turkey Day!; Reading/Language Arts: Visual Interpretations of Poetry; Reading/Language Arts: Courage, Lyle!; Science: The Thigh Bone's Connected to...; Social Studies: Building a House; Social Studies: Who Lives in This House?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santeford, Deborah; Vidor, Constance

    2002-01-01

    Provides eight fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, science, mathematics, reading, language arts, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity.…

  7. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  8. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  9. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  10. One-dimensional collision carts computer model and its design ideas for productive experiential learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-05-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a consistent simulation world view with a pen and paper representation, (2) a data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and (3) a game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using a physical world setup augmented by simulation by highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment such as a tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and the conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the simulation useful in their own classes.

  11. Cervical cancer survival prediction using hybrid of SMOTE, CART and smooth support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnami, S. W.; Khasanah, P. M.; Sumartini, S. H.; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    According to the WHO, every two minutes there is one patient who died from cervical cancer. The high mortality rate is due to the lack of awareness of women for early detection. There are several factors that supposedly influence the survival of cervical cancer patients, including age, anemia status, stage, type of treatment, complications and secondary disease. This study wants to classify/predict cervical cancer survival based on those factors. Various classifications methods: classification and regression tree (CART), smooth support vector machine (SSVM), three order spline SSVM (TSSVM) were used. Since the data of cervical cancer are imbalanced, synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used for handling imbalanced dataset. Performances of these methods are evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results of this study show that balancing data using SMOTE as preprocessing can improve performance of classification. The SMOTE-SSVM method provided better result than SMOTE-TSSVM and SMOTE-CART.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cordoba Carte du Ciel-Astrographic Catalog, CCAC (Orellana+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; de Biasi, M. S.; Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderon, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    This is Cordoba Carte du Ciel-Astrographic Catalog (CCAC) constructed from four Carte du Ciel and one Astrographic Catalog photographic plates for first epoch positions in the region of the open cluster Collinder 132. The plates were digitized using the MAMA measuring machine from the Paris Observatory. Stars from Tycho-2 catalogue (Hog et al., 2000, Cat. I/259) were used as reference stars. Every plate was reduced independently from the others adopting a first order polynomial in the measured coordinates. Proper motions were calculated using the CCAC positions as first epoch, and as second epoch the positions given by UCAC2 (Zacharias et al., 2004, Cat. I/289) and USNO-B1.0 (Monet et al., 2003, Cat. I/284). (2 data files).

  13. Demonstration of Launch Vehicle Slosh Instability on Pole-Cart Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pei, Jing; Rothhaar, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Liquid propellant makes up a significant portion of the total weight for large launch vehicles such as Saturn V, Space Shuttle, and the Space Launch System (SLS). Careful attention must be given to the influence of fuel slosh motion on the stability of the vehicle. A well-documented slosh danger zone occurs when the slosh mass is between the vehicle center of mass and the center of percussion. Passive damping via slosh baffle is generally required when the slosh mass is within this region. The pole-cart hardware system, typically used for academic purposes, has similar dynamic characteristics as an unstable launch vehicle. This setup offers a simple and inexpensive way of analyzing slosh dynamics and its impact on flight control design. In this paper, experimental and numerical results from the pole-cart system will be shown and direct analogies to launch vehicle slosh dynamics will be made.

  14. Assessing the HIV Care Continuum in Latin America: progress in clinical retention, cART use and viral suppression

    PubMed Central

    Rebeiro, Peter F; Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E; De Boni, Raquel B; Cortés, Claudia P; Rodriguez, Fernanda; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo; Pape, Jean W; Padgett, Denis; Hoces, Daniel; McGowan, Catherine C; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We assessed trends in HIV Care Continuum outcomes associated with delayed disease progression and reduced transmission within a large Latin American cohort over a decade: clinical retention, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use and viral suppression (VS). Methods Adults from Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology clinical cohorts in seven countries contributed data between 2003 and 2012. Retention was defined as two or more HIV care visits annually, >90 days apart. cART was defined as prescription of three or more antiretroviral agents annually. VS was defined as HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL at last measurement annually. cART and VS denominators were subjects with at least one visit annually. Multivariable modified Poisson regression was used to assess temporal trends and examine associations between age, sex, HIV transmission mode, cohort, calendar year and time in care. Results Among 18,799 individuals in retention analyses, 14,380 in cART analyses and 13,330 in VS analyses, differences existed between those meeting indicator definitions versus those not by most characteristics. Retention, cART and VS significantly improved from 2003 to 2012 (63 to 77%, 74 to 91% and 53 to 82%, respectively; p<0.05, each). Female sex (risk ratio (RR)=0.97 vs. males) and injection drug use as HIV transmission mode (RR=0.83 vs. male sexual contact with males (MSM)) were significantly associated with lower retention, but unrelated with cART or VS. MSM (RR=0.96) significantly decreased the probability of cART compared with heterosexual transmission. Conclusions HIV Care Continuum outcomes improved over time in Latin America, though disparities for vulnerable groups remain. Efforts must be made to increase retention, cART and VS, while engaging in additional research to sustain progress in these settings. PMID:27065108

  15. Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, David T.; Mazagova, Magdalena; Hampton, Eric N.; Cao, Yu; Ramadoss, Nitya S.; Hardy, Ian R.; Schulman, Andrew; Du, Juanjuan; Wang, Feng; Singer, Oded; Ma, Jennifer; Nunez, Vanessa; Shen, Jiayin; Woods, Ashley K.; Wright, Timothy M.; Schultz, Peter G.; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Young, Travis S.

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR–T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens. PMID:26759369

  16. Enterobacteriaceae and related organisms isolated from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Shaw, J D; Sheppard, M; Harrison, M A

    2009-10-01

    Enterobacteriaceae, including Salmonella, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to the plant on carts to be processed. Two plants in the southeastern United States were sampled. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n=25/visit). A 12x12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated using violet red bile glucose agar incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. There was 100% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae at plant A with an average 3.8 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Plant B had 90% prevalence for Enterobacteriaceae with an average 3.2 log10 cfu/mL swab diluent. Two randomly selected isolates from each positive sample were recultured 3 times to increase the likelihood of clonality and were then identified biochemically. Of the 124 isolates analyzed, genera identified were Citrobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Hafnia spp., Kluyvera spp., Leclercia spp., and Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas spp. was the only non-Enterobacteriaceae identified by our methods. This work demonstrates that nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Enterobacteriaceae in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:19762864

  17. New developments of the CARTE thermochemical code: A two-phase equation of state for nanocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Vincent; Pineau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new equation of state (EOS) for nanocarbons in the thermodynamic range of high explosives detonation products (up to 50 GPa and 4000 K). This EOS was fitted to an extensive database of thermodynamic properties computed by molecular dynamics simulations of nanodiamonds and nano-onions with the LCBOPII potential. We reproduced the detonation properties of a variety of high explosives with the CARTE thermochemical code, including carbon-poor and carbon-rich explosives, with excellent accuracy.

  18. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  19. Switch-mediated activation and retargeting of CAR-T cells for B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, David T; Mazagova, Magdalena; Hampton, Eric N; Cao, Yu; Ramadoss, Nitya S; Hardy, Ian R; Schulman, Andrew; Du, Juanjuan; Wang, Feng; Singer, Oded; Ma, Jennifer; Nunez, Vanessa; Shen, Jiayin; Woods, Ashley K; Wright, Timothy M; Schultz, Peter G; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Young, Travis S

    2016-01-26

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has produced impressive results in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies. However, safety concerns related to the inability to control CAR-T cells once infused into the patient remain a significant challenge. Here we report the engineering of recombinant antibody-based bifunctional switches that consist of a tumor antigen-specific Fab molecule engrafted with a peptide neo-epitope, which is bound exclusively by a peptide-specific switchable CAR-T cell (sCAR-T). The switch redirects the activity of the bio-orthogonal sCAR-T cells through the selective formation of immunological synapses, in which the sCAR-T cell, switch, and target cell interact in a structurally defined and temporally controlled manner. Optimized switches specific for CD19 controlled the activity, tissue-homing, cytokine release, and phenotype of sCAR-T cells in a dose-titratable manner in a Nalm-6 xenograft rodent model of B-cell leukemia. The sCAR-T-cell dosing regimen could be tuned to provide efficacy comparable to the corresponding conventional CART-19, but with lower cytokine levels, thereby offering a method of mitigating cytokine release syndrome in clinical translation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this methodology is readily adaptable to targeting CD20 on cancer cells using the same sCAR-T cell, suggesting that this approach may be broadly applicable to heterogeneous and resistant tumor populations, as well as other liquid and solid tumor antigens. PMID:26759369

  20. Natural language generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  1. Temperature dependent changes in cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the brain of tadpole, Sylvirana temporalis.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Swapnil A; Gaupale, Tekchand C; Bhargava, Shobha

    2015-09-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CARTp) has emerged as a novel neurotransmitter in the brain. Although the physiological role of the peptide has been intensely investigated in mammals, its role in amphibians has not been investigated. In the present study, an attempt has been undertaken to study the expression of CART in the tadpole brain of frog Sylvirana temporalis, subjected to thermal stress. Cells with strong CART-immunoreactivity were observed in the nucleus preoptic area (NPO) of tadpoles exposed to high temperature (37±2°C) as compared to those in the tadpoles exposed to low (12±2°C) and normal (24±2°C) temperatures. In the ventromedial thalamic nucleus (VM) and nucleus posterocentralis thalami (NPC), moderate CART-ir cells were observed in the control groups while number of cells and intensity of immunoreactivity was increased in tadpoles at low and high temperatures. In the nucleus infundibularis ventralis (NIV) and raphe nucleus (RA), CART immunoreactivity increased in the low as well as high temperature treated groups. Intensely stained CART cells were observed in the pituitary of tadpoles exposed to high temperature as compared to low temperature and control groups. We suggest that CART system in the brain and pituitary of tadpole may play a very important role in mediating responses to temperature variations in the environment. PMID:24983774

  2. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

  3. 75 FR 63067 - Interpretation of “Children's Product”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Interpretative Rule and Changes to the Final Interpretative Rule In the Federal Register of April 20, 2010 (75 FR... language in the preamble of this rule and the preamble of the proposed rule (75 FR at 20533) (to the extent... FR at 20535). (Comment 3)--A few commenters state that the proposed interpretative rule affects...

