Sample records for language interpreters cart

  1. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  2. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  3. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  4. Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

  5. Direction Asymmetries in Spoken and Signed Language Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Brenda; Emmorey, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Spoken language (unimodal) interpreters often prefer to interpret from their non-dominant language (L2) into their native language (L1). Anecdotally, signed language (bimodal) interpreters express the opposite bias, preferring to interpret from L1 (spoken language) into L2 (signed language). We conducted a large survey study ("N" =…

  6. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request of a party...shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance...

  7. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request of a party...shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance...

  8. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23.82 Indians... Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request of a party...shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance...

  9. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  10. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82 Section 23...23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the request...her designee shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for...

  11. Conversations through barriers of language and interpretation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Graham, Margaret M; Tuohy, Dympna

    Ireland has become a multicultural society in just over a decade, with non-Irish nationals comprising 12% of the population. The challenge for nurses working in the Irish healthcare system is to provide culturally appropriate care to this diverse population. This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study exploring nurses' experiences of communicating with people from diverse cultures, and focuses on language barriers and the use of interpreters. The findings indicate that communicating with people who do not share the same first language is challenging, in particular the participants (nurses) were concerned about their ability to make a comprehensive assessment that ultimately forms the basis for quality care provision. The use of interpreters can inform the assessment process, but there are challenges in accessing and utilising these services. Further continuing education is required to promote culturally appropriate care. There is a need for increased discussion between nurses and interpreters to maximise communication with patients. PMID:23901452

  12. Plain language for interpreting in consulting rooms.

    PubMed

    Lesch, H M

    2007-12-01

    Intercultural communication is by nature a complex activity. In a multilingual society like ours, it will inevitably surface in the health care sector. The services of an interpreter are often considered to break the impasse in this communication process. The communication problem between the two parties, the service provider and client/patient, is often not simply a matter of language but societal factors of which the liaison interpreter should be aware of also plays a major role for effective extended communication. This article focuses on some of the problems in rendering an oral source text in multilingual and multicultural societies such as South Africa in which there are heterogeneous target audiences for interpreting. It is pointed out that interpreters in such societies must take into account the heterogeneity of the target audiences, or otherwise interpreting will only be symbolic gestures, empty of value, and thus not communicate the message intended. In the process the limitations of the interpreter and how the presence of the interpreter can be facilitated, is also highlighted. PMID:18402423

  13. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error. PMID:25420935

  14. IIT CDR Sign Language Interpreting Services Request Form Page 1 of 2 SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETING SERVICES REQUEST FORM

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    IIT CDR ­ Sign Language Interpreting Services Request Form Page 1 of 2 SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETING SERVICES REQUEST FORM Two weeks notice is required for requests for sign-language interpreting service should be aware that at times sign language interpreters can be difficult to secure, especially

  15. CareerFact Sheet BS Sign Language interpretation

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    CareerFact Sheet BS Sign Language interpretation A degree in Sign Language Interpretation prepares in a wide variety of sectors. The study of Sign Language Interpretation develops skills critical to a large number of career fields. These qualities include: · Proficiency in American Sign Language (ASL) · Public

  16. Transfer Worksheet Sign Language Interpretation and Deaf Studies programs

    E-print Network

    Caughman, John

    Transfer Worksheet for the Sign Language Interpretation and Deaf Studies programs The ITP credits used toward the Sign Language Interpretation or Deaf Studies programs at Portland Community College Students transferring from the Sign Language Interpretation or Deaf Studies program at PCC may pursue any

  17. Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…

  18. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  19. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  20. Court Interpreter Training in the Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Wayne H.; Head, Gerald L.

    1984-01-01

    Results of demographic studies and statistics from state and federal courts indicate a growing need for Spanish-English court interpreters with special training in consecutive and simultaneous court interpretation. The five strongest skills which need to be taught in a court interpreter training program are identified and suggestions are given on…

  1. Sign Language Interpreter Training, Testing, and Accreditation: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina

    2004-01-01

    The article explores sign language interpreter training, testing, and accreditation in three major English-speaking countries, Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, by providing an overview of the training and assessment of sign language interpreters in each country. The article highlights the reasons these countries can be…

  2. The Psychotherapist and the Sign Language Interpreter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT).…

  3. Figurative Language: Interpretation of Similes and Metaphors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ReadWorks

    2012-03-22

    In this resource, students will interpret the meanings of poems using similes and metaphors. The featured resource in the teacher modeling and guided practice sections utilizes the text Poetry for Young People: Langston Hughes edited by David Roessel and Arnold Rampersad.

  4. Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Reynolds

    1998-01-01

    Higher-order programming languages (i.e., languages in which procedures or labels can occur as values) are usually defined by interpreters that are themselves written in a programming language based on the lambda calculus (i.e., an applicative language such as pure LISP). Examples include McCarthy's definition of LISP, Landin's SECD machine, the Vienna definition of PL\\/I, Reynolds' definitions of GEDANKEN, and recent

  5. Memory and Language Skills in Simultaneous Interpreters: The Role of Expertise and Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffels, Ingrid K.; de Groot, Annette M. B.; Kroll, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex skill in which language comprehension and production take place at the same time in two languages. In this study, we examined performance on basic language and working memory tasks that have been hypothesized to engage cognitive skills important for simultaneous interpreting. The participants were native…

  6. DI: An interactive debugging interpreter for applicative languages

    SciTech Connect

    Skedzielewski, S.K.; Yates, R.K.; Oldehoeft, R.R.

    1987-03-12

    The DI interpreter is both a debugger and interpreter of SISLAL programs. Its use as a program interpreter is only a small part of its role; it is designed to be a tool for studying compilation techniques for applicative languages. DI interprets dataflow graphs expressed in the IF1 and IF2 languages, and is heavily instrumented to report the activity of dynamic storage activity, reference counting, copying and updating of structured data values. It also aids the SISAL language evaluation by providing an interim execution vehicle for SISAL programs. DI provides determinate, sequential interpretation of graph nodes for sequential and parallel operations in a canonical order. As a debugging aid, DI allows tracing, breakpointing, and interactive display of program data values. DI handles creation of SISAL and IF1 error values for each data type and propagates them according to a well-defined algebra. We have begun to implement IF1 optimizers and have measured the improvements with DI.

  7. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  8. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  9. Social Construction of American Sign Language--English Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermid, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Instructors in 5 American Sign Language--English Interpreter Programs and 4 Deaf Studies Programs in Canada were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences as educators. Within a qualitative research paradigm, their comments were grouped into a number of categories tied to the social construction of American Sign Language--English…

  10. Sign Language Interpreter Module: Accessible Video Retrieval with Subtitles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Primoz Kosec; Matjaz Debevc; Andreas Holzinger

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we introduce a new approach to the integration of sign language on the Web. Written information is presented\\u000a by a Sign Language Interpreter Module (SLI Module). The improvement in comparison to state-of-the-art solutions on the Web\\u000a is that our sign language video has a transparent background and is shown over the existing web page. The end user

  11. Parallel Processing of the Target Language during Source Language Comprehension in Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yanping; Lin, Jiexuan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the parallel processing of the target language (TL) during source language (SL) comprehension in interpreting may be influenced by two factors: (i) link strength from SL to TL, and (ii) the interpreter's cognitive resources supplement to TL processing during SL comprehension. The…

  12. The Use of Interpreters by Speech-Language Pathologists Conducting Bilingual Speech-Language Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfrey, Carol Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to explore the practices of speech-language pathologists in conducting bilingual assessments with interpreters. Data were obtained regarding the assessment tools and practices used by speech-language pathologists, the frequency with which they work with interpreters, and the procedures…

  13. The Case for Interpreted Languages in Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfeld, Leonardo; Carro, Luigi

    As sensor networks gain popularity and technology scaling allows further processing in each network node, the programming of these distributed computational structures becomes a serious bottleneck. Interpreted languages adoption may allow a smaller programming effort, and since they show a denser code representation than their directly executed counterpart, interpreted code exhibits smaller power dissipation during over-the-air reprogramming. As technology scales, the processing energy cost tends to reduce more than communication energy, which is bounded by the required irradiated radio power. By allowing the execution of more complex software WSN can be used for more refined applications, like image processing, compression and recognition. Also, interpretation can allow the use of object oriented technology software, allowing high productivity gains. However, the interpretation overhead cost and the extra memory required in Java, for example, argue against interpreted languages adoption in WSN. In this paper we show the design space for interpreted languages, and demonstrate that there is a large application domain where interpretation benefits can be used together with energy efficiency.

  14. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  15. Image processing system for interpreting motion in American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Charayaphan, C; Marble, A E

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, an image processing algorithm is presented for the interpretation of the American Sign Language (ASL), which is one of the sign languages used by the majority of the deaf community. The process involves detection of hand motion, tracking the hand location based on the motion and classification of signs using adaptive clustering of stop positions, simple shape of the trajectory, and matching of the hand shape at the stop position. PMID:1405560

  16. The Design and Implementation of C-like Language Interpreter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohong Xiao; You Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper designs and implements a C-like language interpreter using C++ based on the idea of modularity. The whole system can be divided into three modules, namely, lexical analyzer, syntactic analyzer and evaluation of expression. During the design, token is being used. The design puts great emphasis towards code reusability and extensibility, which makes it easy to embed the code

  17. Training Interpreter Paraprofessionals to Assist in the Language Assessment of English Language Learners in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoakum, Susie; Manuel-Dupont, Sonia

    1997-01-01

    Describes development of an interpreter paraprofessional (IP) program by Utah State University and Granite (Utah) school district in response to the unavailability of certified interpreters to assist in special education assessment of students who are English Language Learners. Stresses the importance of providing IPs with job-relevant training,…

  18. Interpreting the language of histone and DNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Rothbart, Scott B; Strahl, Brian D

    2014-08-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or 'code' that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins have raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. PMID:24631868

  19. Emergency-Evacuation Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Otto H.; Owens, Lester J.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed cart designed to remove injured worker from vicinity of hazardous chemical spill. Self-propelled cart enables rescuer to move victim of industrial accident quickly away from toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, carcinogenic, asphyxiating, or extremely cold liquids. Intended for use where too dangerous for ambulances and other vehicles to approach accident site. Constructed of high-strength tubing, rides on bicycle wheels with balloon tires. Rescuer steers cart with handle at rear. Estimated mass of fully equipped vehicle is 650 lb.

