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1

Sign Language Interpreter Needs Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) in order to evaluate the need for a proposed Sign Language Interpreter program. OCC's study focused on validating and updating findings from a similar research project begun in fall 1989 by Macomb Community College (MCC) in Warren, Michigan. Federal and state legislation, data from…

Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

2

Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

2011-01-01

3

An Interpreter’s Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters’ View of Musculoskeletal Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders associated with work. Previous studies have used survey techniques to identify potential risk factors and approaches to their medical management. Little is known about risk factors and management of symptoms in this group from the perspective of the interpreter. Such qualitative information should help inform future research related to

William L. Johnson; Michael Feuerstein

2005-01-01

4

Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

Weisenberg, Julia

2009-01-01

5

Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

Seal, Brenda C.

2004-01-01

6

Teachers' Interpretations of Second Language Teaching Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Canadian research project with English-as-a-Second-Language teachers indicates that Hutchinson's "process model" seems to capture the way in which second-language teaching takes place. The significant role played by teachers in interpreting curricula and determining classroom learning experiences is noted. (four references) (LB)

Woods, Devon

1991-01-01

7

Conversations through barriers of language and interpretation.  

PubMed

Ireland has become a multicultural society in just over a decade, with non-Irish nationals comprising 12% of the population. The challenge for nurses working in the Irish healthcare system is to provide culturally appropriate care to this diverse population. This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study exploring nurses' experiences of communicating with people from diverse cultures, and focuses on language barriers and the use of interpreters. The findings indicate that communicating with people who do not share the same first language is challenging, in particular the participants (nurses) were concerned about their ability to make a comprehensive assessment that ultimately forms the basis for quality care provision. The use of interpreters can inform the assessment process, but there are challenges in accessing and utilising these services. Further continuing education is required to promote culturally appropriate care. There is a need for increased discussion between nurses and interpreters to maximise communication with patients. PMID:23901452

McCarthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Graham, Margaret M; Tuohy, Dympna

8

Mercury Shopping Cart Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

2006-01-01

9

25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

2011-04-01

10

25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

2010-04-01

11

Court Interpreter Training in the Language Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of demographic studies and statistics from state and federal courts indicate a growing need for Spanish-English court interpreters with special training in consecutive and simultaneous court interpretation. The five strongest skills which need to be taught in a court interpreter training program are identified and suggestions are given on…

Stromberg, Wayne H.; Head, Gerald L.

1984-01-01

12

Transfer Worksheet Sign Language Interpretation and Deaf Studies programs  

E-print Network

Transfer Worksheet for the Sign Language Interpretation and Deaf Studies programs The ITP credits used toward the Sign Language Interpretation or Deaf Studies programs at Portland Community College Students transferring from the Sign Language Interpretation or Deaf Studies program at PCC may pursue any

Caughman, John

13

Language Performance, Context and the Personality of the Interpreter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting is an example of context-bound performance in which the interpreter has a prescribed role in infinitely varied contexts. The use of interpreting to train language students in confident and competent language use in less demanding contexts contributes to the development of both interpersonal skills and the ability to switch language

Henderson, John

14

Therapists' Experiences of Working with Language Interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

While practitioners working in the mental health care context are making greater use of interpreters, there remains a paucity of literature that is informed by a critiqued theoretical, clinical, empirical, and research grounding. This study employed a qualitative methodology and used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to elicit an in-depth understanding of child and adolescent mental health practitioners' experiences in carrying

Hitesh Raval; Jonathan A. Smith

2003-01-01

15

Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

Cheatham, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

16

Developmental versus Language-Based Factors in Metaphor Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roles of language proficiency and general developmental factors on metaphor interpretation were examined for 60 Spanish- and English-speaking and 60 monolingual English-speaking children aged 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 years. Language proficiency in English and socioeconomic status were considered, but both were less important in metaphor interpretation

Johnson, Janice

1991-01-01

17

Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

Miller, Katrina R.

2001-01-01

18

Interpretation of emotional body language displayed by robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for robots to be socially accepted and generate empathy they must display emotions. For robots such as Nao, body language is the best medium available, as they do not have the ability to display facial expressions. Displaying emotional body language that can be interpreted whilst interacting with the robot should greatly improve its acceptance. This research investigates the

Aryel Beck; Antoine Hiolle; Alexandre Mazel; Lola Cańamero

2010-01-01

19

Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

2013-01-01

20

Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the phases of development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP)program developed in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program was developed by Utah State University and Granite School District in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in the delivery of special education assessment services of the district's enrollees who are English Language Learners (ELLs), including language

Sonia Manuel-Dupont; Susie Yoakum

1997-01-01

21

Applications of the Language Laboratory to Training in Simultaneous Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine applications of the ordinary language laboratory to the training of simultaneous translators. Functional and technical descriptions of each application are given. These modes of interpretation practice in a university setting substitute for the more sophisticated facilities used by major professional schools. (AMH)

Westman, Donald; Chapman, Craig

1977-01-01

22

Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

2013-01-01

23

Service Cart For Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

Ng, Gim Shek

1995-01-01

24

Interpreting the language of histone and DNA modifications.  

PubMed

A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or 'code' that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins have raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. PMID:24631868

Rothbart, Scott B; Strahl, Brian D

2014-08-01

25

Embedding an Interpreted Language Using Higher-Order Functions and Types  

E-print Network

convention that en- in the embedded language. This organization hasaseveralbbenefits:les host-langu* *age Embedding an Interpreted Language Using Higher an embedded, interpreted languageotofcontroloather languages, i* *ncluding Python, Perl, and several forms

Ramsey, Norman

26

Cable-Dispensing Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

Bredberg, Alan S.

2003-01-01

27

The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

2012-01-01

28

State of the cart.  

PubMed

Food on wheels: it's here, there and everywhere. But while some operations rev up cart expansion plans, others have shifted into low gear. Here's an update on that '90s phenomenon: mobile merchandising. PMID:10133262

Bernstein, C; Weiss, S; Lorenzini, B

1994-03-15

29

Effects of pace and stress on upper extremity kinematic responses in sign language interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign language interpreters suffer from high levels of upper extremity disorders and burnout due to the physical and cognitive demands of interpreting. The objective of this research was to quantify the wrist kinematics of interpreting and to assess how speaker pace and psychosocial stress influence wrist kinematics. Professional interpreters interpreted a pre-recorded lecture, while the speaking pace of the lecture

J. Qin; M. Marshall; J. Mozrall; M. Marschark

2008-01-01

30

Augmented Role Filling Capabilities for Semantic Interpretation of Spoken Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent work on the Unisys ATIS Spo- ken Language System, and reports benchmark results on nat- ural language, spoken language, and speech recognition. We describe enhancements to the system's semantic processing for handling non.transparent argument structure and enhance- ments to the system's pragmatic processing of material in art. swers displayed to the user. We found that the

Lewis M. Norton; Marcia C. Linebarger; Deborah A. Dahl; Nghi Nguyen

1991-01-01

31

Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 4: Interpretive code translator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler. This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given. The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing.

1973-01-01

32

Cart Service Daytime Disability  

E-print Network

service for UA affiliates with a temporary or perma- nent disability who require transportation around locations, see inside map. When does the Cart Service operate? Hours of operation are Monday through Friday and meet the following requirements: - Individuals with permanent disabilities should contact

Wong, Pak Kin

33

An Efficient Easily Adaptable System for Interpreting Natural Language Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overall account of a prototype natural language question answering system, called Chat-80. Chat-80 has been designed to be both efficient and easily adaptable to a variety of applications. The system is implemented entirely in Prolog, a programming language based on logic. With the aid of a logic-based grammar formalism called extraposition grammars, Chat-80 translates English questions

David H. D. Warren; Fernando C. N. Pereira

1982-01-01

34

Questioning interrogative interpretation in some Indo-European languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Indo-European languages, where there is the identity of morphological realisation between interrogative and independent relative pronouns, indirect WH questions and independent relatives are in many cases homophonous. Although the two constructions, interrogative and independent relative, are acknowledged in literature as syntactically and semantically different, the evaluation of these subordinates lacks consistency when they depend on a series of

Elisabetta Fava

1996-01-01

35

Using the TPTP Language for Writing Derivations and Finite Interpretations  

E-print Network

for first order automated theorem proving (ATP) systems. The TSTP solution library [18], the "flip side language, which enables convenient communication between different systems and researchers. TPTP v3, and written with a single writeq/1 call. Development, or at least prototyping, of reasoning software in Prolog

Fitelson, Branden

36

Relative Motion of Two Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab uses Tracker 4.0 video analysis software to measure and analyze the motion of two carts. Cart 1 has constant acceleration, and Cart 2 has constant velocity. Students are asked to predict the motion of each cart in the reference frame of the other cart. Tracker can be used to change the reference frame to one of the carts and update the graphs. Students measure the relative motion of the other cart and determine whether the reference frame is inertial or non-inertial. Topics taught in this lab activity include Newton's first law, Newton's second law, reference frames, and the definition of an inertial reference frame. This video, in conjunction with Tracker's ability to change reference frames, is ideal as an Interactive Lecture Demonstration. The lab questions can be used as ILD questions in lecture. When you ask students to predict the motion of a cart in the reference frame of the other cart, lively discussion will ensue. Teachers can also easily adapt the exercise for Clicker Questions during lecture. The zip file contains the lab handout, a video showing the motion of two carts, and the Tracker file. The video is copyrighted by RIT and was produced by the LivePhoto Physics Series. To open the Tracker file, download and run Tracker 4.0. Tracker is free. The video can be used with other video analysis software; however, the handout has screen captures from Tracker and instructions specifically written for Tracker.

Titus, Aaron

2011-07-21

37

Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

2010-01-01

38

Central Calorimeter Transporter Cart Design  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the cryostat transporter cart is to provide a means of rolling the CC cryostat in and out of a building, and to proyide a means of support for the cryostat while it is being worked on. The constraints on the cart are: (1) There should be a minimum amount of clearance between the cryostat and the ground, in order to be able to roll the cart and cryostat into a building; (2) The cart must be able to support the weight of the cryostat as well as the weight of approximately 4,000 gallons of liquid nitrogen; and (3) The cart must allow access to the underside of the cryostat for work that must be done. This report will address the design of the transporter cart, as well as any additional equipment needed to accomplish the above mentioned tasks.

Weber, K.; /Fermilab

1987-09-22

39

The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

2011-01-01

40

Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

2008-01-01

41

Language Development through the School Years: Learning to Confine Interpretation to the Information in the Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of written, textual language with which children deal in school can be distinguished from those of oral language by examining the manner in which interpersonal and logical functions are stressed and by assessing the degree to which interpretation is confined by meaning explicitly stated in textual matter. The developmental process…

Olson, David R.; Nickerson, Nancy

42

Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

2010-01-01

43

Language Labs and Translation Booths: Simultaneous Interpretation as a Learner Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports successful outcomes for a Teaching English as a Foreign Language module based on simultaneous oral translation from Arabic into English. Learners worked individually in a traditional language laboratory. Results show that simultaneous interpretation significantly improves learner performance and is an excellent tool for diagnosing learner…

Yagi, Sane M.

2000-01-01

44

A Cart for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation  

PubMed Central

The authors have devised a cart for use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the prime purpose of which is to bring every essential piece of equipment, and all the drugs generally required, to the immediate area to revive a pulseless and/or apneic patient with the least effort and confusion. The strategically placed contents of the cart are described. The regular use of such a cart, following appropriate formal staff training and instruction in resuscitation procedures, and frequent reading of an appropriate instruction poster, as well as the reporting of all these events on an appropriate protocol, will increase the effectiveness of acute resuscitation in hospital. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14098894

Israel, Jacob S.; McCulla, Kathleen; Dobkin, Allen B.

1963-01-01

45

Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.

2014-01-01

46

Facilitating Quality Language Interpretation for Families of Diverse Students With Special Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the nation as a whole becomes progressively more diverse, increasing numbers of children from linguistically diverse backgrounds are served in special education programs. Ensuring that appropriate educational services are developed for these students in collaboration with their family members as equal participants on school-based teams necessitates high-quality language interpretation during the individualized education plan process and beyond. In this

Juliet E. Hart; Gregory Cheatham; Margarita Jimenez-Silva

2012-01-01

47

Tritiated pump oil change cart  

SciTech Connect

A device to facilitate the changing of oil in pumps used for tritium service has been constructed and utilized to service the TFTR project pumps. The utilization of tritium in TFTR has necessitated the requirement for new maintenance and service procedures for tritium equipment. Two oil change carts were constructed, one for hydrogen oil and a second for Krytox (Perfluoroalkyl Ether) oil. Both carts are essentially identical. The oil drain and fill operations do not require active pumping, but utilize a partially evacuated waste drain tank and a pressurized supply tank to transfer oil. The cart has pressure balance capabilities to prevent over or under pressurization of the device being serviced. The cart supply tank is pressurized with inert gas and the waste tank is evacuated with the tritium storage and delivery system vacuum pumps prior to using the cart for servicing equipment. All operations are performed in a completely closed configuration by utilizing the tritium vent system. A specific written procedure is required for the use of the oil change chart with each pump or blower to be serviced. Each procedure specifies the exact interconnection configuration and safe method to transfer the oil. When the waste tank is full, the contaminated oil is transferred to a disposable tank that can be solidified using a gelling agent.

Kozub, T.; Ciebiera, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

48

Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning  

PubMed Central

Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that of hearing peers who saw lectures without any support services. Experiment 2 compared interpreting and two forms of real-time text, C-Print and Communication Access Real-Time Translation, at immediate testing and after a 1-week delay (with study notes). No significant differences among support services were obtained at either testing. Experiment 3 also failed to reveal significant effects at immediate or delayed testing in a comparison of real-time text, direct (signed) instruction, and both. Experiment 4 found no significant differences between interpreting and interpreting plus real-time text on the learning of either new words or the content of television programs. Alternative accounts of the observed pattern of results are considered, but it is concluded that neither sign language interpreting nor real-time text have any inherent, generalized advantage over the other in supporting deaf students in secondary or postsecondary settings. Providing deaf students with both services simultaneously does not appear to provide any generalized benefit, at least for the kinds of materials utilized here. PMID:16928778

Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

2006-01-01

49

FPC conditioning cart at BNL  

SciTech Connect

The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

2011-03-28

50

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

51

La Interpretacion Consecutiva y la Ensenanza Avanzada de Idiomas (Delayed Interpretation and Advanced Language Teaching)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of interpretation. The importance of delayed interpretation, as opposed to simultaneous interpretation, is stressed, because of the emphasis on semantic meaning. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

Bradley, D.

1977-01-01

52

Interpretation of natural-language data base queries using optimization methods  

SciTech Connect

The automatic interpretation of natural language (in this work, English), database questions formulated by a user untrained in the technical aspects of database querying is an established problem in the field of artificial intelligence. State-of-the-art approaches involve the analysis of queries with syntactic and semantic grammars expressed in phrase structure grammar or transition network formalisms. With such method difficulties exist with the detection and resolution of ambiguity, with the misinterpretation possibilities inherent with finite length look-ahead, and with the modification and extension of a mechanism for other sources of semantic knowledge. This work examines the potential of optimization techniques to solve these problems and interpret natural language, database queries. The proposed method involves developing a 0-1 integer programming problem for each query. The possible values that the set of variables in the optimization may take on is an enumeration of possible such individual associations between the database schema and the query. The solution to the integer programming problem corresponds to a single assignment of database data items and relationships to the words in the query. Constraints are derived from systematic and database schema knowledge stored as libraries of templates. An objective function is used to rank the possible associations as to their likelihood of agreement with the intent of the questioner. A test mechanism was built to support evaluation of the proposed method. Suitable knowledge source template sets and an objective function were developed experimentally with the test mechanism from a learning sample of queries. Then the performance of the method was compared to that of an established system (PLANES) on a test set of queries. The performance of the new method was found to be comparable to that of the established system.

Leigh, W.E.

1984-01-01

53

The roles of working memory, language proficiency, and training in simultaneous interpretation performance: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals  

E-print Network

their unconditional love and support, I would have never been able to attain the many goals of my life. Last but not least, I would like to thank my husband, James, and my son, Darren, for their love and companionship on the journey of writing my dissertation... simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter is required to ?juggle? two languages at the same time and since most language combinations differ in sentence structure, the job of the interpreter is made even more challenging. When listening to a speech...

Tzou, Yeh-Zu

2009-05-15

54

Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

Mungan, Carl E.

2012-01-01

55

Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety  

E-print Network

Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Golf carts are utilized on campus for groundskeepers, observe all traffic laws. Ensure other drivers see you before proceeding. · Remain seated and keep arms

Pawlowski, Wojtek

56

Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic…

Hoff, Erika

2013-01-01

57

Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps  

PubMed Central

On average, children from low SES homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have different language development trajectories than children from middle class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic strengths, but many reach school age with lower levels of English language skill than middle class, monolingual children. Because early differences in English oral language skill have consequences for academic achievement, low levels of English language skill constitute a deficit for children about to enter school in the U.S. Declaring all developmental trajectories to be equally valid would not change the robust relation between English oral language skills and academic achievement and would not help children with poor English skills to be successful in school. Remedies aimed at supporting the development of the English skills required for academic success need not and should not entail devaluing or diminishing children’s other language skills. PMID:22329382

Hoff, Erika

2012-01-01

58

Elementary Teachers' Use of Language to Label and Interpret Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined how three teachers of upper elementary students used science vocabulary in their lessons. The data revealed that teachers used vocabulary to label science phenomena and interpret scientific concepts for students. The practice of labeling was used more extensively than interpreting. Teachers did not help their…

Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

2009-01-01

59

Occupational Upper Extremity Symptoms in Sign Language Interpreters: Prevalence and Correlates of Pain, Function, and Work Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive role of work demands, occupational stressors, and ergonomic risk factors in work-related upper extremity (UE) disorders remains unclear. Professional sign language interpreting, which involves exposure of the upper limbs to a combination of potential ergonomic and psychosocial stressors represents a unique occupational group to investigate the multivariate nature of UE disorders. The present study reports data on the

Michael Feuerstein; Ann Marie Carosella; Lolita M. Burrell; Liza Marshall; James Decaro

1997-01-01

60

Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language  

PubMed Central

Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

Musolino, Julien

2013-01-01

61

The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

Logan, Debra M.

2010-01-01

62

Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy  

E-print Network

Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy Giri Vijayaraghavan-2002. Quality Week 2002 The Bug TaxonomyThe Bug Taxonomy · An outline that categorizes and lists a large number of potential bugs. · The tester who uses the taxonomy can sample from the list, selecting a potential problem

63

Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

Sadler, Karen L.

64

Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

2013-01-01

65

Framing and Text Interpretation Across Languages and Cultures: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the reading traditions and practices that influence the interpretation of two text types, academic and general text, by postgraduate students from Thailand and India studying in the areas of business, humanities, engineering/science, and health sciences. Data were collected from case studies conducted at an Australian university.…

Bell, Joyce

2000-01-01

66

The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

2007-01-01

67

Animal-assisted therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this

Warangkhana Phanwanich; Orrawan Kumdee; Panrasee Ritthipravat; Yodchanan Wongsawat

2011-01-01

68

MIT TechTV: Coupled Air Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video displays normal modes in a vibrating system through the motion of air carts connected by springs on an air track. When this system is at resonant frequency, symmetrical patterns called normal modes appear. The normal modes are shown in both driven and undriven cases, and the demonstration is repeated for systems of two, three, and five coupled carts. The video includes a short explanation of the demonstration. See Related Materials for an interactive Java simulation that addresses the same concept. This resource is part of a video demonstration collection created by the Physics Department at MIT.

Technical Services Group @ MIT Physics

2012-07-12

69

LivePhoto Physics: Colliding Carts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here is a short Quicktime videos of a cart moving from left to right colliding with a stationary cart. Mass is varied in each video so that three elastic collisions and three inelastic collisions are depicted. This item is designed for computer analysis in introductory physics classrooms. The videos are 10-30 frames in length and may be viewed in step motion or real-time. Position and time data may be measured and collected by using video-analysis software. This item is part of a larger collection of short physics videos developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology Live Photo Physics Project.

2008-08-30

70

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Block on Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to frictional forces between a moving cart and a block sitting on top of the cart. Students are required to determine the maximum acceleration of the system so that the block will not slip. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, including conceptual analysis and a thorough discussion of the properties of both static and kinetic friction. As students set up calculations, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-12

71

Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

2014-01-01

72

Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

2009-01-01

73

Salience and Context: Interpretation of Metaphorical and Literal Language by Young Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asperger's Syndrome (AS) involves difficulties in social communication but no delays in language or cognitive development. According to the received view, individuals with AS are biased toward the literal and are insensitive to contextual cues. According to the graded salience hypothesis (Giora, 1997, 2003), participants with AS and controls would be sensitive to both context and degree of salience rather

Rachel Giora; Oshrat Gazal; Idit Goldstein; Ofer Fein; Argyris Stringaris

2012-01-01

74

NASA To Go Cart Basic Assembly Guide  

E-print Network

Cabinet The base cabinet is a standard science demonstration cart found in science classrooms across in the protective cases. Other Modifications Some of the demonstrations NASA Glenn uses require electricity (for example Vacuum Chamber and Moon Phases). To minimize safety concerns, holes were drilled

75

Tense and Aspect in Sentence Interpretation by Children with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) are sensitive to completion cues in their comprehension of tense. In two experiments, children with SLI (age 4;1 to 6;4) and typically developing (TD) children (age 3;5 to 6;5) participated in a sentence-to-scene matching task adapted from Wagner (2001). Sentences were in either present or past progressive and used telic predicates. Actions were performed twice in succession; the action was either completed or not completed in the first instance. In both experiments, the children with SLI were less accurate than the TD children, showing more difficulty with past than present progressive, regardless of completion cues. The TD children were less accurate with past than present progressive requests only when the past actions were incomplete. These findings suggest that children with SLI may be relatively insensitive to cues pertaining to event completion in past tense contexts. PMID:19698206

Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia

2013-01-01

76

Ergonomics evaluation and redesign of a hospital meal cart.  

PubMed

The ergonomic, design and other problems of a conventional hospital meal cart were evaluated with a view to redesign a hospital meal cart by incorporating ergonomic principles and data. The operators encountered difficulty in setting the cart in motion, seeing over the cart, turning the cart and stopping the cart while in motion. The operators expressed postural discomfort in the shoulder, neck, back, lower back, knee and leg, and ankle and foot. The cart with meal trays and food was found to exceed the acceptable initial turning push force requirement of 5th percentile females. Recommendations were made for proper placement of cart handles and handle diameter, provision of large-diameter cart wheel made of hard rubber tire, reduction of cart height, use of plastic material for cart construction, provision of emergency brake, provision of individually (electrically) heated plates for soup and main meal, provision of thick air-tight transparent plastic doors, and reduction of the meal tray size. Several recommendations were adopted by the manufacturer in the new model. PMID:12160335

Das, Biman; Wimpee, Julia; Das, Bijon

2002-07-01

77

A WSRF Based Shopping Cart System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF) is a set of specifications that represents a convergence point of the Web services\\u000a and the Grid services communities. This paper presents our early experience with WSRF. A shopping cart system has been implemented\\u000a with WSRF supported Globus toolkit 3.9.2 (GT3.9.2). Based on the system, the performance of the WSRF core in GT3.9.2 has also

Maozhen Li; Man Qi; Masoud Rozati; Bin Yu

2005-01-01

78

Relatrio SeCArte 2009 Introduo  

E-print Network

Cultura e Arte (SeCArte). Esta proposta insere-se numa visão de universidade culta, ousada, internacionalizada e acadêmica Com a separação da antiga Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão, a Cultura passa a ter uma instancia própria de decisão e execução de políticas culturais para a UFSC. A Cultura e a Arte

Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

79

CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

2014-01-01

80

Using CART to segment road images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

2006-01-01

81

CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade or so, CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides have emerged as major neurotransmitters and hormones. CART peptides are widely distributed in the CNS and are involved in regulating many processes, including food intake and the maintenance of body weight, reward and endocrine functions. Recent studies have produced a wealth of information about the location, regulation, processing

G. Rogge; D. Jones; G. W. Hubert; Y. Lin; M. J. Kuhar

2008-01-01

82

The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

2011-01-01

83

Velocity and torque feedback control of a nonholonomic cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for designing and analysing velocity and torque feedback controls for a nonholonomic wheeled-cart is presented. A stability analysis of a set of nonlinear systems, the equations of which encompass all stable linear invariant systems, is first proposed. This analysis is then applied to the design and analysis of feedback controls for the wheeled-cart. The control inputs are either

Claude Samson

84

"Quelque Chose...De Remarquable" in English-French Acquisition: Mandatory, Informationally Encapsulated Computations in Second Language Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the results of an experiment that investigates English-French learners' interpretation of quantifiers with detachable restrictions. Such quantifiers are ungrammatical in English. We investigate aspects of interpretation that rely on a highly idiosyncratic interface between grammar and general principles of conversational cooperation in…

Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Hathorn, Jon C.