  4. Paralleled comparison of vectors for the generation of CAR-T cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Di-Yuan; Huang, Yong; Li, Dan; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2016-09-01

    T-lymphocytes genetically engineered with the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) have shown great therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. A variety of preclinical researches and clinical trials of CAR-T therapy have been carried out to lay the foundation for future clinical application. In these researches, several gene-transfer methods were used to deliver CARs or other genes into T-lymphocytes, equipping CAR-modified T cells with a property of recognizing and attacking antigen-expressing tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex-independent manner. Here, we summarize the gene-transfer vectors commonly used in the generation of CAR-T cell, including retrovirus vectors, lentivirus vectors, the transposon/transposase system, the plasmid-based system, and the messenger RNA electroporation system. The following aspects were compared in parallel: efficiency of gene transfer, the integration methods in the modified T cells, foreground of scale-up production, and application and development in clinical trials. These aspects should be taken into account to generate the optimal CAR-gene vector that may be suitable for future clinical application. PMID:27333595

  5. New Strategies for the Treatment of Solid Tumors with CAR-T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Ye, Zhen-long; Yuan, Zhen-gang; Luo, Zheng-qiang; Jin, Hua-jun; qian, Qi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent years, we have witnessed significant progresses in both basic and clinical studies regarding novel therapeutic strategies with genetically engineered T cells. Modification with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) endows T cells with tumor specific cytotoxicity and thus induce anti-tumor immunity against malignancies. However, targeting solid tumors is more challenging than targeting B-cell malignancies with CAR-T cells because of the histopathological structure features, specific antigens shortage and strong immunosuppressive environment of solid tumors. Meanwhile, the on-target/off-tumor toxicity caused by relative expression of target on normal tissues is another issue that should be reckoned. Optimization of the design of CAR vectors, exploration of new targets, addition of safe switches and combination with other treatments bring new vitality to the CAR-T cell based immunotherapy against solid tumors. In this review, we focus on the major obstacles limiting the application of CAR-T cell therapy toward solid tumors and summarize the measures to refine this new cancer therapeutic modality. PMID:27194949

  6. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  7. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  8. Argumentation: The Language of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades, the role of language in the science curriculum has become prominent in science education literature. From a constructivist perspective, language mediates social interaction and meaning is constructed as learners interpret and reinterpret events through the lens of prior knowledge. This perspective applied to the science…

  9. Language Arts Curriculum Guide (Secondary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This curriculum guide for the secondary school language arts program is divided into seven sections: General Introduction, Oral Communication, Literature, Spelling, Written Language, Special Courses, and Appendix. These general sections describe approaches to such topics as listening, conversing, parliamentary procedure, oral interpretation, the…

  10. Identifying Depiction in American Sign Language Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thumann, Mary Agnes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines depiction in American Sign Language (ASL) presentations. The impetus for this study came from my work as an instructor in an interpreter education program. The majority of ASL/English interpreters are second language learners of ASL, and many of them find some features of ASL challenging to learn. These features are…

  11. A Computer Language for ECG Contour Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McConnochie, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate contructively that criteria for ECG contour analysis can be interpreted directly by a computer. Thereby, the programming task is greatly reduced. Direct interpretation is achieved by the creation of a computer language that is well-suited for the expression of such criteria. Further development of the language is planned.

  12. Evidence for the participation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the fluoxetine-induced anti-hyperalgesia in neuropathic rats.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Manoj A; Dandekar, Manoj P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Singru, Praful S; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2011-02-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) has a role in chronic pain, and also in the actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) employed in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Herein, we test the hypothesis that CART may mediate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of the SSRI, fluoxetine, in neuropathic rats. Sciatic nerve in the right hind paw of rat was ligated to induce neuropathic pain, and the paw withdrawal latency was evaluated using Hargreaves apparatus. Fluoxetine [5-25mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip)] or CART (54-102) [0.1-1.5μg/rat, intracerebroventricular (icv)] dose-dependently attenuated the hyperalgesic response observed in neuropathic rats, indicating anti-nociceptive properties of each agent. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of fluoxetine was potentiated by the subeffective dose of CART, and attenuated by CART-antibody (1:500 dilution; 5μl/rat, icv); CART-antibody had no effect per se. Isobolographic analysis showed a significant synergism between fluoxetine and CART, and antagonism between fluoxetine and CART-antibody. Immunocytochemical labeling with monoclonal antibodies against CART showed drastic increase in CART-immunoreactive fibers in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VLPAG; 116%), dorsal subdivision of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD; 176%), and locus coeruleus (LC; 733%) of neuropathic animals. Fluoxetine treatment significantly reduced the immunoreactivity in these areas. However, CART-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the arcuate nucleus did not respond to neuropathy or fluoxetine treatments. We suggest that the CART innervation of DRD, LC and VLPAG may be involved in the (i) central processing of neuropathic pain and (ii) fluoxetine-induced anti-hyperalgesic effect in neuropathic pain. PMID:21167239

  13. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  14. Problems of a Theory of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Edward O.

    The problems of fashioning a theory of language fall into two broad areas: (1) the neurophysiological correlates of language behavior are still little understood, and (2) the enormous amount of data on language behavior that has been gathered by researchers is subject to varying and differing interpretations. In spite of these problems, the…

  15. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

  16. Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    2003-01-01

    Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

  17. 38 CFR 21.152 - Interpreter service for the hearing impaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determines that the veteran: (i) Can benefit from language and speech training; and (ii) Agrees to undertake language and speech training. (b) Periods during which interpreter service may be provided....

  18. Generating Alternatives: Interpreting Focus in Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christina S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates a class of context-dependent expressions--focus-sensitive particles--as a way of addressing how language users draw on contextual information to interpret expressions whose meanings are underdetermined by their forms. While the problem of context dependence has been widely studied, the question of precisely what…

  19. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  20. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  1. STS-113 Astronaut Herrington Moves CETA Cart in Second Scheduled Space Walk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 16th American assembly flight and 112th overall American flight to the International Space Station (ISS) launched on November 23, 2002 from Kennedy's launch pad 39A aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-113. Mission objectives included the delivery of the Expedition Six Crew to the ISS, the return of Expedition Five crew back to Earth, the delivery of the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS, and the installation and activation of the Port 1 Integrated Truss Assembly (P1). The first major component installed on the left side of the Station, the P1 truss provides an additional three External Thermal Control System radiators. Weighing in at 27,506 pounds, the P1 truss is 45 feet (13.7 meters) long, 15 feet (4.6 meters) wide, and 13 feet (4 meters) high. Three space walks, aided by the use of the Robotic Manipulator Systems of both the Shuttle and the Station, were performed in the installation of P1. In this photograph, astronaut and mission specialist John B. Herrington, is shown anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the ISS's Canadarm2, as he moves the CETA cart during the mission's second scheduled space walk. The final major task of the space walk was the relocation of the CETA cart from the Port One (P1) to the Starboard One (S1) Truss, which will allow the Mobile Transporter to move along the P1 to assist in upcoming assembly missions. The space walk lasted 6 hours, 10 minutes.

  2. Neuroretinal Degeneration in HIV Patients Without Opportunistic Ocular Infections in the cART Era.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand; Schlingemann, Reinier; Verbraak, Franciscus

    2015-10-01

    Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 counts<100 cells/μL are most at risk for neuroretinal damage, with a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, subtle loss of color vision and/or contrast sensitivity, visual field deficits, and subnormal electrophysiological responses. In contrast, alterations in retinal vascular calibers and retinal blood flow were not associated with nadir CD4 counts, but instead with detectable viremia, suggesting a role for (chronic) inflammation in microvascular damage. Although the alterations in visual function are subtle, they can lead to difficulties in activities, such as reading or driving, thereby affecting quality of life. Since HIV has become a chronic disease, its long-term effects with respect to visual function loss become more important, as is recently emphasized by a longitudinal study, reporting that AIDS patients with HIV-NRD have higher risks of developing bilateral visual impairment and even blindness than patients without HIV-NRD. The question remains whether patients with high (>350 cells/μL) nadir CD4 counts and well-suppressed HIV infection on cART remain at risk for HIV-NRD, as this group constitutes a growing part of the aging HIV-infected population. PMID:26258992

  3. Influence of the Biosphere on Precipitation: July 1995 Studies with the ARM-CART Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, D. M.; Walker, G. K.; Koster, Randal D.