  20. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  1. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  2. School Counselor Collaboration with Language Interpreters: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maddux, Cleborne

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase knowledge of current school practices with regard to the use of language interpreters, experiences in collaborative work with interpreters were assessed through a national survey. Outcomes indicated a perceived need for more interpreter assistance, with many indicating a need for full-time language services. Bilingual…

  3. Conference ICL2007 September 26 -28, 2007 Villach, Austria Sign Language Interpreters' Training

    E-print Network

    Bouras, Christos

    Conference ICL2007 September 26 -28, 2007 Villach, Austria Sign Language Interpreters' Training of deaf individuals and sign language interpreters. The e-learning environments that have been developed for the education of sign language provide web-based courses, designed to effectively teach to anyone the Sign

  4. Bugs in Your Shopping Cart:Bugs in Your Shopping Cart: A TaxonomyA Taxonomy

    E-print Network

    languages, currencies and cultural norms, global shipping, different legal systems (conflicting advertising expect the following uses of the Shopping Cart list: ­ Tester unfamiliar with an aspect of the program: The user profile varies greatly by gender, age, language, wealth, etc. · Multiple partner apps

  5. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  6. First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

  7. Sign Language Vocabulary Development Practices and Internet Use Among Educational Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Brian C.; Jamieson, Janet R.

    2004-01-01

    Sign language interpreters working in schools often face isolation in terms of their sign language vocabulary development opportunities. The purposes of this study were to determine the key demographic characteristics of educational interpreters in British Columbia, to identify the resources they use to learn new vocabulary, and to shed light on…

  8. Identifying Movement Patterns and Severity of Associated Pain in Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Julie K.; Rogers, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Our research sought to identify the most common movement patterns and postures performed by sign language interpreters and the frequency and severity of any pain that may be associated with the movements. A survey was developed and mailed to registered sign language interpreters throughout the state of Illinois. For each specific upper extremity…

  9. Language at Work: Children's Gendered Interpretations of Occupational Titles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Krogh, Holleen R.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined 6- to 11-year-olds' gender-related interpretations of occupational titles. Findings indicated that children were sensitive to linguistic forms of job titles, and that these sensitivities differed in relation to participant variables such as attitude. Gender-specific interpretations occurred more frequently for marked…

  10. Fruit Carts: A Domain and Corpus for Research in Dialogue Systems and Psycholinguistics

    PubMed Central

    Aist, Gregory; Campana, Ellen; Allen, James; Swift, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel domain, Fruit Carts, aimed at eliciting human language production for the twin purposes of (a) dialogue system research and development and (b) psycholinguistic research. Fruit Carts contains five tasks: choosing a cart, placing it on a map, painting the cart, rotating the cart, and filling the cart with fruit. Fruit Carts has been used for research in psycholinguistics and in dialogue systems. Based on these experiences, we discuss how well the Fruit Carts domain meets four desired features: unscripted, context-constrained, controllable difficulty, and separability into semi-independent subdialogues. We describe the domain in sufficient detail to allow others to replicate it; researchers interested in using the corpora themselves are encouraged to contact the authors directly.

  11. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  12. Revisiting the Research Findings on Heritage Language Learning: Three Interpretive Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danesi, Marcel

    1991-01-01

    Proposes that heritage language education research findings in Canada fall within three interpretive frames, involving (1) interdependence, which posits that languages complement each other; (2) narrativity, which suggests that there is a narrative structure to the developing mind; and (3) cognitive enhancement, which posits that language and…

  13. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  14. Little-JIL\\/Juliette: a process definition language and interpreter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron G. Cass; Barbara Staudt Lerner; Stanley M. Sutton Jr.; Eric K. McCall; Alexander E. Wise; Leon J. Osterweil

    2000-01-01

    Little-JIL, a language for programming coordination in processes is an executable, high-level language with a formal (yet graphical) syntax and rigorously defined operational semantics. The central abstraction in Little-JIL is the “step,” which is the focal point for coordination, providing a scoping mechanism for control, data, and exception flow and for agent and resource assignment. Steps are organized into a

  15. Incremental interpretation and the role of disfluencies in human language comprehension 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Following a substantial amount of research, language comprehension is now generally regarded as an incremental process in which both linguistic and non-linguistic input is integrated and interpreted as early as possible within the time course...

  16. Storytelling with Sign Language Interpretation as a Multimodal Literacy Event: Implications for Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poveda, David; Pulido, Laura; Morgade, Marta; Messina, Claudia; Hedlova, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    This article examines storytelling events for children in a library and a children's bookstore in which storytellers are accompanied by sign language interpreters. The result is that both hearing and Deaf children participate in a literacy event in which storyteller and interpreter produce a multilingual, multimodal and multimedial narrative.…

  17. Articulatory Suppression in Language Interpretation: Working Memory Capacity, Dual Tasking and Word Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Francisca; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Macizo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    How do interpreters manage to cope with the adverse effects of concurrent articulation while trying to comprehend the message in the source language? In Experiments 1-3, we explored three possible working memory (WM) functions that may underlie the ability to simultaneously comprehend and produce in the interpreters: WM storage capacity,…

  18. Relation of Cognitive Style to Metaphor Interpretation and Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice; Rosano, Teresa

    1993-01-01

    Administered tests of cognition, language, and metaphor interpretation to 3 groups of 15 students: native English speakers (NESs) and 2 groups of students in an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course. ESL students performed less well than NESs on decontextualized measures of vocabulary and verbal analogies but equally well on measures derived…

  19. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  20. General Information Shopping Cart Workflow

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    ) ECDP Inventory Replenishment LVPO (JHU) ECPO Free Text Ordering MXPO (JHHS) ECPO MDC (JHHS) PROJ ECPO Catalogs Office Depot Dell Sigma-Aldrich GovConnection VWR Invitrogen USBI Managing Shopping Carts Change for a Vendor Search for a G/L Number Cost Sharing Purchases via Multiple Cost Assignments Using Team Carts

  1. Interpreting as a Language Teaching Technique. Proceedings of a Conference (University of Salford, England, January 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Noel, Ed.; Towell, Richard, Ed.

    Papers presented at a conference on the use of simultaneous, consecutive, and other forms of interpreting as features of foreign language teaching and learning in British higher education include the following: "Liaison Interpreting as a Communicative Language-Learning Exercise" (H. A. Keith); "Interpreting and Communicating: Problems for the…

  2. Native American language education as policy-in-practice: an interpretative policy analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990\\/1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larisa Warhol

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990\\/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the USA are currently

  3. Discriminant Validity of the WISC-IV Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styck, Kara M.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2014-01-01

    The Culture-Language Interpretive Matrix (C-LIM) was developed to help practitioners determine the validity of test scores obtained from students who are culturally and linguistically different from the normative group of a test. The present study used an idiographic approach to investigate the diagnostic utility of the C-LIM for the Wechsler…

  4. Your Case Will Now Be Heard: Sign Language Interpreters as Problematic Accommodations in Legal Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunson, Jeremy L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were…

  5. Deaf Culture and Music: The Role of Sign Language Interpreters within Live Music Performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Summers

    2012-01-01

    Although the notion of music being a part of a deaf individual’s life may seem contradictory, there is evidence that music is and has been a part of many deaf people’s lives. Music is and has been a part of the Deaf culture, including, but not limited to, Deaf musicians, utilizing pianos to teach speech, and sign language interpreters at

  6. Benefits of Sign Language Interpreting and Text Alternatives for Deaf Students' Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Noble, William

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly…

  7. Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    SUBJECT: Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Effective Date: 8-3-10 Policy Number: 4.1.6 Supersedes: EH/ACCOUNTABILITY: This policy applies to all golf cart/utility vehicle operators who operate golf carts/utility vehicles on Florida Atlantic University property whether a golf cart/utility vehicle is owned and operated

  8. Inverted Pendulum Cart Assembly Instructions MEM 639 Figure 1. All parts of the cart assembly

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    Inverted Pendulum Cart Assembly Instructions ­ MEM 639 Figure 1. All parts of the cart assembly Figure 2. Attaching the pendulum cart to the pivot plate 1. Slide the pendulum cart arm into the opening of the pivot plate. 2. Secure the pendulum cart arm in place by inserting a dowel (4) through the through holes

  9. Vision based Interpretation of Natural Sign Languages Richard Bowden12, Andrew Zisserman2, Timor Kadir2, Mike Brady2

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Vision based Interpretation of Natural Sign Languages Richard Bowden12, Andrew Zisserman2, Timor stated. This allows the same system to be used for different sign languages requiring only a change of the knowledge base. 1 Introduction Sign Language is a visual language and consists of 3 major components: 1

  10. SVM CART AdaBoost (VAD: Voice Activity Detection)

    E-print Network

    Takiguchi, Tetsuya

    SVM CART AdaBoost ( ) 1 (VAD: Voice Activity Detection) SVM CART(Classification And Regression activity detection by AdaBoost adopting SVM & CART as weak learner. by Hiroyoshi Matsuda, Tetsuya Takiguchi) Decision Stump CART CART AdaBoost CART 2.2 SVM CART-AdaBoost AdaBoost AdaBoost SVM(Support Vector Machine

  11. Benefits of sign language interpreting and text alternatives for deaf students' classroom learning.

    PubMed

    Marschark, Marc; Leigh, Greg; Sapere, Patricia; Burnham, Denis; Convertino, Carol; Stinson, Michael; Knoors, Harry; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Noble, William

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments examined the utility of real-time text in supporting deaf students' learning from lectures in postsecondary (Experiments 1 and 2) and secondary classrooms (Experiments 3 and 4). Experiment 1 compared the effects on learning of sign language interpreting, real-time text (C-Print), and both. Real-time text alone led to significantly higher performance by deaf students than the other two conditions, but performance by deaf students in all conditions was significantly below that of hearing peers who saw lectures without any support services. Experiment 2 compared interpreting and two forms of real-time text, C-Print and Communication Access Real-Time Translation, at immediate testing and after a 1-week delay (with study notes). No significant differences among support services were obtained at either testing. Experiment 3 also failed to reveal significant effects at immediate or delayed testing in a comparison of real-time text, direct (signed) instruction, and both. Experiment 4 found no significant differences between interpreting and interpreting plus real-time text on the learning of either new words or the content of television programs. Alternative accounts of the observed pattern of results are considered, but it is concluded that neither sign language interpreting nor real-time text have any inherent, generalized advantage over the other in supporting deaf students in secondary or postsecondary settings. Providing deaf students with both services simultaneously does not appear to provide any generalized benefit, at least for the kinds of materials utilized here. PMID:16928778

  12. Data flow language and interpreter for a reconfigurable distributed data processor

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, A.D.; Heath, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic language and an interpreter whereby an applications data flow graph may serve as an input to a reconfigurable distributed data processor is proposed. The architecture considered consists of a number of loosely coupled computing elements (CES) which may be linked to data and file memories through fully nonblocking interconnect networks. The real-time performance of such an architecture depends upon its ability to alter its topology in response to changes in application, asynchronous data rates and faults. Such a data flow language enhances the versatility of a reconfigurable architecture by allowing the user to specify the machine's topology at a very high level. 11 references.