2005-01-01

85

Reflexes of Mental Architecture in Second-Language Acquisition: The Interpretation of "Combien" Extractions in English-French Interlanguage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of an empirical study of the interpretation of left branch "combien" (how many) extractions in English-French interlanguage. Results show that knowledge of the interpretation of left-branch "combien" extraction is detectable in English-French interlanguage. (Author/VWL)

Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Sprouse, Rex A.; Swanson, Kimberly A. B.

2001-01-01

86

Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

2013-01-01

87

Developing and Evaluating Graduate-Level Curricula for Teachers of American Sign Language and ASL/English Interpreting: Final Grant Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes activities of a 4-year (1987-91) project at Western Maryland College to develop an 11-course graduate curriculum for teachers of American Sign Language (ASL) and teachers of ASL/English Interpreting. The curriculum formed the basis for two graduate programs at Western Maryland College. The project also developed six…

Baker-Shenk, Charlotte

88

Teaching Translation and Interpreting 2: Insights, Aims, Visions. [Selection of] Papers from the Second Language International Conference (Elsinore, Denmark, June 4-6, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of papers starts with insights into multi- and plurilingual settings, then proceeds to discussions of aims for practical work with students, and ends with visions of future developments within translation for the mass media and the impact of machine translation. Papers are: "Interpreting at the European Commission"; "Language Status…

Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; Lindegaard, Annette, Ed.

89

The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

2014-01-01

90

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2013-10-01

91

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2012-10-01

92

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2011-10-01

93

47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

2010-10-01

94

DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

95

143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

96

5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

97

Uses and Interpretations of Non-Word Repetition Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairments (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The non-word repetition task (NRT) has gained wide acceptance in describing language acquisition in both children with normal language development (NL) and children with specific language impairments (SLI). This task has gained wide acceptance because it so closely matches the phonological component of word learning, and correlates…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Evans, Julia L.

2008-01-01

98

Interpreting Mexican-American Mothers' Beliefs about Language Disabilities from a Sociocultural Perspective: Implications for Early Childhood Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses examples from a study of seven Mexican American mothers of children with language disabilities to discuss the mothers' views about language and disability from a sociocultural perspective. It also considers implications of these views for early childhood intervention such as fostering native language development and respecting…

Garcia, Shernaz B.; Perez, Anita Mendez; Ortiz, Alba A.

2000-01-01

99

Continuous steering-function control of robot carts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three alternative approaches for eliminating steering discontinuities are presented: changing the steering mechanism, changing the guide-point on the cart, or changing the curves on the path. The first approach requires a steering mechanism that allows the cart to move in any direction without changing its heading. The most common configurations in an automatically guided vehicle are the steered-wheel and differential-drive

W. L. Nelson

1989-01-01

100

Understanding the Home Language and Literacy Environments of Head Start Families: Testing the Family Literacy Survey and Interpreting Its Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the nature of Head Start children's home literacy environments and the associations between these resources and children's early-language and literacy skills. At the beginning of the preschool year, families of 302 children completed the Family Literacy Survey. In general, Head Start families reported providing a variety of activities for young children; however, variability was observed across

Barbara A. Wasik; Annemarie H. Hindman

2010-01-01

101

NMSU Utility Cart Safety Program Approved Dec. 11, 2007, Effective: Mar. 1, 2008; Updated:Jan. 16 & Nov 14, 2008;  

E-print Network

Cart Safety Program and responsibilities of cart operation plus additional machine specific use: A. Receives machine specific operational instruction B. Receives periodic evaluation, counseling with the UCSP. 7. Assuring that utility carts are operated in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations

Nishiguchi, Michele

102

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Language Analysis Linguistics Diplomacy for more job opportunities. INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE Translation/Interpretation Banking/Finance Sales Customer, Page 2) AREAS Translation/Interpretation Airline Services Management Booking and Reservations Travel

New Hampshire, University of

103

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation LanguageAnalysis Linguistics Diplomacy experience. Considerearningagraduatedegreeformorejob opportunities. INDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE Translation. #12;STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS TRAVELANDTOURISM (Foreign Language, Page 2) AREAS Translation

New Hampshire, University of

104

Analysis of sequence variability in the CART gene in relation to obesity in a Caucasian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic neuropeptide located principally in hypothalamus. CART has been shown to be involved in control of feeding behavior, but a direct relationship with obesity has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphisms within the CART gene with regards to a possible association with

Audrey Guérardel; Mouna Barat-Houari; Francis Vasseur; Christian Dina; Vincent Vatin; Karine Clément; Delphine Eberlé; Valérie Vasseur-Delannoy; Christopher G Bell; Pilar Galan; Serge Hercberg; Nicole Helbecque; Natascha Potoczna; Fritz F Horber; Philippe Boutin; Philippe Froguel

2005-01-01

105

Taylor & Francis Group -Article Shopping Cart Help Contact Us Members of the Group  

E-print Network

Taylor & Francis Group - Article · Shopping Cart Help Contact Us Members of the Group Log Off crd dielectric properties of the system. The doping increases dielectric response of the LC due to interaction this item to your shopping cart for purchase later. Add to Shopping Cart Purchase this item now. Purchase

Reznikov, Yuri

106

Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigne, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

2007-01-01

107

A la Carte Entres and Sandwiches Chicken Dijon 55  

E-print Network

A la Carte Entr�es and Sandwiches Entr�es Chicken Dijon 55 Beef Lasagna 50 Spinach Lasagna 50 Chili 34 1/4 Sheet Cake 22 Beverages Soft Drinks (six pack) 6.50 Coke Sprite Diet Coke Dasani Water Juices

108

A Modified Laptop Program: Putting the Carts in the Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four fifth grade classrooms embarked on a modified ubiquitous computing initiative in Fall 2003. Two 15-computer wireless laptop carts were shared among the four classrooms in an effort to integrate technology across the curriculum and affect change in student learning and teacher pedagogy. This initiative?in contrast to other 1:1 programs and…

Grant, Michael M.; Ross, Steven M.; Wan, Weiping; Potter, Allison; Wilson, Yola

2004-01-01

109

ACT Study report using Classification and Regression Tree (CART)  

E-print Network

Army Logistics Management College Systems Engineering Department 2401 Quarters Road. Fort Lee, VA 23801ACT Study report using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis Dr. Robert M. Simmonds US-1705 simmondr@lee.army.mil I used a recursive partitioning algorithm for the CoIL-Challenge data. The software

Putten, Peter van der

110

22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

111

Chemical Spill Cart Procedures QB3 ~ Stanley Hall  

E-print Network

, or if the injury is serious, call 911 (or 6423333 from a cell phone). If exposure is to skin or eyes the spill and dispose of hazardous materials appropriately, via EH&S Note spill cart supplies used Chemical Exposure/Injury Remove victim from source of exposure. If it is not safe to do so

Doudna, Jennifer A.

112

West Valley transfer cart control system design description  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

113

As a condition for the issuance of a disability cart permit for your cart, which you have been approved for to accommodate your mobility transport needs, and for any subsequent renewals or extensions of  

E-print Network

NOT use a mobile phone (talking, texting, or viewing) while driving a cart. 8) Do NOT exceed the posted application. Rules and Regulations: 1) Do NOT drive or park the cart in any arcade or within a Vehicle, pathways, dumpsters, or thoroughfares. DISABILITY CART PERMIT AGREEMENT #12;6) Do NOT drive the cart any

Raymond, Jennifer L.

114

Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

1989-08-08

115

GO-CART: the GOHSS Calibration and Reduction Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raw images coming from infrared multi-echelle fiber spectrographs are quite complex to be processed, extracted and calibrated. Available procedures are in general not exhaustive or assume high knowledge of command line environments. For the instrument GOHSS, a fiber-fed high resolution NIR spectrograph to be mounted at the Italian National Telescope TNG, we have, therefore, developed GO-CART (GOhss Calibration and Reduction Tool), a tool which automatically performs the whole stage from the assessment of the master instrument calibrations up to the final sky subtracted scientific spectra, by following predefined or user written pipelines, in which an error propagation analysis is envisaged at each step of the process. GO-CART joins together the powerful graphical and imaging capabilities of IDL with the worldwide acknowledged performances of the IRAF spectra extraction packages within an easy-to-use environment. It is fully configurable to be used with different instruments and can work on any platform on which IDL and IRAF can run. A smart data organization and proper file naming rules allow for a convenient management of any final or intermediate result. GO-CART also provides specific capabilities to model and subtract scattered light from highly packed echelle images and a custom optimal matching algorithm to perform residual-free OH subtraction.

Li Causi, Gianluca; De Luca, Massimo; Vitali, Fabrizio; Lorenzetti, Dario

2004-09-01

116

A cloud climatology of the Southern Great Plains ARM CART  

SciTech Connect

Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in north-central Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Wichita, Kansas) were selected. The ECR data span a 10-yr period from December 1981 to November 1991. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) provided cloud amounts over the SGP CART for an 8-yr period (1983--91). Cloud amounts were also obtained from Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and Belfort Ceilometer (BLC) cloud-base height measurements made at the SGP CART over a 1-yr period. The annual and diurnal cycles of cloud amount as a function of cloud height and type were analyzed. The three datasets closely agree for total cloud amount. Good agreement was found in the ECR and MPL-BLC monthly low cloud amounts. With the exception of summer and midday in other seasons, the ISCCP low cloud amount estimates are generally 5%--10% less than the others. The ECR high cloud amount estimates are typically 10%--15% greater than those obtained from either the ISCCP or MPL-BLC datasets. The observed diurnal variations of altocumulus support the authors' model results of radiatively induced circulations.

Lazarus, S.M.; Krueger, S.K.; Mace, G.G.

2000-05-15

117

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Linguistics, MEDIA, ENTERTAINMENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Advertising Translation/Interpretation Journalism of State ImmigrationandNaturalizationService CustomsService LibraryofCongress Armedforces Voice of America

Baltisberger, Jay H.

118

Development and Control of the Personal Cart for an Elderly Person  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a personal cart for an elderly person and its control. The cart actively supports walking of an elderly person by himself/herself so that he/she can go out freely. The control system is synthesized to make the cart drive in accordance with gaits of an operator. The developed computer-controlled personal cart has four wheels and its controlling devices. The interval of its two front wheels is narrow, and the interval of the rear wheels is wide. Its structure looks like a three-wheeler. The two front wheels are driven by a DC-motor. An infrared radiation sensor measures the distance between the cart and the operator. The proposed system makes the cart maintain the distance between the personal cart and an operator at a certain level so that it can reduce the workload of the operator, who is walking on a slope with some baggage. It is not easy to describe the dynamic characteristics of the cart by a mathematical model, including its changing characteristics due to the driving environments such as the condition of roads and/or baggage. Furthermore, the cart system should be a human friendly system, because it is used by an elderly person. Therefore, the controller is synthesized based on a fuzzy theory. The proposed controller consists of two fuzzy controllers for driving and stopping the cart. The controller for stopping can stop the cart certainly as the cart does not access to the operator too much. The performances of the proposed system were tested in various conditions. Good performances of the control were also obtained independently of the condition of the road. Therefore, the proposed system is conceivable to be useful for the assisting of the walking.

Takahara, Kenji; Wakatsuki, Takuya; Nozaki, Hisashi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Ito, Yuzo; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

119

Regulation of CART mRNA by stress and corticosteroids in the hippocampus and amygdala  

Microsoft Academic Search

CART (Cocaine-Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) has been shown to be regulated by corticosteroids in the hypothalamus, but its regulation by corticosteroids and stress has not been well examined in the hippocampus or the amygdala. Further, CART has been implicated in the transition to puberty. In this study we examine the effects of acute (30 min) stress on CART mRNA in prepubescent and adult

Richard G. Hunter; Rudy Bellani; Erik Bloss; Ana Costa; Russell D. Romeo; Bruce S. McEwen

2007-01-01

120

Biomechanical analysis of transporting loads with a large four-wheel cart  

E-print Network

of the worker's hands while performing the task had a significant effect on the push/pull forces. Ayoub also showed that a worker's height and body weight also greatly affected the person' s push/pull force capabilities. Ayoub concluded that for pulling... that were tested showed a 18'ra (58. 7 N) decrease in the force needed to initiate cart movement with the plastic carts than with the same size metal cart. Part of this can be attributed to the workers being more familiar with the metal carts and over...

Abell, David Wayne

2012-06-07

121

Potential of adjustable height carts in reducing the risk of low back injury in grocery stockers.  

PubMed

While the workers of the Wholesale and Retail Trade industrial sector suffer from musculoskeletal disorders at an alarming rate, there have been few investigative studies into potential effective interventions to reduce the ergonomic stress. The objective of the study was to determine whether a cart with an adjustable shelf could reduce awkward postures and motions while stocking products in a grocery store. Fifteen workers at a small grocery store in Puerto Rico completed stocking tasks with two types of carts: traditional and adjustable height cart or Ergo Cart. Trunk kinematics, LBD risk index, NIOSH lifting index, subjective ratings, and productivity indicators were collected during four typical stocking tasks. The Adjustable Ergo Cart reduced the sagittal trunk flexion by 7° and velocity by about 5°/s but increased twisting by about 2° and twist velocity by 4°/s as compared to the traditional cart. The LBD risk index was reduced by a small 2.4% in probability although greater reductions were found for larger items (e.g. bags of dog food and 2-L of Soda). The consensus among workers was that the adjustable cart would be easier to use. Overall, the study provides objective evidence that an ergonomically designed cart (e.g. adjustable height) has some potential to reduce sagittal trunk flexion, LBD risk index, and the NIOSH lift index. Overall, the results indicate that any intervention such as an adjustable cart can only have marginal effectiveness unless the entire systems perspective is considered. PMID:23664243

Davis, Kermit G; Orta Anés, Lida

2014-03-01

122

Regulation of CART mRNA by Stress and Corticosteroids in the Hippocampus and Amygdala  

PubMed Central

CART (Cocaine- Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) has been shown to be regulated by corticosteroids in the hypothalamus, but its regulation by corticosteroids and stress has not been well examined in the hippocampus or the amygdala. Further, CART has been implicated in the transition to puberty. In this study we examine the effects of acute (30 minute) on CART mRNA in prepubescent and adult rats. In addition, we examined chronic (21 day × 6 hours) restraint stress upon the expression of CART mRNA in the hippocampus and the amygdala and the effects of 7 days of adrenalectomy and corticosteroid replacement upon CART expression in these regions of the adult rat brain. We found an up-regulation of CART mRNA in the central amygdala induced by acute but not chronic stress and an up-regulation in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic but not acute stress. Adrenalectomy reduced CART expression in the dentate gyrus but not the amygdala and this effect was blocked by corticosterone but not RU28,362 or aldosterone replacement, suggesting a synergism of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Our data establish that CART expression is regulated by stress in a regionally and time specific manner and that CART is regulated by corticosteroid actions in the hippocampus. PMID:17434149

Hunter, Richard G.; Bellani, Rudy; Bloss, Erik; Costa, Ana; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.

2009-01-01

123

The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

124

UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub-Area Counselor should sign below, indicating agreement about the  

E-print Network

UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan ­ Fall 2010 The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub guarantee= _____semesters Cum GPA = _________ Started MS-Cart/GIS _____________ cum credits = ________ BA 370 (Intro Cart) __________________ Geography 377 (Intro GIS) __________________ Geography 378

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

125

CART peptides increase 5-hydroxytryptamine in the dorsal raphe and nucleus accumbens of freely behaving rats  

PubMed Central

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides (CART) are implicated in the antidepressant effect. This may involve in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the CNS. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effect of CART peptides on extracellular 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) using a microdialysis approach in freely-behaving rats. Reverse infusion of CART61–102 in the DRN produced a concentration (10 µM–100 µM) -dependent increase in 5-HT in the DRN. Similarly, CART62–76 (10 µM–100 µM) infused into the DRN and NAcc elevated 5-HT in the DRN and NAcc, respectively. Thus, CART increases extracellular 5-HT in both the DRN and NAcc. In addition, infusion of CART62–76 (100 µM) in the DRN produced a significant increase in 5-HT in the NAcc, implying an existence of CART receptors responsible for the depolarization-dependent release. In summary, the results of the present studies suggest that CART peptides may have an antidepressant effect through increases in extracellular 5-HT. PMID:17346884

Ma, Zhiyuan; Pearson, Elliot; Tao, Rui

2014-01-01

126

Modulation of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) and c-fos expression by several  

E-print Network

Modulation of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) and c-fos expression by several It has been reported that cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides can increase of the immediate early gene c-fos was observed after acute administration of morphine, cocaine, 3, 4

Boyer, Edmond

127

An observer-based neural adaptive control for rolling cart systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolling cart system is a highly nonlinear phenomenon in which links undergo tipping and rolling with no fixed base. This in turn requires that the system running states be predicted correctly. This paper makes a full analysis of the rolling cart states by applying observer-based adaptive wavelet neural network (OBAWNN) tracking sliding mode control scheme with system uncertainties, multiple time-delayed

Wen-Shyong Yu

2010-01-01

128

Multidrug-resistant organisms contaminating supply carts of contact isolation patients.  

PubMed

Contamination of supply carts stored within rooms of patients on contact isolation for multidrug-resistant organisms was assessed. Despite the presence of environmentally persistent organisms, very little contamination occurred to these carts or the supplies stored within them. A single isolate containing a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated, representing 1.3% of the 80 swabs collected. PMID:25278409

Zelencik, Shane; Schora, Donna; Fisher, Adrienne; Brudner, Corrinna; Patel, Parul; Robicsek, Ari; Smith, Becky; Peterson, Lance R; Wright, Marc-Oliver

2014-10-01

129

Signatures de formes 3D par depliage de cartes de Reeb Julien Tierny1  

E-print Network

segmenter en cartes de topologie contr^ol´ee, appel´ees cartes de Reeb, ayant soit la topologie d'un disque techniques est que la topologie des surfaces `a comparer doit ^etre compl`etement contr^ol´ee (les surfaces doivent ^etre de topologie ´equivalente). Dans cet article, nous proposons une nouvelle technique bas

Vandeborre, Jean-Philippe

130

Measuring the coefficient of friction of a low-friction cart  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sonic ranger is used to measure the acceleration of a low-friction cart using data collected from its motion coasting up and down an incline. The uninitiated but experienced physics student may predict the accelerations up and down the incline to be equal. However, when a cart is rolled up an incline, the speed vs time graph produced by sonic

Roger F. Larson

1998-01-01

131

Demographic and Financial Characteristics of School Districts with Low and High ŕ la Carte Sales in Rural Kansas Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing ŕ la carte items in schools—foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program—can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce ŕ la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited ŕ la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary

Nicole L. Nollen; Kim S. Kimminau; Niaman Nazir

2011-01-01

132

Identification and differential distribution of CART in the small intestine depending on the diet.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at identifying and locating cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the small intestine of broilers in relation to the diet. The feeding regime of the chicks was based on diets largely consisting of maize and one of four protein sources: post-extraction soya bean meal (SBM) or non-GM seed meal - meal from traditional variety of soy seeds Glicine max (FFS) and meal from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius (LA) and Lupinus luteus L (LY). The presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactive (CART-IR) in the wall of the small intestine of the chicks was determined on the basis of staining patterns produced by the immunohistochemical method (IHC). CART-IR structures were found in the myenteric plexus (MP), submucosus plexus (SP), in endomucosal fibres, and fibres innervating miocytes and blood vessels in the muscularis membrane and adipocytes of the white adipose tissue (WAT) located on the perimeter of the serous membrane and single cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Based on microscopic observation and result analysis, the lowest number of CART-IR structures was identified in the group that was fed the SBM-based diet. This study confirms previous observations concerning CART distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animal and broadens current knowledge by inclusion of chicken in the list of CART-positive species. Moreover, this work provides evidence that dietary composition can be a factor that stimulates post-prandial CART secretion in intestinal nerve structures. PMID:24797515

Janiuk, I; Olkowski, B; Szczotka-Bochniarz, A

2014-12-01

133

Single-chain variable fragments antibody of CART inhibits the expression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization.  

PubMed

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters with important roles in drug abuse. The increase of CART expression in the brain induced by psychostimulants is associated with changes of behavior in addicted animals. We expressed and purified the single-chain variable fragments antibody (scFv) against CART55-102, and observed the effect of CART scFv on the expression of cocaine-induced behavior sensitization in mice. Results showed that the titer of CART scFv was 1.6 ?g/ml. Single administration of CART scFv (intraperitoneal 0.04, 0.2, and 1 mg/kg) reduced the increasing locomotor activity induced by chronic cocaine intake in mice (P<0.05-0.01), but failed to affect the locomotor activity of naive mice. These results suggested that CART scFv may be a potential therapeutic tool to treat drug abuse. PMID:21544003

Chai, Jingrui; Hu, Fangqiong; Yuan, Yimin; Lu, Changlin; You, Zhendong

2011-06-22

134

Kim, Su Nam and Timothy Baldwin (2008) An Unsupervised Approach to Interpreting Noun Compounds, In Proceedings of 2008 IEEE International Conference on Natural Language  

E-print Network

], [1], [8], [9], [10] · interpreting SRs in NCs [7], [8], [9], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15 is on utilizing the outcomes of previous studies (analogy-base [9], [11], [14] and underly- ing predicate [12 in orange juice expresses the fact that the modifier orange is a material or object used to make juice (the

Baldwin, Timothy

135

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.  

PubMed

Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action. PMID:23524306

Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

2013-01-01

136

Stabilizing a Vehicle near Rollover: An Analogy to Cart-Pole  

E-print Network

An analogy between the dynamics of a cart-pole system and vehicle rollover dynamics is used to derive a controller for tipping up and stabilizing a planar model of a passenger vehicle near rollover by controlling lateral ...

Peters, Steven Conrad

137

32 CFR 636.29 - Go-carts, minibikes, and all terrain vehicles (ATV's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.29 Go-carts, minibikes, and all...older, must comply with applicable Georgia State Law and Fort Stewart traffic laws and regulations contained in this part....

2010-07-01

138

STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

1989-01-01

139

Advancing monthly streamflow prediction accuracy of CART models using ensemble learning paradigms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryStreamflow forecasting is one of the most important steps in the water resources planning and management. Ensemble techniques such as bagging, boosting and stacking have gained popularity in hydrological forecasting in the recent years. The study investigates the potential usage of two ensemble learning paradigms (i.e., bagging; stochastic gradient boosting) in building classification and regression trees (CARTs) ensembles to advance the streamflow prediction accuracy. The study, initially, investigates the use of classification and regression trees for monthly streamflow forecasting and employs a support vector regression (SVR) model as the benchmark model. The analytic results indicate that CART outperforms SVR in both training and testing phases. Although the obtained results of CART model in training phase are considerable, it is not in testing phase. Thus, to optimize the prediction accuracy of CART for monthly streamflow forecasting, we incorporate bagging and stochastic gradient boosting which are rooted in same philosophy, advancing the prediction accuracy of weak learners. Comparing with the results of bagged regression trees (BRTs) and stochastic gradient boosted regression trees (GBRTs) models possess satisfactory monthly streamflow forecasting performance than CART and SVR models. Overall, it is found that ensemble learning paradigms can remarkably advance the prediction accuracy of CART models in monthly streamflow forecasting.

Erdal, Halil Ibrahim; Karakurt, Onur

2013-01-01

140

CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)  

PubMed Central

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 minutes, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

Hostetler, Caroline M.; Kowalczyk, Alex S.; Griffin, Luana L.; Bales, Karen L.

2011-01-01

141

CART peptide following social novelty in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).  

PubMed

Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous rodents that display high levels of affiliative behaviors, including pair-bonding, biparental care, and cooperative breeding. Species differences in basal cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptide expression have been found between prairie voles and polygamous meadow voles. Therefore, we hypothesized that the CART system may play a role in the regulation of social behavior in this species. Male and female adult prairie voles were placed in a cage either alone, or with a novel social partner of the same or opposite sex. After 45 min, subjects were sacrificed and CART peptide expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. We examined fifteen hypothalamic, limbic, and hindbrain regions of interest, focusing on areas that show species-specific patterns of expression. We found that subjects paired with a novel conspecific had lower levels of peptide in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) than isolated animals. This may reflect increased peptide release following increased dopaminergic activity in animals exposed to a novel conspecific. Additionally, CART peptide was higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of subjects paired with an opposite sex partner compared to those paired with a same-sex conspecific, although there was no difference between isolated subjects and either socially housed group. These findings suggest that CART in the NAc is differentially responsive to the sex of adult conspecifics and that the social environment influences CART expression in the prairie vole in a region- and stimulus-specific manner. PMID:21871610

Hostetler, Caroline M; Kowalczyk, Alex S; Griffin, Luana L; Bales, Karen L

2011-09-26

142

Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high ŕ la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.  