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble sets of simulation experiments were conducted with a single column model (SCM) using the Goddard GEOS II GCM physics containing a recent version of the Cumulus Scheme (McRAS) and a biosphere based land-fluxes scheme (SSiB). The study used the 18 July to 5 August 1995 ARM-CART (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Test-bed) data, which was collected at the ARM-CART site in the mid-western United States and analyzed for single column modeling (SCM) studies. The new findings affirm the earlier findings that the vegetation, which increases the solar energy absorption at the surface together with soil and soil-moisture dependent processes, which modulate the surface, fluxes (particularly evapotranspiration) together help to increase the local rainfall. In addition, the results also show that for the particular study period roughly 50% of the increased evaporation over the ARM-CART site would be converted into rainfall with the Column, while the remainder would be advected out to the large-scale. Notwithstanding the limitations of only one-way interaction (i.e., the large-scale influencing the regional physics and not vice versa), the current SCM simulations show a very robust relationship. The evaporation-precipitation relationship turns out to be independent of the soil types, and soil moisture; however, it is weakly dependent on the vegetation cover because of its surface-albedo effect. Clearly, these inferences are prone to weaknesses of the SCM physics, the assumptions of the large-scale being unaffected by gridscale (SCM-scale) changes in moist processes, and other limitations of the evaluation procedures.

  4. Engineers inspect STS-37 CETA manual hand over hand cart in JSC's MAIL Bldg 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    From left, Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) John Gustafson and JSC's Charles E. Whitsett, Steven Poulos, and James O'Kane inspect the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart, mounted on CETA track or rail, in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. CETA is scheduled for evaluation aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37. The four engineers have headed a team of hundreds that have contributed to the CETA project. CETA is being planned for usage on Space Station Freedom (SSF). NOTE: SSF mockup in the background.

  5. STS-37 MS Apt tests CETA cart during EVA in OV-104's payload bay (PLB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, suited in extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), tests Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart during extravehicular activity (EVA) in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, payload bay (PLB). Apt works his way along the CETA deployable track mounted on OV-104's PLB port side. The ascent particle monitor (APM) is visible on the starboard side in the foreground. In the background are the aft PLB bulkhead and the vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods. Crewmembers spent several hours evaluating means of performing future EVA chores, transporting tools and crewmembers, etc. on Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  6. Consumers power delays new substation construction by controlling electric cart: Battery chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Bombery, M.F.; Duncan, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    During July of 1993, Consumers Power Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, was surprised by a series of electric system component failures due to overload. The outages resulted in widespread customer dissatisfaction within a 865 acre resort called Sandy Pines. Several conventional solutions were quickly implemented, but projections of continued load growth led to scheduling the construction of a new distribution substation. Current efforts are focusing on load control of electric golf cart battery chargers to shift the peak demand causing the overload and delay or cancel the planned new substation.

  7. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: The Risk to Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and its ramifications for sign language users, in particular, educational interpreters. Discussed are the syndrome's incidence, causes, diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical interventions, and prevention guidelines. (JDD)

  8. Liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand in response to liver metastases in mice and inhibit the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CEA CAR-T

    PubMed Central

    Burga, Rachel A.; Thorn, Mitchell; Point, Gary R.; Guha, Prajna; Nguyen, Cang T.; Licata, Lauren A.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Ayala, Alfred; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.; Katz, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) technology, a promising immunotherapeutic tool, has not been applied specifically to treat liver metastases (LM). While CAR-T delivery to LM can be optimized by regional intrahepatic infusion, we propose that liver CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (L-MDSC) will inhibit the efficacy of CAR-T in the intrahepatic space. We studied anti-CEA CAR-T in a murine model of CEA+ LM and identified mechanisms through which L-MDSC expand and inhibit CAR-T function. We established CEA+ LM in mice and studied purified L-MDSC and responses to treatment with intrahepatic anti-CEA CAR-T infusions. L-MDSC expanded three-fold in response to LM and their expansion was dependent on GM-CSF, which was produced by tumor cells. L-MDSC utilized PD-L1 to suppress anti-tumor responses through engagement of PD-1 on CAR-T. GM-CSF, in cooperation with STAT3, promoted L-MDSC PD-L1 expression. CAR-T efficacy was rescued when mice received CAR-T in combination with MDSC depletion, GM-CSF neutralization to prevent MDSC expansion, or PD-L1 blockade. As L-MDSC suppressed anti-CEA CAR-T, infusion of anti-CEA CAR-T in tandem with agents targeting L-MDSC is a rational strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:25850344

  9. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: Organization, interaction with neuropeptide Y, and response to changes in energy status.

    PubMed

    Singh, Omprakash; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Kumar, Vinod; Lechan, Ronald M; Singru, Praful S

    2016-10-15

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has emerged as a potent anorectic agent. CART is widely distributed in the brain of mammals, amphibians, and teleosts, but the relevant information in avian brain is not available. In birds, CART inhibits food intake, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY), a well-known orexigenic peptide, stimulates it. How these neuropeptides interact in the brain to regulate energy balance is not known. We studied the distribution of CART-immunoreactivity in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, its interaction with NPY, and their response to dynamic energy states. CART-immunoreactive fibers were found in the subpallium, hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem. Conspicuous CART-immunoreactive cells were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial, infundibular (IN), lateral hypothalamic, Edinger-Westphal, and parabrachial nuclei. Hypothalamic sections of fed, fasted, and refed animals were immunostained with cFos, NPY, and CART antisera. Fasting dramatically increased cFos- and NPY-immunoreactivity in the IN, followed by rapid reduction by 2 hours and restoration to normal fed levels 6-10 hours after refeeding. CART-immunoreactive fibers in IN showed a significant reduction during fasting and upregulation with refeeding. Within the IN, double immunofluorescence revealed that 94 ± 2.1% of NPY-immunoreactive neurons were contacted by CART-immunoreactive fibers and 96 ± 2.8% NPY-immunoreactive neurons expressed cFos during fasting. Compared to controls, superfused hypothalamic slices of fasted birds treated with CART-peptide showed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in NPY-immunoreactivity in the IN. As in other vertebrates, CART in the brain of T. guttata may perform several functions, and has a particularly important role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3014-3041, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018984

  10. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  11. Adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding control for the double-pendulum-and-cart system.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chin Wang; Taur, Jinshiuh; Chang, J H; Su, Shun-Feng

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy switched swing-up and sliding controller (AFSSSC) is proposed for the swing-up and position controls of a double-pendulum-and-cart system. The proposed AFSSSC consists of a fuzzy switching controller (FSC), an adaptive fuzzy swing-up controller (FSUC), and an adaptive hybrid fuzzy sliding controller (HFSC). To simplify the design of the adaptive HFSC, the double-pendulum-and-cart system is reformulated as a double-pendulum and a cart subsystem with matched time-varying uncertainties. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is provided to learn the parameters of the output fuzzy sets for the adaptive HFSC. The FSC is designed to smoothly switch between the adaptive FSUC and the adaptive HFSC. Moreover, the sliding mode and the stability of the fuzzy sliding control systems are guaranteed. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed AFSSSC. PMID:19661002

  12. Design of an automated cart and mount for a hyperspectral imaging system to be used in produce fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefcourt, Alan M.; Kistler, Ross; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to construct a cart and a mounting system that would allow a hyperspectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system (HLIFIS) to be used to detect fecal material in produce fields. Fecal contaminated produce is a recognized food safety risk. Previous research demonstrated the HLIFIS could detect fecal contamination in a laboratory setting. A cart was designed and built, and then tested to demonstrate that the cart was capable of moving at constant speeds or at precise intervals. A mounting system was designed and built to facilitate the critical alignment of the camera's imaging and the laser's illumination fields, and to allow the HLIFIS to be used in both field and laboratory settings without changing alignments. A hardened mount for the Powell lens that is used to produce the appropriate illumination profile was also designed, built, and tested.

  13. Atmospheric profile retrieval with AIRS data and validation at the ARM CART site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuebao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenjian; Wang, Fang

    2005-09-01

    The physical retrieval algorithm of atmospheric temperature and moisture distribution from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) radiances is presented. The retrieval algorithm is applied to AIRS clearsky radiance measurements. The algorithm employs a statistical retrieval followed by a subsequent nonlinear physical retrieval. The regression coefficients for the statistical retrieval are derived from a dataset of global radiosonde observations (RAOBs) comprising atmospheric temperature, moisture, and ozone profiles. Evaluation of the retrieved profiles is performed by a comparison with RAOBs from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) in Oklahoma, U. S. A. Comparisons show that the physicallybased AIRS retrievals agree with the RAOBs from the ARM CART site with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 1 K on average for temperature profiles above 850 hPa, and approximately 10% on average for relative humidity profiles. With its improved spectral resolution, AIRS depicts more detailed structure than the current Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder when comparing AIRS sounding retrievals with the operational GOES sounding products.

  14. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W.