  13. A Case Study of Two Sign Language Interpreters Working in Post-Secondary Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    A case study of two qualified New Zealand Sign Language interpreters working in a post-secondary education setting in New Zealand was undertaken using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Educational sign language interpreting at the post-secondary level requires a different set of skills and is a reasonably new development in New Zealand.…

  14. On interpretations of relational languages and solutions to the implied constraint problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry E. Jacobs; Anthony C. Klug; Alan R. Aronson

    1982-01-01

    The interconnection between conceptual and external levels of a relational database is made precise in terms of the notion of “interpretation” between first-order languages. This is then used to obtain a methodology for discovering constraints at the external level that are “implied” by constraints at the conceptual level and by conceptual-to-external mappings. It is also seen that these concepts are

  15. Optimisation of a computer vision system for the interpretation of American Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M H; Marble, A E; Charayaphan, C

    1993-09-01

    Presented in this paper is a simulation algorithm for the optimisation of camera position with respect to the signer, to have a full and reliable interpretation of the American Sign Language. The simulation includes a three-dimensional world point into two-dimensional image point transformation algorithm, the effect of the depth information loss and a sign projection correction test. It is concluded that the viewing camera should be positioned at any point in a specified area subtended by a solid angle of 30 degrees, where the centre of the area is located at 45 degrees in the azimuth and 45 degrees in elevation relative to the signer. The theory and the technique are tested with regard to the efficiency of interpreting American Sign Language (ASL) by two adult signers. One of the signers had been using ASL on a regular basis since infancy, and the second signer had signed for the past five years. It is demonstrated that positioning the camera anywhere in the specified area provides a 96 per cent correct interpretation of the 36 signs tested. The results also provide a preliminary indication that signer variability may not present a major problem in interpretation, and that a computer vision system which captures the optimum depth information can distinguish between signs which, to the naked eye, appear to have similar characteristics. PMID:8295441

  16. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  17. Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  18. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  19. Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Toolbox Safety Talk Golf Cart Safety Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Golf carts are utilized on campus for groundskeepers and personal injury. Only trained and authorized personnel may operate golf carts capable of carrying more than

  20. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  1. Re-Codified Standards from the Perspective of Language Experts: Credentials, Practice and Attitudes Amongst Translators and Interpreters of the Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavac, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This article examines aspects of linguistic behaviour, attitudes and professional practices amongst a group of 47 "expert users" who are translators or interpreters for one, two or three of the following languages: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The official terms for these languages in the respective successor states of Socialist…

  2. GRAMPS - A graphics language interpreter for real-time, interactive, three-dimensional picture editing and animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. O'Donnell; Arthur J. Olson

    1981-01-01

    GRAMPS, a graphics language interpreter has been developed in FORTRAN 77 to be used in conjunction with an interactive vector display list processor (Evans and Sutherland Multi-Picture-System). Several of the features of the language make it very useful and convenient for real-time scene construction, manipulation and animation. The GRAMPS language syntax allows natural interaction with scene elements as well as

  3. Interpretation of natural-language data base queries using optimization methods

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The automatic interpretation of natural language (in this work, English), database questions formulated by a user untrained in the technical aspects of database querying is an established problem in the field of artificial intelligence. State-of-the-art approaches involve the analysis of queries with syntactic and semantic grammars expressed in phrase structure grammar or transition network formalisms. With such method difficulties exist with the detection and resolution of ambiguity, with the misinterpretation possibilities inherent with finite length look-ahead, and with the modification and extension of a mechanism for other sources of semantic knowledge. This work examines the potential of optimization techniques to solve these problems and interpret natural language, database queries. The proposed method involves developing a 0-1 integer programming problem for each query. The possible values that the set of variables in the optimization may take on is an enumeration of possible such individual associations between the database schema and the query. The solution to the integer programming problem corresponds to a single assignment of database data items and relationships to the words in the query. Constraints are derived from systematic and database schema knowledge stored as libraries of templates. An objective function is used to rank the possible associations as to their likelihood of agreement with the intent of the questioner. A test mechanism was built to support evaluation of the proposed method. Suitable knowledge source template sets and an objective function were developed experimentally with the test mechanism from a learning sample of queries. Then the performance of the method was compared to that of an established system (PLANES) on a test set of queries. The performance of the new method was found to be comparable to that of the established system.

  4. Natural-Language Syntax as Procedures for Interpretation: The Dynamics of Ellipsis Construal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempson, Ruth; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Meyer-Viol, Wilfried; Purver, Matthew; White, Graham; Cann, Ronnie

    In this paper we set out the preliminaries needed for a formal theory of context, relative to a linguistic framework in which natural-language syntax is defined as procedures for context-dependent interpretation. Dynamic Syntax provides a formalism where both representations of content and context are defined dynamically and structurally, with time-linear monotonic growth across sequences of partial trees as the core structure-inducing notion. The primary data involve elliptical fragments, as these provide less familiar evidence of the requisite concept of context than anaphora, but equally central. As part of our sketch of the framework, we show how apparent anomalies for a time-linear basis for interpretation can be straightforwardly characterised once we adopt a new perspective on syntax as the dynamics of transitions between parse-states. We then take this as the basis for providing an integrated account of ellipsis construal. And, as a bonus, we will show how this intrinsically dynamic perspective extends in a seamless way to dialogue exchanges with free shifting of role between speaking and hearing (split-utterances). We shall argue that what is required to explain such dialogue phenomena is for contexts, as representations of content, to include not merely partial structures but also the sequence of actions that led to such structures.

  5. E. OFFICE OF THE TREASURER Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    E. OFFICE OF THE TREASURER E-14-3 Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles Issue Date: November 29, 2012 Revision Date: December 10, 2012 Page 1 of 6 Golf Carts and Utility Vehicles I. Purpose To govern the use powered utility carts including, but not limited to, golf carts and side by side utility carts (e.g. Gator

  6. Interpreting the Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes: Implications for Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erika

    2013-01-01

    On average, children from low socioeconomic status (SES) homes and children from homes in which a language other than English is spoken have language development trajectories that are different from those of children from middle-class, monolingual English-speaking homes. Children from low-SES and language minority homes have unique linguistic…

  7. Accuracy of sign interpreting and real-time captioning of science videos for the delivery of instruction to deaf students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Karen L.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine the impact of third-party support service providers on the quality of science information available to deaf students in regular science classrooms. Three different videotapes that were developed by NASA for high school science classrooms were selected for the study, allowing for different concepts and vocabulary to be examined. The focus was on the accuracy of translation as measured by the number of key science words included in the transcripts (captions) or videos (interpreted). Data were collected via transcripts completed by CART (computer assisted real-time captionists) or through videos of sign language interpreters. All participants were required to listen to and translate these NASA educational videos with no prior experience with this information so as not to influence their delivery. CART personnel using captions were found to be significantly more accurate in the delivery of science words as compared to the sign language interpreters in this study.

  8. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  9. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  10. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  11. Occupational Upper Extremity Symptoms in Sign Language Interpreters: Prevalence and Correlates of Pain, Function, and Work Disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Feuerstein; Ann Marie Carosella; Lolita M. Burrell; Liza Marshall; James Decaro

    1997-01-01

    The interactive role of work demands, occupational stressors, and ergonomic risk factors in work-related upper extremity (UE) disorders remains unclear. Professional sign language interpreting, which involves exposure of the upper limbs to a combination of potential ergonomic and psychosocial stressors represents a unique occupational group to investigate the multivariate nature of UE disorders. The present study reports data on the

  12. High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures.

    PubMed

    Keating, Glenda L; Kuhar, Michael J; Rye, David B

    2008-04-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous system. By employing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we document the state of cerebrocortical activity. We find that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 5 microg of CART 55-102 readily produces an abnormal EEG characterized initially by high amplitude hypersynchronous alpha in the 8-10 Hz range during behavioral wakefulness as manifest in both cortical and hippocampal theta EEG channels. This reliably progressed in three of three animals tested to unequivocal epileptiform activity accompanied by tremors and assumption of a rigid, tonic body posture. The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms. PMID:18178249

  13. Scope Interpretation in First and Second Language Acquisition: Numeral Quantifiers and Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Hye-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the interpretation of scopally ambiguous sentences containing a numeral quantifier and negation, such as (1) and (2), with a view to examining the interpretive preferences for Korean manifested by Korean-speaking children and adults, and the interpretive preferences for English manifested by Korean-speaking second…

  14. Vision based Interpretation of Natural Sign Languages Richard Bowden12, Andrew Zisserman2, Dave Windridge1, Timor Kadir2, Mike Brady2

    E-print Network

    Bowden, Richard

    Vision based Interpretation of Natural Sign Languages Richard Bowden12, Andrew Zisserman2, Dave base to be explicitly stated. This allows the same system to be used for different sign languages requiring only a change of the knowledge base. Introduction Sign Language is a visual language and consists

  15. The Pursuit of Language Appropriate Care: Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpretation Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The U.S. government mandates nurses to deliver linguistically appropriate care to hospital patients. It is difficult for nurses to implement the language mandates because there are 6,912 active living languages spoken in the world. Language barriers appear to place limited English proficient (LEP) patients at increased risk for harm…

  16. Teachers' Pets II--Circling Carts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes a demonstration which illustrates that a body moving with constant speed can be accelerating. The students ride in a circle on a cart made with plywood and roller skates and equipped with bubble accelerometers. (MLH)

  17. Fuel-cell-powered golf cart

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbett, R.E.; McCormick, J.B.; Lynn, D.K.; Kerwin, W.J.; Derouin, C.R.; Salazar, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a battery/fuel-cell-powered golf cart test bed designed to verify computer simulations and to gain operational experience with a fuel cell in a vehicular environment is described. A technically untrained driver can easily operate the golf cart because the motor and fuel cell controllers automatically sense and execute the appropriate on/off sequencing. A voltage imbalance circuit and a throttle compress circuit were developed that are directly applicable to electric vehicles in general.