PubMed

Reducing ŕ la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce ŕ la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited ŕ la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high ŕ la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). ?˛ and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to ŕ la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low ŕ la carte sales. In rural districts with low ŕ la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and ŕ la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high ŕ la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low ŕ la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high ŕ la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low ŕ la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of ŕ la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. PMID:21616201

Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

2011-06-01

143

Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

1992-01-01

144

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

Filman, Robert E.

2004-01-01

145

National Conversations in the UK: Using a Language-Based Approach to Interpret Three Key Education Policy Documents (2001-2007) from England, Scotland and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines three key education policy documents from Scotland, England and Wales in the eight years after devolution. A close textual analysis of the language of each document is undertaken, which is supported by the authors' insider knowledge of these countries. Findings are presented from analysis of a group of selected words, as well…

Laugharne, Janet; Baird, Adela

2009-01-01

146

Kim, Su Nam and Timothy Baldwin (2008) Benchmarking Noun Compound Interpretation, In Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

of the Third International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP 2008), Hyderabad, India compounds (NCs): semantic similarity-based methods and their hybrids. We evaluate the methods using 7-way expresses the meaning that a student benefits from the price (SR = BENEFICIARY), while student protest

Baldwin, Timothy

147

The Relationship among Beginning and Advanced American Sign Language Students and Credentialed Interpreters across Two Domains of Visual Imagery: Vividness and Manipulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the visual-gestural nature of ASL it is reasonable to assume that visualization abilities may be one predictor of aptitude for learning ASL. This study tested a hypothesis that visualization abilities are a foundational aptitude for learning a signed language and that measurements of these skills will increase as students progress from…

Stauffer, Linda K.

2010-01-01

148

OBJECTIVE PREDICTION OF VISUAL SALIENCY MAPS IN EGOCENTRIC VIDEOS FOR CONTENT-ACTION INTERPRETATION  

E-print Network

the subjective maps of an Actor performing activities of everyday life and a Viewer who interprets the video this relation we propose an "`a la carte" prediction of saliency maps of an Actor for the beginning of actions. Their visual saliencies are not the same. Indeed according to the physiological studies [2, 3], the human gaze

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

CART peptide stimulation of G protein-mediated signaling in differentiated PC12 Cells: Identification of PACAP 638 as a CART receptor antagonist  

E-print Network

, blocked by pertussis toxin and antagonized by PACAP 6­38. These findings extend previous research of voltage dependant Ca++ signaling (Yermo- laieva et al., 2001). The latter effect was blocked by pertussis reduced by pertussis toxin (Lakatos et al., 2005), and studies of CART-induced signaling in bovine gran

Hall, Randy A

150

Proceedings of the Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS), Scottsdale, AZ, April 2003 Joseph P. Dougherty Page 1 CARTS April 1, 2003  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS), Scottsdale, AZ, April 2003 ABSTRACT Passive components, primarily resistors and capacitors, make up the majority of components needs and infrastructure needs are spelled out for thin core laminates, ceramic loaded pastes, plated

Sandborn, Peter

151

High-efficiency InGaN-GaN MQW green light-emitting diodes with CART and DBR structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and charge asymmetric resonance tunneling (CART) structures were applied to nitride-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance their output efficiency It was found that we can reduce the forward voltage at 20 mA from 3.7 to 3.2 V with the inclusion of CART structure. It was also found that the electroluminescence peak wavelength of the CART

C. H. Chen; S. J. Chang; Y. K. Su; G. C. Chi; J. K. Sheu; J. F. Chen

2002-01-01

152

Processing of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) precursor proteins by prohormone convertases (PCs) and its implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are expressed in several neuroendocrine tissues, including hypothalamus, pituitary, gut, adrenal and pancreas, and are involved in regulating important biological processes including feeding\\/appetite, drug reward and stress. CART is synthesized as larger, inactive peptide precursors (pro-CART) that require endoproteolytic processing to generate smaller, active forms. Prohormone\\/proprotein convertases (PCs), a family of calcium-dependent, serine endoproteases,

Jeffrey Stein; Donald F. Steiner; Arunangsu Dey

2006-01-01

153

The development of complex sentence interpretation in typically developing children compared with children with specific language impairments or early unilateral focal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre\\/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences 'on-line', choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity (actives, passives, subject clefts and object clefts), and in the presence or

Frederic Dick; Beverly Wulfeck; Magda Krupa-Kwiatkowski; Elizabeth Bates

2004-01-01

154

Inventory Versus Checklist Approach to Assess Middle School ? la Carte Food Availability*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to evaluate 2 methods of assessing foods available on school ŕ la carte lines for schools’ ability to assess the proportion of foods that are healthful options. METHODS This observational study used data collected at 38 middle schools, October 2006–May 2007. An inventory method was used to collect detailed information of items available on each school’s ŕ la carte line, followed by a simplified checklist form. Using the detailed inventory method, the proportion of items meeting the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) nutrition standards for foods available at each school was calculated. From the checklists, we calculated the proportion of categories representing more healthful foods. Schools were independently ranked according to the percentage of items meeting the IOM criteria, (inventory data) and the percentage of food categories considered “healthy” (checklist data). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare school rankings. RESULTS The inventory and checklist approaches showed a good level of agreement when both methods were independently used to rank the level of healthy foods available on ŕ la carte (Wilcoxon rank sum = 32.5, p = .62). CONCLUSION For purposes of ranking schools along a continuum of “healthfulness of foods on ŕ la carte lines,” especially when resources are limited, a checklist approach appears to be satisfactory. This method may also be useful to school stakeholders needing an inexpensive ŕ la carte assessment tool. PMID:19909423

Hearst, Mary O.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Heitzler, Carrie D.

2010-01-01

155

Pediatric shopping-cart-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1990-2011.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of the 2004 US shopping cart safety standard on shopping-cart-related injuries among children younger than 15 years of age by retrospectively analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 530 494 children younger than 15 years were treated in US emergency departments for shopping-cart-related injuries from 1990 to 2011, averaging 24 113 children annually. The most commonly injured body region was the head (78.1%). The annual concussion/closed head injury rate per 10 000 children increased significantly (P < .001) by 213.3% from 0.64 in 1990 to 2.02 in 2011. Although a shopping cart safety standard was implemented in the United States in 2004, the overall number and rate of injuries associated with shopping carts have not decreased. In fact, the number and rate of concussions/closed head injuries have continued to climb. Increased prevention efforts are needed to address these injuries among children. PMID:24351504

Martin, Keith J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

2014-03-01

156

Air mass spectrometer leak detection using the special air leak test (SALT) cart  

SciTech Connect

Air mass spectrometer leak detection is being utilized in the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant as a method of rapidly localizing leaks in this extremely large and complicated maze of process piping. A SALT cart has been developed to minimize the time and problems such as long time constants, helium permeation, low pumping speeds, and large helium hoods associated with helium mass spectrometer leak detection. By using the SALT cart to positively indicate the presence of air, in conjunction with process valve manipulations, leaks can be quickly localized to specific sections of piping. This process saves time and effort which would otherwise be spent helium probing nonleaky sections. Once a leak has been localized, the SALT cart can aid in pinpointing the leak using various tracer gases. A helium mass spectrometer leak detector may also be placed in series with the SALT cart taking full advantage of the SALT's high speed and the leak detector's high sensitivity. Cart design will be discussed in addition to testing methods and sample results.

Solomon, G.M.

1984-04-01

157

Co-expression patterns of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) with neuropeptides in dorsal root ganglia of the pig.  

PubMed

In the present study the neuronal distribution of CART was evaluated immunohistochemically in porcine dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). In co-localization studies the co-expression patterns of CART with SP, CGRP, galanin, CALB and LENK were investigated by means of triple immunohistochemical stainings. In porcine DRGs, the expression of CART was found in approximately 5% of primary sensory neurons. The vast majority (ca. 95%) of CART-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were small and middle sized, and only 5% were categorized as large. CART-IR neurons additionally exhibiting the presence of SP/CGRP (ca. 12%), SP/CALB (ca. 12%), SP/LENK (ca. 5%) were found. The vast majority of CART-IR/CGRP-IR neurons did not display immunoreaction to SP (ca. 60%). Subclasses of CART-IR/LENK-IR/SP-negative (ca. 5%), as well as CART-IR/CALB-IR/SP-negative neurons (ca. 10%), were also visualized. In addition, CART-IR neurons with no immunoreactivities to any of the neuropeptides studied were also shown. In porcine DRGs none of the CART-IR neurons exhibited the presence of galanin. The results obtained in the study suggest that CART may functionally modulate the activity of the porcine primary sensory neurons. It is concluded that co-expression of CART with CGRP, SP, LENK and CALB in subsets of the pig L1-L6 DRGs neurons provide anatomical evidence for a CART role in pain processing. PMID:24161688

Zacharko-Siembida, Anna; Kulik, Pawe?; Szalak, Rados?aw; Lalak, Roman; Arciszewski, Marcin Bart?omiej

2014-03-01

158

Spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth at the ARM CART Site  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to better characterize the inputs to radiative transfer models and research-grade global climate simulation models (GCMs) the columnar aerosol loading, measured as the aerosol optical depth (AOD), has been computed for five facilities within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site. Characterization of the AOD reported here show clear evidence that the spatial and temporal gradient exists at a much finer linear scale than those of the CART site. The annual variations of median AOD are on the order of 0.30 at all five facilities. The Spearman correlation and varimax-rotated PCA indicated the AOD values vary consistently across the CART site. The Northwest corner facility (EF-1) was the single facility that behaved differently from the rest. This sub-GCM grid variation can not be ignored if the model is to be used to accurately predict future climate change.

Nash, T.M.; Cheng, M.D.

1998-02-01

159

The use of ZIP and CART to model cryptosporidiosis in relation to climatic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research assesses the potential impact of weekly weather variability on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis disease using time series zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and classification and regression tree (CART) models. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Both time series ZIP and CART models show a clear association between weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and cryptosporidiosis disease. The time series CART models indicated that, when weekly maximum temperature exceeded 31°C and relative humidity was less than 63%, the relative risk of cryptosporidiosis rose by 13.64 (expected morbidity: 39.4; 95% confidence interval: 30.9-47.9). These findings may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs for cryptosporidiosis disease.

Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Tong, Shilu

2010-07-01

160

Engineers test STS-37 CETA electrical hand pedal cart in JSC MAIL Bldg 9A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

McDonnell Douglas engineers Noland Talley (left) and Gary Peters (center) and ILC-Dover engineer Richard Richard Smallcombe prepare test setup for the evaluation of the crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) electrical hand pedal cart in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Peters, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots and positioned in portable foot restraint (PFR), is suspended above CETA cart and track via harness to simulate weightlessness. CETA will be tested in orbit in the payload bay of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

1990-01-01

161

Early epoch stellar positions from the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrometric measurements made by the satellite Hipparcos have brought forth a homogeneous system of precise proper motions of about 105 stars, which is unprecedented in its combination of quality and quantity. Such proper motions are of great importance in various sorts of kinematic studies. However, the proper motion system needs to be disseminated and extended to stars of fainter magnitudes by means of earth-bound observations. Here, photographic records of star positions from the beginning of the 20th century present a valuable and indispensable source of information. A first important step was made with the construction of the ACT Catalogue (Urban et al. 1997), which incorporates the ancient plate measurements of the so-called Astrographic Catalogue (AC). A second series of plates, the so-called Carte du Ciel (CdC), taken as part of the same survey project as the AC, has not been used systematically for astrometry so far. The advantage of the CdC is that it reaches about 3 mag fainter than the AC. It provides however less redundancy from plate overlap. The Observatoire de Bordeaux has initiated a program for the digitisation and measurement of its collection of CdC plates which covers the zone of +11 to +17 declination and contains positions for about 8 × 105 stars at epochs mostly between 1910 and 1920. As a pilot study for this program, we are currently working on two regions near the galactic anticenter, one surrounding the open cluster NGC 2355, the other intersecting the galactic plane at l 195. These regions were selected for practical as well as for scientific reasons. The plates have been digitised on the MAMA machine at the Observatoire de Paris. Object detection was made using the software SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996). The plate limit proves to be at B = 15 and a completeness of 80 percent is reached up to 14th magnitude. The plates of the CdC provide three equal exposures with a small angular separation of 10 arc second. A loss of about 20 percent of stars must be accepted due to interferences between the grid lines and the triple exposures. Refined object positions are derived by fitting a 2-D triple gaussian to the images (cf. Dick et al. 1993). A direct reduction of the measurements to the Hipparcos catalogue is not advisable because of the density of Hipparcos stars being low and because of problems from overexposure. Instead, the use of the ACT as a reference catalogue is appropriate. Rms residuals in the reduction to ACT are typically around 0.15 arc second. Comparing the positions of stars in the overlapping borders of adjacent plates, we obtain consistency on the level of 0.2 arc second for non-corner regions and 0.3 arc second for corner regions. This indicates typical positional accuracies of 0.15 arc second and 0.2 arc second respectively per star and plate. Proper motions are determined in combination with recent observations obtained with the Bordeaux meridian circle (see Colin, this volume, p. 141). With an epoch difference of 80 years, a proper motion accuracy of typically 2.5 mas/y is achieved.

Odenkirchen, Michael; Soubiran, Caroline; Le Campion, J. François

162

Cocaine-Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Acts in the Central Nervous System to Inhibit Gastric Acid Secretion via Brain Corticotropin-Releasing Factor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent study has indicated that cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is an anorectic chemical in the brain. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that CART may act in the central nervous system to alter gastric function. Food consumption, gastric acid secretion, and gastric emptying were measured after injection of CART into the cerebrospinal fluid in 24-h fasted Sprague Dawley rats.

TOSHIKATSU OKUMURA; HIROTO YAMADA; WATARU MOTOMURA; YUTAKA KOHGO

2000-01-01

163

Risk Bounds for CART Classifiers under a Margin Condition Servane Gey  

E-print Network

- ized model selection validate the CART algorithm which is used in many data mining applications-structured partitions and on a penalized criterion that selects "good" tree-structured estimators among a huge col proposed by Blanchard et al. [5] by the fact that the first large tree is con- structed locally

164

Bundling, product choice, and efficiency: Should cable television networks be offered ŕ la carte?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct a numerical analysis of bundling's impact on a monopolist's pricing and product choices and assess the implications for consumer welfare in cable television markets. Existing theory is ambiguous: for a given set of products, bundling likely transfers surplus from consumers to flrms but also encourages products to be ofiered that might not be under µa la carte pricing.

Gregory S. Crawford; Joseph Cullen

2007-01-01

165

The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): development of a survey instrument to assess community resilience.  

PubMed

While building community resilience to disasters is becoming an important strategy in emergency management, this is a new field of research with few available instruments for assessing community resilience. This article describes the development of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) survey instrument. CART is a community intervention designed to enhance community resilience to disasters, in part, by engaging communities in measuring it. The survey instrument, originally based on community capacity and related literature and on key informant input, was refined through a series of four field tests. Community organizations worked with researchers in a participatory action process that provided access to samples and helped to guide the research. Exploratory factor analysis performed after each field test led to the identification of four interrelated constructs (also called domains) which represent the foundation for CART Connection and Caring, Resources, Transformative Potential, and Disaster Management. This model was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis on two community samples. The CART survey can provide data for organizations and communities interested in assessing a community's resilience to disasters. Baseline data, preferably collected pre disaster can be compared to data collected post disaster and/or post intervention. PMID:24187884

Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Neas, Barbara R; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Norris, Fran H; Van Horn, Richard L

2013-01-01

166

Vibration suppression controller for a novel beam-cart-seesaw system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high

J. Lin; C. J. Huang; J. Chang; S. Wang

2010-01-01

167

One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

Wee, Loo Kang

2012-01-01

168

CART DIAGNOSIS OF WATERSHED IMPAIRMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

Many factors ( stressors ) can lead to increased concentrations of nutrients and sediments, and these factors change across watersheds. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a statistical approach that can be used to "diagnose" which factors are important stressors on a pe...

169

West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program  

SciTech Connect

Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

1993-01-01

170

The Vending and ŕ la Carte Policy Intervention in Maine Public High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A healthy school nutrition environment may be impor- tant for decreasing childhood overweight. This article describes a project to make healthier snacks and beverages available in vending machines and ŕ la carte programs in Maine public high schools. Context Seven public high schools in Maine volunteered to par- ticipate in this project. Four schools made changes to the nutrition

Anne-Marie Davee; Janet E. Whatley Blum; Rachel L. Devore; Christina M. Beaudoin; Lori A. Kaley; Janet L. Leiter; Debra A. Wigand

2005-01-01

171

Language acquisition is language change.  

PubMed

According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other. PMID:16432764

Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

2006-01-01

172

Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed CREB and serine 133 phospho-CREB binding to the CART gene proximal promoter  

PubMed Central

Both over expression of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and intra-accumbal injection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, have been shown to decrease cocaine reward. Also, over expression of CREB in the rat NAc increased CART mRNA and peptide levels, but it is not known if this was due to a direct action of P-CREB on the CART gene promoter. The goal of this study was to test if CREB and P-CREB bound directly to the CRE site in the CART promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. ChIP assay with anti-CREB antibodies showed an enrichment of the CART promoter fragment containing the CRE region over IgG precipitated material, a non-specific control. Forskolin, which was known to increase CART mRNA levels in GH3 cells, was utilized to show that the drug increased levels of P-CREB protein and P-CREB binding to the CART promoter CRE-containing region. A region of the c-Fos promoter containing a CRE cis-regulatory element was previously shown to bind P-CREB, and it was used here as a positive control. These data suggest that the effects of CREB over expression on blunting cocaine reward could be, at least in part, attributed to the increased expression of the CART gene by direct interaction of P-CREB with the CART promoter CRE site, rather than by some indirect action. PMID:20451507

Rogge, George A; Shen, Li-Ling; Kuhar, Michael J.

2010-01-01

173

Interpreting Metonymy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

Pankhurst, Anne

1994-01-01

174

Performing Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

2013-01-01

175

Geometry and Structural Properties for the Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) from Model Tuning: August 25, 2003--November 30, 2003  

SciTech Connect

The Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) is a modified Westinghouse WWG-0600 machine rated at 600 kW. It is located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in Boulder, Colorado, and has been installed to test new control schemes for power and load regulation. In its original configuration, the WWG-0600 uses a synchronous generator, fluid coupling, and hydraulic collective pitch actuation. However, the CART is fitted with an induction generator, rigid coupling, and individual electromechanical pitch actuators. The rotor runs upwind of the tower and consists of two blades and a teetering hub. In order to design advanced control schemes for the CART, representative computational models are essential.

Stol, K. A.

2004-09-01

176

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

177

Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

2013-01-01

178

Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

de Jongh, Elena M.

179

The Inhibition Of Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity By CART 55-102 Is Lost After Repeated Cocaine Administration  

PubMed Central

CART peptide is known for having an inhibitory effect on cocaine- and dopamine-mediated actions after acute administration of cocaine and dopamine. In this regard, it is postulated to be a homeostatic, regulatory factor on dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, there is no data on the effect of CART peptide after chronic administration of cocaine, and this study addresses this. It was found that CART peptide blunted cocaine-induced locomotion (LMA) after acute administration of cocaine, as expected, but it did not affect cocaine-mediated LMA after chronic administration of cocaine. The loss of CART peptide’s inhibitory effect did not return for up to nine weeks after stopping the repeated cocaine administration. It may not be surprising that homeostatic regulatory mechanisms in the NAc are lost after repeated cocaine administration, and that this may be a mechanism in the development of addiction. PMID:23819981

Job, Martin O; Shen, Li L; Kuhar, Michael J

2013-01-01

180

Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

181

One-dimensional collision carts computer model and its design ideas for productive experiential learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a consistent simulation world view with a pen and paper representation, (2) a data table, scientific graphs and symbolic mathematical representations for ease of data collection and multiple representational visualizations and (3) a game for simple concept testing that can further support learning. We also suggest using a physical world setup augmented by simulation by highlighting three advantages of real collision carts equipment such as a tacit 3D experience, random errors in measurement and the conceptual significance of conservation of momentum applied to just before and after collision. General feedback from the students has been relatively positive, and we hope teachers will find the simulation useful in their own classes.

Wee, Loo Kang

2012-05-01

182

Region- and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA in rat hypothalamic nuclei induced by forced swim stress  

PubMed Central

Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that these nuclei regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system activity, and feeding behavior. Our previous studies showed that forced swim stress augmented CART peptide expression significantly in whole hypothalamus of male rats. In another study, forced swim stress increased the number of CART-immunoreactive cells in female PVN, whereas no effect was observed in male PVN or in the ARC nucleus of either sex. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of forced swim stress on CART mRNA expression in PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei in both male and female rats. Twelve male (stressed and controls, n=6 each) and 12 female (stressed and controls, n=6 each) Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Control animals were only handled, whereas forced swim stress procedure was applied to the stressed groups. Brains were dissected and brain sections containing PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei were prepared. CART mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization. In male rats, forced swim stress upregulated CART mRNA expression in DMH and downregulated it in the ARC. In female rats, forced swim stress increased CART mRNA expression in PVN and DMH, whereas a decrease was observed in the ARC nucleus. Our results show that forced swim stress elicits region and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA expression in rat hypothalamus that may help explain some of the effects of stress. PMID:22960117

Balkan, Burcu; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O.; Keser, Aysegul; Kuhar, Michael J.; Pogun, Sakire

2012-01-01

183

Drive train design, construction, and evaluation for a powered cart for third world farmers  

E-print Network

tests. . . . . . . 26 7 protractors used to measure steer angles. . . . 8 Assistants in position to read angles. . . . . . . 9 Torque-speed characteristics of drive train. 10 Drive train efficiency vs. axle power. 11 Drive train with original belt... with satisfactory results. Chain drives engage positively and are more suited to low speed, high torque applications than are v-belt drives. Chain was selected for the final drive on the Powered Cart, since it will not slip when exposed to water and mud...

Kittelson, David Andrew

2012-06-07

184

Clinical Progression Rates by CD4 Cell Category Before and After the Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART)  

PubMed Central

Objective Rates of AIDS defining event (ADE), serious ADE and death by CD4 and HIV RNA categories before and after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation are lacking for high CD4 counts. Methods Event rates were estimated within CD4 cell strata using a Poisson regression model adjusting for sex, exposure category, age, and current HIV RNA (<4, 4-4.99, ?5 log copies/ml), and including an interaction term between the CD4 cell count and cART indicator. Results 7317 and 6376 persons contributed to "naďve " and "cART " groups respectively, of whom 3911 contributed to both. At the same CD4 level, the risk of ADE was nearly 2 fold higher during naive follow-up compared to cART for CD4 <500 cells/mm3. However, after adjustment for current HIV RNA, the risk of ADE became similar for both groups except for CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 when it is 35% (6-72%) higher for naives. The same results were observed for the risk of serious ADE. There was no evidence of a difference in risk of death between naive and cART follow-up at specific CD4 categories even after adjustment for HIV RNA. Conclusion Within CD4 cell strata above 200 cells/mm3, the risk of ADE before ART initiation is higher than it is following cART initiation. PMID:18923700

Guiguet, Marguerite; Porter, Kholoud; Phillips, Andrew; Costagliola, Dominique; Babiker, Abdel

2008-01-01

185

Fault detection and diagnosis of induction motors using motor current signature analysis and a hybrid FMM-CART model.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel approach to detect and classify comprehensive fault conditions of induction motors using a hybrid fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and classification and regression tree (CART) is proposed. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. A series of real experiments is conducted, whereby the motor current signature analysis method is applied to form a database comprising stator current signatures under different motor conditions. The signal harmonics from the power spectral density are extracted as discriminative input features for fault detection and classification with FMM-CART. A comprehensive list of induction motor fault conditions, viz., broken rotor bars, unbalanced voltages, stator winding faults, and eccentricity problems, has been successfully classified using FMM-CART with good accuracy rates. The results are comparable, if not better, than those reported in the literature. Useful explanatory rules in the form of a decision tree are also elicited from FMM-CART to analyze and understand different fault conditions of induction motors. PMID:24808459

Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng; Ishak, Dahaman; Singh, Harapajan

2012-01-01

186

The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q): development and initial validation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that measures the nature of the coach-athlete relationship. Jowett et al.'s (Jowett & Meek, 2000; Jowett, in press) qualitative case studies and relevant literature were used to generate items for an instrument that measures affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of the coach-athlete relationship. Two studies were carried out in an attempt to assess content, predictive, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency, of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q), using two independent British samples. Principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to reduce the number of items, identify principal components, and confirm the latent structure of the CART-Q. Results supported the multidimensional nature of the coach-athlete relationship. The latent structure of the CART-Q was underlined by the latent variables of coaches' and athletes' Closeness (emotions), Commitment (cognitions), and Complementarity (behaviors). PMID:15265147

Jowett, Sophia; Ntoumanis, Nikos

2004-08-01

187

Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

Hahn, Andrew S.