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  15. "New Old Pathologies": AD, PART, and Cerebral Age-Related TDP-43 With Sclerosis (CARTS).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter T; Trojanowski, John Q; Abner, Erin L; Al-Janabi, Omar M; Jicha, Gregory A; Schmitt, Frederick A; Smith, Charles D; Fardo, David W; Wang, Wang-Xia; Kryscio, Richard J; Neltner, Janna H; Kukull, Walter A; Cykowski, Matthew D; Van Eldik, Linda J; Ighodaro, Eseosa T

    2016-06-01

    The pathology-based classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases is a work in progress that is important for both clinicians and basic scientists. Analyses of large autopsy series, biomarker studies, and genomics analyses have provided important insights about AD and shed light on previously unrecognized conditions, enabling a deeper understanding of neurodegenerative diseases in general. After demonstrating the importance of correct disease classification for AD and primary age-related tauopathy, we emphasize the public health impact of an underappreciated AD "mimic," which has been termed "hippocampal sclerosis of aging" or "hippocampal sclerosis dementia." This pathology affects >20% of individuals older than 85 years and is strongly associated with cognitive impairment. In this review, we provide an overview of current hypotheses about how genetic risk factors (GRN, TMEM106B, ABCC9, and KCNMB2), and other pathogenetic influences contribute to TDP-43 pathology and hippocampal sclerosis. Because hippocampal sclerosis of aging affects the "oldest-old" with arteriolosclerosis and TDP-43 pathologies that extend well beyond the hippocampus, more appropriate terminology for this disease is required. We recommend "cerebral age-related TDP-43 and sclerosis" (CARTS). A detailed case report is presented, which includes neuroimaging and longitudinal neurocognitive data. Finally, we suggest a neuropathology-based diagnostic rubric for CARTS. PMID:27209644

  16. Evaluation of alternative model selection criteria in the analysis of unimodal response curves using CART

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Miller, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated CART performance with a unimodal response curve for one continuous response and four continuous explanatory variables, where two variables were important (ie directly related to the response) and the other two were not. We explored performance under three relationship strengths and two explanatory variable conditions: equal importance and one variable four times as important as the other. We compared CART variable selection performance using three tree-selection rules ('minimum risk', 'minimum risk complexity', 'one standard error') to stepwise polynomial ordinary least squares (OLS) under four sample size conditions. The one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity methods performed about as well as stepwise OLS with large sample sizes when the relationship was strong. With weaker relationships, equally important explanatory variables and larger sample sizes, the one-standard-error and minimum-risk-complexity rules performed better than stepwise OLS. With weaker relationships and explanatory variables of unequal importance, tree-structured methods did not perform as well as stepwise OLS. Comparing performance within tree-structured methods, with a strong relationship and equally important explanatory variables, the one-standard-error-rule was more likely to choose the correct model than were the other tree-selection rules 1) with weaker relationships and equally important explanatory variables; and 2) under all relationship strengths when explanatory variables were of unequal importance and sample sizes were lower.

  17. Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased…

  18. Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week an...

  19. Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

  20. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  1. Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the concept of language awareness and its use in language teaching, which refers to the development in learners of an enhanced consciousness of and sensitivity to the forms and functions of language. The approach has been developed in the contexts of both second and foreign language learning, as well as in mother tongue education.…

  2. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  3. Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Fern L.

    Using a language-centered perspective about culture, this book aims to provide culture-based interpretations for language-in-use and for broader discourse issues. The first three chapters present an overview of language and culture in the United States and introduce the concepts and vocabulary for understanding language and cultural complexity.…

  4. Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members. PMID:22792852

  5. Professional Language in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of 3-5 languages where professional language is one of them is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. The Aim of the Study. To identify and analyze professional language on the pedagogical discourse in language education. Materials and Methods. The search for…

  6. Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

  7. Comprehensive Interpretive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Richard; Sikoryak, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interpretive planning and provides information on how to maximize a sense of ownership shared by managers, staff, and other organizational shareholders. Presents practical and effective plans for providing interpretive services. (CCM)

  8. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  9. Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny

    2012-01-01

    A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

  10. Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchor, Rosemary Laura

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

  11. Determining Register in Sign-to-English Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Risa

    1987-01-01

    Identifies indicators of register or style in selected portions of two lectures presented in American Sign Language, and in the interpretations of each made by two interpreters. The indicators used are speaking rate, pausing, syntax, intonation, and lexical choice. Transcripts of data are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)

  12. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  13. Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

  14. Using medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Hart, Dionne; Bowen, Juan; DeJesus, Ramona; Maldonado, Alejandro; Jiwa, Fatima

    2010-04-01

    Research has demonstrated that appropriate use of interpreters in clinical encounters improves outcomes and decreases adverse events. This article reviews both the medical reasons for working with trained medical interpreters and the related laws, and offers practical tips for working effectively with interpreters. PMID:20481167

  15. "It's a Bit like Flying": Developing Participatory Theatre with the Under-Twos--A Case Study of Oily Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a new venture by the children's theatre company Oily Cart to develop a participatory theatre piece for carers and their under-two-year-olds, entitled Clouds. Given what little is known about how to design and conduct arts events with this age phase, a case study offered the opportunity to identify features…

  16. Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to…

  17. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study, "A Model for Success: CART's Linked Learning Program Increases College Enrollment" examined whether students who enrolled in courses at a high school that combined academics and technical education had higher college enrollment rates than students who did not. The research described in this report does not meet What Works…

  18. The interpretation of logical connectives in Turkish.

    PubMed

    Geçkin, Vasfiye; Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated how Turkish-speaking children and adults interpret negative sentences with disjunction (English or) and ones with conjunction (English and). The goal was to see whether Turkish-speaking children and adults assigned the same interpretation to both kinds of sentences and, if not, to determine the source of the differences. Turkish-speaking children and adults were found to assign different interpretations to negative sentences with disjunction just in case the nouns in the disjunction phrase were marked with accusative case. For children, negation took scope over disjunction regardless of case marking, whereas, for adults, disjunction took scope over negation if the disjunctive phrases were case marked. Both groups assigned the same interpretation to negative sentences with conjunction; both case-marked and non-case-marked conjunction phrases took scope over negation. The findings are taken as evidence for a 'subset' principle of language learnability that dictates children's initial scope assignments. PMID:26118654

  19. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  20. The Effects of Direction of Exertion, Path, and Load Placement in Nursing Cart Pushing and Pulling Tasks: An Electromyographical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huei Chu; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Lee, Yung Hui; Chen, Su Huang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of direction of exertion (DOE) (pushing, pulling), path (walking in a straight line, turning left, walking uphill), and load placement (LP) (the 18 blocks were indicated by X, Y and Z axis; there were 3 levels on the X axis, 2 levels on the Y axis, and 3 levels on the Z axis) on muscle activity and ratings of perceived exertion in nursing cart pushing and pulling tasks. Ten participants who were female students and not experienced nurses were recruited to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 108 experimental trials in the study, consisting of 2 directions of exertion (push and pull), 3 paths, and 18 load placements (indicated by X, Y and Z axes). A 23kg load was placed into one load placement. The dependent variables were electromyographic (EMG) data of four muscles collected bilaterally as follows: Left (L) and right (R) trapezius (TR), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), extensor digitorum (ED), and erector spinae (ES) and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Split-split-plot ANOVA was conducted to analyze significant differences between DOE, path, and LP in the EMG and RPE data. Pulling cart tasks produced a significantly higher activation of the muscles (RTR:54.4%, LTR:50.3%, LFDS:57.0%, LED:63.4%, RES:40.7%, LES:36.7%) than pushing cart tasks (RTR:42.4%, LTR:35.1%, LFDS:32.3%, LED:55.1%, RES:33.3%, LES:32.1%). A significantly greater perceived exertion was found in pulling cart tasks than pushing cart tasks. Significantly higher activation of all muscles and perceived exertion were observed for walking uphill than walking in a straight line and turning left. Significantly lower muscle activity of all muscles and subject ratings were observed for the central position on the X axis, the bottom position on the Y axis, and the posterior position on the Z axis. These findings suggest that nursing staff should adopt forward pushing when moving a nursing cart, instead of backward

  1. Interpreting Television for Hearing Impaired Viewers: A Guidebook for Producers and Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Technical Inst. for the Deaf, Rochester, NY.

    This manual presents production guidelines and suggestions for use by commercial, public, and educational broadcast facilities that seek to provide television interpreting for the hearing impaired. Topics covered include a brief overview of the need for television services for this audience and the use of closed captioning and sign language to…

  2. Deaf Students, Teachers, and Interpreters in the Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Brenda C.; Wynne, Dorothy H.; MacDonald, Gina

    2002-02-01

    This report describes an undergraduate research program at James Madison University that includes deaf and hard-of-hearing students from Gallaudet University, deaf teachers from schools for the Deaf, and both professional interpreters and students engaged in sign language interpreter training. Methods used over a three-year period to maximize participation and expand research opportunities for the students, teachers, and interpreters are shared with the hope that similar projects might be encouraged and replicated in other programs.

  3. Stabilization of an inverted pendulum-cart system by fractional PI-state feedback.

    PubMed

    Bettayeb, M; Boussalem, C; Mansouri, R; Al-Saggaf, U M

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with pole placement PI-state feedback controller design to control an integer order system. The fractional aspect of the control law is introduced by a dynamic state feedback as u(t)=K(p)x(t)+K(I)I(α)(x(t)). The closed loop characteristic polynomial is thus fractional for which the roots are complex to calculate. The proposed method allows us to decompose this polynomial into a first order fractional polynomial and an integer order polynomial of order n-1 (n being the order of the integer system). This new stabilization control algorithm is applied for an inverted pendulum-cart test-bed, and the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control are examined by experiments. PMID:24315056

  4. [Current status and future development of CAR-T gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of a target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3ζ receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and malignant lymphoma. PMID:26458458

  5. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  6. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/μL and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ≥500/μL), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ≥500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/μL at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  7. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  8. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  9. A Nocturnal Boundary Layer Simulation over the ARM-CART Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, D.; Leclerc, M.; Duarte, H.; Fischer, M.; Kurzeja, R.; Parker, M.