  18. Animal-assisted therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warangkhana Phanwanich; Orrawan Kumdee; Panrasee Ritthipravat; Yodchanan Wongsawat

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this

  19. CART peptide stimulation of G protein-mediated signaling in differentiated PC12 Cells: Identification of PACAP 638 as a CART receptor antagonist

    E-print Network

    Hall, Randy A

    CART peptide stimulation of G protein-mediated signaling in differentiated PC12 Cells o Article history: Received 8 March 2011 Accepted 21 July 2011 Keywords: CART CART peptide CART receptor CART binding GPCR PC12 cells PACAP 6­38 a b s t r a c t CART peptides are peptide

  20. Prediction of radiation levels in residences: A methodological comparison of CART (Classification and Regression Tree Analysis) and conventional regression

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, I.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology, trace and toxic substance concentrations frequently have very highly skewed distributions ranging over one or more orders of magnitude, and prediction by conventional regression is often poor. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) is an alternative in such contexts. To compare the techniques, two Pennsylvania data sets and three independent variables are used: house radon progeny (RnD) and gamma levels as predicted by construction characteristics in 1330 houses; and {approximately}200 house radon (Rn) measurements as predicted by topographic parameters. CART may identify structural variables of interest not identified by conventional regression, and vice versa, but in general the regression models are similar. CART has major advantages in dealing with other common characteristics of environmental data sets, such as missing values, continuous variables requiring transformations, and large sets of potential independent variables. CART is most useful in the identification and screening of independent variables, greatly reducing the need for cross-tabulations and nested breakdown analyses. There is no need to discard cases with missing values for the independent variables because surrogate variables are intrinsic to CART. The tree-structured approach is also independent of the scale on which the independent variables are measured, so that transformations are unnecessary. CART identifies important interactions as well as main effects. The major advantages of CART appear to be in exploring data. Once the important variables are identified, conventional regressions seem to lead to results similar but more interpretable by most audiences. 12 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  2. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  3. Possible Worlds and Possible Meanings: a Semantics for the Interpretation of Vague Languages

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Brandon

    Brandon Bennett School of Computing University of Leeds brandon@comp.leeds.ac.uk Abstract The paper of classical interpretations was used by van Fraassen (1969) to explain `the logic of presupposition

  4. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    PubMed Central

    Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children’s understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together, which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children’s knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions. PMID:24223477

  5. Improving multimodal web accessibility for deaf people: sign language interpreter module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matjaž Debevc; Primož Kosec; Andreas Holzinger

    2011-01-01

    The World Wide Web is becoming increasingly necessary for everybody regardless of age, gender, culture, health and individual\\u000a disabilities. Unfortunately, there are evidently still problems for some deaf and hard of hearing people trying to use certain\\u000a web pages. These people require the translation of existing written information into their first language, which can be one\\u000a of many sign languages.

  6. GRAMPS: a graphics language interpreter for real-time, interactive, three-dimensional picture editing and animation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, T.J.; Olson, A.J.

    1981-08-01

    GRAMPS, a graphics language interpreter has been developed in FORTRAN 77 to be used in conjunction with an interactive vector display list processor (Evans and Sutherland Multi-Picture-System). Several of the features of the language make it very useful and convenient for real-time scene construction, manipulation and animation. The GRAMPS language syntax allows natural interaction with scene elements as well as easy, interactive assignment of graphics input devices. GRAMPS facilitates the creation, manipulation and copying of complex nested picture structures. The language has a powerful macro feature that enables new graphics commands to be developed and incorporated interactively. Animation may be achieved in GRAMPS by two different, yet mutually compatible means. Picture structures may contain framed data, which consist of a sequence of fixed objects. These structures may be displayed sequentially to give a traditional frame animation effect. In addition, transformation information on picture structures may be saved at any time in the form of new macro commands that will transform these structures from one saved state to another in a specified number of steps, yielding an interpolated transformation animation effect. An overview of the GRAMPS command structure is given and several examples of application of the language to molecular modeling and animation are presented.

  7. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., "two boys") can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction…

  8. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  9. Automated Methods for Interpreting Geospatial Natural Language Dr Kristin Stock, Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University of Nottingham

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    and van routes, etc. English, all dialects (UK, US, Australian, New Zealand, etc.) The Goal To map? Language that describes the location in space or movement through space of geographic features, people geographic objects (features, places, events or phenomena) (the mountain beside the bay; the mountain near

  10. A Linguistic Feature Vector for the Visual Interpretation of Sign Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bowden; David Windridge; Timor Kadir; Andrew Zisserman; Michael Brady

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to sign language recog- nition that provides extremely high classication rates on minimal train- ing data. Key to this approach is a 2 stage classication procedure where an initial classication stage extracts a high level description of hand shape and motion. This high level description is based upon sign lin- guistics and describes actions

  11. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  12. Multimodal Instruction as a Means to Scaffold Literary Interpretation in a Secondary English Language Arts Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldakowski, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates what happens when an English Language Arts teacher implements multimodal instruction in his senior-level World Literature course. The study is grounded in theories of transmediation and New Literacy Studies and examines the following research questions: (1) What does multimodal instruction enable students to do…

  13. Discovering and Interpreting Implicit Cultural Meanings in Language-Based Communication Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertha Du-Babcock; Richard D. Babcock; Michael Berry

    In intercultural business communication individuals possessing varying linguistic and cultural competencies communicate in situations and about tasks that require different levels of competency. Competency based models have been developed to guide international business communicators as they participate in this ever widening variety of communication situations and tasks. The Language-based Communication Zones Model (Babcock & Du- Babcock, 2001; Du-Babcock, in press)

  14. Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SaferProducts.gov Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children Every year, thousands of children ... shopping carts are among the leading causes of head injuries to young children and most often occur ...

  15. A pendulum-driven cart via internal force and static friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyi Li; Katsuhisa Furuta; Felix L. Chernousko

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a pendulum driven cart is built using Lego robot parts. It consists of a cart with four passive wheels and a pendulum mounted on top of the cart. A DC motor is attached to the hinge joint between the cart and the pendulum which cart swing forward and backward. The cart motion is generated using its internal

  16. Com S 541 ---Programming Languages 1 March 17, 1997 Grammar for the elp Interpreter for Prolog

    E-print Network

    Leavens, Gary T.

    ­case­Letter ::= a j b j : : : j z Upper­Case­Id ::= Upper­Case­Start Id­Chars* Upper­Case­Start ::= Upper­Case­Letter j â?? Upper­Case­Letter ::= A j B j : : : j Z Quoted­Id ::= ' Quote­Chars* ' Quote­Chars ::= ' j â?? j the grammar for File below. The interpreter evaluates Terms from the grammar below. File ::= Module j Module

  17. Center of Mass of Two Carts with Attached Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    A spring that is attached to the ends of two carts. The spring is compressed when the two carts are placed next to each other on a low-friction track. The spring is released such that the two carts are "pushed" apart as shown in the animations (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

  18. Nurturing Students' Strengths: The Impact of a School-Based Student Interpreter Program on Latino/a Students' Reading Comprehension and English Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrero, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Framed within the growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in urban schools, this study examined the learning experiences of bilingual Latino/a students who were taught to serve as on-site interpreters at their inner-city K-8 school in California. Participants in the Young Interpreters Program had significantly higher scores in…

  19. Golf Cart Safety Program Effective 4/1/2010, the President implemented a new Golf Cart Safety Policy. This policy applies to all

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Golf Cart Safety Program Effective 4/1/2010, the President implemented a new Golf Cart Safety Policy. This policy applies to all golf cart/utility vehicle operators who operate golf carts/utility vehicles on Florida Atlantic University property whether a golf cart/utility vehicle is owned and operated

  20. Teaching a La Cart: Music on Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Joelle

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences with teaching room-to-room or "from a cart". Depending on the building's structure, she often carried percussion instruments up and down stairs, pushed full-size pianos in and out of rooms, and transferred student books from one classroom to the next, doing what she thought was her job.Teaching…

  1. Dynamic interplay between histone H3 modifications and protein interpreters: emerging evidence for a ‘histone language’

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Samuel S.; Denu, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Histone proteins organize DNA into dynamic chromatin structures and regulate processes such as transcription, repair and replication. Control of chromatin function and structure is mediated in part by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on histones. The most N-terminal region of histone H3 contains a high density of modifiable residues. In this review, we focus on the dynamic interplay between histone modification states on the H3 N-terminus and the binding modules that recognize these states. Specifically, we will discuss the effect of auxiliary modifications to H3K4unmod/me3 binding modules (specifically H3R2 methylation, H3T3 phosphorylation and H3T6 phosphorylation). Emerging evidence suggests that histone PTMs behave less like a strict ‘code’, but rather like a ‘language’, which better illustrates the importance of context. Using androgen receptor-mediated gene activation as an example, we propose a model for how the combinatorial nature of PTMs on the H3 N-terminus and the complexes that recognize these epigenetic modifications control gene expression. PMID:21243717

  2. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  3. Faster Aerodynamic Simulation With Cart3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A NASA-developed aerodynamic simulation tool is ensuring the safety of future space operations while providing designers and engineers with an automated, highly accurate computer simulation suite. Cart3D, co-winner of NASA's 2002 Software of the Year award, is the result of over 10 years of research and software development conducted by Michael Aftosmis and Dr. John Melton of Ames Research Center and Professor Marsha Berger of the Courant Institute at New York University. Cart3D offers a revolutionary approach to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the computer simulation of how fluids and gases flow around an object of a particular design. By fusing technological advancements in diverse fields such as mineralogy, computer graphics, computational geometry, and fluid dynamics, the software provides a new industrial geometry processing and fluid analysis capability with unsurpassed automation and efficiency.

  4. Patient evaluation of prone carts used in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A; Malassigné, P; Cors, M; Amerson, T L; Bonifay, R; Schnurr, E

    1996-06-01

    Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury who cannot use a wheelchair due to the risk of aggravating existing pressure ulcers. A prone cart is a flat/horizontal cart with a fixed height, propelled by the user while laying in a prone position. Patients reported that prolonged use of a prone cart resulted in chronic neck, shoulder and back pain. Additionally the existing prone carts lack user accessible angle adjustability, chest support area, as well as a storage, eating or working area. An interdisciplinary research team collaborated to address these concerns. Three prone carts were evaluated: E&J, Gendron, and a newly developed prototype, MIAD/PVA. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers and patients regarding usage and effectiveness of the prone carts as well as the features of an ideal cart. This data led to the design and refinement of a prototype prone cart which was tested on 20 patients and 19 caregivers at the SCI Centers of the Milwaukee and Tampa VAMC's from 1994-1995. The new prone cart enables the user to lie at an angle rather than laying flat. This position has been found to relieve back and neck pressure. With an hydraulic system, the the user can adjust both the front and rear angles of the cart to achieve desired comfort. In addition, a front deck provides an eating and working area. This study resulted in research-based information and criteria for the design of new prone carts. Findings of this pilot study will be incorporated in a development merit review proposal to the VA Rehabilitation Research & Development service for the design of a new manual and motorized prone cart. The researchers are collaborating with Ortho-Kinetics Inc. to promote ease in manufacturing. PMID:8900708

  5. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  6. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  7. The Dilemma of Being English Language Teachers: Interpreting Teachers' Motivation to Teach, and Professional Commitment in China's Hinterland Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Xuesong; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an inquiry into a group of English language teachers' professional experiences that interpreted their motivation to teach and their shifting professional commitment with reference to representations and visions that they had and did not have about themselves in rural secondary schools in China's hinterland…