2012-01-01

188

The importance of viral blips and duration of therapy initiated in primary infection in maintaining viral control after stopping cART  

PubMed Central

Introduction After achieving undetectable HIV-RNA on cART, on cessation, HIV-RNA rebounds to pre-treatment values for the majority due to the presence of an inaccessible viral reservoir. There is some evidence that cART during primary HIV infection (PHI) limits the reservoir size, optimizing the chance of maintaining viral control off cART. Data are required to predict possible viral controllers for treatment interruption following cART. This analysis aims to investigate the effect of cART duration and the rate of viral blips while on cART initiated in PHI, and other factors on maintaining viral control for those stopping cART. Material and Methods Using CASCADE data on HIV seroconverters, we characterized virologic blip (viral suppression on cART followed by a single HIV-RNA above a blip threshold and a subsequent measure below the threshold without cART change) rates for those starting cART within six months of seroconversion (SC). Using Cox models, we examined the effect of the following factors on time to virologic rebound (HIV-RNA>1000) after cART stop: cART duration, severity/rate of blips on cART, time from SC to cART start, cART class, SC year, SC age, CD4 at cART start/stop, sex and HIV risk group. Results The 660 individuals initiating cART in PHI were mostly male (91%), seroconverting between 1995 and 2012, with a median (IQR) age of 34 (29, 41) years mostly infected through sex between men (73%). Median cART duration was 14.8 (7.0, 31.7) months initiated at a median 1.9 (0.5, 3.9) months post SC. 13 (11, 16), 9 (7, 11), 6 (5, 9) and 7 (6, 10)% of individuals experienced blips >50, 100, 200 and 400 copies/mL, respectively. Of those who experienced blips, most (77–90%, depending on blip threshold) experienced just one. Among 250 individuals with undetectable HIV-RNA at cART stop, median time to rebound was 1.6 (0.30, 5.8) months. Time on cART was the only factor independently associated with control after stopping, HR for rebound=0.91 (0.86, 0.98) per extra six months spent on cART, HR for ever blipping >400 copies/mL while on cART=0.88 (0.40, 1.93). Conclusions Blips occur in about 10% of individuals who initiate cART in PHI, most of who experience only one blip, but was not predictive of subsequent virologic rebound. Increasing time spent on cART initiated in PHI could increase time of virological suppression after cART stop.

Fidler, Sarah; Olson, Ashley; Fox, Julie; Phillips, Andrew; Morrison, Charles; Thornhill, John; Bucher, Heiner; Muga, Roberto; Porter, Kholoud

2014-01-01

189

Integration of stress and leptin signaling by CART producing neurons in the rodent midbrain centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus  

PubMed Central

Leptin targets the brain to regulate feeding, neuroendocrine function and metabolism. The leptin receptor is present in hypothalamic centers controlling energy metabolism as well as in the centrally projecting Edinger–Westphal nucleus (EWcp), a region implicated in the stress response and in various aspects of stress-related behaviors. We hypothesized that the stress response by cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-producing EWcp-neurons would depend on the animal’s energy state. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of changes in energy state (mimicked by low, normal and high leptin levels, which were achieved by 24 h fasting, normal chow and leptin injection, respectively) on the response of CART neurons in the EWcp of rats subjected or not to acute restraint stress. Our data show that leptin treatment alone significantly increases CART mRNA expression in the rat EWcp and that in leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice, the number of CART producing neurons in this nucleus is reduced. This suggests that leptin has a stimulatory effect on the production of CART in the EWcp under non-stressed condition. Under stressed condition, however, leptin blunts stress-induced activation of EWcp neurons and decreases their CART mRNA expression. Interestingly, fasting, does not influence the stress-induced activation of EWcp-neurons, and specifically EWcp-CART neurons are not activated. These results suggest that the stress response by the EWcp depends to some degree on the animal’s energy state, a mechanism that may contribute to a better understanding of the complex interplay between obesity and stress. PMID:24624061

Xu, Lu; Janssen, Donny; van der Knaap, Noortje; Roubos, Eric W.; Leshan, Rebecca L.; Myers, Martin G.; Gaszner, Balazs; Kozicz, Tamas

2014-01-01

190

Transient up-regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) immunoreactivity following ethanol withdrawal in rat hypothalamus.  

PubMed

We investigated the profile of CART immunoreactivity in some discrete hypothalamic nuclei following chronic ethanol treatment and withdrawal conditions. Adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with liquid diet (pair-fed) or liquid diet containing ethanol (ethanol-fed) for 15 days. Thereafter, all the animals were given access to ethanol free nutritionally balanced liquid diet and killed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-withdrawal, and their brains processed for immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against CART. CART-immunoreactive fibers, but not the cells, were significantly increased in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, the profile of CART-immunoreactive cells and/or fibers in the periventricular area (PeA), arcuate nucleus (ARC), perifornical area inclusive of lateral hypothalamus (LH) and tuber cinereum (TC), dorsomedial (DMH), and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamus at the 0 h ethanol withdrawal time point was quite similar to that in the pair-fed control rats. Twenty-four hours following ethanol withdrawal, the immunoreactivity in all these areas was dramatically increased. While significant reduction in CART immunoreactivity was noticed in the PVN, PeA, ARC and VMH at 48 h, immunoreactive profile was restored to normal by 72 h post-ethanol withdrawal. The immunoreactive profile in the LH, TC and DMH resembled that of the pair-fed groups at 48 and 72 h post-withdrawal intervals. However, CART-immunoreactive profile in the supraoptic nucleus did not respond to the chronic ethanol treatment and/or withdrawal. We suggest that transient up-regulation of CART in some discrete hypothalamic nuclei following ethanol withdrawal, at least in part, may contribute to the pathogenesis of ethanol withdrawal-induced symptoms like anxiety and anorexia. PMID:18823957

Dandekar, Manoj P; Singru, Praful S; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Subhedar, Nishikant K

2008-11-13

191

Salmonella collected from nest run cart shelves in commercial shell egg processing facilities.  

PubMed

Salmonella, a member of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, may be recovered from foods and processing facilities. High levels of Enterobacteriaceae in the processing plant environment can be an indication of inadequate sanitation. This experiment was designed to determine if nest run egg carts serve as reservoirs for Salmonella. Eggs that are produced by hens not housed in buildings connected to the processing plant are referred to as nest run. Many of these eggs are transported to a central processing facility before they are washed, graded, and packed. Two plants in the Southeastern United States were sampled; one was a mixed operation and the other was an off-line operation. On each of 3 visits, 5 shelves on each of 5 carts were sampled (n = 25/visit). A 12 × 12 cm area on each shelf was swabbed with a sterile gauze pad moistened with PBS and transported on ice back to the laboratory. Each swab was preenriched in buffered peptone at 37°C for 24 h, selectively enriched using TT and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth at 42°C overnight, then plated onto brilliant green sulfa and XLT-4 incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive colonies were transferred to lysine iron agar and triple sugar iron slants for 24 h at 37°C. Isolates with presumptive reactions were confirmed using commercial polyclonal antisera. After initial confirmation, serogrouping was performed using commercial antisera. Mixed-operation swab samples were 12% positive for Salmonella, whereas off-line samples were 36% positive for Salmonella; isolates were confirmed as serogroups B, C1, and C2. Kauffman-White serotyping was performed by a contract laboratory. Serotypes (n = 30) recovered were Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandanka, and Typhimurium. This work demonstrated that nest run egg carts may serve as reservoirs for Salmonella in the shell egg processing environment. PMID:22912478

Musgrove, M T; Shaw, J D; Harrison, M A

2012-09-01

192

Readings in natural language processing  

SciTech Connect

The book presents papers on natural language processing, focusing on the central issues of representation, reasoning, and recognition. The introduction discusses theoretical issues, historical developments, and current problems and approaches. The book presents work in syntactic models (parsing and grammars), semantic interpretation, discourse interpretation, language action and intentions, language generation, and systems.

Grosz, B.J.; Jones, K.S.; Webber, B.L.

1986-01-01

193

Into the Curriculum. Art/Science: Dino Art; Mathematics: Measurement; Reading/Language Arts: Turkey Day!; Reading/Language Arts: Visual Interpretations of Poetry; Reading/Language Arts: Courage, Lyle!; Science: The Thigh Bone's Connected to...; Social Studies: Building a House; Social Studies: Who Lives in This House?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides eight fully developed library media activities that are designed for use with specific curriculum units in art, science, mathematics, reading, language arts, and social studies. Library media skills, curriculum objectives, grade levels, resources, instructional roles, procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described for each activity.…

Santeford, Deborah; Vidor, Constance

2002-01-01

194

Language trees ? gene trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin saw similarities between the evolution of species and the evolution of languages, and it is now widely accepted that\\u000a similarities between related languages can often be interpreted in terms of a bifurcating descent history (‘phylogenesis’).\\u000a Such interpretations are supported when the distributions of shared and unshared traits (for example, in terms of etymological\\u000a roots for elements of basic vocabulary)

James Steele; Anne Kandler

2010-01-01

195

Psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q).  

PubMed

The study examined the psychometric properties of the Belgian coach version of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q). The questionnaire includes three dimensions (Closeness, Commitment, and Complementarity) in a model that intends to measure the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Belgian coaches (n=144) of athletes who performed at various competition levels in such sports as football, basketball, and volleyball responded to the CART-Q and to the Leadership Scale for Sport (LSS). A confirmatory factor analysis proved to be slightly more satisfactory for a three-order factor model, compared with a hierarchical first-order factor model. The three factors showed acceptable internal consistency scores. Moreover, functional associations between the three factors and coach leadership behaviors were found offering support to the instrument's concurrent validity. The findings support previous validation studies and verify the psychometric properties of the CART-Q applied to Belgian coaches of team sports. PMID:19804577

Balduck, A-L; Jowett, S

2010-10-01

196

Ethnography of language policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While theoretical conceptualizations of language policy have grown increasingly rich, empirical data that test these models\\u000a are less common. Further, there is little methodological guidance for those who wish to do research on language policy interpretation\\u000a and appropriation. The ethnography of language policy is proposed as a method which makes macro–micro connections by comparing\\u000a critical discourse analyses of language policy

David Cassels Johnson

2009-01-01

197

Whale Cart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners interact with whale artifacts such as replicas of skulls, bones, teeth, and baleen (hair-like plates that form a feeding filter). Guiding questions help learners differentiate between toothed whales and baleen whales, including what they eat, how they breathe, and how humans are connected to them. Background information is provided about many of the details of how whales survive, including hunting and pollution problems caused by humans ("Save the whales!"). This activity is written to be used in a museum or aquarium, but could be used for general background information about whales, or in conjunction with a field trip.

Pacific, Aquarium O.

2009-01-01

198

Interpretation: a political and social practice.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article was to illustrate that interpretation is a political and social practice and to explore the conceptualization of interpretation as a political and social practice within the discipline of nursing. A critical view of language, meaning, and interpretation reveals that words are influenced by sociopolitical context and empiricism is engulfed in interpretations derived from the environment. The deliberations reveal that how we perceive our nature of being in the world affects our interpretations. In contrast, from a critical theory lens the discussion reveals that interpretation becomes a process of penetration of different contexts and of an evolutionary praxis effecting transformation. PMID:20693834

Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi S

2010-01-01

199

Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics shared with humans, including diurnal and social habits, intense maternal care, complex manipulative abilities and well-developed frontal cortices. In the present study, we assessed the distribution of CART mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We found that the distribution of hypothalamic CART neurons in these monkeys is similar to what has been described for rodents and humans, but some relevant differences were noticed. Only in capuchin monkeys CART neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic and the intercalatus nuclei, whereas only in marmoset CART neurons were observed in the dorsal anterior nucleus. We also found that the only in marmoset displayed CART neurons in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and in an area seemingly comprising the premammillary nucleus. These hypothalamic sites are both well defined in rodents but poorly defined in humans. Our findings indicate that CART expression in hypothalamic neurons is conserved across species but the identified differences suggest that CART is also involved in the control of species-specific related functions. PMID:22030409

Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cândido, Paulo Laino; Sita, Luciane Valéria; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

2011-11-24

200

Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is present in peptidergic C primary afferents and axons of excitatory interneurons with a possible role in nociception in the superficial laminae of the rat spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides (CART) have been implicated in the regulation of several physiological functions, including pain transmission. A dense plexus of CART-immunoreactive fibres has been described in the superficial laminae of the spinal cord, which are key areas in sensory information and pain processing. In this study, we used antibody against CART peptide, together with markers for various

Márk Kozsurek; Erika Lukácsi; Csaba Fekete; Gábor Wittmann; Miklós Réthelyi; Zita Puskár

2007-01-01

201

Compiling Embedded Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional languages are particularly well-suited to the im- plementation of interpreters for domain-specific embedded languages (DSELs). We describe an implemented technique for producing optimizing compil- ers for DSELs, based on Kamin's idea of DSELs for program generation. The technique uses a data type of syntax for basic types, a set of smart constructors that perform rewriting over those types, some

Conal Elliott; Sigbjorn Finne; Oege De Moor

2000-01-01

202

Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following are included in this collection of essays on patterns of rules of speaking, and sociolinguistics and second language learning and teaching: "How to Tell When Someone Is Saying 'No' Revisited" (Joan Rubin); "Apology: A Speech-Act Set" (Elite Olshtain and Andrew Cohen); "Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A…

Wolfson, Nessa, Ed.; Judd, Elliot, Ed.

203

Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to accept Newton's laws without question, and

Joseph C. Amato; Roger E. Williams

2010-01-01

204

Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART).  

PubMed

Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine exposure shifts aPVT neurons to a more excitable state (TF). We propose that the capacity of CART to reduce excitatory drive to this population balances the enhanced aPVT excitability to restore the net output of this region in the reward-seeking pathway. This is in line with previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in addiction. PMID:25309361

Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H; Graham, Brett A; Dayas, Christopher V

2014-01-01

205

Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)  

PubMed Central

Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine exposure shifts aPVT neurons to a more excitable state (TF). We propose that the capacity of CART to reduce excitatory drive to this population balances the enhanced aPVT excitability to restore the net output of this region in the reward-seeking pathway. This is in line with previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in addiction. PMID:25309361

Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H.; Graham, Brett A.; Dayas, Christopher V.

2014-01-01

206

Monocytes as Regulators of Inflammation and HIV-Related Comorbidities during cART  

PubMed Central

Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) extends the lifespan and the quality of life for HIV-infected persons but does not completely eliminate chronic immune activation and inflammation. The low level of chronic immune activation persisting during cART-treated HIV infection is associated with the development of diseases which usually occur in the elderly. Although T-cell activation has been extensively examined in the context of cART-treated HIV infection, monocyte activation is only beginning to be recognized as an important source of inflammation in this context. Here we examine markers and sources of monocyte activation during cART-treated HIV infection and discuss the role of monocytes during cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and innate immune aging. PMID:25025081

Anzinger, Joshua J.; Butterfield, Tiffany R.; Angelovich, Thomas A.; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Palmer, Clovis S.

2014-01-01

207

Stabilization of an inverted pendulum-cart system by fractional PI-state feedback.  

PubMed

This paper deals with pole placement PI-state feedback controller design to control an integer order system. The fractional aspect of the control law is introduced by a dynamic state feedback as u(t)=K(p)x(t)+K(I)I(?)(x(t)). The closed loop characteristic polynomial is thus fractional for which the roots are complex to calculate. The proposed method allows us to decompose this polynomial into a first order fractional polynomial and an integer order polynomial of order n-1 (n being the order of the integer system). This new stabilization control algorithm is applied for an inverted pendulum-cart test-bed, and the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control are examined by experiments. PMID:24315056

Bettayeb, M; Boussalem, C; Mansouri, R; Al-Saggaf, U M

2014-03-01

208

Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

1998-01-01

209

The Cost-Effectiveness of Early Access to HIV Services and Starting cART in the UK 1996–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo calculate use, cost and cost-effectiveness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting routine treatment and care before starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and PLHIV starting first-line 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PIboosted, comparing PLHIV with CD4?200 cells\\/mm3 and CD4>200 cells\\/mm3. Few studies have calculated the use, cost and cost-effectiveness of routine treatment and care before starting cART and starting cART above and

Eduard J. Beck; Sundhiya Mandalia; Roshni Sangha; Peter Sharott; Mike Youle; Guy Baily; Ray Brettle; Mark Gompels; Margaret Johnson; Brendan McCarron; Ed Ong; Anton Pozniak; Achim Schwenk; Stephen Taylor; John Walsh; Ed Wilkins; Ian Williams; Brian Gazzard

2011-01-01

210

Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language

Björkman, Beyza

2014-01-01

211

A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

Robison, Arch Douglas

1987-01-01

212

Benchmarking Prolog Interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpreters have the advantage of creating a safe environment in addition to provide portability. In the context of Prolog, several interpreters were developed following the model of the WAM. But what to say about the performance of the known interpreters? This article points to the differences in performance among the known Prolog interpreters. For this, we used several metrics to

Alexandre Martins Locci; Anderson Faustino da Silva

2011-01-01

213

Psychosocial Factors Affecting Medication Adherence Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Abstract As increasing numbers of persons are placed on potentially life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa, it is imperative to identify the psychosocial and social factors that may influence antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Using an 87 question survey, the following data were collected from patients on cART in Botswana: demographics, performance (Karnofsky) score, perceived stigma and level of HIV disclosure, attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV/AIDS, substance and/or drug use, depression, and pharmacy and healthcare provider-related factors. Overall adherence rates were determined by patient self-report, institutional adherence, and a culturally modified Morisky scale. Three hundred adult patients were recruited between April and May 2005. The overall cART adherence rate was 81.3% based on 4 day and 1 month patient recall and on clinic attendance for ARV medication refills during the previous 3 months. Adults receiving cART for 1–6 months were the least adherent (77%) followed by those receiving cART for greater than 12 months (79%). Alcohol use, depression, and nondisclosure of positive HIV status to their partner were predictive of poor adherence rates (p value <0.02). A significant proportion (81.3%) of cART-treated adults were adherent to their prescribed treatment, with rates superior to those reported in resource-rich settings. Adherence rates were poorest among those just starting cART, most likely due to the presence of ARV-related toxicity. Adherence was lower among those who have been treated for longer periods of time (greater than 1 year), suggesting complacency, which may become a significant problem, especially among these long-term cART-treated patients who return to improved physical and mental functioning and may be less motivated to adhere to their ARV medications. Healthcare providers should encourage HIV disclosure to “at-risk” partners and provide ongoing counseling and education to help patients recognize and overcome HIV-associated stigma, alcohol abuse, and depression. PMID:20518649

Do, Natalie T.; Phiri, Kelesitse; Bussmann, Hermann; Gaolathe, Tendani; Marlink, Richard G.

2010-01-01

214

Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters, expecting to find enhanced working memory and semantic processing in interpreters relative to others fluent in a second language. The interpreters (n?=?15) outperformed the control group (n?=?35) on semantic fluency and most measures of working memory; their advantage over teachers of a foreign language (n?=?15) approached, but did not reach,

Stavroula Stavrakaki; Kalliopi Megari; Mary H. Kosmidis; Maria Apostolidou; Eleni Takou

2012-01-01

215

JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

216

Site/Systems Operations, Maintenance and Facilities Management of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site  

SciTech Connect

This contract covered the site/systems operations, maintenance, and facilities management of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site.

Wu, Susan

2005-08-01

217

[The professional interpreter disappears: quality is jeopardized].  

PubMed

According to Dutch law, patients have the right to comprehensible communication. However, professional interpreters are not being used sufficiently: health care providers often do not recognize when language barriers interfere with comprehension. The use of professional interpreters declined even further when the Dutch government withdrew its funding for medical interpreters in January 2012. Additionally, the government's stance that non-native speakers have to master the language and organize translating help when needed seems to have given a signal to health care providers that this is not their responsibility. Nonetheless, health care providers are obliged by law to provide comprehensible information. Therefore, it is important to provide proper training so they can recognize language barriers and know when a professional interpreter is necessary. In addition, a financial aid system needs to be developed for those patients who cannot reasonably be expected to have mastered the language. PMID:25052355

Langendijk-van den Berg, Irene; Verdonk, Petra; Abma, Tineke

2014-01-01

218

Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

1992-03-01

219

Central regulation of feeding behavior during social isolation of rat: evidence for the role of endogenous CART system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Although hyperphagia and body weight gain are well-recognized consequences of social isolation, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. The aim of this work is to test the possibility that the endogenous cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) may be involved in the process.Design:Socially isolated rats were screened for increase in food intake and body weight, and the modifications of these

K T Nakhate; D M Kokare; P S Singru; N K Subhedar

2011-01-01

220

Foreign Language Day--A Living Language Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

St. Bonaventure University holds a Language Day each spring, hosting some 3,900 area junior high and high school students. The buildings and facilities of the university campus are used, and activities include language competitions (exhibits, interpretative readings, language productions, audio-visual presentations and essays); a fiesta; foreign…

Wood, Paul W.

221

Coinjection of CCK and leptin reduces food intake via increased CART/TRH and reduced AMPK phosphorylation in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

CCK and leptin are anorectic hormones produced in the small intestine and white adipose tissue, respectively. Investigating how these hormones act together as an integrated anorectic signal is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which energy balance is maintained. We found here that coadministration of subthreshold CCK and leptin, which individually have no effect on feeding, dramatically reduced food intake in rats. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus significantly decreased after coinjection of CCK and leptin. In addition, coadministration of these hormones significantly increased mRNA levels of anorectic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the hypothalamus. The interactive effect of CCK and leptin on food intake was abolished by intracerebroventricular preadministration of the AMPK activator AICAR or anti-CART/anti-TRH antibodies. These findings indicate that coinjection of CCK and leptin reduces food intake via reduced AMPK phosphorylation and increased CART/TRH in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, by using midbrain-transected rats, we investigated the role of the neural pathway from the hindbrain to the hypothalamus in the interaction of CCK and leptin to reduce food intake. Food intake reduction induced by coinjection of CCK and leptin was blocked in midbrain-transected rats. Therefore, the neural pathway from hindbrain to hypothalamus plays an important role in transmitting the anorectic signals provided by coinjection of CCK and leptin. Our findings give further insight into the mechanisms of feeding and energy balance. PMID:24735891

Akieda-Asai, Sayaka; Poleni, Paul-Emile; Date, Yukari

2014-06-01

222

The CARTS study: Chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer in the distal rectum followed by organ-sparing transanal endoscopic microsurgery  

PubMed Central

Background The CARTS study is a multicenter feasibility study, investigating the role of rectum saving surgery for distal rectal cancer. Methods/Design Patients with a clinical T1-3 N0 M0 rectal adenocarcinoma below 10 cm from the anal verge will receive neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (25 fractions of 2 Gy with concurrent capecitabine). Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) will be performed 8 - 10 weeks after the end of the preoperative treatment depending on the clinical response. Primary objective is to determine the number of patients with a (near) complete pathological response after chemoradiation therapy and TEM. Secondary objectives are the local recurrence rate and quality of life after this combined therapeutic modality. A three-step analysis will be performed after 20, 33 and 55 patients to ensure the feasibility of this treatment protocol. Discussion The CARTS-study is one of the first prospective multicentre trials to investigate the role of a rectum saving treatment modality using chemoradiation therapy and local excision. The CARTS study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01273051) PMID:22171697

2011-01-01

223

Medical Interpreters as Tools: Dangers and Challenges in the Utilitarian Approach to Interpreters’ Roles and Functions  

PubMed Central

Objective This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. Results The utilitarian view to interpreters’ roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter’s emotional support perceived as tools. Conclusion When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients’ and interpreters’ voice, objectifying interpreters’ emotional work, and exploiting patients’ needs. Practice Implications Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter’s role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. PMID:22857777

Kramer, Eric M.

2012-01-01

224

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-07-01

225

Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-07-01

226

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1996-01-01

227

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six-months beginning on July 1, 1993, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides a planning focus for the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the current plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six-months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-08-01

228

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-07-01

229

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-01

230

Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1998-01-01

231

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-07-01

232

Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1993-12-01

233

Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-01-01

234

Natural language generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

Maybury, Mark T.

235

SDL: A Surface Description Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

Maple, Raymond C.