    2008-12-01

    The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is characterized by strong inversions and weak turbulent motions. It is during this time that low-level jets (LLJs) often form as the winds aloft reach speeds approaching 15-25m/s at levels below 1000m. During the daytime, turbulent mixing quickly damps such organized motion, but at night the surface cooling establishes an inversion which reduces turbulence and allows jets to form uninhibited. A field project over the ARM-CART site during a period of several nights in September, 2007 was conducted to explore the jet evolution. Data was collected from a tower and analyzed for turbulent behavior. With data limited to a single location, however, the full range of NBL behavior is difficult to determine. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is therefore used to simulate the ARM-CART NBL field experiment and validated against the data collected from the site. This model was run at high resolution, and is ideal for calculating the interactions among the various motions within the boundary layer and their influence on the surface. The model can provide information throughout the NBL - with a larger domain, a simulation of the NBL can provide information over a large range of locations and heights. In particular, we are interested in the way that the simulated NBL eddies are affected by their height and proximity to the LLJ, and how this compares to the tower results. The eddy sizes that exist in the model are limited by its grid spacing, but a series of smaller, finer nests allow us to study eddy motion at the relevant scales for short periods.

  10. Development of Sentence Interpretation Strategies by Typically Developing and Late-Talking Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thal, Donna J.; Flores, Melanie

    2001-01-01

    Examined use of word order and animacy for interpretation of sentences by typically-developing and language delayed children. Results indicate that typically-developing 2-year-olds use neither cue consistently to interpret sentences; typically-developing 2.5-year-olds used a coalition of word order and animacy cues; and language-delayed…

  11. Microinjection of CART peptide 55-102 into the nucleus accumbens blocks both the expression of behavioral sensitization and ERK phosphorylation by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Kim, Seungwoo; Park, Hye Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2007-08-01

    The role of the biologically active CART 55-102 peptide in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization was investigated. Rats were divided into four groups: one for saline and the other three for cocaine pre-exposures (15 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for 7 days). After 3 weeks of withdrawal, rats were microinjected into the NAcc either saline or CART 55-102 (1.0, or 2.5 microg/0.5 microl/side) followed by cocaine challenge (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Microinjection into the NAcc of CART 55-102 peptide dose-dependently blocked the expression of locomotor sensitization produced by repeated cocaine pre-exposures. Next, we further examined the effect of CART 55-102 microinjection on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation levels in the NAcc. Additional four groups of rats were all cocaine pre-exposed and, after 3 weeks of withdrawal, they were either saline or cocaine challenged systemically following microinjection into the NAcc of either saline, CART 55-102 (2.5 microg/0.5 microl/side), or the equivalent mole amount of inactive CART 1-27 peptide. The increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels in the NAcc by cocaine was completely blocked by CART 55-102 microinjection in this site, while it remains unaffected by inactive CART 1-27 peptide. These results suggest that CART 55-102 peptide in the NAcc may play a compensatory inhibitory role in the expression of behavioral sensitization by cocaine and these effects may be mediated by its inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in this site. PMID:17610912

  12. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  13. Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

  14. Endangered Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Ken; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Endangered languages, or languages on the verge of becoming extinct, are discussed in relation to the larger process of loss of cultural and intellectual diversity. This article summarizes essays presented at the 1991 Linguistic Society of America symposium, "Endangered Languages and Their Preservation." (11 references) (LB)

  15. Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

  16. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  17. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  18. [Language gene].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  19. Prosody and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  20. Rethinking language in autism.

    PubMed

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory. PMID:24916453

  1. Centralised interpretation of electrocardiograms.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, P W; Watts, M P; Lawrie, T D; Walker, R S

    1977-01-01

    A system was devised so that a peripheral hospital could transmit electrocardiograms (ECGs) to a central computer for interpretation. The link that transmits both ECGs and reports is provided by the telephone network. Initial results showed that telephone transmission did not significantly affect the accuracy of the ECG interpretation. The centralised computer programme could be much more widely used to provide ECG interpretations. A telephone link would not be justified in health centres, where the demand for ECGs is fairly small, but ECGs recorded at a health centre can be sent to the computer for interpretation and returned the next day. The most cost-effective method of providing computer interpretation for several health centres in a large city would be to have a portable electrocardiograph and transmission facilities, which could be moved from centre to centre. PMID:319866

  2. Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

  3. STRUCTURE PLUS MEANING EQUALS LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELASCO, SIMON

    TRUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CAN BE ACHIEVED ONLY BY THE INTERNALIZATION OF THE ENTIRE GRAMMAR OF THE TARGET LANGUAGE PLUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. ADHERENCE TO EITHER OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT UNDERLIE TODAY'S AUDIOLINGUALLY-ORIENTED PROGRAMS WILL LEAD STUDENTS TO NOTHING MORE THAN A LEARNING PLATEAU.…

  4. Culture and Language: The Black American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William S.; Freedle, Roy O.

    The express focus of this book is primarily on black American language. However, it is asserted, a comprehensive interpretation of this language requires an understanding of its social and cultural context. This book reviews the various ways in which the black experience in the United States has been treated in social science. It points out a…

  5. The Value of Precise Language Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petress, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Precision in language usage can be thought of as an ego boosting activity, a snobbish pastime, an arrogant trait; or it can be interpreted as an attempt to aid audiences in understanding exact meaning, an effort to reduce ambiguity, and/or as a positive role model for others in one's language community. This essay argues that the latter set of…

  6. Language Development in Adolescence and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Valerie

    A review of research demonstrates that both oral and written language continue to develop through adulthood. Studies show that such skills as the abilities to interpret metacognitive verbs, to make word associations, and to understand syntax improve with age. Adolescents and adults use language that solidifies them with their peer group.…

  7. Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Susan

    2005-08-01

    This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

  8. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  9. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  10. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  11. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matrosov, Sergey

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  12. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  13. Intermittent appearances of saddle-type hyperbolic dynamics during human stick balancing on a manually controlled cart.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-08-01

    Stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted pendulum; CIP), analogous to human fingertip stick balancing, is considered to get insights of how the human central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics. We explore a possibility that a type of intermittent control strategy proposed for human postural control might also be applicable to the CIP task, i.e., whether a transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type equilibrium of the non-controlled inverted pendulum is exploited intermittently. To this end, we measured task performances during CIP balancing from several experimental subjects. Intermittent appearances of hyperbolicity as typical characteristics reflecting the intermittent control strategy were examined in the recorded motion data using phase space analysis and wavelet analysis. We show that skilled subjects tend to exhibit those characteristics, suggesting that they stabilize upright posture of the stick by utilizing the intermittent control strategy. PMID:26737047

  14. Microinjection of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide into the nucleus accumbens inhibits the cocaine-induced upregulation of dopamine receptors and locomotor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qinghua; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ziyong; Yang, Jianghua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2014-09-01

    Repeated exposure to addictive drugs enhances dopamine receptor (DR) signaling and the ultimate phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). These effects are known to contribute to the expression of behavioral sensitization. CART peptides are neuropeptides that modulate drug reward and reinforcement. The present experiments investigated the effects of CART 55-102 microinjection into the NAcc on (1) the phosphorylation of CREB, (2) cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and (3) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylated kinase signaling. Here, we show that repeated microinjections into the NAcc of CART 55-102 peptides (1.0 or 2.5μg, 0.5μl/side) attenuates cocaine-induced enhancements of D1R, D2R and D3R phosphorylation in this sites. Furthermore, the microinjection of CART 55-102 followed by repeated injections of cocaine (15mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the enhancement of cAMP levels, PKA activity and pERK and pCREB levels on the fifth day of cocaine administration. The cocaine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization in rats were also inhibited by the 5-day-microinjection of CART peptides. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB by cocaine in the NAcc was blocked by the CART 55-102 peptide via the inhibition of D1R and D2R stimulation, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP/PKA signaling and ERK phosphorylated kinase signaling. These effects may have played a compensatory inhibitory role in the behavioral sensitization of rats that received microinjections of CART 55-102. PMID:24953280

  15. Putting the Cart before the Horse: Interrogating Media Literacy Education in School English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan Lee Wee, Lynde

    2010-01-01

    Background: In response to the changing demands of new times, media literacy has been incorporated into the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore. Although media literacy is mentioned in the syllabus, what this term means needs more clarification. What is clear from the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore is the…

  16. Does First Language Maintenance Hamper Nativelikeness in a Second Language?: A Study of Ultimate Attainment in Early Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Emanuel; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly…

  17. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  18. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L.; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  19. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Xu-Yong; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  20. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  1. Kinesin-5/Eg5 is important for transport of CARTS from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Julien; van Galen, Josse; Cruz-Garcia, David; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Here we report that the kinesin-5 motor Klp61F, which is known for its role in bipolar spindle formation in mitosis, is required for protein transport from the Golgi complex to the cell surface in Drosophila S2 cells. Disrupting the function of its mammalian orthologue, Eg5, in HeLa cells inhibited secretion of a protein called pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) but, surprisingly, not the trafficking of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) to the cell surface. We have previously reported that PAUF is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface in specific carriers called CARTS that exclude VSV-G. Inhibition of Eg5 function did not affect the biogenesis of CARTS; however, their migration was delayed and they accumulated near the Golgi complex. Altogether, our findings reveal a surprising new role of Eg5 in nonmitotic cells in the facilitation of the transport of specific carriers, CARTS, from the TGN to the cell surface. PMID:23857769

  2. CARTS biogenesis requires VAP–lipid transfer protein complexes functioning at the endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi interface

    PubMed Central

    Wakana, Yuichi; Kotake, Richika; Oyama, Nanako; Murate, Motohide; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Arasaki, Kohei; Inoue, Hiroki; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Vesicle-associated membrane protein–associated protein (VAP) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident integral membrane protein that controls a nonvesicular mode of ceramide and cholesterol transfer from the ER to the Golgi complex by interacting with ceramide transfer protein and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), respectively. We report that VAP and its interacting proteins are required for the processing and secretion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor, whose transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface is mediated by transport carriers called “carriers of the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface” (CARTS). In VAP-depleted cells, diacylglycerol level at the TGN was decreased and CARTS formation was impaired. We found that VAP forms a complex with not only OSBP but also Sac1 phosphoinositide phosphatase at specialized ER subdomains that are closely apposed to the trans-Golgi/TGN, most likely reflecting membrane contact sites. Immobilization of ER–Golgi contacts dramatically reduced CARTS production, indicating that association–dissociation dynamics of the two membranes are important. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the ER–Golgi contacts play a pivotal role in lipid metabolism to control the biogenesis of transport carriers from the TGN. PMID:26490117

  3. Comparison of satellite-derived and observer-based determinations of cloud cover amount at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Y.P.; Cook, D.R.; Sisterson, D.L.; Gao, W.