  8. Effects of Real-Time Captioning and Sign Language Interpreting on the Learning of College Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Pethybridge, Valorie

    2009-01-01

    College personnel are required to provide accommodations for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (D/HoH), but few empirical studies have been conducted on D/HoH students as they learn under the various accommodation conditions (sign language interpreting, SLI, real-time captioning, RTC, and both). Guided by the experiences of students who…

  9. The interaction of domain knowledge and linguistic structure in natural language processing: interpreting hypernymic propositions in biomedical text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Rindflesch; Marcelo Fiszman

    2003-01-01

    Interpretation of semantic propositions in free-text documents such as MEDLINE citations would provide valuable support for biomedical applications, and several approaches to semantic interpretation are being pursued in the biomedical informatics community. In this paper, we describe a methodology for interpreting linguistic structures that encode hypernymic propositions, in which a more specific concept is in a taxonomic relationship with a

  10. Origami Mathematiques Pratique Replier des cartes Laboratoire de Mathematiques

    E-print Network

    Hyvernat, Pierre

    ;Origami Math´ematiques Pratique Replier des cartes `A quoi c¸a ressemble ? Brian Chan (USA) : Kraken [1 Math´ematiques Pratique Replier des cartes `A quoi c¸a ressemble ? Brian Chan (USA) : Kraken, d

  11. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  12. CART in the brain of vertebrates: circuits, functions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Nishikant K; Nakhate, Kartik T; Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2014-04-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) with its wide distribution in the brain of mammals has been the focus of considerable research in recent years. Last two decades have witnessed a steady rise in the information on the genes that encode this neuropeptide and regulation of its transcription and translation. CART is highly enriched in the hypothalamic nuclei and its relevance to energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine control has been understood in great details. However, the occurrence of this peptide in a range of diverse circuitries for sensory, motor, vegetative, limbic and higher cortical areas has been confounding. Evidence that CART peptide may have role in addiction, pain, reward, learning and memory, cognition, sleep, reproduction and development, modulation of behavior and regulation of autonomic nervous system are accumulating, but an integration has been missing. A steady stream of papers has been pointing at the therapeutic potentials of CART. The current review is an attempt at piecing together the fragments of available information, and seeks meaning out of the CART elements in their anatomical niche. We try to put together the CART containing neuronal circuitries that have been conclusively demonstrated as well as those which have been proposed, but need confirmation. With a view to finding out the evolutionary antecedents, we visit the CART systems in sub-mammalian vertebrates and seek the answer why the system is shaped the way it is. We enquire into the conservation of the CART system and appreciate its functional diversity across the phyla. PMID:24468550

  13. La Carte du Ciel vue de Potsdam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, C.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre s'attache à retracer les aléas de la Carte du Ciel depuis l'Observatoire de Potsdam. Le cas de cet établissement sert de point de comparaison avec les observatoires français, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'organisation du travail au sein de l'Observatoire et le problème de la répartition des ressources humaines et instrumentales dans la poursuite de ce projet de longue haleine. On remarque notamment que si les astronomes allemands, héritiers d'une tradition d'excellence en astrométrie stellaire, se devaient de prendre part à la "Photographische Himmelskarte", ce ne sont pas les observatoires d'astronomie classique mais le nouvel observatoire d'astrophysique de Potsdam qui entreprendra cette tâche. Les études effectuées dans ce cadre sur la photographie stellaire et surtout la photométrie photographique seront ainsi considérées comme des contributions à la jeune science astrophysique - du moins jusqu'à ce que la Carte du Ciel entre en concurrence dans l'Observatoire avec les projets de catalogues de spectres stellaires et de mesure des vitesses radiales.

  14. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  15. Uses and Interpretations of Non-Word Repetition Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairments (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Evans, Julia L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The non-word repetition task (NRT) has gained wide acceptance in describing language acquisition in both children with normal language development (NL) and children with specific language impairments (SLI). This task has gained wide acceptance because it so closely matches the phonological component of word learning, and correlates…

  16. The roles of working memory, language proficiency, and training in simultaneous interpretation performance: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals

    E-print Network

    Tzou, Yeh-Zu

    2009-05-15

    in the doctoral program. I am grateful to Dr. Jyotsna Vaid for the instructive comments and guidance at important stages of this research project. I would also like to thank Dr. Lynn Burlbaw and Dr. Homer Tolson for providing insights that challenged my... to participate in this study. In addition, the study included another group of students who were undergoing training in interpreting in a two-year graduate program in translation and interpretation. Few researchers have combined student interpreters...

  17. CART expression in limbic regions of rat brain following forced swim stress: Sex differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burcu Balkan; Oguz Gozen; Gorkem Yararbas; Ersin O. Koylu; Serra Akinturk; Michael J. Kuhar; Sakire Pogun

    2006-01-01

    Our previous studies showed the modulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) positive neurons and CART mRNA by adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement in hypothalamic nuclei of male rat brain. More recently, we have shown by CART immunohistochemistry that restraint and forced swim (FS) stress have sexually dimorphic and regionally specific effects on CART expression in the hypothalamic nuclei of

  18. Making Yourself Mobile With a Medical Golf Cart

    PubMed Central

    Berry, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the specially designed and equipped golf cart in sports medicine has become commonplace at the professional and collegiate levels. However, at the high school level, athletic trainers often have been stymied by financial limitations that prevent them from purchasing professionally designed and manufactured medical golf carts. Through this article, I hope to share with high school athletic trainers my experiences in designing, obtaining, and equipping a medical golf cart that is affordable and suitable for use in the high school setting. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558219

  19. Making yourself mobile with a medical golf cart.

    PubMed

    Berry, J W

    1993-01-01

    The use of the specially designed and equipped golf cart in sports medicine has become commonplace at the professional and collegiate levels. However, at the high school level, athletic trainers often have been stymied by financial limitations that prevent them from purchasing professionally designed and manufactured medical golf carts. Through this article, I hope to share with high school athletic trainers my experiences in designing, obtaining, and equipping a medical golf cart that is affordable and suitable for use in the high school setting. PMID:16558219

  20. On the interpretation of complex network analysis of language. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Jin Cong, Haitao Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ech, Radek

    2014-12-01

    After a rapid and successful development of the theory of complex networks at the turn of the millennium [1,2], attempts to apply this theory to a language analysis emerged immediately [3,4]. The first results seemed to bring new insights to the functioning of language. Moreover, some authors assumed that this approach can even solve some fundamental problems concerning language evolution [5,6]. However, after a decade of the application of complex network theory to language analysis, the initial expectations have not been fulfilled, in my opinion, and the need for a deeper, linguistically based explanation of observed properties has been still more obvious. Cong and Liu's review [7] can be seen as a successful attempt to clarify the main aspects of this kind of research from the linguistics point of view. However, I see two problematic aspects in their study relating to the nature of the character of explanation.

  1. Language Assessment Literacy as Self-Awareness: "Understanding" the Role of Interpretation in Assessment and in Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The increasing influence of sociocultural theories of learning on assessment practices in second language education necessitates an expansion of the knowledge base that teacher-assessors need to develop (what teachers need to know) and related changes in the processes of language teacher education (how they learn and develop it). Teacher assessors…

  2. VIEW OF TOOL TABLE AND CART, LOCOMOTIVE NO. 18 IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TOOL TABLE AND CART, LOCOMOTIVE NO. 18 IN BACKGROUND (BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE 1920) - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  3. 143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. MOBILE HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN CART STORED IN CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  5. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  6. Chemical Spill Cart Procedures QB3 ~ Stanley Hall

    E-print Network

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    Chemical Spill Cart Procedures QB3 ~ Stanley Hall Spill Cleanup Procedure Isolate and report spill incident activities. Spill Cleanup Materials Teal Universal Spill Pad spill area and alert others to stay away Notify QB3 Facilities 3260496 Identify chemical

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ROCKET TRANSFER CART. NOTE THE VALVE BOX IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT WITH AN EYE WASH FAUCET PROJECTING OUT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  9. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  10. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  11. 47 CFR 76.986 - “A la carte” offerings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76...unregulated per-channel or per-program (“a la carte”) video programming shall be regulated as CPSTs pursuant to §...

  12. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    PubMed

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. PMID:23958856

  13. The determinants of consumers’ online shopping cart abandonment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Kukar-Kinney; Angeline G. Close

    2010-01-01

    Despite placing items in virtual shopping carts, online shoppers frequently abandon them —an issue that perplexes online retailers\\u000a and has yet to be explained by scholars. Here, we identify key drivers to online cart abandonment and suggest cognitive and\\u000a behavioral reasons for this non-buyer behavior. We show that the factors influencing consumer online search, consideration,\\u000a and evaluation play a larger

  14. Understanding the Home Language and Literacy Environments of Head Start Families: Testing the Family Literacy Survey and Interpreting Its Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Wasik; Annemarie H. Hindman

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of Head Start children's home literacy environments and the associations between these resources and children's early-language and literacy skills. At the beginning of the preschool year, families of 302 children completed the Family Literacy Survey. In general, Head Start families reported providing a variety of activities for young children; however, variability was observed across

  15. CARTS: Cultural Arts Resources for Teachers and Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed and maintained by Gail Matthews-DeNatale, CARTS is a collection of online resources pertaining to folklore, anthropology, traditional arts, oral history, and community-based education. CARTS is designed to help K-12 teachers, students, and community members develop links between school curricula and local cultural traditions. At the site users will find a number of resources for this effort, such as an interview with a National Heritage Award-winning artist, a discussion list, teacher institute retrospectives, regional slide shows, and links to relevant regional resources.

  16. Quantum Interpretations

    E-print Network

    A. R. P. Rau

    2006-06-03

    Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such as the many worlds interpretation or specify a central role for consciousness or neural microstructures. The simple, but basic, acceptance that what is meant by the state of a physical system is different in quantum physics from what it is in classical physics goes a long way in explaining its seeming peculiarities.