1992-01-01

236

Bringing Language to Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia) briefly describes the process of interpreting poetry and drama into American Sign Language (ASL) with his students. The process involves analysis and discussion, followed by mapping the subtext and adapting it to ASL. The process improves not only acting skills but also…

McCarty, Tim

1996-01-01

237

Language Teaching and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the relationship between language teaching and research begins by defining research as a systematic process of inquiry in which the researcher poses a question or questions, collects relevant data, analyzes and interprets it, and makes the results accessible to others. It looks at the simplistic but persistent distinction between…

Nunan, David

238

Data Acquisition Interpretation  

E-print Network

Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Virgin River DCIP Report Justin Granek1 1 Report #12;Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Outline 1 Data Acquisition Location Survey Specications 2 Inversion Data Errors DCIP2D DCIP3D 3 Interpretation Correlations Snowbird Tectonic

Oldenburg, Douglas W.

239

Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

Zelizer, Barbie

1993-01-01

240

Journalists as interpretive communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests that the notion of “profession” may not offer the most fruitful way of examining community among American journalists. It proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community instead, one united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. The article applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events

Barbie Zelizer

1993-01-01

241

Language Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language

Schwartz, Judy I.

242

Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

2001-01-01

243

(Interpretive Report), MPACI stem (Interpretive Report),  

E-print Network

Dominique interactif4 Dominique Ado4 CBCL et MMPI2 AIS PsyCorp5 D317.4 X X X X AP5RI X X E306/308 X X X E310/312 X X X X X X X X MMPI2 AIS E314/316 X X X X X X E318/320 X X X X X X E322/324 X X X E323.1.2 X Report), MPACI (Profile Report), MAPI (Interpretive Report), MCMIIII (Interpretive Report), MMPI2 Adult

Parrott, Lael

244

CD4+ cell count recovery in na?ve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression  

PubMed Central

Introduction A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naďve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. Methods From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naďve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm3 according to baseline CD4 cell count. Results A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3–96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2–46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130–336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. Results are presented in the Table 1. Conclusions This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naďve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts. PMID:25393990

Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Menard, Amelie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois

2014-01-01

245

Language Endangerment and Language Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

Muhlhausler, Peter

2003-01-01

246

QUANTIFYING HYDROMETEOR ADVECTION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FRACTION OVER THE SGP CART SITE  

SciTech Connect

A single column model (SCM) is, in essence, an isolated grid column of a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, SCMs have rather demanding input data requirements, but do not suffer from problems associated with balance of a GCM. Among the initial conditions that must be used to describe the initial state of the SCM column are the vertical profile of the horizontal wind components and the vertical profiles of cloud water and ice. In addition, the large-scale divergence and advective tendencies of cloud water and ice must be supplied as external parameters. Finally, the liquid and ice cloud amount as a function of height within the SCM column are required for model evaluation. The scale of the SCM column over which the initial conditions, external parameters, and model evaluation fields must apply is relatively large ({approximately}300 km). To quantify atmospheric structure on this scale, the ARM SGP CART site is located within the NOAA wind profiler network and has boundary and extended measurement facilities in an area compatible with the scale requirements of SCMs. Over an area this size, however, there is often rich mesoscale structure. This mesoscale variability creates a sampling problem that can thwart even the most sophisticated attempts to quantify the initial conditions and external parameters, and to evaluate model performance. There are two approaches that can be used to quantify the time varying quantities required for SCMs: objective analysis and data assimilation. The latter relies on products produced for operational forecasting, while the former involves methods that can be used to combine measurements from various sources to produce synoptic descriptions of the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic fields. Since data assimilation from operational models introduces the uncertainty of the parameterizations used in the models, most of the focus in the SCM effort has been on developing objective analysis techniques.

MILLER,M.; VERLINDE,J.

1998-03-23

247

Photo observation & interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each week in Structural Geology, I assign students the task of sketching, describing, and interpreting an image. The images are chosen to match the relevant course material for that week. There is a specific form for this assignment, which is designed in part to physically separate their observations from interpretations on the page. In class, we spend 10-20 minutes discussing their different observations/interpretations.

Titus, Sarah

248

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

/Finance Sales CustomerServices Manufacturing Engineering/Technical Research OperationsManagement Consulting with computers. Read international newspapers to keep up with overseas developments. Interpretation: Simultaneous

Kaminsky, Werner

249

Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.  

PubMed

This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training. PMID:18079141

Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

2008-01-01

250

cART prescription trends in a prospective HIV cohort in rural Tanzania from 2007 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines discourage using stavudine in first-line regimens due to frequent and severe side effects. This study describes the implementation of this recommendation and trends in usage of antiretroviral therapy combinations in a cohort of HIV-positive patients in rural Tanzania. Methods We analyzed longitudinal, prospectively collected clinical data of HIV-1 infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy within the Kilombero Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO) in Ifakara, Tanzania from 2007-2011. Results This analysis included data of 3008 patients. Median age was 38 (interquartile range [IQR] 31-45) years, 1962 (65.2%) of all subjects were female, and median CD4+ cell count at enrollment was 168 cells/mm3 (IQR 81-273). The percentage of prescriptions containing stavudine in initial regimens fell from a maximum of 75.3% in 2008 to 10.7% in 2011. TDF/FTC/EFV became available in 2009 and was used in 41.9% of patients initiating cART in 2011. An overall on-treatment analysis revealed that d4T/3TC/NVP and AZT/3TC/EFV were the most prescribed combinations in each year, including 2011 (674 [36.5%] and 641 [34.7%] patients, respectively). Of those receiving stavudine in 2011, 659 (89.1%) initiated it before 2011. Conclusions Initial cART with stavudine declined to low levels according to recommendations but the overall use of stavudine remained substantial, as individuals already on cART containing stavudine were not changed to alternative drugs. Our findings highlight the critical need to exchange stavudine in treatment regimens of patients who initiated therapy in earlier years. PMID:24552395

2014-01-01

251

Stop waiting and start creating: service learning with an outpatient bone marrow transplant unit art cart program.  

PubMed

This paper examines how master of occupational therapy students, their occupational therapy instructor, and a community-based licensed clinical social worker collaborated in a service learning art cart program on an outpatient bone marrow transplant unit. As they progressed through the phases of Kolb's model of service learning, occupational therapy students, their occupational therapy instructor, and the licensed clinical social worker were all able to meet mutual goals of serving a unique patient population, increasing knowledge of best practices, and building and fostering university/community relationships. PMID:23471289

Fletcher, Tina; Bayer, Christina; Beyer, Emily; Gonzales, Jessica; Ralston, Ashley; Yount, Phyllis

2013-01-01

252

Listening and Message Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message interpretation, using primarily written scenarios, has identified individual, sociocultural, and contextual

Renee Edwards

2011-01-01

253

Language Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this course text on second language acquisition, the latest research of Halle and Chomsky, Lenneberg, Hatch, Larsen-Freeman, Dulay and Burt, and Krashen is presented. The text covers such topics as the effects of environment, age, and personality on second language acquisition; the role of the first language; and error analysis. Enough has been…

Dulay, Heidi; And Others

254

Learning Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign language study is finding a niche in the elementary school curriculum. Schools now offer Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Swedish, and Japanese, instead of teaching mostly German and the Romance languages. Studies agree that children pursuing foreign languages show more creativity, divergent thinking, and higher-order thinking skills and score…

Black, Susan

1993-01-01

255

Language Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested in this column that trends in language testing in the last 15 years have followed trends in modern language teaching. Language testing adopted the tenets of audiolingualism and contrastive analysis, then incorporated test-making procedures of psychometrics, and finally became more eclectic in its approach. (SW)

Upshur, John A.

1974-01-01

256

Sign Language From the Space Station  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

257

Leveraging Virtual Learning Environments for Training Interpreter Trainers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the demand for conference interpreters in traditional language combinations (the more widely used languages) is decreasing, the need for experts in less widely used languages is rapidly increasing with each enlargement of the EU. Post-war peace-keeping operations as well as war- crime tribunals have also increased the need for high-level interpreters in languages hitherto not used in the international

ARBARA MOSER-MERCER; KILIAN G. SEEBER

258

Overweight in Adolescence Can Be Predicted at Age 6 Years: A CART Analysis in German Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine, whether overweight in adolescents can be predicted from the body mass index (BMI) category, at the age of 6, the mother's education level and mother's obesity and to quantify the proportion of overweight at the age of 14 that can be explained by these predictors. Method Pooled data from three German cohorts providing anthropometric and other relevant data to a total of 1 287 children. We used a classification and regression tree (CART) approach to identify the contribution of BMI category at the age of 6 (obese: BMI>97th percentile (P97); overweight: P90P90) at the age of 14. Results While 4.8% [95%CI: 3.2;7.0] of 651 boys and 4.1% [95%CI: 2.6;6.2] of 636 girls with a BMIP97 (similar results for girls). BMI?P75 at the age of 6 explained 63.5% [95%CI: 51.1;74.5]) and 72.0% [95%CI: 60.4;81.8] of overweight/obesity at the age of 14 in boys and girls, respectively. Conclusions Overweight/obesity in adolescence can be predicted by BMI category at the age of 6 allowing for parent counselling or risk guided interventions in children with BMI?P75, who accounted for >2/3 of overweight/obesity in adolescents. PMID:24676281

Riedel, Christina; von Kries, Rudiger; Buyken, Anette E.; Diethelm, Katharina; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Muller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra

2014-01-01

259

Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

Whittier, Mrs.

2010-01-28

260

Language Switching and Language Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

2012-01-01

261

Language Ideology and Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the language-related educational policies of South Asia, and particularly of India, finds that language policies among colonial administrators and the native elite for over a century has left a deep imprint on contemporary language ideologies of different nations. The discussion begins with a look at the Indian dual education…

Khubchandani, L. M.

1997-01-01

262

The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

2011-01-01

263

Identifying Depiction in American Sign Language Presentations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines depiction in American Sign Language (ASL) presentations. The impetus for this study came from my work as an instructor in an interpreter education program. The majority of ASL/English interpreters are second language learners of ASL, and many of them find some features of ASL challenging to learn. These features are…

Thumann, Mary Agnes

2010-01-01

264

Aladdin: an assembly language assertion-driven debugging interpreter  

E-print Network

000003 000002 000007 177777 000001 000001 000001 START: . LIST: I. IST: TOTAI: . LOC LDA LDA STA STA STA INC LDA NOVI? HALT LDA SUBI? STA I DA SUBI? STA LDA ADD STA JMP I IST 5 3 2 7 -1 . BLK . BLK . BLK . END 100... 000003 000002 000007 177777 000001 000001 000001 START: . LIST: I. IST: TOTAI: . LOC LDA LDA STA STA STA INC LDA NOVI? HALT LDA SUBI? STA I DA SUBI? STA LDA ADD STA JMP I IST 5 3 2 7 -1 . BLK . BLK . BLK . END 100...

Hardin, David Alan

2012-06-07

265

Questioning Interrogative Interpretation in Some Indo-European Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares indirect "wh"-questions and independent relatives, points to the absence of a clear-cut boundary between these two types of construction, and argues for the indispensability of semantic and pragmatic analysis for syntactic theory. The article emphasizes that it is the answer to a question that supplies the determinate element sought by…

Fava, Elisabetta

1996-01-01

266

Understanding quantifiers and scope interpretations in a second language  

E-print Network

?A.:/K@9AbC)685dUS14\\BcHklWXfg7_YP !"#$%RH6('C9,->*+2D1/.?@4;0=EcG:\\53N7BDA6)?:.7EHG`5K4]d\\a1Yc^SQU8PXh... to this article benefits you. 2012 ?!"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\] !"#$%S^6(8*,=+D?'&-2>/@)EOAG:5@K(0+CDB:)?OP1478EHRcW_U][GaXfgb`hiZ !"#$%SR*K(,-'=2>B9/0@+`O6HCD;5...

Li, Yan

2012-01-01

267

Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

Merriman, Tim

1994-01-01

268

Collapse challenge for interpretations  

E-print Network

mechanics is to build from first principles and your preferred interpretation a complete, observer). The challenge is to build from first principles and your preferred interpreta­ tion a complete, observer principles, too. 6. Position, mom

Neumaier, Arnold

269

Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.  

PubMed

The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members. PMID:22792852

Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

2012-01-01

270

LANGUAGE LABORATORIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY HAS GIVEN MANY THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS GOOD LISTENING AND SPEAKING PRACTICE AND HAS BECOME AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING TOOL. THE BASIC PIECE OF EQUIPMENT OF THE LANGUAGE LABORATORY IS THE TAPE RECORDER-AND-PLAYBACK, DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH AUDIOPASSIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE STUDY, AUDIOACTIVE-COMPARATIVE STUDY, AND…

BRUBAKER, CHARLES WILLIAM

271

Space languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

Hays, Dan

1987-01-01

272

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

273

Modern Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

Ministry of Education, London (England).

274

Language Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is a collaborative project started by a language enthusiast that not only aims to help language learners, but also to "provide a window into the culture of the people who speak those languages." So how does the site accomplish this feat? It provides interactive language lessons, quizzes, and texts that allow the language learner to hear the word or text pronounced by fluent, often native, speakers. The sound quality is high, and by simply scrolling over any of the pictures in categories as diverse as the alphabet, weather, insects, and money, visitors will hear the word read pronounced. Thirteen languages are offered, including "Vietnamese", "Arabic", "German", "Hindi" and "Hebrew", with the most fully realized lessons for "English", "French" and "Spanish". However, the collaborative nature of the site should soon fill out the lessons of the other languages, because the "Collaborate/Volunteer" section of the site shows the many contributions volunteers can make, such as "Translating", "Suggesting Words/Phrases" or Contribute Your Voice". As the content of the site continues to expand, visitors can sign up for the "Newsletter" to be notified when major new content for a specific language has been added.

275

Language acquisition from age five onward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the literature on the acquisition of language after 4 yr. of age with emphasis on important developmental changes that occur after the earlier dramatic initiation of language behavior. At all levels significant advances in language were found. The evidence is interpreted as indicating that phonological, syntactic, and semantic levels of analysis are intimately interrelated and that language advances appear

David S. Palermo; Dennis L. Molfese

1972-01-01

276

Localized Smart-Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f(d,m) successfully has been inferred, we are able to simulate how the geological expert would perform an interpretation given some external information m, through f(d|m). We will demonstrate this method applied on geological interpretation and densely sampled airborne electromagnetic data. In short, our goal is to build a statistical model describing how a geological expert performs geological interpretation given some geophysical data. We then wish to use this statistical model to perform semi automatic interpretation, everywhere where such geophysical data exist, in a manner consistent with the choices made by a geological expert. Benefits of such a statistical model are that 1. it provides a quantification of how a geological expert performs interpretation based on available diverse data 2. all available geophysical information can be used 3. it allows much faster interpretation of large data sets.

Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

2014-05-01

277

Language Dominance and Language Pathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three objectives of research reported here were to describe the neural organization underlying language usage and language loss, to study activities occurring in both cerebral hemispheres, and to study neural changes related to changes in syntactic complexity of stimuli. A dichoptic procedure was chosen. A subject faced a viewing screen on which…

Fox, Joseph P.; And Others

278

The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

2000-04-04

279

Shakespeare's Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will explore web sites to learn about William Shakespeare's writing techniques and language. What qualities do Shakespeare's works share? Begin by reviewing Shakespeare's work. No Fear Shakespeare for Romeo and Juliet Choose one scene from Romeo and Juliet and read the first 15 lines. Notice how Shakeseare's writing looks, reads, sounds. Use these sites to answer the following questions: Shakepeare s Language, Shakespeare s Style 1. What forms do Shakespeare's works take? 2. Describe ...

Flowers, Ms.

2009-10-21

280

Putting the Cart before the Horse: Interrogating Media Literacy Education in School English Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In response to the changing demands of new times, media literacy has been incorporated into the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore. Although media literacy is mentioned in the syllabus, what this term means needs more clarification. What is clear from the current English Language Syllabus 2010 in Singapore is the…

Tan Lee Wee, Lynde

2010-01-01

281

Prediction of Oncotype DX and TAILORx risk categories using histopathological and immunohistochemical markers by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis.  

PubMed

Oncotype DX is an RT-PCR assay used to predict which patients with ER-positive node-negative (NN) disease will benefit from chemotherapy. Each patient is stratified into a risk category based on a recurrence score (RS) and the TAILORx trial is determining the benefit of chemotherapy for patients with mid-range RSs. We tested if Oncotype DX and TAILORx risk categories could be predicted by standard pathological features and protein markers corresponding to 10 genes in the assay (ER, PR, Ki67, HER2, BCL2, CD68, Aurora A kinase, survivin, cyclin B1 and BAG1) on 52 patients who enrolled on TAILORx. Immunohistochemistry for the protein markers was performed on whole tissue sections. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis correctly classified 69% of cases into Oncotype DX risk categories based on the expression of PR, survivin and nuclear pleomorphism. All tumours with PR staining (Allred score ? 2) and marked nuclear pleomorphism were in the high-risk category. No case with PR <2, low survivin (? 15.5%) and nuclear pleomorphism <3 was high-risk. Similarly, 77% of cases were correctly classified into TAILORx categories based on nuclear pleomorphism, survivin, BAG1 and cyclin B1. Ki67 was the only variable that predicted the absolute RS with a cut-off for positivity of 15% (p = 0.003). In conclusion, CART revealed key predictors including proliferation markers, PR and nuclear pleomorphism that correctly classified over two thirds of ER-positive NN cancers into Oncotype DX and TAILORx risk categories. These variables could be used as an alternative to the RT-PCR assay to reduce the number of patients requiring Oncotype DX testing. PMID:23643806

Ingoldsby, Helen; Webber, Mark; Wall, Deirdre; Scarrott, Carl; Newell, John; Callagy, Grace

2013-10-01

282

Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory  

E-print Network

1 TENS Text Interpretation Intelligent Systems Laboratory University of Wollongong TENS Text and delivering the text data to the user by electrically stimulating the fingers. Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong #12;2 The TENS Unit Intelligent Systems Laboratory ­ University of Wollongong

Ward, Koren

283

Interpretable and flexible technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

in recent years, dynamic properties of technical systems have attracted attention. A changing environment requires technical systems that can be adapted to new conditions. With an in- creased rate of change comes a demand for interpretability of technical systems in terms of business processes, since one cannot change what one does not understand. The paper presents a theory that emphasize

Peter Břgh Andersen; Frederik Bajers

284

Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.

1987-01-01

285

Documenting and Interpreting Conflict  

E-print Network

, a professor at Artuklu University at Mardin, collected oral histories of Armenians and Kurds in DiyarbakirDocumenting and Interpreting Conflict through Oral History A WORKING GUIDE Co-produced with TAARII Editors Mary Marshall Clark Columbia University Center for Oral History Research Terrell Frazier Columbia

Salzman, Daniel

286

Kinematics Graph Interpretation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary goal of the Kinematics Graphing Project is to investigate the ability of students to interpret kinematics graphs and to generate a set of suggestions for faculty teaching the subject. Evaluation instruments are used to uncover the common misconceptions of students.

Beichner, Robert J.

2003-10-10

287

Interpretation of quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

New axioms are proposed for the interpretation of quantum mechanics. They rest on a kind of calculus allowing to select meaningful physical statements and giving rules to check a given physical reasoning containing implications. Measurement theory is reformulated. Laboratoire associé au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

Roland Omnčs

1987-01-01

288

Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

Center, David B.

289

Psychosemantics and Simultaneous Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehension model of simultaneous interpretation activity raises three types of problems: structure of semantic information stored in long-term memory, modalities of input processing and specific restrictions due to situation. A useful concept of semantic mnesic structures includes: (1) a componential-predicative lexicon; (2) a propositional…

Le Ny, Jean-Francois

290

Human Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you put an English speaker, a Mandarin Chinese speaker, and a Swahili speaker in the same room, chances are they'd have trouble communicating. But according to one scientific theory, they're really all speaking the same language.

Science Update;

2004-04-19

291

Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capitalizing on the resources available in an urban city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents a resource list and objectives and activities relative to teaching language arts (reading, English, listening, speaking, and writing). The resource list is comprised of approximately 150 physical facilities (e.g.,…

Keener, Paul L.

292

Modern Language Association Language map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on information from the United States Census 2000 long form, the Modern Language Association has crated this important interactive map that allows users to see where the speakers of thirty-seven languages reside throughout the country. The map allows visitors the option to toggle certain themes (such as rivers, lakes, and highways) and to look through the numbers of speakers by zip code, town, city, or county. Visitors can also look at data at the state level, and they can also print out their own customized maps as well. Users of the site can also generate interactive maps for two languages in the same state, or compare the concentration of the same language in two states. If all of this seems a bit overwhelming, visitors can also take an online tour of the site's features. This site will be of great interest both to linguists and to those interested in learning about the spatial distribution of the languages spoken across the United States.

293

Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret

2008-01-01

294

Interpreting the Urinalysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

Braun, Mark

2007-03-02

295

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

296

Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Morris, Paul

297

Software development without languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic programming generally involves the construction of a formal specification; i.e., one which allows unambiguous interpretation by tools for the subsequent production of the corresponding software. Previous practical efforts in this direction have focused on the serious problems of: (1) designing the optimum specification language; and (2) mapping (translating or compiling) from this specification language to the program itself. The approach proposed bypasses the above problems. It postulates that the specification proper should be an intermediate form, with the sole function of containing information sufficient to facilitate construction of programs and also of matching documentation. Thus, the means of forming the intermediary becomes a human factors task rather than a linguistic one; human users will read documents generated from the specification, rather than the specification itself.

Osborne, Haywood S.

1988-01-01

298

EXPLICIT SOFTWARE SPECULATION FOR DYNAMIC LANGUAGE RUNTIMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract While dynamic languages are now mainstream choices for application development, most popular dynamic languages are primarily executed by interpreters whose perfor- mance and capabilities restrict their wider application. The only successful remedy for these limitations has been dynamic optimization infrastructures developed specif- ically for each language. Building such infrastructures is a substantial undertaking. This dissertation presents explicit software speculation,

NICHOLAS J. RILEY

299

Growth of Internet Use by Language Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a survey showing increased use of the Internet by language professionals (e.g., language teachers, translators, interpreters). Results of the survey show a qualitative improvement in the Internet for information retrieval, teaching, and idea exchange. If K-12 foreign-language teachers receive appropriate equipment and training,…

Fidelman, Carolyn G.

1998-01-01

300

Problems of a Theory of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of fashioning a theory of language fall into two broad areas: (1) the neurophysiological correlates of language behavior are still little understood, and (2) the enormous amount of data on language behavior that has been gathered by researchers is subject to varying and differing interpretations. In spite of these problems, the…

Nolte, Edward O.

301

The Cost-Effectiveness of Early Access to HIV Services and Starting cART in the UK 1996-2008  

PubMed Central

Aim To calculate use, cost and cost-effectiveness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting routine treatment and care before starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and PLHIV starting first-line 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PIboosted, comparing PLHIV with CD4?200 cells/mm3 and CD4>200 cells/mm3. Few studies have calculated the use, cost and cost-effectiveness of routine treatment and care before starting cART and starting cART above and below CD4 200 cells/mm3. Methods Use, costs and cost-effectiveness were calculated for PLHIV in routine pre-cART and starting first-line cART, comparing CD4?200 cells/mm3 with CD4>200 cells/mm3 (2008 UK prices). Results cART naďve patients CD4?200 cells/mm3 had an annual cost of Ł6,407 (95%CI Ł6,382 to Ł6,425) PPY compared with Ł2,758 (95%CI Ł2,752 to Ł2,761) PPY for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3; cost per life year gained of pre-cART treatment and care for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3 was Ł1,776 (cost-saving to Ł2,752). Annual cost for starting 2NRTIs+NNRTI or 2NRTIs+PIboosted with CD4?200 cells/mm3 was Ł12,812 (95%CI Ł12,685–Ł12,937) compared with Ł10,478 (95%CI Ł10,376–Ł10,581) for PLHIV with CD4>200 cells/mm3. Cost per additional life-year gained on first-line therapy for those with CD4>200 cells/mm3 was Ł4639 (Ł3,967 to Ł2,960). Conclusion PLHIV starting to use HIV services before CD4?200 cells/mm3 is cost-effective and enables them to be monitored so they start cART with a CD4>200 cells/mm3, which results in better outcomes and is cost-effective. However, 25% of PLHIV accessing services continue to present with CD4?200 cells/mm3. This highlights the need to investigate the cost-effectiveness of testing and early treatment programs for key populations in the UK. PMID:22194795

Beck, Eduard J.; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Sangha, Roshni; Sharott, Peter; Youle, Mike; Baily, Guy; Brettle, Ray; Gompels, Mark; Johnson, Margaret; McCarron, Brendan; Ong, Ed; Pozniak, Anton; Schwenk, Achim; Taylor, Stephen; Walsh, John; Wilkins, Ed; Williams, Ian; Gazzard, Brian

2011-01-01

302

A language with distributed scope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obliq is a lexically-scoped, untyped, interpreted language that supports distributed object-oriented computation. Obliq objects have state and are local to a site. Obliq computations can roam over the network, while maintaining network connections. Distributed lexical scoping is the key mechanism for managing distributed computation.