    1995-06-01

    Cloud-climate feedback is one of the most important factors in predicting the timing and magnitude of global climate change and its regional effects. Recent satellite measurements indicate that global effects of clouds on solar and infrared radiation are large. The experimental objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to characterize, empically, the radiative processes in the Earth`s atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. Therefore, the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties is crucial for reliable climate prediction. This study focuses on the analysis of cloud cover data for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site central facility. The data set was obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellites 11 and 12, and cloud observations made by SGP CART site operators. Such an analysis provides a basis for future evaluations with whole-sky cameras and provides a means of assessing the reliability of surface-based observations of cloud cover at the SGP CART site.

  4. The interpretation of IPCC probabilistic statements around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budescu, David V.; Por, Han-Hui; Broomell, Stephen B.; Smithson, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) uses verbal descriptions of uncertainty (for example, Unlikely) to convey imprecision in its forecasts and conclusions. Previous studies showed that the American public misinterprets these probabilistic statements. We report results from a multi-national study involving 25 samples in 24 countries and 17 languages. As predicted, laypeople interpret IPCC statements as conveying probabilities closer to 50% than intended by the IPCC authors. We show that an alternative presentation format supplementing the verbal terms with numerical ranges increases the correspondence between the public's interpretations and the IPCC guidelines, and the terms are better differentiated. These qualitative patterns are remarkably stable across all samples and languages. In fact, interpretations of the terms in various languages are more similar under the new presentation format. These results suggest changing the way the IPCC communicates uncertainty.

  5. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  6. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  7. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  8. Interpreting the X(5568)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Swanson, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A variety of options for interpreting the DØ state, X (5568), are examined. We find that threshold, cusp, molecular, and tetraquark models are all unfavoured. Several experimental tests for unravelling the nature of the signal are suggested.

  9. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  10. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  11. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  12. 'À la carte' peptide shuttles: tools to increase their passage across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Guixer, Bernat; Arranz-Gibert, Pol; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest

    2014-07-01

    Noninvasive methods for efficient drug delivery to the brain is an unmet need. Molecular access to the brain is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) established by the endothelial cells of brain vessels. Passive diffusion is one of the main mechanisms that organic compounds use to travel through these endothelial cells. This passage across the BBB is determined mainly by certain physicochemical properties of the molecule such as lipophilicity, size, and the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. One emerging strategy to facilitate the passage of organic compounds across the BBB is the use of peptide shuttles.1 In using this approach the permeability in front the BBB is, clearly, determined by the combined physicochemical properties of both the cargo and the shuttle. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of variations of one of the more efficient peptide shuttles, (N-MePhe)n . These include diverse structural features such as various backbone stereochemistries or the presence of non-natural amino acids, including halogenated residues. In several cases, we assessed the BBB permeability of both the shuttles alone and linked to a few cargos. Our results show how factors such as stereochemistry or halogen content influences the passage across the BBB and, more importantly, opens the way to a strategy of peptide shuttles 'à la carte', in which a particular fine-tuned shuttle is used for each specific cargo. PMID:24665021

  13. Equilibrium cycle pin by pin transport depletion calculations with DeCART

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, B.; Downar, T.; Taiwo, T.

    2012-07-01

    As the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has matured it has become more important to utilize more advanced simulation methods. The work reported here was performed as part of the AFCI fellowship program to develop and demonstrate the capability of performing high fidelity equilibrium cycle calculations. As part of the work here, a new multi-cycle analysis capability was implemented in the DeCART code which included modifying the depletion modules to perform nuclide decay calculations, implementing an assembly shuffling pattern description, and modifying iteration schemes. During the work, stability issues were uncovered with respect to converging simultaneously the neutron flux, isotopics, and fluid density and temperature distributions in 3-D. Relaxation factors were implemented which considerably improved the stability of the convergence. To demonstrate the capability two core designs were utilized, a reference UOX core and a CORAIL core. Full core equilibrium cycle calculations were performed on both cores and the discharge isotopics were compared. From this comparison it was noted that the improved modeling capability was not drastically different in its prediction of the discharge isotopics when compared to 2-D single assembly or 2-D core models. For fissile isotopes such as U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 the relative differences were 1.91%, 1.88%, and 0.59%), respectively. While this difference may not seem large it translates to mass differences on the order of tens of grams per assembly, which may be significant for the purposes of accounting of special nuclear material. (authors)

  14. Analysis of stable states in global savannas: is the CART pulling the horse?

    PubMed Central

    Hanan, Niall P; Tredennick, Andrew T; Prihodko, Lara; Bucini, Gabriela; Dohn, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple stable states, bifurcations and thresholds are fashionable concepts in the ecological literature, a recognition that complex ecosystems may at times exhibit the interesting dynamic behaviours predicted by relatively simple biomathematical models. Recently, several papers in Global Ecology and Biogeography, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Science and elsewhere have attempted to quantify the prevalence of alternate stable states in the savannas of Africa, Australia and South America, and the tundra–taiga–grassland transitions of the circum-boreal region using satellite-derived woody canopy cover. While we agree with the logic that basins of attraction can be inferred from the relative frequencies of ecosystem states observed in space and time, we caution that the statistical methodologies underlying the satellite product used in these studies may confound our ability to infer the presence of multiple stable states. We demonstrate this point using a uniformly distributed ‘pseudo-tree cover’ database for Africa that we use to retrace the steps involved in creation of the satellite tree-cover product and subsequent analysis. We show how classification and regression tree (CART)-based products may impose discontinuities in satellite tree-cover estimates even when such discontinuities are not present in reality. As regional and global remote sensing and geospatial data become more easily accessible for ecological studies, we recommend careful consideration of how error distributions in remote sensing products may interact with the data needs and theoretical expectations of the ecological process under study. PMID:26430386

  15. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  16. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  17. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  18. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  19. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  2. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  4. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  5. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  6. Language Universals and Language Particulars: Implications for Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakada, Seiichi

    This paper explores the implications of presumed language universals and language particulars for second language teaching and learning. It is felt that an awareness of the universal features of language design builds confidence in the student who can concentrate on features which distinguish the target language from the native language. Examples…

  7. The Philological and Exegetical Approach to Language and Culture in the History of Language Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eto, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In the history of language study in Japan, there are two main streams: foreign language study and an inquiry into the mother tongue. For both types of language study, the philological and exegetical interpretation of texts had generally been the central approach for many centuries, particularly in the "koku-gaku" movement--a fierce Nativist…

  8. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  9. Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugh, Marylou

    1978-01-01

    When a child uses his words and his ideas in learning to read, he also assists in the normal integration of his personality. Starting with a method of language experience developed by Sylvia Ashton-Warner, the author, a reading consultant, describes a language experience-reading program which utilizes the student's own curiosity and interests. (RK)

  10. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  11. Teaching Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Laura F.

    1986-01-01

    The article details on three classroom projects using computers and synthesized speech software to foster expressive language and facilitate language comprehension in severely visually handicapped preschoolers and in preschool- and school-age Downs syndrome children. Computer use with a cerebral palsied child for story comprehension and…

  12. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Lelyveld, Steven F. L.; Otto, Sigrid A.; Richter, Clemens; Soetekouw, Robin; Prins, Jan M.; Brinkman, Kees; Mulder, Jan Willem; Kroon, Frank; Middel, Ananja; Symons, Jori; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Nijhuis, Monique; Borghans, José A. M.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Methods Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients) or placebo (44 patients) to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint) and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models. Results No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51) or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm. Conclusions Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368 PMID:26208341

  13. Interpreter use in an inner city accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Leman, P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of communication problems that arose from patients whose primary language was non-English presenting to an inner city accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: A prospective survey over seven consecutive days during September 1995. All adult patients other than those directly referred by their general practitioner to an inpatient team had a questionnaire completed by the A&E doctor first seeing the patient. The doctor recorded language ability and form of interpreter used, and estimated any prolongation of the consultation and ability to improve communication by the use of additional services. RESULTS: 103 patients (17%) did not speak English as their primary language; 55 patients (9.1% of the study population) had an English language ability rated as other than good, and 16 (29%) of these consultations could have been improved by the use of additional interpreter services; 28 patients overall (4.6% of the study population) required the use of an interpreter, who was usually a relative. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of patients presenting to A&E have difficulty in communicating in English. These consultations could often have been improved by the use of additional interpreter services. Telephone interpreter services may provide the answer for use in A&E departments because of their instant and 24 hour availability. Images p99-a PMID:9132201

  14. Language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-04-01

    What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research. PMID:19419838

  15. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports. PMID:26274061

  16. Software development without languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Haywood S.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

  17. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    PubMed Central

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  18. Language Dominance and Language Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Joseph P.; And Others

    Three objectives of research reported here were to describe the neural organization underlying language usage and language loss, to study activities occurring in both cerebral hemispheres, and to study neural changes related to changes in syntactic complexity of stimuli. A dichoptic procedure was chosen. A subject faced a viewing screen on which…

  19. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  20. Copenhagen and Transactional Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görnitz, Th.; von Weizsäcker, C. F.