  17. An Extension of CART's Pruning Algorithm. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 91-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Ho

    Among the computer-based methods used for the construction of trees such as AID, THAID, CART, and FACT, the only one that uses an algorithm that first grows a tree and then prunes the tree is CART. The pruning component of CART is analogous in spirit to the backward elimination approach in regression analysis. This idea provides a tool in…

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Stand-Up Motorized Prone Cart

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Jeffrey J; Malassigné, Pascal; Nelson, Audrey L; Jensen, Robert P; Amato, Margaret; Palacios, Polly L

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Prone carts are used for mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury in whom seated mobility (wheelchair) is contraindicated due to ischial or sacral pressure ulcers. Currently available prone carts are uncomfortable, subjecting the user to neck and shoulder strain, and make social interaction and performing activities of daily living difficult. A better design of prone carts is needed. In addition, standing devices have shown some medical benefits. The objective was to design and evaluate an improved prone cart that facilitates standing. Design: Engineering development project with user feedback through questionnaire. Users selected by convenience sampling. Methods: A marketing survey was performed of nurse managers of spinal cord injury units. Then 2 prototype carts were designed and built. These carts are able to tilt up to 45° and have a joystick-controlled motor for propulsion and other design features, including a workspace storage shelf and rearview mirrors. The carts were evaluated by both patients and caregivers at 2 Veteran's Administration hospitals. Outcome Measures: Questionnaire of subjects, both patients and caregivers, who used the cart. Findings: Both patients and caregivers liked the carts and the ability to assume a nonhorizontal body angle. The major complaint about the cart was that it seemed too long when it came to making turns. Conclusion: This prone cart design is an improvement over the standard, flat variety. However, further design changes will be necessary. This study provided valuable information that will be useful in the next-generation prone cart design project. PMID:17385270

  19. Interactive Model Identification for Nonholonomic Cart Pushed by a Mobile Manipulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Sunt; Ning Xit; Jindong Tant; Yuechao WangS

    2002-01-01

    A model identification method for unknown environments has been developed. By the interactions between a mobile manipulator and the unknown object, a nonholonomic cart, sensory information has been collected to estimate the model parameters of the cart, which are used to control the cart. Since the raw data are contaminated by noise they can not be modeled statistically, a wavelet

  20. Impact of a CART promoter genetic variation on plasma lipid profile in a general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Vasseur; Audrey Guérardel; Mouna Barat-Houari; Dominique Cottel; Philippe Amouyel; Philippe Froguel; Nicole Helbecque

    2007-01-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), an anorexigenic peptide responding to leptin, is expressed in various areas of the hypothalamus. The role of CART in humans and its potential contribution to abnormalities in feeding control are mostly unknown. Since CART plays an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of energy balance by reducing food intake and increasing lipid substrate

  1. Source: Golf Cart Manufacturer's Operators Manual; NC Fire Prevention Code Section 309 Safety News Alert

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Source: Golf Cart Manufacturer's Operators Manual; NC Fire Prevention Code Section 309 Safety News Alert Golf Carts ­ Prevent Fire Hazards Fire UNC Chapel Hill ­ July 7, 2014 General Combustible material must be at least three feet away from where Golf Carts are stored including the charging areas

  2. Hybrid control for global stabilization of the cart-pendulum system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhao; Mark. W. Spong

    2001-01-01

    A globally stabilizing controller for the cart–pendulum system is designed in this paper. The design procedure consists of three parts. First, find a neighborhood of the origin in which a locally stabilizing controller can be used. Second, construct a linear controller for the cart subsystem and steer the position and velocity of the cart to the origin. The last part

  3. Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System

    E-print Network

    Zenkov, Dmitry

    Controlled Lagrangians and Stabilization of the Discrete Cart-Pendulum System Anthony M. Bloch. In this paper the method of controlled Lagrangians is applied to the discrete cart-pendulum system. This study out the matching procedure explicitly for the discrete cart-pendulum system and prove that we can

  4. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...cart is a device intended to store and transport resuscitation supplies for...

  5. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... 868.6175 Section 868.6175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...cart is a device intended to store and transport resuscitation supplies for...

  6. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  7. As a condition for the issuance of a disability cart permit for your cart, which you have been approved for to accommodate your mobility transport needs, and for any subsequent renewals or extensions of

    E-print Network

    Raymond, Jennifer L.

    NOT use a mobile phone (talking, texting, or viewing) while driving a cart. 8) Do NOT exceed the posted application. Rules and Regulations: 1) Do NOT drive or park the cart in any arcade or within a Vehicle, pathways, dumpsters, or thoroughfares. DISABILITY CART PERMIT AGREEMENT #12;6) Do NOT drive the cart any

  8. Translation and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Nancy Schweda

    1995-01-01

    Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

  9. Solar semidiurnal tidal wind oscillations above the CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Bian, X.

    1995-03-01

    Harmonic analysis of wintertime data from 915- and 404-MHz radar wind profilers at four sites in North America has identified coherent semidiurnal wind oscillations through the entire depth of the troposphere. These winds are readily apparent above the CART site, as evidenced from analyses of data from the Haviland, KS, radar profiler. The characteristics of this wind system match the characteristics of solar semidiurnal atmospheric tides, as predicted by a simple dynamic model.

  10. Le Carte Blanc or La Carte Blanche? Bilingual Children's Acquisition of French Adjective Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoladis, Elena; Marchak, Kristan

    2011-01-01

    Because of less exposure to either language, bilingual children's language acquisition can be delayed relative to monolingual children in domains related to input frequency. This study predicted that the acquisition of gender agreement with adjectives in French would be delayed in bilingual children on a picture description task. The results…

  11. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the study, the researcher illustrates that the application of the proposed framework resulted in an improved version of the framework. The improved version of the proposed framework is more connected to the topic of science learning, and is able to measure the change of discourse in higher resolution.

  12. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  13. Online motor fault detection and diagnosis using a hybrid FMM-CART model.

    PubMed

    Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng

    2014-04-01

    In this brief, a hybrid model combining the fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and the classification and regression tree (CART) for online motor detection and diagnosis tasks is described. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed FMM-CART model, an evaluation with a benchmark data set pertaining to electrical motor bearing faults is first conducted. The results obtained are equivalent to those reported in the literature. Then, a laboratory experiment for detecting and diagnosing eccentricity faults in an induction motor is performed. In addition to producing accurate results, useful rules in the form of a decision tree are extracted to provide explanation and justification for the predictions from FMM-CART. The experimental outcome positively shows the potential of FMM-CART in undertaking online motor fault detection and diagnosis tasks. PMID:24807956

  14. Enhancing the Interpretation of a Norm-Referenced Second-Language Test through Criterion Referencing: A Research Assessment of Experience in the TOEIC Testing Context. TOEIC Research Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    This study was undertaken to develop guidelines for making interpretive inferences from scores on the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC), a norm-referenced test of English-language listening comprehension (LC) and reading (R) skills, about level of ability to use English in face-to-face conversation, indexed by performance in…

  15. Development and Control of the Personal Cart for an Elderly Person

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Kenji; Wakatsuki, Takuya; Nozaki, Hisashi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Ito, Yuzo; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    This paper describes a personal cart for an elderly person and its control. The cart actively supports walking of an elderly person by himself/herself so that he/she can go out freely. The control system is synthesized to make the cart drive in accordance with gaits of an operator. The developed computer-controlled personal cart has four wheels and its controlling devices. The interval of its two front wheels is narrow, and the interval of the rear wheels is wide. Its structure looks like a three-wheeler. The two front wheels are driven by a DC-motor. An infrared radiation sensor measures the distance between the cart and the operator. The proposed system makes the cart maintain the distance between the personal cart and an operator at a certain level so that it can reduce the workload of the operator, who is walking on a slope with some baggage. It is not easy to describe the dynamic characteristics of the cart by a mathematical model, including its changing characteristics due to the driving environments such as the condition of roads and/or baggage. Furthermore, the cart system should be a human friendly system, because it is used by an elderly person. Therefore, the controller is synthesized based on a fuzzy theory. The proposed controller consists of two fuzzy controllers for driving and stopping the cart. The controller for stopping can stop the cart certainly as the cart does not access to the operator too much. The performances of the proposed system were tested in various conditions. Good performances of the control were also obtained independently of the condition of the road. Therefore, the proposed system is conceivable to be useful for the assisting of the walking.

  16. The JADE interpreter: a RISC interpreter for syntax directed editing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F. Clark

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes key features of an interpreter for a language-based editor. The interpreter unites in a RISC framework features which have been used in other domains. The paper examines each feature's integration into the RISC framework.

  17. Investigation report on golf cart fire at the U.S. DOE Pinellas Plant on May 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the results of an accident investigation of a golf cart fire that occurred May 11, 1993, at the Pinellas Plant. The direct cause of the fire was determined to be excessive heat generation in the cart`s resistor coil box. The current flow creating the excessive heat was caused by the defeat of cart safety systems and a partially depressed accelerator pedal. The root cause of the fire is inadequate training of golf cart operators. Recommendations to prevent further recurrence of this type of accident include operator training and golf cart inspections.

  18. UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub-Area Counselor should sign below, indicating agreement about the

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    UW-Madison MS-Cart/GIS. Geography Degree Plan ­ Fall 2010 The Student, Thesis Advisor and Sub guarantee= _____semesters Cum GPA = _________ Started MS-Cart/GIS _____________ cum credits = ________ BA 370 (Intro Cart) __________________ Geography 377 (Intro GIS) __________________ Geography 378

  19. Telesynergy v3 AnthroCart Setup Instructions

    Cancer.gov

    Document # 300-5141-00 Step 8 Install all six Castor Inserts into the Base Tube and secure with one Castor Screw per Insert. Push the Castors, (locking ones in front) into the Castor Inserts. Step 9 Place the Base Tube Assembly (from Step 8) onto the Vertical Legs of the Shelf Assembly (from Step 7). Attach the Base Tube to the Legs using a total of four Base Tube Screws. TIGHTEN ALL SCREWS. Step 10 Carefully, rotate your Cart over onto the Castors.

  20. AZ-101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System and Gamma Cart Data Acquisition Control System Software Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, D.A.

    1999-12-29

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the AZ1101 Mixer Pump Demonstration Data Acquisition System (DAS) and the Sludge Mobilization Cart (Gamma Cart) Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS).