Luca Cardelli

1995-01-01

303

The Naivasha language policy: the language of politics and the politics of language in the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political\\u000a discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive\\u000a framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped by the historically\\u000a mediated relationships between the south and

Ashraf Kamal Abdelhay; Busi Makoni; Sinfree Bullock Makoni

2011-01-01

304

Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

Melchor, Rosemary Laura

2008-01-01

305

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters Robert E. Filman  

E-print Network

Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters Robert E. Filman Research Institute a programming language is by studying its interpreter [17]. This motif has been recently emphasized in recent for Advanced Computer Science NASA Ames Research Center, MS 269-2 Moffett Field, CA 94035 rfilman

Leavens, Gary T.

306

Verbal Memory during Simultaneous Interpretation: Effects of Phonological Interference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a group of advanced student interpreters, recall of short stories after simultaneous interpretation from their first (L1) into their second (L2) language, and vice versa, was significantly worse than recall of similar stories after listening. Memory span for digits presented in L1 and L2 was significantly poorer following simultaneous…

Daro, Valeria; Fabbro, Franco

1994-01-01

307

Simultaneous and Consecutive Interpretation and Human Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of noise on the performance of simultaneous conference interpreters, and to carry out a detailed examination of verbal and temporal aspects of their output in relation to source language input. A further aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of simultaneous and consecutive interpretation

Gerver, D.

308

An Analyst's Assistant for the Interpretation of Vehicle Track Data  

E-print Network

This report describes the Analyst's Assistant, a software system for language-interactive, collaborative user-system interpretation of events, specifically targeting vehicle events that can be recognized on the basis of ...

Borchardt, Gary

2014-10-08

309

Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

Ozolins, Uldis

2003-01-01

310

Interpretation of extragalactic jets  

SciTech Connect

The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

Norman, M.L.

1985-01-01

311

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

312

Interpreting the Higgs  

E-print Network

The LHC and Tevatron Higgs data are interpreted as constraints on an effective theory of a Higgs boson with mass close to 125 GeV. We focus on the diphoton, ZZ*, WW* channels at the LHC, and the b-bbar channel at the Tevatron, which are currently the most sensitive probes of a Higgs with such a mass. Combining the available data in these channels, we derive the preferred regions of the parameter space of the effective theory. We further provide the mapping between the effective theory and the relevant Higgs event rates, facilitating future extraction of the preferred region by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

Carmi, Dean; Kuflik, Eric; Volansky, Tomer

2012-01-01

313

Ambient contracts: verifying and enforcing ambient object compositions ŕ la carte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current programming languages do not offer adequate abstractions to discover and compose heterogenous objects over unreliable\\u000a networks. This forces programmers to discover objects one by one, compose them manually, and keep track of their individual connectivity state at all times. In this paper we propose Ambient\\u000a Contracts, a novel programming abstraction to deal with the difficulties of composing objects connected

Christophe Scholliers; Dries Harnie; Éric Tanter; Wolfgang De Meuter; Theo D’Hondt

2011-01-01

314

Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language

Schinkel, Anders

2011-01-01

315

Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurementsĂ?Âť  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

Dr. Sergey Matrosov

2010-12-15

316

Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation  

PubMed Central

Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

2013-01-01

317

An intentional interpretive perspective  

PubMed Central

To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

Neuman, Paul

2004-01-01

318

Heritage and hermeneutics: towards a broader interpretation of interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article re-examines the theoretical basis for environmental and heritage interpretation in tourist settings in the light of hermeneutic philosophy. It notes that the pioneering vision of heritage interpretation formulated by Freeman Tilden envisaged a broadly educational, ethically informed and transformative art. By contrast, current cognitive psychological attempts to reduce interpretation to the monological transmission of information, targeting universal but

Phillip Gordon Ablett; Pamela Kay Dyer

2009-01-01

319

Interpretation for Discussions about End-of-Life Issues: Results from a National Survey of Health Care Interpreters  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Communication about end-of-life issues is difficult across language barriers. Little is known about the experience of health care interpreters in these discussions. Objectives Objectives of this study were to: 1) assess the experiences of healthcare interpreters when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues; 2) identify interpreter characteristics and experiences that may be associated with improved satisfaction and comfort with interpreting these discussions; and 3) describe interpreter training needs. Methods The study utilized an electronically administered survey distributed nationally to health care interpreters in the United States. One hundred and forty-two health care interpreters participated. Measurements included general experiences, attitudes, and perceived training needs when interpreting discussions about end-of-life issues. Results Most respondents had received a certificate in interpretation (71%, 101/142), completed more than 40 hours of training (89%, 127/142), and had more than 5 years of interpreting experience (65%, 93/142). Overall, 85% (121/142) of respondents had interpreted discussions about end-of-life issues and most interpreted multiple discussions per week. Of those interpreters who had experience with these discussions, the majority (85%, 103/121) reported feeling comfortable, but only half (48%, 58/121) reported that these discussions usually went well. Interpreters who felt clear about their role were more likely than interpreters who did not feel clear about their role to think that discussions went well (51% [57/112] versus 11% [1/9], p=0.02) and to feel comfortable interpreting (88% [98/112] versus 56% [5/9], p=0.01). Eighty percent (97/121) of respondents with experience in end-of-life discussions were personally interested in more specific training for these discussions. Attitudes and perceived training needs did not differ by interpreter demographics or qualifications. Conclusions The majority of interpreters have experience with end-of-life discussions but, independent of interpreter training and experience, only half report that these discussions usually go well. Interpreters want and may benefit from targeted educational interventions that could improve the quality of care for vulnerable patients and families in these difficult situations. Health systems and interpreter certification programs should incorporate specific training on how to interpret discussion about end-of-life issues. PMID:22788909

Fernandez, Alicia; Kerr, Kathleen; O'Riordan, David; Pantilat, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

320

Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history  

PubMed Central

Background Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222), an internet sample (n=123), and psychiatric outpatients (n=30). Results The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted. PMID:23580403

Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Lanius, Ruth A.

2013-01-01

321

Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

Windley, Phillip J.

1990-01-01

322

Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

2007-12-01

323

Turning a Common Lab Exercise into a Challenging Lab Experiment: Revisiting the Cart on an Inclined Track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common lab exercise in the introductory college physics course employs a low-friction cart and associated track to study the validity of Newton's second law. Yet for college students, especially those who have already encountered a good high school physics course, the exercise must seem a little pointless. These students have already learned to accept Newton's laws without question, and any experimental data that contradict the second law would immediately alert students to an error in procedure or analysis, or, worse, reinforce the widely held opinion that simple laws are inadequate to explain the behavior of "real" systems. A better approach is to ask students to apply their understanding of Newton's laws to determine one or more unknowns inherent in the laboratory apparatus. We illustrate this approach in the experiment described below: a small amount of complexity is added to a standard experimental exercise, forcing a careful analysis of the collected data and yielding very accurate results plus a thorough understanding of the physical system under study. If development of experimental skills is one of the primary goals of the introductory laboratory, then the strategy illustrated below might be widely adaptable and appropriate in laboratories throughout the introductory mechanics curriculum.

Amato, Joseph C.; Williams, Roger E.

2010-05-01

324

Comparison of measurements by the NASA/GSFC scanning raman lidar and the DOE/ARM CART raman lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latent heat transfer through evaporation and condensation of water vapor is the most important energy transport mechanism in the atmosphere. In addition, water vapor is the most active greenhouse gas. Any global warming scenario must take accurate account of the spatial and temporal variation of water vapor in order to account for both of these effects. Due to the great importance of water vapor in atmospheric radiation studies, specific intensive operations periods (IOPs) have been hosted by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. One of the goals of these IOPs has been to determine the quality of and explain any discrepancies among a wide variety of water vapor measuring instruments. Raman lidar systems developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and DOE/Sandia National Laboratories have participated in the two Water Vapor IOPs (WVIOPs) held at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site (CART) site during 1996 (WVIOP1) and 1997 (WVIOP2). Detailed comparisons of these two systems is ongoing but this effort has already resulted in numerous improvements in design and data analysis for both lidar systems.

Whiteman, David; Turner, David; Evans, Keith; Demoz, Belay; Melfi, Harvey; Schwemmer, Geary; Cadirola, Martin; Ferrare, Richard; Goldsmith, John; Tooman, Tim; Wise, Stacy

1998-01-01

325

Object schemas for grounding language in a responsive robot  

E-print Network

An approach is introduced for physically grounded natural language interpretation by robots that reacts appropriately to unanticipated physical changes in the environment and dynamically assimilates new information pertinent ...

Hsiao, Kai-yuh

326

Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

Vanezis, P

2001-01-01

327

A History of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

328

Rapid Development of Speech Translation using Consecutive Interpretation  

E-print Network

The development of a speech translation (ST) system is costly, largely because it is expensive to collect parallel data. A new language pair is typically only considered in the aftermath of an international crisis that incurs a major need of crosslingual communication. Urgency justifies the deployment of interpreters while data is being collected. In recent work, we have shown that audio recordings of interpreter-mediated communication can present a low-cost data resource for the rapid development of automatic text and speech translation. However, our previous experiments remain limited to English/Spanish simultaneous interpretation. In this work, we examine our approaches for exploiting interpretation audio as translation model training data in the context of English/Pashto consecutive interpretation. We show that our previously made findings remain valid, despite the more complex language pair and the additional challenges introduced by the strong resource-limitations of Pashto. Index Terms: speech translation, machine translation, parallel speech

Matthias Paulik; Alex Waibel

329

Delay in cART Initiation Results in Persistent Immune Dysregulation and Poor Recovery of T-Cell Phenotype Despite a Decade of Successful HIV Suppression  

PubMed Central

Background Successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases levels of CD4+ T-cells, however this increase may not accurately reflect long-term immune recovery since T-cell dysregulation and loss of T-cell homeostasis often persist. We therefore assessed the impact of a decade of effective cART on immune regulation, T-cell homeostasis, and overall T-cell phenotype. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 288 HIV+ cART-naďve patients initiating therapy. We identified 86 individuals who received cART for at least a decade, of which 44 consistently maintained undetectable plasma HIV-RNA levels throughout therapy. At baseline, participants were classified into three groups according to pre-treatment CD4+ T-cell counts: Group I (CD4<200 cells/mm3); Group II (CD4: 200–350 cells/mm3); Group III (CD4>350 cells/mm3). Outcomes of interest were: (1) CD4+ T-cell count restoration (CD4>532 cells/mm3); (2) normalization of CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio (1.2–3.3); (3) maintenance of CD3+ T-cell homeostasis (CD3: 65%–85% of peripheral lymphocytes); (4) normalization of the complete T-cell phenotype (TCP). Results Despite a decade of sustained successful cART, complete T-cell phenotype normalization only occurred in 16% of patients, most of whom had initiated therapy at high CD4+ T-cell counts (>350 cells/mm3). The TCP parameter that was the least restored among patients was the CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio. Conclusions Failure to normalize the complete T-cell phenotype was most apparent in patients who initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm3. The impact of this impaired T-cell phenotype on life-long immune function and potential comorbidities remains to be elucidated. PMID:24710051

Ndumbi, Patricia; Falutz, Julian; Pant Pai, Nitika; Tsoukas, Christos M.

2014-01-01

330

Interpreting NHANES biomonitoring data, cadmium.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) occurs naturally in the environment and the general population's exposure to it is predominantly through diet. Chronic Cd exposure is a public health concern because Cd is a known carcinogen; it accumulates in the body and causes kidney damage. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) has measured urinary Cd; the 2003-2004 NHANES survey cycle reported estimates for 2257 persons aged 6 years and older in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. As part of translational research to make computerized models accessible to health risk assessors we re-coded a cadmium model in Berkeley Madonna simulation language. This model was used in our computational toxicology laboratory to predict the urinary excretion of cadmium. The model simulated the NHANES-measured data very well from ages 6 to 60+ years. An unusual increase in Cd urinary excretion was observed among 6-11-year-olds, followed by a continuous monotonic rise into the seventh decade of life. This observation was also made in earlier studies that could be life stage-related and a function of anatomical and phsysiological changes occurring during this period of life. Urinary excretion of Cd was approximately twofold higher among females than males in all age groups. The model describes Cd's cumulative nature in humans and accommodates the observed variation in exposure/uptake over the course of a lifetime. Such models may be useful for interpreting biomonitoring data and risk assessment. PMID:20447450

Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Osterloh, John; Fisher, Jeffrey; Fowler, Bruce A

2010-09-15

331

Audiometry screening and interpretation.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation. PMID:23317024

Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

2013-01-01

332

Getting By: Underuse of Interpreters by Resident Physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Language barriers complicate physician–patient communication and adversely affect healthcare quality. Research suggests that physicians underuse interpreters despite evidence of benefits and even when services are readily available. The reasons underlying the underuse of interpreters are poorly understood. Objective To understand the decision-making process of resident physicians when communicating with patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants Internal medicine resident physicians (?=?20) from two urban teaching hospitals with excellent interpreter services. Approach An interview guide was used to explore decision making about interpreter use. Results Four recurrent themes emerged: 1) Resident physicians recognized that they underused professional interpreters, and described this phenomenon as “getting by;” 2) Resident physicians made decisions about interpreter use by weighing the perceived value of communication in clinical decision making against their own time constraints; 3) The decision to call an interpreter could be preempted by the convenience of using family members or the resident physician’s use of his/her own second language skills; 4) Resident physicians normalized the underuse of professional interpreters, despite recognition that patients with LEP are not receiving equal care. Conclusions Although previous research has identified time constraints and lack of availability of interpreters as reasons for their underuse, our data suggest that the reasons are far more complex. Residents at the study institutions with interpreters readily available found it easier to “get by” without an interpreter, despite misgivings about negative implications for quality of care. Findings suggest that increasing interpreter use will require interventions targeted at both individual physicians and the practice environment. PMID:19089503

Schenker, Yael; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Fernandez, Alicia

2008-01-01

333

Black interpretation, black American literature, and grey audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines and illustrates some of the language techniques used by black authors writing to and for blacks in the sixties and seventies. Further, the paper suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary, integrated oral interpretation classroom.

Earl M. Washington

1981-01-01

334

Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.  

PubMed

Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful. PMID:20537266

Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

2010-06-01

335

STRUCTURE PLUS MEANING EQUALS LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY CAN BE ACHIEVED ONLY BY THE INTERNALIZATION OF THE ENTIRE GRAMMAR OF THE TARGET LANGUAGE PLUS THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILL IN SEMANTIC INTERPRETATION. ADHERENCE TO EITHER OF THE METHODOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS THAT UNDERLIE TODAY'S AUDIOLINGUALLY-ORIENTED PROGRAMS WILL LEAD STUDENTS TO NOTHING MORE THAN A LEARNING PLATEAU.…

BELASCO, SIMON

336

Defining Language Ability: The Criteria for Criteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems associated with criterion-referenced language testing are discussed in the context of both standardized proficiency testing and classroom assessment. First, different interpretations of criterion-referencing are examined. A range of approaches for defining criteria and performance levels in second language assessment are outlined, and…

Brindley, Geoff

337

ORIGINAL PAPER Language Metaphors of Life  

E-print Network

reading, writing, sign, interpretation, etc., can be applied in the realm of the living and what can of a string, and (2) texts--projections from a natural language requiring reading (Lotman 2001 [1990 extent language, a product of the natural and not the transcendent world, is shared by living beings

Markos, Anton

338

Design of the Data Description Language Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Data Description Language (DDL) is a language for describing the structure of data, and expressing transformations that are to be performed on that data. The DDL Processor is a set of computer programs which interprets DDL statements and generates a c...

A. French, J. A. Ramirez, H. Solow, N. S. Prywes

1971-01-01

339

Literacy Paradigms and Language Research Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differing views on how meaning in a literacy event is formed have a large impact upon literacy instruction and language research. Teaching and research are often conducted without considering who is in charge of meanings. Yet the answer to this question establishes an interpretive frame that creates the questions, methods, and findings in language

Myers, Jamie

340

The Assessment of Second Language Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an action-research project that focuses on the assessment of second language teacher education. It was carried out in the context of the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults (CELTA) and centres on how assessment criteria for this qualification are interpreted and operationalized by teacher educators…

Thaine, Craig

2004-01-01

341

Classes as first class objects in an environment-passing interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an expression-based programming language that treats classes as first-class objects. We show an implementation of this language using an environment-passing interpreter accessible to students in a programming language class. We also show how to extend this language with properties (as in the C# programming language).

Timothy V. Fossum

2005-01-01

342

Evaluation of internists’ spirometric interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Correct interpretation of screening spirometry results is essential in making accurate clinical diagnoses and directing subsequent\\u000a pulmonary evaluation. The general internist is largely responsible for interpreting screening spirometric tests at community\\u000a hospitals. However, reports of new guidelines for screening spirometry are infrequently published in the general internal\\u000a medicine literature. This can lead to incorrect interpretations. We sought to evaluate

Oleh Hnatiuk; Lisa Moores; Thomas Loughney; Kenneth Torrington

1996-01-01

343

Mantoux test and its interpretation.  

PubMed

The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19(th) century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

344

Mantoux test and its interpretation  

PubMed Central

The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19th century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

2012-01-01

345

Quantum physics and language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics - such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc. - , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view - such as “complementarity”, “wave-particle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.

Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

1988-07-01

346

Oral language, written language and language awareness Christophe Parisse  

E-print Network

Oral language, written language and language awareness Christophe Parisse INSERM, Paris, France developing process involving many linguistic factors which sometimes begins even before school age and lasts and, in particular, the fact that they have taken the relationship between oral language and literacy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Finding Language in the Language Arts: Towards "Cognitive Language Arts."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language arts are constructed like a doughnut or a bagel, so that at their center where there might be something, there is instead a hole--emptiness. The dominant approach to understanding the nature of language--generative grammar--does not suggest a center for the language arts. An alternative approach to language and mind is "cognitive…

Chametzky, Robert A.

348

Language tests as language policy tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contextualizes language tests in relation to educational and national language policies by demonstrating how these language measures may be used as mechanisms for affecting de facto language policies. This phenomenon is of special relevance given current controversies in nation states between multilingual and multicultural realities and government policies that perpetuate homogenous policies with regard to national languages. The

Elana Shohamy

2007-01-01

349

Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language

Skaer, Peter M.

350

Mediating Academic Language Learning Through Classroom Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

For school-aged students who are learning ESL, the discourse of the classroom must simultaneously construct curriculum knowledge\\u000a and be a site for second language development. This chapter focuses on academic language learning in the ESL school context,\\u000a in particular on how language learning is mediated through classroom discourse. While linguistic, social, and sociocognitive\\u000a traditions have interpreted the nature of interaction

Pauline Gibbons

351

Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

Casas, Rachel; Guzman-Velez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quinones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

2012-01-01

352

Social work with trauma survivors: collaboration with interpreters.  

PubMed

Scant attention has been given to the emotional plight, lack of training, and stressful working conditions of interpreters serving survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma from different parts of the world. This article addresses the critical need for effective collaboration between social workers and interpreters when the provider and survivor do not speak the same language. The careful selection of interpreters; the training, support, and promotion of self-care of interpreters; the training needs for social workers related to their work with interpreters; and the impact of secondary trauma and organizational support on the work of social workers and interpreters are explored. Proposed curriculum components for training interpreters and the importance of therapy and ongoing supervision for interpreters are highlighted. It is essential to prepare interpreters and social workers for the various challenges they will face in their collaborative efforts to serve survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma, and organizational support is vital to the success of this work. PMID:24855859

Berthold, S Megan; Fischman, Yael

2014-04-01

353

La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

Drallny, Ines

1987-01-01

354

Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes

2000-01-01

355

Oral Interpretation as Performing Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-step process of description, reduction, and interpretation is employed in this paper in disentangling the complex of relationships involved in oral interpretation. In the description, contributions from various disciplines are synthesized; among the topics discussed are the communication process model usually employed in descriptions of…

Peterson, Eric E.

356

Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

Neill, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

357

Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

Elsayed, Tarek A.

2012-01-01

358

Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author finds Katz and Postal's 1964 generative semantic theories concerning the organization of grammar incorrect and proposes an interpretive approach to semantics in which syntactic structures are given interpretations by an autonomous semantic component. The research reported leads the author to describe a generative grammar consisting of…

Jackendoff, Ray S.

359

Remote sensing and image interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

360

CarteM.Barazani(CRFJ),C.Parizot(IREMAM).Source:Cartography:OCHAInformatio C I S J O R D A N I E  

E-print Network

S R A � L mer Morte Jérusalem 0 10 20 km Jourdain Carte 1 : Zones A, B et C en Cisjordanie (2009C.Parizot(IREMAM).Source-Cartography:OCHAInformationManagementUnit,juin2009.Basedataandstatistics:OCHA,PAMoP. C I S J O R D A N I E I S R A � L JORDANIE mer Morte 0 10 20kmMéditerranée Jérusalem Ligne verte #12; I S R A � L Hébron Bethléem mer Morte Jérusalem Yatta Samû` Dhahriyya checkpoint

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

Factors associated with HPV-DNA clearance in a cohort of HIV-positive patients: role of cART and gender  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to assess any factors associated with dysplasia regression and with HPV clearance in a cohort of HIV+ patients, with particular focus on cART and gender. Methods Asymptomatic HIV+ patients of the San Paolo Infectious Disease (SPID) cohort who underwent anoscopy/gynaecological evaluation were enrolled. Anal/cervical brushing were analyzed for: HPV-PCR detection/genotyping (HR-HPV), cytologic abnormalities (Bethesda System 2001: LSIL-HSIL). Demographics and HIV-related parameters were evaluated at baseline. Activated CD8+/CD38+ lymphocytes were measured (flow citometry). Patients were examined at baseline (T0) and at 12–18 months visit (T1). HPV clearance was defined as negativisation of HPV at T1; SIL regression (SIL-R) and progression (SIL-P) were defined as change from HSIL/LSIL to a lower-grade/absence of dysplasia and as change from absence of HSIL/LSIL to a higher-grade dysplasia at T1, respectively. Mann Whitney test, Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used. Results A total of 189 patients were examined, 60 (32%) were women. One hundred fifty patients (79%) were HPV+, 113 (75%) harboured HR-HPV; 103 (68%) showed LSIL/HSIL at T0 (32% of women and 65% of men) (all were HPV-positive). No differences in demographics and HIV-related markers were found between patients with SIL-P (33, 41%) and patients with SIL-R (47, 59%). HPV+ patients who cleared HPV (28, 18%) were found to be more frequently female, heterosexual infected, more frequently on cART and with lower Log10 HIV-RNA and lower levels of CD8+/CD38+ % compared with HPV persistence group (Table 1). No differences in PI exposure were found between the two groups (p=.08). Interestingly, also when only HR-HPV were considered, clearance was associated with exposure to cART (naďve 4%, vs cART 86%, p=.048). In multivariate analysis, heterosexuals (AOR 5.123, 95% CI 1.5–17.5 vs homosexuals) were independently associated to HPV clearance, whereas CD8+/CD38+% (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.65–1.01 for each % more) were predictive of HPV persistence. Conclusions Close follow-up of HPV and SIL should be promoted particularly in men and in untreated individuals. We cannot exclude behavioural variables linked to risky sex and reinfection.