    1988-02-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation (CI) never received an authoritative codification. It was a “minimum semantics” of quantum mechanics. We assume that it expresses a theory identical with the Transactional Interpretation (TI) when the observer is included into the system described by the theory. A theory consists of a mathematical structure with a physical semantics. Now, CI rests on an implicit description of the modes of time which is also presupposed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Essential is the futuric meaning of probability as a prediction of a relative frequency. CI can be shown to be fully consistent on this basis. The TI and CI can be translated into each other by a simple “dictionary.” The TI describes all events as CI describes past events; CI calls future events possibilities, which TI treats like facts. All predictions of both interpretations agree; we suppose the difference to be linguistic.

  1. CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression

    PubMed Central

    Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Ménard, Amélie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. Methods From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naïve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm3 according to baseline CD4 cell count. Results A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3–96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2–46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130–336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. Results are presented in the Table 1. Conclusions This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naïve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts. PMID:25393990

  2. Neural Correlates of Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: When Language Conflicts with World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesink, Cathelijne M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with ASD, difficulties with language comprehension are most evident when higher-level semantic-pragmatic language processing is required, for instance when context has to be used to interpret the meaning of an utterance. Until now, it is unclear at what level of processing and for what type of context these difficulties in language…

  3. Approaches to Language Testing. Advances in Language Testing Series: 2. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This volume, one in a series on modern language testing, collects four essays dealing with current approaches to lanquage testing. The introduction traces the development of language testing theory and examines the role of linguistics in this area. "The Psycholinguistic Basis," by E. Ingram, discusses some interpretations of the term…

  4. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  5. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  6. Getting By: Underuse of Interpreters by Resident Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Schenker, Yael; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Fernandez, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Background Language barriers complicate physician–patient communication and adversely affect healthcare quality. Research suggests that physicians underuse interpreters despite evidence of benefits and even when services are readily available. The reasons underlying the underuse of interpreters are poorly understood. Objective To understand the decision-making process of resident physicians when communicating with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants Internal medicine resident physicians ( = 20) from two urban teaching hospitals with excellent interpreter services. Approach An interview guide was used to explore decision making about interpreter use. Results Four recurrent themes emerged: 1) Resident physicians recognized that they underused professional interpreters, and described this phenomenon as “getting by;” 2) Resident physicians made decisions about interpreter use by weighing the perceived value of communication in clinical decision making against their own time constraints; 3) The decision to call an interpreter could be preempted by the convenience of using family members or the resident physician’s use of his/her own second language skills; 4) Resident physicians normalized the underuse of professional interpreters, despite recognition that patients with LEP are not receiving equal care. Conclusions Although previous research has identified time constraints and lack of availability of interpreters as reasons for their underuse, our data suggest that the reasons are far more complex. Residents at the study institutions with interpreters readily available found it easier to “get by” without an interpreter, despite misgivings about negative implications for quality of care. Findings suggest that increasing interpreter use will require interventions targeted at both individual physicians and the practice environment. PMID:19089503

  7. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  8. A Priority Fuzzy Logic Extension of the XQuery Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrbić, Srdjan; Wettayaprasit, Wiphada; Saeueng, Pannipa

    2011-09-01

    In recent years there have been significant research findings in flexible XML querying techniques using fuzzy set theory. Many types of fuzzy extensions to XML data model and XML query languages have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce priority fuzzy logic extensions to XQuery language. Describing these extensions we introduce a new query language. Moreover, we describe a way to implement an interpreter for this language using an existing XML native database.

  9. BEYSIK: Language description and handbook for programmers (system for the collective use of the Institute of Space Research, Academy of Sciences USSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.

    1979-01-01

    The BASIC algorithmic language is described, and a guide is presented for the programmer using the language interpreter. The high-level algorithm BASIC is a problem-oriented programming language intended for solution of computational and engineering problems.

  10. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  11. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

  12. Explaining the Interpretive Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

  13. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  14. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  15. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  16. Interpretations of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The National Literacy Strategy (NLS) was introduced into schools in England in 1998 with the aim of raising the literacy attainments of primary-aged children. The Framework for Teaching the Literacy Hour, a key component of the NLS, proposes an interpretation of literacy that emphasises reading, writing and spelling skills. An investigation of the…

  17. Spontaneous translation and language mixing in a polyglot aphasic.

    PubMed

    Perecman, E

    1984-09-01

    The literature on language mixing in polyglot aphasics is reviewed and a case report of a patient with spontaneous translation is presented. A microgenetic model of language processing provides an interpretive framework for language mixing and spontaneous translation as symptoms of polyglot aphasia. It is suggested that language mixing reflects a deficit at the linguistic level while spontaneous translation reflects a deficit at the prelinguistic level of language processing. A hypothesis about the organization of multiple languages in a single speaker is proposed. PMID:6206915

  18. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  19. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  20. Leptin-Induced CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) Is a Novel Intraovarian Mediator of Obesity-Related Infertility in Females.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoting; Hayes, Emily; Prizant, Hen; Srivastava, Rajesh K; Hammes, Stephen R; Sen, Aritro

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is considered detrimental to women's reproductive health. Although most of the attention has been focused on the effects of obesity on hypothalamic function, studies suggest a multifactorial impact. In fact, obesity is associated with reduced fecundity even in women with regular cycles, indicating that there may be local ovarian effects modulating fertility. Here we describe a novel mechanism for leptin actions directly in the ovary that may account for some of the negative effects of obesity on ovarian function. We find that normal cycling, obese, hyperleptinemic mice fed with a high-fat diet are subfertile and ovulate fewer oocytes compared with animals fed with a normal diet. Importantly, we show that leptin induces expression of the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the granulosa cells (GCs) of ovarian follicles both in vitro and in vivo. CART then negatively affects intracellular cAMP levels, MAPK signaling, and aromatase mRNA expression, which leads to lower estradiol synthesis in GCs and altered ovarian folliculogenesis. Finally, in human samples from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, we show a significant positive correlation between patient body mass index, CART mRNA expression in GCs, and CART peptide levels in follicular fluid. These observations suggest that, under obese conditions, CART acts as a local mediator of leptin in the ovary to cause ovarian dysfunction and reduced fertility. PMID:26730935

  1. A hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-based prognostic approach of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Lasheras, Fernando; García Nieto, Paulino José; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Victor Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  2. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy. PMID:27148031

  3. Intermittent Feedback-Control Strategy for Stabilizing Inverted Pendulum on Manually Controlled Cart as Analogy to Human Stick Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Nomura, Taishin

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a manually controlled cart (cart-inverted-pendulum; CIP) in an upright position, which is analogous to balancing a stick on a fingertip, is considered in order to investigate how the human central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes unstable dynamics due to mechanical instability and time delays in neural feedback control. We explore the possibility that a type of intermittent time-delayed feedback control, which has been proposed for human postural control during quiet standing, is also a promising strategy for the CIP task and stick balancing on a fingertip. Such a strategy hypothesizes that the CNS exploits transient contracting dynamics along a stable manifold of a saddle-type unstable upright equilibrium of the inverted pendulum in the absence of control by inactivating neural feedback control intermittently for compensating delay-induced instability. To this end, the motions of a CIP stabilized by human subjects were experimentally acquired, and computational models of the system were employed to characterize the experimental behaviors. We first confirmed fat-tailed non-Gaussian temporal fluctuation in the acceleration distribution of the pendulum, as well as the power-law distributions of corrective cart movements for skilled subjects, which was previously reported for stick balancing. We then showed that the experimental behaviors could be better described by the models with an intermittent delayed feedback controller than by those with the conventional continuous delayed feedback controller, suggesting that the human CNS stabilizes the upright posture of the pendulum by utilizing the intermittent delayed feedback-control strategy. PMID:27148031

  4. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  5. The Extensibility of an Interpreted Language Using Plugin Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Dorde; Radaković, Davorka

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) are computer programs that allow one to create and manipulate geometrical drawings. They are mostly used in teaching and studying geometry. However, DGS can also be used to develop interactive drawings not directly related to geometry. Examples include teaching materials for numerical mathematics at secondary school and university levels, or interactive mathematical games for elementary school children. Such applications often surpass the intended purposes of the DGS and may require complicated programming on behalf of the user. In this paper we present a simple plug-in model which enables easy development and deployment of interactive GUI components for "Geometrijica", a DGS we are developing on Silverlight.