  1. Stability of CART peptide expression in the nucleus accumbens in aging.

    PubMed

    Armbruszt, Simon; Figler, Mária; Ábrahám, Hajnalka

    2015-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes of several anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides expressed in various brain areas that control food intake and these changes correlate with senescent anorexia. During aging expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide was reported to be reduced in the hypothalamic nuclei related to food intake. Although CART peptide is abundant in the nucleus accumbens that also plays a crucial role in the food intake regulation, no data is available about the CART peptide expression in this region through aging. In the present study, CART peptide immunoreactivity was compared in the nucleus accumbens of young adult (4- and 7-month-old) middle-aged (15-month-old) and aging (25-32-month-old) Long-Evans rats. The density of CART-immunoreactive cells and axon terminals in the nucleus accumbens was measured with computer-aided densitometry. CART-immunodensity was similar in the old rats and in the younger animals without significant difference between age groups. In addition, no gender-difference was observed when CART-immunoreactivities in the nucleus accumbens of male and female animals were compared. Our results indicate that CART peptide expression in the nucleus accumbens is stable in adults and does not change with age. PMID:25740434

  2. Modulation of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) and c-fos expression by several

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modulation of Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) and c-fos expression by several It has been reported that cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides can increase of the immediate early gene c-fos was observed after acute administration of morphine, cocaine, 3, 4

  3. Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding a la Carte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakarala, Madhuri; Keast, Debra R.; Hoerr, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold a la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping a la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may…

  4. Identification and location of the cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) in the abomasum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, Izabela; M?ynek, Krzysztof; Wysocki, Jaros?aw

    2013-05-01

    The cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) belongs to the group of peptides with anorexigenic properties and is present in many areas of the central and peripheral nervous systems of numerous mammalian species. Research has suggested an effect on the feeling of appetite and satiety; however, there are no clear clues as to the role of CART in specific organs, including the stomach. Considering the specificity of cattle feeding and digestion, CART may play a highly significant role possibly associated with the option of administering greater amounts of high-volume feeds. Based on the results of immunohistochemical staining of abomasum samples prepared from hybrid bulls, the presence of CART-positive structures and CART distribution were determined in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis layers of the stomach. Abundant sites of CART were found in the myenteric plexus, nerve fibers innervating the myocytes of the myenteron, neuroendocrine cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and the submucous plexus. The preliminary stage of abomasal CART detection suggests that CART is an agent that strongly affects the regulation of motor activity involved in stomach emptying and in secretory functions of the stomach. However, further research is necessary to explain the relationship. PMID:23084786

  5. Biomechanical analysis of transporting loads with a large four-wheel cart

    E-print Network

    Abell, David Wayne

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional large metal waste carts currently in use in industry to a plastic waste cart with the same load capacity. This was done through initial pull force studies using a dynamometer and biomechanical...

  6. Identification of the CART neuropeptide circuitry processing TMT-induced predator stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anju; Rale, Abhishek; Utturwar, Kaweri; Ghose, Aurnab; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2014-12-01

    Abundance of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neuropeptide in the limbic areas like the olfactory system, central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), ventral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (vBNST) and the hypothalamus suggests involvement of the peptide in emotive processing. We examined the role of CART in mediating fear, a strong emotion with profound survival value. Rats, exposed to 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline (TMT), a predator related cue extracted from fox feces, showed significant increase in freezing, escape and risk assessment behavior, whereas grooming was reduced. Neuronal activity was up-regulated in the CeA and vBNST in terms of increased immunoreactivity in CART elements and c-Fos expression. Increased expression of both the markers was also seen in some discrete magnocellular as well as parvicellular subdivisions of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, CART containing mitral cells in the main or accessory olfactory bulb did not respond. CART antibody was stereotaxically injected bilaterally into the CeA to locally immunoneutralize endogenous CART. On exposure to TMT, these rats showed reduced freezing, risk assessment and escape behavior while grooming was restored to normal value. We suggest that the CART signaling in the CeA and vBNST, but not in the olfactory system, might be an important component of the innate fear processing, and expression of stereotypic behavior, while CART in the PVN subdivisions might mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator stress. PMID:25233338

  7. Neuroscience Letters 384 (2005) 198202 Cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide

    E-print Network

    Hall, Randy A

    Neuroscience Letters 384 (2005) 198­202 Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART signal-related kinase (ERK) in a pituitary-derived cell line. CART 55­102 treatment resulted in markedly attenuated by pertussis toxin pre-treatment, but not by genistein, suggesting a Gi/o-dependent mechanism

  8. Policy Name: Golf Carts in Tunnels Originating/Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    Policy Name: Golf Carts in Tunnels Originating/Responsible Department: Facilities Management Management and Planning Policy: The operation of golf carts in tunnels is subject to the requirements of this policy. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in disciplinary action and/or loss of golf

  9. La détection de la matière interstellaire sur les plaques photographiques de la Carte du Ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fresneau, A.

    2008-06-01

    Ce chapitre évoque les modes de détection de la matière interstellaire sur les plaques photographiques de la Carte du Ciel. Les premiers clichés de la Carte du Ciel en 1887 ont fait remarquer la présence de la matiére interstellaire. Ce n'est que vers 1930 que les astronomes ont essayé d'utiliser l'héritage de la Carte du Ciel pour détecter d'éventuels bras spiraux de notre Galaxie. Grâce à des machines de mesure rapides construites dans les années 1970 pour mesurer des plaques photographiques de télescope de Schmidt, et grâce à des clichés de la Carte du Ciel de l'Observatoire de Paris, la matière interstellaire dans la région de l'Aigle a pu être détectée, et grâce à des clichés Carte du Ciel de l'Observatoire de Sydney, le bras spiral du Sagittaire a pu être détecté.

  10. Association of Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Level, Food Intake, and Growth in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  11. Identification and differential distribution of CART in the small intestine depending on the diet.

    PubMed

    Janiuk, I; Olkowski, B; Szczotka-Bochniarz, A

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at identifying and locating cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the small intestine of broilers in relation to the diet. The feeding regime of the chicks was based on diets largely consisting of maize and one of four protein sources: post-extraction soya bean meal (SBM) or non-GM seed meal - meal from traditional variety of soy seeds Glicine max (FFS) and meal from seeds of Lupinus angustifolius (LA) and Lupinus luteus L (LY). The presence of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript immunoreactive (CART-IR) in the wall of the small intestine of the chicks was determined on the basis of staining patterns produced by the immunohistochemical method (IHC). CART-IR structures were found in the myenteric plexus (MP), submucosus plexus (SP), in endomucosal fibres, and fibres innervating miocytes and blood vessels in the muscularis membrane and adipocytes of the white adipose tissue (WAT) located on the perimeter of the serous membrane and single cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Based on microscopic observation and result analysis, the lowest number of CART-IR structures was identified in the group that was fed the SBM-based diet. This study confirms previous observations concerning CART distribution in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animal and broadens current knowledge by inclusion of chicken in the list of CART-positive species. Moreover, this work provides evidence that dietary composition can be a factor that stimulates post-prandial CART secretion in intestinal nerve structures. PMID:24797515

  12. An Interpretive Case Study of Stakeholders' Perceptions on the Enrollment and Progression of African American Students in High School Foreign Language Courses

    E-print Network

    Schoener III, Herbert

    2012-10-19

    The "achievement gap" is a common term in Texas public education, often referring to academic differences in achievement among student ethnic groups within the core curriculum. Seldom is Foreign Language referenced in, nor even considered relevant...

  13. Challenges to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Magee, Michael S; Snook, Adam E

    2014-11-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells have demonstrated potent clinical efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies. However, the use of CAR-T cell therapy targeting other cancers has, in part, been limited by both the induction of antigen-specific toxicities targeting normal tissues expressing the target-antigen, and the extreme potency of CAR-T cell treatments resulting in life-threatening cytokine-release syndromes. Herein, we discuss toxicities associated with CAR-T cell therapy in the clinic. Further, we discuss potential clinical interventions to ameliorate these toxicities and the application of preclinical animal models to predict the clinical utility of CAR-T cell therapy. PMID:25425467

  14. STS-37 crewmembers move CETA electrical cart along rail in JSC's WETF pool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross generates electrical power using hand pedals to move crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) cart along a rail during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross operates CETA electrical cart as MS Jerome Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The two crewmembers are practicing a extravehicular activity (EVA) spacewalk they will perform in OV-104's payload bay during STS-37. CETA is a type of railroad hand cart planned as a spacewalker's transportation system along the truss of Space Station Freedom (SSF). SCUBA divers monitor astronauts' underwater activity.

  15. Stabilizing a Vehicle near Rollover: An Analogy to Cart-Pole

    E-print Network

    Peters, Steven Conrad

    An analogy between the dynamics of a cart-pole system and vehicle rollover dynamics is used to derive a controller for tipping up and stabilizing a planar model of a passenger vehicle near rollover by controlling lateral ...

  16. Using Direct Measurement Video to find the acceleration of a rocket-powered cart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rebekah Johnson

    A video of a student accelerating across a stage on a cart powered by a releasing compressed carbon dioxide from a fire extinguisher can be used to analyze constant acceleration. This video includes a to-scale ruler that students can use to find displacement, as well as a frame counter that can be used to find elapsed time. This lesson is meant to be a direct application of using the kinematic equations to solve for the acceleration of the cart.

  17. The Relationship among Beginning and Advanced American Sign Language Students and Credentialed Interpreters across Two Domains of Visual Imagery: Vividness and Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Linda K.

    2010-01-01

    Given the visual-gestural nature of ASL it is reasonable to assume that visualization abilities may be one predictor of aptitude for learning ASL. This study tested a hypothesis that visualization abilities are a foundational aptitude for learning a signed language and that measurements of these skills will increase as students progress from…

  18. Interpreting the Impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test on Second Language Students within an Argument-Based Validation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on Kane's (2006) argument-based validation framework to synthesize evidence derived from a large-scale, mixed-method explanatory study on the impact of the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) on second language (L2) students. The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students have acquired the essential reading…

  19. Robust Control Algorithm for a Two Cart System and an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Chris L.; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Rectilinear Control System can be used to simulate a launch vehicle during liftoff. Several control schemes have been developed that can control different dynamic models of the rectilinear plant. A robust control algorithm was developed that can control a pendulum to maintain an inverted position. A fluid slosh tank will be attached to the pendulum in order to test robustness in the presence of unknown slosh characteristics. The rectilinear plant consists of a DC motor and three carts mounted in series. Each cart s weight can be adjusted with brass masses and the carts can be coupled with springs. The pendulum is mounted on the first cart and an adjustable air damper can be attached to the third cart if desired. Each cart and the pendulum have a quadrature encoder to determine position. Full state feedback was implemented in order to develop the control algorithm along with a state estimator to determine the velocity states of the system. A MATLAB program was used to convert the state space matrices from continuous time to discrete time. This program also used a desired phase margin and damping ratio to determine the feedback gain matrix that would be used in the LabVIEW program. This experiment will allow engineers to gain a better understanding of liquid propellant slosh dynamics, therefore enabling them to develop more robust control algorithms for launch vehicle systems

  20. Advancing monthly streamflow prediction accuracy of CART models using ensemble learning paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Halil Ibrahim; Karakurt, Onur

    2013-01-01

    SummaryStreamflow forecasting is one of the most important steps in the water resources planning and management. Ensemble techniques such as bagging, boosting and stacking have gained popularity in hydrological forecasting in the recent years. The study investigates the potential usage of two ensemble learning paradigms (i.e., bagging; stochastic gradient boosting) in building classification and regression trees (CARTs) ensembles to advance the streamflow prediction accuracy. The study, initially, investigates the use of classification and regression trees for monthly streamflow forecasting and employs a support vector regression (SVR) model as the benchmark model. The analytic results indicate that CART outperforms SVR in both training and testing phases. Although the obtained results of CART model in training phase are considerable, it is not in testing phase. Thus, to optimize the prediction accuracy of CART for monthly streamflow forecasting, we incorporate bagging and stochastic gradient boosting which are rooted in same philosophy, advancing the prediction accuracy of weak learners. Comparing with the results of bagged regression trees (BRTs) and stochastic gradient boosted regression trees (GBRTs) models possess satisfactory monthly streamflow forecasting performance than CART and SVR models. Overall, it is found that ensemble learning paradigms can remarkably advance the prediction accuracy of CART models in monthly streamflow forecasting.