Suardi, Elisa; Bai, Francesca; Comi, Laura; Pandolfo, Alessandro; Rovati, Marco; Barco, Ambra; Dalzero, Serena; Cassani, Barbara; Marchetti, Giulia; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

2014-01-01

362

Patient Satisfaction with Different Interpreting Methods: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Growth of the foreign-born population in the U.S. has led to increasing numbers of limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients. Innovative medical interpreting strategies, including remote simultaneous medical interpreting (RSMI), have arisen to address the language barrier. This study evaluates the impact of interpreting method on patient satisfaction. Methods 1,276 English-, Spanish-, Mandarin-, and Cantonese-speaking patients attending the primary care clinic and emergency department of a large New York City municipal hospital were screened for enrollment in a randomized controlled trial. Language-discordant patients were randomized to RSMI or usual and customary (U&C) interpreting. Patients with language-concordant providers received usual care. Demographic and patient satisfaction questionnaires were administered to all participants. Results 541 patients were language-concordant with their providers and not randomized; 371 were randomized to RSMI, 167 of whom were exposed to RSMI; and 364 were randomized to U&C, 198 of whom were exposed to U&C. Patients randomized to RSMI were more likely than those with U&C to think doctors treated them with respect (RSMI 71%, U&C 64%, p?interpreting method protected their privacy (RSMI 51%, U&C 38%, p?interpretation reported less comprehension and satisfaction than patients in language-concordant encounters. Conclusions While not a substitute for language-concordant providers, RSMI can improve patient satisfaction and privacy among LEP patients. Implementing RSMI should be considered an important component of a multipronged approach to addressing language barriers in health care. PMID:17957417

Leng, Jennifer; Shapiro, Ephraim; Abramson, David; Motola, Ivette; Shield, David C.; Changrani, Jyotsna

2007-01-01

363

Planar Languages Empirical results  

E-print Network

language? Without explicit instruction Without correction (middle class Western families aside) Rapidly Empirical results First Language Acquisition How do children learn language? Without explicit instructionMotivation Planar Languages Empirical results Languages as Hyperplanes Grammatical Inference

Clark, Alexander

364

Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

365

Are Good Intentions Good Enough?: Informed Consent Without Trained Interpreters  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the informed consent process when trained language interpreters are unavailable. Background Ensuring sufficient patient understanding for informed consent is especially challenging for patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP). While US law requires provision of competent translation for LEP patients, such services are commonly unavailable. Design and Participants Qualitative data was collected in 8 prenatal genetics clinics in Texas, including interviews and observations with 16 clinicians, and 30 Latina patients. Using content analysis techniques, we examined whether the basic criteria for informed consent (voluntariness, discussion of alternatives, adequate information, and competence) were evident for each of these patients, contrasting LEP patients with patients not needing an interpreter. We present case examples of difficulties related to each of these criteria, and compare informed consent scores for consultations requiring interpretation and those which did not. Results We describe multiple communication problems related to the use of untrained interpreters, or reliance on clinicians’ own limited Spanish. These LEP patients appear to be consistently disadvantaged in each of the criteria we examined, and informed consent scores were notably lower for consultations which occurred across a language barrier. Conclusions In the absence of adequate Spanish interpretation, it was uncertain whether these LEP patients were provided the quality and content of information needed to assure that they are genuinely informed. We offer some low-cost practice suggestions that might mitigate these problems, and improve the quality of language interpretation, which is essential to assuring informed choice in health care for LEP patients. PMID:17443367

de Voogd, Katherine B.

2007-01-01

366

The interpretation of IPCC probabilistic statements around the world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) uses verbal descriptions of uncertainty (for example, Unlikely) to convey imprecision in its forecasts and conclusions. Previous studies showed that the American public misinterprets these probabilistic statements. We report results from a multi-national study involving 25 samples in 24 countries and 17 languages. As predicted, laypeople interpret IPCC statements as conveying probabilities closer to 50% than intended by the IPCC authors. We show that an alternative presentation format supplementing the verbal terms with numerical ranges increases the correspondence between the public's interpretations and the IPCC guidelines, and the terms are better differentiated. These qualitative patterns are remarkably stable across all samples and languages. In fact, interpretations of the terms in various languages are more similar under the new presentation format. These results suggest changing the way the IPCC communicates uncertainty.

Budescu, David V.; Por, Han-Hui; Broomell, Stephen B.; Smithson, Michael

2014-06-01

367

Sense-based Interpretation of Logical Metonymy Using a Statistical Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of figurative language is ubiqui- tous in natural language texts and it is a serious bottleneck in automatic text un- derstanding. We address the problem of interpretation of logical metonymy, using a statistical method. Our approach origi- nates from that of Lapata and Lascarides (2003), which generates a list of non- disambiguated interpretations with their likelihood derived from

Ekaterina Shutova

2009-01-01

368

a Contextualist Interpretation of Mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of mathematics has been the subject of heated debate among mathematicians and philosophers throughout the ages. The realist and anti-realist positions have had longstanding debate over this problem, but some of the most important recent development has focused on the interpretations; each of the above positions has its own interpretation of the nature of mathematics. I argue in this paper a contextualist interpretation of mathematics, it elucidates the essential features of mathematical context. That is, being integral and having concrete structure, mathematical context is a recontextualizational process with determinate boundary.

Liu, Jie

2014-03-01

369

The Language Policy Course and Language Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new and important part of the training and education of English as a second language teachers is the course in "Language Policy," which centers on the relationship between politics and language teaching in developing countries, i.e., on language planning. A better understanding and more knowledge might be had by including static and declining…

Palmer, Joe Darwin

370

Language Testing in "The Modern Language Journal."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses coverage of language testing issues in the "Modern Language Journal" over the last 80 years. Suggests that overall the articles devoted to language testing show a valuable concern with the use rather than the form of language tests. (Author/VWL)

Spolsky, Bernard

2000-01-01

371

Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

1991-01-01

372

SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

1 SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK Originally written 1983 By Daryl D..................................................20 SOIL ACIDITY AND LIMESTONE...............................................27 EXCHANGEABLE MAGNESIUM No. Page No. I. Nitrogen rate adjustments based upon soil texture, organic matter, and time of major

Noble, James S.

373

INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes preliminary attempts to formulate viable models for interpreting environmental assessment data. The models are evaluated using data from the four most comprehensive environmental assessments. A format for entering environmental assessment results on FORTRAN c...

374

Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples  

E-print Network

Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

Trifonov, Trifon

2011-01-01

375

Car Troubles: An Interpretive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing amount of U.S. surface area being paved increases interpretive opportunities for teaching about the environmental impacts of automobiles. Provides methods and suggestions for educating high school students. Provides several computer graphics. (LZ)

Dawson, Leslie

1995-01-01

376

Map Interpretation with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Resources in this collection A highly effective, non-traditional approach for using Google Earth to teach strike, dip, and geologic map interpretation, with assignments and activities (Barbara Tewksbury, Hamilton ...

377

Interpretive Techniques for Adventure Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpretive techniques for encouraging participants to experience a deeper level of environmental growth during outdoor activities include group discussions, creative writing, artistic expression, visualization, sensitization, group activities introducing participants to various aspects of the environment, reflective thinking, the use of…

Baker, Peter

1995-01-01

378

Personalized Interpretation and Experience Enhancement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion on the interpretations of museums and zoos. Introduces the applications of living history, museum theater and explains the terms interactors, explainers, and curators; keepers; and technicians. Lists the locations having the explained applications. Includes 29 references. (YDS)

West, Robert Mac

2001-01-01

379

Guidelines simplify well test interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a few simple guidelines, industry professionals, especially those who are not well-testing experts, can know more about well-test interpretation, and thus make more appropriate decisions for well tests. Today's well tests frequently provide much more than permeability, skin, and extrapolated pressure. Most managers, geoscientists, and petroleum engineers rely on specialists to interpret pressure-transient data from well tests. At times,

C. A. Ehlig-Economides; P. Hegeman; S. Vik

1994-01-01

380

Near-Concrete Program Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a near-concrete interpretation, a program anal- ysis that aims to cut very close to program execution while retaining decidability. Both in name and in spirit, the approach is similar to ab- stract interpretation, but models heaps with possibly recursive strucure, is path sensitive, and applies in a fully higher-order setting. The main technical contribution is a prune-rerun technique

Paritosh Shro; Christian Skalka; Scott F. Smith

2006-01-01

381

Moral mediation in interpreted health care consultations.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the moral work done in routine diabetes review consultations in primary care with nurses. Consultations with fluent English speakers are compared with consultations where an interpreter was present, largely involving patients of Bangladeshi origin. The study setting was Tower Hamlets in London, where type 2 diabetes is particularly common. Existing research has shown some dissatisfaction with diabetes care amongst Bangladeshi patients, and studies of care providers in other locations suggest that they at times experience the care of this group as particularly challenging. Through analysis of video-recorded consultations recorded in 2010-2011 we shed light on possible reasons for these difficulties. The 12 non-English speakers often experienced difficulties in raising issues that concerned them, particularly if their interpreter did not translate their utterance because it was deemed to be unrelated to diabetes. These difficulties were not shared by the 24 fluent English speakers, who also found it easier to convey a positive moral reputation and to excuse behaviour that deviated from recommended self-management practices. Interpreters at times also acted as moral mediators. For example, where a participant in the consultation made statements that appeared to convey a negative moral judgement of an other participant, these would often go untranslated. Probably, neither health care providers nor patients are fully aware of the nature of their communication difficulties. Given this, interpreters possess considerable power to influence matters. Understanding the moral work of consultations is important in explaining the findings of other studies showing difficulties in the provision of diabetes care to people with limited English language skills. PMID:24331892

Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Al-Sarraj, Hela; Webb, Sarah; Kelly, Moira

2013-12-01

382

Language disorder - children  

MedlinePLUS

... Language disorders are rarely caused by a lack of intelligence. Language disorders are different than delayed language. With ... language disorders may be part of the cause of severe behavioral problems.

383

Language Maintenance and Revival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language maintenance remains either passive, with no overt efforts at preservation or active with language planning. Models for language maintenance are reviewed along with language reinforcement efforts. An annotated bibliography is included. (Contains 43 references.) (LB)

Marshall, David F.

1994-01-01

384

A planning language for activity scheduling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

1991-01-01

385

You and Your Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure, complexity, and peculiarities of the English language are examined in this book, which begins with a discussion of the nature of language. Chapters are devoted to (1) naming--"Language as Answer to a Need"; (2) grammar--"Language as Economy"; (3) words--"Language as the Finding of Minds"; (4) etymology--"Language to Stretch Brains…

Laird, Charlton

386

Language and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

Gibbons, John

1999-01-01

387

Language Flowering, Language Empowering for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based upon the view that parents, home visitors, and teachers in early childhood settings need tools for empowering young children to develop language, this paper examines what adults need to know to guide young children's language development and presents 20 suggestions for enhancing language growth. The paper maintains that adults need to know…

Honig, Alice Sterling

388

Language Variation, Language Change and Perceptual Dialectology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective and objective language data collected in a research project on language variation in north Germany not only reveal information on current linguistic trends in north Germany; they also show how language change in this region is represented in the consciousness of the speakers themselves and described in comments by them. This diachronic…

Gessinger, Joachim

2010-01-01

389

Language Play in Child Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Play sessions of two Mexican children (one five and one eight years old) with English-speaking friends were recorded and the use of language play was examined. Language play is viewed as a non-literal, rule-bound use of language that children engage in for its own sake, either cooperatively or competitively. Practice opportunities and children's…

Peck, Sabrina

390

INTERPRETATION  

E-print Network

Though the specific mission of state managed wildlife areas may differ, many wildlife areas attract similar groups of people interested in outdoor recreation activities, such as hunting, fishing, and wildlife watching. Websites are often the main informational link between state wildlife areas and visitors. The Internet is a powerful tool that provides natural resource personnel with nearly limitless possibilities for information sharing. Unfortunately, users of the Internet are becoming increasingly discerning in their tastes for Internet content. Wildlife area websites must meet both the content and design demands of their target audiences. This study surveyed wildlife agency personnel from five different states, IN, MN, MI, OH, and WI, to develop a list of recommendations highlighting the most important components of wildlife area websites. Also surveyed were visitors of a state wildlife area in central Wisconsin, the George W. Mead Wildlife Area, to determine what wildlife area visitors felt were the most important components of a wildlife area website.

Jessica Huxmann

391

Survival in HIV-Infected Patients after a Cancer Diagnosis in the cART Era: Results of an Italian Multicenter Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) diagnosis in the modern cART era. Methods Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. Results Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51%) were ADCs and 431 (49%) were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p?=?0.017). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001). Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14%) than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%), liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4%) or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%). Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. Conclusions cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group. PMID:24760049

Gotti, Daria; Raffetti, Elena; Albini, Laura; Sighinolfi, Laura; Maggiolo, Franco; Di Filippo, Elisa; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Angarano, Gioacchino; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Pan, Angelo; Esposti, Anna Degli; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Foca, Emanuele; Scalzini, Alfredo; Donato, Francesco; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia

2014-01-01

392

The Language of Language: An Interdisciplinary Approach To Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of language in general and the study of foreign languages in particular have attracted new interest in academic circles during the past decade. The concepts of the "global village" and "cultural diversity" have become commonplace in the jargon of the 1990s. The development of two new courses at Westminster College (Pennsylvania) have…

Mann, Jesse Thomas

1993-01-01

393

Does Quantum Mechanics Need Interpretation?  

E-print Network

Since the beginning, quantum mechanics has raised major foundational and interpretative problems. Foundational research has been an important factor in the development of quantum cryptography, quantum information theory and, perhaps one day, practical quantum computers. Many believe that, in turn, quantum information theory has bearing on foundational research. This is largely related to the so-called epistemic view of quantum states, which maintains that the state vector represents information on a system and has led to the suggestion that quantum theory needs no interpretation. I will argue that this and related approaches fail to take into consideration two different explanatory functions of quantum mechanics, namely that of accounting for classically unexplainable correlations between classical phenomena and that of explaining the microscopic structure of classical objects. If interpreting quantum mechanics means answering the question, "How can the world be for quantum mechanics to be true?", there seems to be no way around it.

Louis Marchildon

2009-02-17

394

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-03

395

The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

Jackson, Robert

2012-01-01

396

The Unmet Need for Interpreting Provision in UK Primary Care  

PubMed Central

Background With increasing globalisation, the challenges of providing accessible and safe healthcare to all are great. Studies show that there are substantial numbers of people who are not fluent in English to a level where they can make best use of health services. We examined how health professionals manage language barriers in a consultation. Methods and Findings This was a cross-sectional study in 41 UK general practices . Health professionals completed a proforma for a randomly allocated consultation session. Seventy-seven (63%) practitioners responded, from 41(59%) practices. From 1008 consultations, 555 involved patients who did not have English as a first language; 710 took place in English; 222 were in other languages, the practitioner either communicating with the patient in their own language/using an alternative language. Seven consultations were in a mixture of English/patient's own language. Patients' first languages numbered 37 (apart from English), in contrast to health practitioners, who declared at least a basic level of proficiency in 22 languages other than English. The practitioner's reported proficiency in the language used was at a basic level in 24 consultations, whereas in 21, they reported having no proficiency at all. In 57 consultations, a relative/friend interpreted and in 6, a bilingual member of staff/community worker was used. Only in 6 cases was a professional interpreter booked. The main limitation was that only one random session was selected and assessment of patient/professional fluency in English was subjective. Conclusions It would appear that professional interpreters are under-used in relation to the need for them, with bilingual staff/family and friends being used commonly. In many cases where the patient spoke little/no English, the practitioner consulted in the patient's language but this approach was also used where reported practitioner proficiency was low. Further research in different setting is needed to substantiate these findings. PMID:21695146

Gill, Paramjit S.; Beavan, Jacqueline; Calvert, Melanie; Freemantle, Nick

2011-01-01

397

Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).Annotated: false

2010-05-31

398

Judicial Activism and the Interpretation of the Voting Rights Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the moment the U.S. Supreme Court first confronted the difficult constitutional questions at the heart of the Voting Rights Act, its posture has been one of deference. This posture has continued to this day. In contrast, the Court has interpreted the language of the Act dynamically, often in total disregard to the text of the law or the intent

Luis Fuentes-Rohwer

2011-01-01

399

Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

Heinz, Michael

2013-01-01

400

DRAFT Deriving Escape Analysis by Abstract Interpretation PATRICIA M. HILL  

E-print Network

DRAFT Deriving Escape Analysis by Abstract Interpretation PATRICIA M. HILL University of Leeds, United Kingdom and FAUSTO SPOTO Universitâ??a di Verona, Italy Escape analysis of object­oriented languages approximates the set of objects which do not escape from a given context. If we take a method as context

Hill, Patricia

401

English/Japanese Professional Interpretation: Its Linguistic and Conceptual Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of simultaneous interpretation from Japanese to English focused on problems inherent in simultaneous language processing. Data were drawn from a discussion session at an international conference of physicians concerning nuclear war. Transcription of the Japanese source text (romanized), English product, and a gloss of lexical equivalents…

Ishikawa, Luli

1995-01-01

402

Interpreters' Training: Learning to Control the Bilingual Switch Mechanism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the latest scientific discoveries in polyglossia as they pertain to understanding the mechanisms which allow simultaneous interpretation to take place. Considers separately the input and output switch mechanisms. Discusses the importance of anticipatory strategies to facilitate language switching in simultaneous translation.

Coughlin, Josette

1985-01-01

403

A Common Conceptual Code in Bilinguals: Evidence from Simultaneous Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines two views of the relations between a bilingual's language repertoires: the lexical and the conceptual mediation hypotheses. In an experiment using cloze completions that required either simple recall or inferences, the interaction between task and cloze type indicates that different processes mediate interpretation and transliteration.…

Isham, William P.; Lane, Harlan

1994-01-01

404

Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aprioristic (classical, naďve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

López Puga, Jorge

2014-01-01

405

16 CFR 1.73 - Interpretations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Federal Register interpretations of the provisions...of the Act. (2) The interpretations are not substantive...basis for voluntary and simultaneous abandonment of unlawful...Failure to comply with such interpretations may result in...

2010-01-01

406

Our Perception of Woman as Determined by Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of gender as a significant factor in the social parameters of language is a very recent phenomonon. The external aspects of language as they relate to sexism have social and political ramifications. Using Peirce's definition of sign, which encompasses the representation, the object, and its interpretation, sexually stereotypic language

Ayim, Maryann

407

Toward a Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a sociocognitive perspective on second language acquisition, proposed as an alternative to the cognitivism pervading the field. Describes the cognitive nature of language and its acquisition, focusing on recent developments in connectionism. Introduces sociocognitive views of language and posits a social interpretation of connectionism…

Atkinson, Dwight

2002-01-01

408

Arabic-speaking migrants' experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. Method A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Results Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter’s task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter’s dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter’s qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. Conclusion The study showed that the personal qualities of a good interpreter not only cover language ability but also origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views. Thus, there is need to develop strategies for personalized healthcare in order to avoid inappropriate communication, to satisfy the preferences of the person in need of interpreters and improve the impact of interpretation on the quality of healthcare. PMID:24934755

2014-01-01

409

The RSZ BASIC programming language manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

1980-01-01

410

A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

411

Pantomime in the Foreign Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how, through pantomime, language learners can be encouraged to participate orally in classroom activities without feeling the pressure of having to perform. This technique requires the teacher to act out simple situations before the class while the students work together to interpret his/her gestures. (Author/MES)

Carels, Peter E.

1981-01-01

412

The missing language of the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore teachers’ use of moral language in their descriptions and interpretations of their K-12 classroom and graduate school experiences. We analyze student products that were developed by practicing K-12 teachers who graduated from a nontraditional master's program. We focused on their end of program exit portfolios and reflective essays. We also examined student admission essays and

Hugh Sockett; Pamela LePage

2002-01-01

413

Can Body Language Shape Body Image?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the central themes in autonomous robot research con- cerns the question how visual images of body movements by others can be interpreted and related to one's own body movements and to language describing these body move- ments. The discovery of mirror neurons has shown that there are brain circuits which become active both in the percep- tion and

Luc Steels; Michael Spranger

2008-01-01

414

Lost in Translation: The Power of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

2011-01-01

415

The Language of the Bilingual Medical Consultation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated translation problems arising in physician-patient interviews conducted in two languages with the help of an interpreter. Subjects were four adult native speakers of Gujarati, aged 42-70, whose physician interviews were videotape-recorded and translated, and the discourse was analyzed. Patients spoke in Gujarati, and the…

Harrison, Brian; And Others

416

Inference in `poor` languages  

SciTech Connect

Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

Petrov, S.

1996-10-01

417

Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

Mortensen, Charles O.

1976-01-01

418

Making Sense of Multiple Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teaching innovations arise from a combination of good intentions, last-minute planning, and incredible luck. In this article, the author discusses the different interpretations of the students on Constance Curry's 'Silver Rights' and David Cecelski's 'Along Freedom Road,' the two books he assigns to the class in the history of education…

Dougherty, Jack

2004-01-01

419

Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.

2012-01-01

420

Intercultural music: Creation and interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercultural Music: Creation and Interpretation is a collection of refereed papers from the conference component of the 2006 Aurora New Music Festival, held at the University of Western Sydney. The editors are keen to point out that the definition of ‚intercultural‘ invoked is wide and that the collection presents some awkwardnesses. This is notably in discussion of the problems associated

Peter Dunbar-Hall

2007-01-01

421

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

422

Interpretation: A tool beyond boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpreters have existed for a long time in history and their work can be appraised today in international events all over the world. Thanks to them, leaders from different countries can communicate, make agreements, make war and peace. Still, this field of work seems to be unfamiliar to most people, as there are few opportunities to do actual professional services

Argelia Peńa Aguilar; Patricia Isis García; Rafael Velasco Argente; José Luis; Villanueva Castilla; Ingrid Yareny; Aguilar Arana; Yolima del Carmen Olvera

423

The Transterpreter: A Transputer Interpreter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Transterpreter: a virtual machine for executing the Transputer instruction set. This interpreter is a small, portable, efficient and ex- tensible run-time. It is intended to be easily ported to handheld computers, mobile phones, and other embedded contexts. In striving for this level of portability, occam programs compiled to Transputer byte-code can currently be run on

Christian L. JACOBSEN; Matthew C. JADUD

2004-01-01

424

Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

Goldstone, Bette P.

1989-01-01

425

Novel interpretation of synchro principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a now interpretation of synchro principles. Approximate equations for currant and torque in a synchro may be established directly from synchronous machine theory. However, this analysis is built up from fundamental laws in order to establish a theory especially adapted to synchros.The investigation centres on obtaining the basic mathematical relations governing the electro-mechanical operation of a

F. L. N-NAGY; B. D. McNULTY

1969-01-01

426

Interpretation as a Relational Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To say that interpretation is a relational process means that any useful understanding achieved is a joint creation, emerging from the interaction, rather than an objective truth about one person discovered by another. We are interested in how the dyad interacts and what emerges from a specific interaction. The interaction between patient and therapist facilitates or constrains the range and

Shelley R. Doctors

2009-01-01

427

Orexigenic effects of omentin-1 related to decreased CART and CRH gene expression and increased norepinephrine synthesis and release in the hypothalamus.  

PubMed

Omentin-1, a visceral fat depot-specific secretory protein, is inversely correlated with obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated, in rats, the effects of chronic omentin-1 administration (8 ?g/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily for 14-days) on feeding behavior and related hypothalamic peptides and neurotransmitters. Food intake and body weight were recorded daily throughout the study. We found a significantly increased food intake compared to controls, but only in days 10-14, while body weight significantly increased since day 12 (P<0.05). Compared with vehicle, omentin-1 treatment led to a significant reduction in both cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) (P<0.05) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) (P<0.05) gene expression, while pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A gene expression were not modified with respect to vehicle-treated rats. We also found an increase in hypothalamic levodopa (l-dopa) (P<0.05) and norepinephrine (NE) (P<0.01) synthesis, without any effect on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) metabolism. Furthermore, in hypothalamic synaptosomes, omentin-1 (10-100 ng/ml) stimulated basal NE release (ANOVA, P<0.0001; post hoc, P<0.001 vs. vehicle), in a dose-dependent manner, leaving unaffected both basal and depolarization-induced DA and 5-HT release. Finally, when synaptosomes were co-perfused with leptin and omentin-1, we observed that leptin was able to reverse omentin-1-induced stimulation of NE. In conclusion, the orexigenic effects of omentin-1 could be related, at least in part, to decreased CART and CRH gene expression and increased NE synthesis and release in the hypothalamus. PMID:23538212

Brunetti, Luigi; Orlando, Giustino; Ferrante, Claudio; Recinella, Lucia; Leone, Sheila; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Di Nisio, Chiara; Shohreh, Rugia; Manippa, Fabio; Ricciuti, Adriana; Vacca, Michele

2013-06-01

428

Comparison of support vector machine, neural network, and CART algorithms for the land-cover classification using limited training data points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Support vector machine (SVM) was applied for land-cover characterization using MODIS time-series data. Classification performance was examined with respect to training sample size, sample variability, and landscape homogeneity (purity). The results were compared to two conventional nonparametric image classification algorithms: multilayer perceptron neural networks (NN) and classification and regression trees (CART). For 2001 MODIS time-series data, SVM generated overall accuracies ranging from 77% to 80% for training sample sizes from 20 to 800 pixels per class, compared to 67-76% and 62-73% for NN and CART, respectively. These results indicated that SVM's had superior generalization capability, particularly with respect to small training sample sizes. There was also less variability of SVM performance when classification trials were repeated using different training sets. Additionally, classification accuracies were directly related to sample homogeneity/heterogeneity. The overall accuracies for the SVM algorithm were 91% (Kappa = 0.77) and 64% (Kappa = 0.34) for homogeneous and heterogeneous pixels, respectively. The inclusion of heterogeneous pixels in the training sample did not increase overall accuracies. Also, the SVM performance was examined for the classification of multiple year MODIS time-series data at annual intervals. Finally, using only the SVM output values, a method was developed to directly classify pixel purity. Approximately 65% of pixels within the Albemarle-Pamlico Basin study area were labeled as "functionally homogeneous" with an overall classification accuracy of 91% (Kappa = 0.79). The results indicated a high potential for regional scale operational land-cover characterization applications.