  6. Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,…

  7. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  8. Observing and Interpreting Behaviors: An Introduction to the Clinical Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Elena

    1996-01-01

    This introduction to a clinical forum on children with speech, language, and hearing difficulties focuses on assessment validity. The paper emphasizes that assessment validity depends on the purpose for which the clinician employs the assessment and the inferences the clinician intends to draw, and that assessment interpretation involves degrees…

  9. English/Japanese Professional Interpretation: Its Linguistic and Conceptual Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Luli

    1995-01-01

    A study of simultaneous interpretation from Japanese to English focused on problems inherent in simultaneous language processing. Data were drawn from a discussion session at an international conference of physicians concerning nuclear war. Transcription of the Japanese source text (romanized), English product, and a gloss of lexical equivalents…

  10. How Engineering Standards Are Interpreted and Translated for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Ernzen, John; Krause, Stephen; Middleton, James A.; Culbertson, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In this exploratory study we examined the alignment of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) middle school engineering design standards with lesson ideas from middle school teachers, science education faculty, and engineering faculty (4-6 members per group). Respondents were prompted to provide plain language interpretations of two middle…

  11. Competition between Word Order and Case-Marking in Interpreting Grammatical Relations: A Case Study in Multilingual Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2011-01-01

    The study examines strategies multilingual children use to interpret grammatical relations, focusing on their two primary languages, Lajamanu Warlpiri and Light Warlpiri. Both languages use mixed systems for indicating grammatical relations. In both languages ergative-absolutive case-marking indicates core arguments, but to different extents in…

  12. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Squires, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation. PMID:19522941

  13. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  14. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  15. Language exposure facilitates talker learning prior to language comprehension, even in adults.

    PubMed

    Orena, Adriel John; Theodore, Rachel M; Polka, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Adults show a native language advantage for talker identification, which has been interpreted as evidence that phonological knowledge mediates talker learning. However, infants also show a native language benefit for talker discrimination, suggesting that sensitivity to linguistic structure due to systematic language exposure promotes talker learning, even in the absence of functional phonological knowledge or language comprehension. We tested this hypothesis by comparing two groups of English-monolingual adults on their ability to learn English and French voices. One group resided in Montréal with regular exposure to spoken French; the other resided in Storrs, Connecticut and did not have French exposure. Montréal residents showed faster learning and better retention for the French voices compared to their Storrs-residing peers. These findings demonstrate that systematic exposure to a foreign language bolsters talker learning in that language, expanding the gradient effect of language experience on talker learning to perceptual learning that precedes sentence comprehension. PMID:26113447

  16. Bilingual Encounters: Spanish-English Medical and Legal Dialogues. A Practical Resource for Educators and Students of Interpreting. Interpreting and Translation Publications Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Sandra

    Thirty-eight dialogues are presented, each illustrating a common, real-life interpreting situation involving medical and/or legal issues and terminology. Each involves both Spanish and English languages, and the situations are specific to New South Wales, Australia. They are designed to be used as a resource in teaching interpreting. The…

  17. 76 FR 21270 - Interpretation of Duty and Rest Provisions for Maintenance Personnel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ..., 2010 interpretation changes the plain language of the regulation and requests that it be withdrawn. The... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit...

  18. Jeu de cartes or Jeu Descartes: Business Cards in a French Course for the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegerias, Mary

    This paper discusses the use of French business cards in a college-level French language and culture course for professionals. Among other assignments, students were each given a different card and asked to speak about the design of their card, the business represented, idiomatic expressions and historical allusions on the card, and the use of…

  19. Language Ideologies and Heritage Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores divergent Quichua language ideologies among an indigenous group of the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. Analysis of interviews with indigenous highlanders reveals the presence of two conflicting Quichua language ideologies. Provides insight into language attitudes in the face of language shift and how language ideologies are critical to the…

  20. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language…

  1. Language barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs. PMID:23242902

  2. The role of dopamine, dynorphin, and CART systems in the ventral striatum and amygdala in cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Y L; Svensson, P; Pontén, M

    1999-06-29

    Disturbance of the mesolimbic dopamine system has long been hypothesized for the underlying neurobiology of cocaine addiction. Recently, increased attention has been directed towards the opioid neuropeptide system, in particular dynorphin; inasmuch as opioid peptide-containing neurons are regulated by dopamine, these peptides have potent effects on mood and reward, and cocaine consistently modulates dynorphin activity. Our experiments have been directed towards characterizing the specific alterations of dopamine and dynorphin systems during different stages following cocaine administration, as well as assessing the contribution of nucleus accumbens and amygdala dopamine levels to cocaine-intake behavior. We have used the techniques of in vivo microdialysis to measure and manipulate extracellular concentrations of dopamine in animals that self-administer cocaine, and in situ hybridization to study mRNA expression levels of prodynorphin and dopamine receptors. It is clear from these studies that different stages of the cocaine use cycle are characterized by distinct patterns of prodynorphin and dopamine D1 mRNA expression levels. Moreover, cocaine-intake behavior is sensitive to very specific concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens as well as in the amygdala. Recently, the CART (cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide was proposed as a novel target for the actions of psychostimulant drugs. We have noted differences between male and female rats in the mesolimbic mRNA expression of CART that might be relevant for gender differences apparent in drug abuse. PMID:10415667

  3. Neuron-restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) Represses Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Transcription and Antagonizes cAMP-response Element-binding Protein Signaling through a Dual NRSE Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Sihan; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Yinxiang; Zhang, Bowen; Liu, Qingbin; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Li, Yanhua; Pei, Xuetao

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide plays a pivotal role in neuroprotection against stroke-related brain injury. However, the regulatory mechanism on CART transcription, especially the repression mechanism, is not fully understood. Here, we show that the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSF, also known as REST) represses CART expression through direct binding to two NRSF-binding elements (NRSEs) in the CART promoter and intron 1 (named pNRSE and iNRSE, respectively). EMSA show that NRSF binds to pNRSE and iNRSE directly in vitro. ChIP assays show that NRSF recruits differential co-repressor complexes including CoREST and HDAC1 to these NRSEs. The presence of both NRSEs is required for efficient repression of CART transcription as indicated by reporter gene assays. NRSF overexpression antagonizes forskolin-mediated up-regulation of CART mRNA and protein. Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) enhances NRSF mRNA levels and then NRSF antagonizes the CREB signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death. Depletion of NRSF in combination with forskolin treatment increases neuronal survival after ischemic insult. These findings reveal a novel dual NRSE mechanism by which NRSF represses CART expression and suggest that NRSF may serve as a therapeutic target for stroke treatment. PMID:23086924

  4. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  5. Interpretation Techniques Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The processes, algorithms and procedures for extraction and interpretation of ERTS-1 data are discussed. Analysis of data acquired temporally is possible through geometric correction, correlation, and registration techniques. The powerful techniques in image enhancement developed for the lunar and planetary programs are valuable for Earth Resources Survey programs. There is evidence that both optical and digital methods of spatial information extraction can provide valuable sources of data information the ERTS system. The techniques available, even for a limited number of bands and limited resolution can be effectively used to extract much of the information required by resource managers.

  6. Interpretation of the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The superposition of the first satellite geoid determined by Iszak upon Ootilla's geoid was based on surface gravity determinations. Good agreement was observed except over the Pacific area of the globe. The poor agreement over the Pacific was interpreted as the result of inadequate observations there. Many geoids were determined from satellite observations, including Doppler measurements. It is found that the geoid is the result of density differences in the mantle maintained since the primeval Earth by its finite strength. Various models based on this assumption are developed.

  7. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  8. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Social work with trauma survivors: collaboration with interpreters.

    PubMed

    Berthold, S Megan; Fischman, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Scant attention has been given to the emotional plight, lack of training, and stressful working conditions of interpreters serving survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma from different parts of the world. This article addresses the critical need for effective collaboration between social workers and interpreters when the provider and survivor do not speak the same language. The careful selection of interpreters; the training, support, and promotion of self-care of interpreters; the training needs for social workers related to their work with interpreters; and the impact of secondary trauma and organizational support on the work of social workers and interpreters are explored. Proposed curriculum components for training interpreters and the importance of therapy and ongoing supervision for interpreters are highlighted. It is essential to prepare interpreters and social workers for the various challenges they will face in their collaborative efforts to serve survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma, and organizational support is vital to the success of this work. PMID:24855859

  10. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  11. Initiation of an Academic Program Designed To Prepare Students for a Career in Translating and Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    Suggestions are given for structuring an eight-semester undergraduate foreign language major with a specialization in translating and interpreting from the target language into English. The program includes three training stages: theoretical training in the discipline, practice in the discipline, and expansion of general knowledge. Course topics…

  12. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  13. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  14. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  15. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  16. Finding Language in the Language Arts: Towards "Cognitive Language Arts."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chametzky, Robert A.

    The language arts are constructed like a doughnut or a bagel, so that at their center where there might be something, there is instead a hole--emptiness. The dominant approach to understanding the nature of language--generative grammar--does not suggest a center for the language arts. An alternative approach to language and mind is "cognitive…

  17. Language Policy, Language Use and English Language Teaching in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasher, S. V.

    This paper evaluates the language policy of India and its implementation with a special focus on English language teaching (ELT). In the first part of the paper, India's language policy is chronicled from the pre-independence period through the nationalist movement and post-independence era, with attention to the language policies of the…

  18. Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strevens, Peter

    European language-teaching theory and practice in retrospect covering the period from 1920 to 1970 are noted to be an amalgam of underlying disciplines, teaching methodologies, and technical aids. Chronologically presented, the "orthodoxy" of 1920-40 charts general similarities in the state of the art prior to a 10-year period of major upheaval…

  19. Film Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudlin, Edward W.

    1979-01-01

    The author briefly surveys some of the claims made about the presumed nature of film as language and some of the problems that arise. He considers the views of two influential schools of film criticism: the Russian formalists (Pudovkin and Eisenstein) and the British semiologist (Peter Wollen). (Author/SJL)

  20. Language Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of linguistics in the investigation of language disorders, focusing on the application of phonetics, descriptive grammatic frameworks, grammatical theory, and concepts from semantics and pragmatics to a variety of disorders and their remediation. Some trends and examples from the field of clinical linguistics are discussed. (GLR)