Shao, Yang; Lunetta, Ross S.

2012-06-01

429

A monadic interpretation of execution levels and exceptions for AOP  

E-print Network

between the -calculus and Carte- sian closed categories that gave birth to functional program- ming. We piece of code can have a very rich interaction with the rest of the pro- gram, whose effect can come up- tion levels [19] that enable to stratify the computation space in order to prevent from basic infinite

430

Multimedia for language learning  

E-print Network

Students studying foreign languages often wish to enjoy authentic foreign-language content - for example, foreign-language videos and comics. Existing means of presenting this content, however, are suboptimal from the ...

Kovács, Géza, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

431

The Standardisation African Languages  

E-print Network

erase multilingualism? chapter two Susan E. Cook, PhD, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology the relationship of national language policies to ground-level language practices. The language repertoires

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Speech and Language Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... speech or language impairment will need speech-language pathology services . This related service is defined by IDEA as follows: (15) Speech-language pathology services includes— (i) Identification of children with speech ...

433

The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

Peter Bosch

1991-01-01

434

Postgwas: Advanced GWAS Interpretation in R  

PubMed Central

We present a comprehensive toolkit for post-processing, visualization and advanced analysis of GWAS results. In the spirit of comparable tools for gene-expression analysis, we attempt to unify and simplify several procedures that are essential for the interpretation of GWAS results. This includes the generation of advanced Manhattan and regional association plots including rare variant display as well as novel interaction network analysis tools for the investigation of systems-biology aspects. Our package supports virtually all model organisms and represents the first cohesive implementation of such tools for the popular language R. Previous software of that range is dispersed over a wide range of platforms and mostly not adaptable for custom work pipelines. We demonstrate the utility of this package by providing an example workflow on a publicly available dataset. PMID:23977141

Hiersche, Milan; Ruhle, Frank; Stoll, Monika

2013-01-01

435

Postgwas: advanced GWAS interpretation in R.  

PubMed

We present a comprehensive toolkit for post-processing, visualization and advanced analysis of GWAS results. In the spirit of comparable tools for gene-expression analysis, we attempt to unify and simplify several procedures that are essential for the interpretation of GWAS results. This includes the generation of advanced Manhattan and regional association plots including rare variant display as well as novel interaction network analysis tools for the investigation of systems-biology aspects. Our package supports virtually all model organisms and represents the first cohesive implementation of such tools for the popular language R. Previous software of that range is dispersed over a wide range of platforms and mostly not adaptable for custom work pipelines. We demonstrate the utility of this package by providing an example workflow on a publicly available dataset. PMID:23977141

Hiersche, Milan; Rühle, Frank; Stoll, Monika

2013-01-01

436

Encyclopedia of Arabic Language  

E-print Network

Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics General Editor Kees Versteegh Associate Editors. Versteegh (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics (EALL), Leiden : Brill. #12;In

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Second Language Learning and Language Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay discusses the difficulties many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students face when mainstreamed into academic content courses while still enrolled in ESL classes. The author demonstrates the benefits of pairing an ESL speech class with a content area course as a method for improving English language skills. (Contains 44 references.)…

Buttaro, Lucia

2002-01-01

438

Travelling Languages? Land, Languaging and Translation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What does translation become if we uncouple language from culture and link language to perception and experience of the land? What would happen to translation if the culture concept was not the starting point for theorizing? In order to answer this question I examine the contributions of Eagleton, Keesing, Cronin and, most particularly, of the…

Phipps, Alison

2011-01-01

439

English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy  

E-print Network

English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This policy sets out UTS's requirements their courses of study. Dates Policy or amendment approved Policy or amendment takes effect Policy is due for review (up to 5 years) 03/11/2010 22/11/2010 11/2015 Policy amendment approved 02/11/2011 Approved

University of Technology, Sydney

440

Foreign Language Study and Language Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five years ago, Language Awareness (LA) was put forward, primarily by modern linguists, as a new 'bridging' element in the UK school curriculum. It was viewed as a solution to several of the failures in UK schools: illiteracy in English, failure to learn foreign languages, and divisive prejudices. The intervening years have inevitably seen a number of developments that cause

Eric W. Hawkins

1999-01-01

441

Languages for Business Means Business for Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Georgia State University has developed undergraduate applied language programs in commercial French, German, and Spanish combining practical with theoretical studies. The curricula stress the communicative aspect of language, and are based on the content of certification examinations given in France, Germany, and Spain. Two upper-level courses in…

Cothran, Bettina F.

442

On Boundaries of the Language of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present paper is to outline a method of reconstruction of the historical development of the language of physical theories. We will apply the theory presented in Patterns of Change, Linguistic Innovations in the Development of Classical Mathematics to the analysis of linguistic innovations in physics. Our method is based on a reconstruction of the following potentialities of language: analytical power, expressive power, integrative power, and explanatory power, as well as analytical boundaries and expressive boundaries. One of the results of our reconstruction is a new interpretation of Kant's antinomies of pure reason. If we relate Kant's antinomies to the language, they retain validity.

Kvasz, Ladislav

443

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2012-01-01

444

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2011-01-01

445

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2010-01-01

446

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2014-01-01

447

8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United States Government, in which event no such oath or...

2013-01-01

448

Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2010-01-01

449

Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.  

PubMed

Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region. PMID:15881270

Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

2005-03-01

450

Interpreting geological structure using kriging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values.

Mao, N.

1985-07-01

451

Interpreting Chemical Labels Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This safety learning module covers the content and interpretation of chemical labels and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond ratings. It contains an Instructor Guide, Participant Guide and supporting presentations. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-09-23

452

Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch\\u000a within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate\\u000a interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical\\u000a work. In particular, we refer to the

Harald Atmanspacher; Stefan Rotter

2008-01-01

453

Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth

454

The double-slit quantum eraser experiments and Hardy's paradox in the quantum linguistic interpretation  

E-print Network

Recently we proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as a kind of metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical systems but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., quantum philosophy or quantum language). The purpose of this paper is to formulate the double-slit experiment, the quantum eraser experiment, Wheeler's delayed choice experiment, Hardy's paradox and the three boxes paradox (the weak value associated with a weak measurement due to Aharonov, et al.) in the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. Through these arguments, we assert that the linguistic interpretation is just the final version of so called Copenhagen interpretation. And therefore, we conclude that the Copenhagen interpretation does not belong to physics (i.e., the realistic world view) but the linguistic world view.

Shiro Ishikawa

2014-07-19

455

Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text presents an introduction to sociolinguistics for second language teachers, focusing on social dimensions of language likely to be of interest to this group. The first group of chapters addresses the manner in which the larger social and political context affects language broadly: "Language Attitudes, Motivation, and Standards" (Mary…

McKay, Sandra Lee, Ed.; Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

456

Language Testing: New Openings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of articles on second-language testing includes: "The State of Language Testing in the 1990s" (J. Charles Alderson); "The Exercise of Power and Control in the Rhetorics of Testing" (Elana Shohamy); "Institutional and Political Aspects of Language Testing" (Bernard Spolsky); "Language Planning Policy and Development of FL Proficiency…

Huhta, Ari, Ed.; And Others

457

Language in South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 24 papers focuses on language and society in South Africa. Part 1, "The Main Language Groupings," includes (1) "South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview" (R. Mesthrie); (2) "The Khoesan Languages" (A. Traill); (3) "The Bantu Languages: Sociohistorical Perspectives" (Robert K. Herbert and Richard Bailey); (4) "Afrikaans:…

Mesthrie, Rajend, Ed.

458

Programming Languages Jens Palsberg  

E-print Network

of programs by offering language constructs for making the program structure explicit. Many such lan- guageProgramming Languages Jens Palsberg Purdue University November 27, 2004 1 Introduction The goal of a programming language is to make it easier to build software. A programming language can help make software

Palsberg, Jens

459

Language Technologies Tomaz Erjavec  

E-print Network

. The science of language: linguistics 3. Computational linguistics: some history 4. HLT: Processes, methods;2 Background: Linguistics What is language? The science of language Levels of linguistics analysis Language Act by an individual (competence) De Saussure (structuralism ~ 1910) parole / langue Chomsky (generative linguistics

Erjavec, TomaÂ?

460

Speaking of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen selected speeches dating from 1955 to 1969 cover a broad range of information relevant to the history of language instruction in American schools. A state-of-the-art review of language instruction, written in 1955, precedes papers on: (1) language proficiency; (2) school and college language program cooperation; (3) motion pictures in…

Brooks, Nelson

461

Feminist Language Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist language planning is an active engagement with the ways in which language represents and reproduces gender. It is not specifically concerned with the ways in which language presents women, although this is a major focus, but rather how language positions both males and females and how it enters into the social practices that gender people…

Liddicoat, Anthony J.

2011-01-01

462

First Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines children's acquisition of a first language, the stages they go through, and how they use language as they learn. There are 16 chapters in 4 parts. After chapter 1, "Acquiring Languages: Issues and Questions," Part 1, "Getting Started," offers (2) "In Conversation with Children," (3) "Starting on Language: Perception," (4) "Early…

Clark, Eve V.

463

Languages for Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategy of the Department for Education and Skills'(DfES) 2002 strategy document, "Languages for All: Languages for Life" called for improving the quality of language teaching and learning; enhancing qualifications and credit recognition arrangements; and increasing demand for language learning. This principle was to extends to adult…

Watters, Kate

2007-01-01

464

GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

1978-01-01

465

Once a Broker, Always a Broker: Non-Professional Interpreting as Identity Accomplishment in Multigenerational Italian-English Bilingual Family Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores interpreting in three-generational Italian-English bilingual families as a complex language brokering activity. Recent studies approach non-professional interpreting as language brokering in which bilinguals (often children) interpret for non-bilinguals (adults) in institutional settings (Hall 2004; Valdes 2003). These studies…

Del Torto, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

466

Languages for parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

This book presents mathematical methods for modelling parallel computer architectures, based on the results of ESPRIT's project 415 on computer languages for parallel architectures. Presented are investigations incorporating a wide variety of programming styles, including functional,logic, and object-oriented paradigms. Topics cover include Philips's parallel object-oriented language POOL, lazy-functional languages, the languages IDEAL, K-LEAF, FP2, and Petri-net semantics for the AADL language.

Bakker, J.W.

1989-01-01

467

The level of accuracy and agreement in measures of FEO2, FECO2 and VE between the Cosmed K4b2 portable, respiratory gas analysis system and a metabolic cart.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the accuracy of the Cosmed K4b2 (Cosmed, Italy) portable metabolic system that measures FEO2, FECO2 and VE on a breath by breath basis. For gas concentration comparisons, expired air from 20 subjects performing treadmill running was collected in a 600 litre chain compensated Collins Tissot tank and analysed for FEO2 and FECO2 using a laboratory metabolic cart and the Cosmed K4 b2 metabolic system. For ventilation comparisons, serial steady state VE (STPD) values were measured on 10 subjects using the Cosmed K4b2 ventilation turbine and a Morgan ventilation monitor during a continuous treadmill running protocol at ascending speeds of 8, 11 and 14 km x h(-1). The Cosmed K4b2 FEO2 and FECO2 measures were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than the metabolic cart values. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and the standard error of measurement (SEM) demonstrated a high association between the Cosmed and the metabolic cart measures (FEO2 r =0 .971, SEM 0.071: FECO2 r = 0.925, SEM 0.087). Cosmed VE (l x min(-1)) measures were significantly greater than Morgan values at running speeds of 8 kmh(-1) (P < 0.001) and 11 kmh(-1) (P < 0.001) but not significantly different at 14 km x h(-1) (P > 0.05). When VE measures at the three running speeds were combined, the mean difference between instrument measures ranged between 3.5 - 4.0 l x min(-1) but the values were highly correlated (r= 0.982, P<0.01; SEM 3.03). Linear regression analysis revealed the following regression equations to predict metabolic cart values from Cosmed measures: FEO2 = 0.852+0.963 Cosmed (R2 = 0.940, P<0.00 1), FECO2 = 0.627+0.878 Cosmed (R2=0.856, P<0.001), VE = -2.50+0.984 Cosmed (R2 = 0.965. P < 0.001). The results indicated that the Cosmed K4b2 unit assessed here produced measures of FEO2, FECO2 and VE that had strong correlation to values obtained from a metabolic cart. However, linear regression analysis may further improve the accuracy of Cosmed K4b2 measures when compared to metabolic cart values. PMID:11702919

Pinnington, H C; Wong, P; Tay, J; Green, D; Dawson, B

2001-09-01

468

Working in partnership with interpreters: studies on individuals affected by HIV/AIDS in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This article brings together two American qualitative researchers and two Vietnamese interpreters who investigated the social impacts of HIV/AIDS in Vietnam from the standpoint of the local community. As cultural outsiders with limited Vietnamese language skills, the researchers relied on the insights and expertise of the interpreters to the extent that interpreter roles expanded to become co-researchers. We explain the guidelines we used to work in partnership in the field. We then describe how the relationship between researcher and interpreter developed into co-researching, and how we utilized this relationship to respond to challenges in the work. Despite an increasing number of international qualitative studies, little research has focused on the nuances of a working partnership between researcher and interpreter, and few studies include interpreters as co-researchers. This article contributes to an understanding of how the researcher-interpreter relationship impacts the voice of the participant and, ultimately, the final outcomes of the project. PMID:24062420

Maradik Harris, Lesley; Boggiano, Victoria; Nguyen, Duy Thang; Pham, Le Hoang Linh

2013-10-01

469

International public health research involving interpreters: a case study from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cross-cultural and international research are important components of public health research, but the challenges of language barriers and working with interpreters are often overlooked, particularly in the case of qualitative research. METHODS: A case-study approach was used to explore experiences of working with an interpreter in Bangladesh as part of a research project investigating women's experiences of emergency obstetric

Emma Pitchforth; Edwin van Teijlingen

2005-01-01

470

Children's Interpretation of Indefinites in Sentences Containing Negation: A Reassessment of the Cross-Linguistic Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests that children's behavior with respect to the interpretation of indefinite objects in negative sentences may differ depending on the target language: whereas young English-speaking children tend to select a surface scope interpretation (e.g., Musolino (1998)), young Dutch-speaking children consistently prefer an inverse…

Unsworth, Sharon; Gualmini, Andrea; Helder, Christina

2008-01-01

471

Engaging Student Interpreters in Vocabulary Building: Web Search with Computer Workbench  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the usefulness of Web portals in a workbench for assisting student interpreters in the search for and collection of vocabulary. The experiment involved a class of fifteen English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student interpreters, who were required to equip themselves with the appropriate English vocabulary to handle an…

Lim, Lily

2014-01-01

472

A Look at Simultaneous Interpretation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the findings of an exploratory study concerned with certain temporal and qualitative aspects of simultaneous interpretation. Six French-English interpreters (2 professionals, 2 students and 2 amateurs) translated tape-recorded passages representing different types of materials from their weaker into their dominant language or…

Barik, Henri C.

473

Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

2013-01-01

474

Interpreting St. Clair's Comanche Texts: Objective Case Marking and 'Same Subject' Dependent Clauses  

E-print Network

St. Clair's Comanche texts, collected in 1902, appear to exhibit a very uncharacteristic form of objective case marking along with 'same subject' dependent clause types unknown elsewhere in the language. Proper interpretation ...

Armagost, James L.

1990-01-01

475

ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, interpret, analyze, and translate writ-  

E-print Network

LATIN212 ULO Course Learning Outcome Assessment Method Pedagogy 10-01 Read, interpret, analyze will satisfy final assessment. Written homework per chapter for practice and feedback opportunities ; Language

Barrash, Warren

476

Language skills in low-SES rural Appalachian children: Kindergarten to middle childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the development of language in low-SES rural Appalachian children from kindergarten through middle childhood. Findings showed that the children's language skills improved significantly between kindergarten and middle childhood, with all middle childhood language means within the average range. However, all areas of language except the ability to correctly interpret nonliteral language remained significantly below normative population means.

Mary E. Reynolds; Margaret Fish

2010-01-01

477

Fluid Interpretation of Cardassian Expansion  

E-print Network

A fluid interpretation of Cardassian expansion is developed. Here, the Friedmann equation takes the form $H^2 = g(\\rho_M)$ where $\\rho_M$ contains only matter and radiation (no vacuum). The function $g(\\rhom)$ returns to the usual $8\\pi\\rhom/(3 m_{pl}^2)$ during the early history of the universe, but takes a different form that drives an accelerated expansion after a redshift $z \\sim 1$. One possible interpretation of this function (and of the right hand side of Einstein's equations) is that it describes a fluid with total energy density $\\rho_{tot} = {3 m_{pl}^2 \\over 8 \\pi} g(\\rhom) = \\rhom + \\rho_K$ containing not only matter density (mass times number density) but also interaction terms $\\rho_K$. These interaction terms give rise to an effective negative pressure which drives cosmological acceleration. These interactions may be due to interacting dark matter, e.g. with a fifth force between particles $F \\sim r^{\\alpha -1}$. Such interactions may be intrinsically four dimensional or may result from higher dimensional physics. A fully relativistic fluid model is developed here, with conservation of energy, momentum, and particle number. A modified Poisson's equation is derived. A study of fluctuations in the early universe is presented, although a fully relativistic treatment of the perturbations including gauge choice is as yet incomplete.

Paolo Gondolo; Katherine Freese

2002-09-26

478

Interpretation of the Cosmological Metric  

E-print Network

The cosmological Robertson-Walker metric of general relativity is often said to have the consequences that (1) the recessional velocity $v$ of a galaxy at proper distance $\\ell$ obeys the Hubble law $v=H\\ell$, and therefore galaxies at sufficiently great distance $\\ell$ are receding faster than the speed of light $c$; (2) faster than light recession does not violate special relativity theory because the latter is not applicable to the cosmological problem, and because ``space itself is receding'' faster than $c$ at great distance, and it is velocity relative to local space that is limited by $c$, not the velocity of distant objects relative to nearby ones; (3) we can see galaxies receding faster than the speed of light; and (4) the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift, but is due to a stretching of photon wavelength during propagation in an expanding universe. We present a particular Robertson-Walker metric (an empty universe metric) for which a coordinate transformation shows that none of these interpretation necessarily holds. The resulting paradoxes of interpretation lead to a deeper understanding of the meaning of the cosmological metric.

Richard J. Cook; M. Shane Burns

2008-03-18

479

Rich Language Analysis for Counterterrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and relevant intelligence is critical for effective counterterrorism. Too much irrelevant information is as bad or worse than not enough information. Modern computational tools promise to provide better search and summarization capabilities to help analysts filter and select relevant and key information. However, to do this task effectively, such tools must have access to levels of meaning beyond the literal. Terrorists operating in context-rich cultures like fundamentalist Islam use messages with multiple levels of interpretation, which are easily misunderstood by non-insiders. This chapter discusses several kinds of such “encryption” used by terrorists and insurgents in the Arabic language, and how knowledge of such methods can be used to enhance computational text analysis techniques for use in counterterrorism.

Guidčre, Mathieu; Howard, Newton; Argamon, Shlomo

480

Language Ideologies and Standard English Language Policy in Singapore: Responses of a "Designer Immigrant" Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…

De Costa, Peter I.

2010-01-01

481

Situating language and consciousness  

E-print Network

Language and consciousness enrich our lives. But they are rare commodities; most creatures are language-less and unconscious. This dissertation is about the conditions that distinguish the haves from the have-nots. The ...

Almotahari, Mahrad

2011-01-01

482

AHSGE Figurative Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice with figurative language. Navigate through these activities at your own pace! Analogy Quick Review Simile Mini Lesson and Practice Drag and Drop Metaphors Figurative Speech Hangman Personification B-Ball Personification Quiz Personification Practice Figurative Language Baseball ...

Ufomadu, Ms.

2013-06-14

483

Social Language Use (Pragmatics)  

MedlinePLUS

... in language use It is not unusual for children to have pragmatic problems in only a few situations. However, if problems in social language use occur often and seem inappropriate considering the child's age, a pragmatic disorder may exist. Pragmatic ...

484

Automatic natural language parsing  

SciTech Connect

This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

1985-01-01

485

Specific Language Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... or language problems). Language skills are tested using assessment tools that evaluate how well the child constructs ... An NIDCD-supported investigator recently has identified a mutation in a gene on chromosome 6, called the ...

486

SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS  

E-print Network

SCHOLARSHIPS READING & LANGUAGE ARTS Margaret J. Early Graduate Scholarship This scholarship in the Reading & Language Arts Department with preference given to a minority student, a student from a rural, rather than paying for my tuition. I'm so thankful for the helpful faculty and sta in Reading & Language

Mather, Patrick T.

487

Turkmen Language Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual of standard Turkmen language is designed to teach basic language skills that Peace Corps volunteers need during a tour in Turkmenistan. An introductory section gives information about the Turkmen language, including a brief history, notes on the alphabet, vowel and consonant sounds, rules of vowel harmony, and specific grammatical forms…

Tyson, David; Clark, Larry

488

Modern programming language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

1980-01-01

489

Developing Language Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Skill-using" in second-language learning is often given less priority than "skill-getting" activities. The first and second year of language instruction should concentrate on longer and more varied sequences of tasks in which the learner is communicating and using "real" language. In addition, the learner's focus should be shifted from his errors…

Zelson, Sidney N. J.

1976-01-01

490

Bourdieu, Language, and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay reviews two books on the work of the French social theorist Pierre Bourdieu with a special focus on issues of language, education and literacy. The essay sketches out Bourdieu's main theoretical ideas with respect to language, and raises a number of issues on classroom language and academic discourse. Bourdieu's approach is considered…

Grenfell, Michael

2009-01-01

491

Two Languages, One Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cultures (scientific and clinical) speaking different theoretical languages reside in psychology. The categorical structure of scientific language is based on sensorially, linearly, and analytically formatted cognitive processes (common sense). The categorical structure of the clinical language is formatted for cognitive processes accommodating nonsensory, nonlinear information about purposive personality processes. Clinically and scientifically oriented psychologists have difficulty communicating with one

Zoltan Gross

2001-01-01

492

Kyrgyz Language Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language manual for Kyrgyz was designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Kyrgyzstan. It begins with a brief introduction to the Kyrgyz language, stressing the points at which the Kyrgyz system differs from English, and outlining the Kyrgyz sound system. It then presents 15 topical lessons, each containing…

Abylkasymova, Mairam, Comp.; Jumabaeva, Gulaim, Comp.

493

Chinese Language Learning Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 77 Asian and Asian-American university students enrolled in first- and second-year Chinese language courses investigated the students' motivations for studying the language and their expectations of what they will gain from studying it. Results indicate two factors accounting for beginning Chinese language study: interest in cultural…

Wen, Xiaohong

494

Redefining Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While verbal language has traditionally determined our view of intelligence, this limited view ignores other systems for expressing intelligent thought. An expanded concept of language considers verbal language as one part of a mental modeling system, or internal representation, for any kind of sensory information available to us, visual or…

Thompson, Nancy S.

495

Language Technologies Tomaz Erjavec  

E-print Network

. The science of language: linguistics 3. Computational linguistics: some history 4. HLT: Processes, methods Background: Linguistics What is language? The science of language Levels of linguistics analysis #12 by an individual (competence) De Saussure (structuralism ~ 1910) parole / langue Chomsky (generative linguistics

Erjavec, TomaÂ?

496

DYNAMIC LANGUAGE PARALLELIZATION  

E-print Network

DYNAMIC LANGUAGE PARALLELIZATION By Lorenz F. Huelsbergen A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment { MADISON 1993 #12;c Copyright 1993 by Lorenz F. Huelsbergen ii #12;DYNAMIC LANGUAGE PARALLELIZATION Lorenz F. Huelsbergen, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin{Madison 1993 Dynamic language parallelization is a new

Huelsbergen, Lorenz

497

Language Identification: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial presents an overview of the progression of spoken language identification (LID) systems and current developments. The intro- duction provides a background on automatic language identification systems using syntactic, morpho- logical, and in particular, acoustic, phonetic, phonotactic and prosodic level information. Different front- end features that are used in LID systems are presented. Several normalization and language mod- elling

Eliathamby Ambikairajah; Haizhou Li; Liang Wang; Bo Yin; Vidhyasaharan Sethu

2011-01-01

498

Language disturbances in ADHD.  

PubMed

This article aims to review the studies exploring language abilities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; with or without comorbid language impairment) focusing on oral speech discrimination, listening comprehension, verbal and spatial working memory as well as on discourse analysis and pragmatic aspects of communication and language comprehension. PMID:22201208

Bellani, M; Moretti, A; Perlini, C; Brambilla, P

2011-12-01