  1. Coupling the core analysis program DeCART to the fuel performance application BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Gleicher, F. N.; Spencer, B.; Novascone, S.; Williamson, R.; Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Rose, M.; Downar, T. J.; Collins, B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The 3D neutron transport and core analysis program DeCART was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the method of characteristics) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate 3D problems. DeCART provides sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux, with resonance treatment, during burnup or a fast transient. BISON implicitly solves coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter level finite element mesh. A method was developed for mapping the fission rate density and fast neutron flux from DeCART to BISON. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from DeCART to BISON. The one-way data transfer of fission rate density is shown to agree with the fission rate density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON. One-way data transfer was also demonstrated in a 3D case in which azimuthal asymmetry was induced in the fission rate density profile of a fuel rod modeled in DeCART. Two-way data transfer was established by mapping the temperature distribution from BISON to DeCART. A Picard iterative algorithm was developed for the loose coupling with two-way data transfer. (authors)

  2. Remote sensing data from CLARET: A prototype CART data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Uttal, Taneil; Clark, Kurt A.; Cupp, Richard E.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Fedor, Leonard, S.; Intrieri, Janet M.; Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Snider, Jack B.; Willis, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    The data set containing radiation, meteorological , and cloud sensor observations is documented. It was prepared for use by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and other interested scientists. These data are a precursor of the types of data that ARM Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) sites will provide. The data are from the Cloud Lidar And Radar Exploratory Test (CLARET) conducted by the Wave Propagation Laboratory during autumn 1989 in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado primarily for the purpose of developing new cloud-sensing techniques on cirrus. After becoming aware of the experiment, ARM scientists requested archival of subsets of the data to assist in the developing ARM program. Five CLARET cases were selected: two with cirrus, one with stratus, one with mixed-phase clouds, and one with clear skies. Satellite data from the stratus case and one cirrus case were analyzed for statistics on cloud cover and top height. The main body of the selected data are available on diskette from the Wave Propagation Laboratory or Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  3. Portraits of Scientists: Increase Lapham's Cartes-de-visites Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Increase Lapham came west to Wisconsin via New York and Kentucky in 1836, and he soon established himself as one of the state's premier experts on the natural history of the Badger State. In fact, he was the state's first scientist, and by the time he died in 1875, he had created the first accurate maps of the state, made investigations into local effigy mounds, and provided his services in a host of different ways to the betterment of Wisconsinites. During these years, he also maintained correspondence with the leading geologists, botanists and other scientists of his day. He kept an album of photographs of these individuals, and this forms the basis of this online collection offered by the Wisconsin Historical Society. Merely by browsing throughout the collection, visitors will be able to view images of noted geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, botanist Asa Gray, and Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz. The collection is rounded out by an essay on these cartes-de-visite and hyper-text links to some of Lapham's seminal works, such as his 1855 book, "The Antiquities of Wisconsin".

  4. Time optimal control of pendulum-cart system

    SciTech Connect

    Turnau, A.; Korytowski, A. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    We consider the synthesis of time optimal control which steers a pendulum hinged to a cart to a given state (e.g., the upright position), starting from arbitrary initial conditions. The control of the pendulum can system has attracted attention of many authors because of its relatively simple structure and at the same time, nontrivial nonlinearity. Various heuristic approaches combined with 1q stabilization in the vicinity of the target state were used to swing the pendulum up to the upright position and to keep it there. However, time-optimality was not achieved. We construct the time optimal control using a sequence of fixed horizon problems in which the norms of terminal states are minimized. The problems with fixed horizons are solved numerically by means of gradient optimization, with gradients determined from the solution of adjoint equations. Due to embedding the synthesis algorithms in the Matlab - Simulink environment, it is possible to track and visualize the control process as well as the results of simulation experiments.

  5. Functional programming interpreter. M. S. thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, A.D.

    1987-03-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  6. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  7. Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jongh, Elena M.

    For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

  8. Tokens: Facts and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmandt-Besserat, Denise

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes some of the major pieces of evidence concerning the archeological clay tokens, specifically the technique for their manufacture, their geographic distribution, chronology, and the context in which they are found. Discusses the interpretation of tokens as the first example of visible language, particularly as an antecedent of Sumerian…

  9. Les traces matérielles de la Carte du Ciel. Le cas des observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guet Tully, F.; Davoigneau, J.; Lamy, J.; de La Noë, J.; Rousseau, J.-M.; Sadsaoud, H.

    2008-06-01

    Le chapitre évoque les traces matérielles de la Carte du ciel subsistant dans les observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux. Les auteurs examinent d'abord l'opération d'inventaire du patrimoine astronomique entreprise à partir du milieu des années 1990. Ils examinent ensuite les éléments concrets constituant aujourd'hui le patrimoine de la Carte du Ciel : lunettes, abris, accessoires, laboratoires, réseaux, plaques de verre, registres, machines à mesurer les clichés, et cartes.

  10. Security bugs in embedded interpreters

    E-print Network

    Chen, Haogang

    Because embedded interpreters offer flexibility and performance, they are becoming more prevalent, and can be found at nearly every level of the software stack. As one example, the Linux kernel defines languages to describe ...

  11. Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.

    2010-09-01

    In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.

  12. NFI Interpretation Interpreting NFI Timber

    E-print Network

    on the standing forest and, in so doing, has mitigated the problems involved in predicting these ratesNFI Interpretation Interpreting NFI Timber Volume Forecasts Issued by: National Forest Inventory advances have been made in methodology, with improved field survey techniques, greater understanding

  13. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  14. Neurotransmitter CART as a New Therapeutic Candidate for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peizhong; Meshul, Charles K.; Thuillier, Philippe; Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. To date, there is no effective treatment that halts its progression. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria play an important role in the development of PD. Hence mitochondria-targeted approaches or agents may have therapeutic promise for treatment of the disease. Neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript), a hypothalamus and midbrain enriched neurotransmitter with an antioxidant property, can be found in mitochondria, which is the main source of reactive oxygen species. Systemic administration of CART has been found to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal loss and improve motor functions in a mouse model of PD. In this article, we summarize recent progress in studies investigating the relationship between CART, dopamine, and the pathophysiology of PD, with a focus on mitochondria-related topics. PMID:23543038

  15. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  16. Engineering interpretation

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Charles R.

    and Robotics Handout 2: Image Structure Roberto Cipolla and Andrew Gee October 1999 Image Structure 1 Image to interpret images using a small amount of edge and corner data. The Archer, Henry Moore. 8­bit greyscale

  17. On the formulation of interpretations.

    PubMed

    Allegro, L A

    1990-01-01

    The author analyses several interpretations published by different authors from the point of view of their linguistic form and the type of language used, in order to determine the therapeutic effect and the manner of working of each. Two types can be distinguished: literal-explanatory language and metaphorical language. Each performs a different function. Metaphorical language is proper to the primary process; it is related to displacement and condensation; it reactivates the most primitive levels of the mind; it serves the purpose of expressing affects and emotions. Literal-explanatory language is proper to the secondary process; it is related to logical-formal thought; it reactivates the most highly developed levels of the mind; it serves a referential, informative and explanatory purpose. A knowledge of the function of each of these forms of language allows the psychoanalyst to direct the interpretations he formulates to either the primary or the secondary process as befits the clinical requirements. PMID:2228442

  18. Synergistic effect of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin on food intake regulation in lean mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenka Maletínská; Jana Maixnerová; Resha Matyšková; Renata Haugvicová; Zdeno Pirník; Alexander Kiss; Blanka Železná

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of

  19. Improving Medication Management Through the Redesign of the Hospital Code Cart Medication Drawer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin B. Rousek; M. Susan Hallbeck

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study utilized usability testing and human factors engineering (HFE) principles to create efficient code cart medication drawer modifications to improve code blue medical emergency (code) medication management.Background: Effective access to medications during a code is a key component in delivering optimal care and has been found to be a major problem among health care organizations; however, little research

  20. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

  1. MOBILE AGENTS | | | |DS HOME ARCHIVES ABOUT US SUBSCRIBE |SEARCH CART August 2002

    E-print Network

    Kotz, David

    MOBILE AGENTS | | | |DS HOME ARCHIVES ABOUT US SUBSCRIBE |SEARCH CART August 2002 Back to Article Future Directions for Mobile Agent Research David Kotz, Robert Gray, and Daniela Rus Dartmouth College· he field of mobile agents should shift its emphasis toward mobile code, in all its forms, rather than

  2. A bedside food cart as an alternate food service for acute and palliative oncological patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patti Pietersma; Sandra Follett-Bick; Brenda Wilkinson; Nancy Guebert; Kim Fisher; Jose Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer experience various problems with eating, and their meals should be tailored to meet their specific needs. Two methods of food service were compared in a shared acute oncology\\/palliative care unit; an electrical food cart allowing patients to select their food types and portions at the bedside, and a traditional food tray delivery service that relied on

  3. Connecting your Mobile Shopping Cart to the Internet-of-Things

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Connecting your Mobile Shopping Cart to the Internet-of-Things Nicolas Petitprez, Romain Rouvoy MACCHIATO as a user-centered plat- form leveraging online shopping. MACCHIATO implements the principles of the Internet-of-Things by adopting the REST architectural style and semantic web standards to navigate product

  4. West Valley transfer cart control system design description. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  5. CART DIAGNOSIS OF WATERSHED IMPAIRMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many factors ( stressors ) can lead to increased concentrations of nutrients and sediments, and these factors change across watersheds. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) is a statistical approach that can be used to "diagnose" which factors are important stressors on a pe...

  6. Hyperspectral Study of the Arctic Tundra Ecosystem Using an Automated Robotic Cart System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Goswami; J. A. Gamon; P. Houser; K. Matharasi; C. E. Tweedie

    2007-01-01

    Our study in the NSF Biocomplexity project is carried on by collecting spectral data with the help of an automated robotic tram system over the drying arctic lake bed. The robotic cart samples three 300 meter long transects spread across the lake basin automatically, taking reflectance measurements at each meter using a dual detector spectrometer designed to correct for changing

  7. A metabolic cart for measurement of oxygen uptake during human exercise using inspiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kurt; Jørgensen, Susanne; Johansen, Lars

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated an ergo-spirometry system based on mixed expired gas for gas analyses and an inspiratory based determination of flow. There were 74 paired samples of oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and related variables including pulmonary ventilation (V(E)), fractional concentrations of expired CO(2) and O(2) ( F(E)CO(2) and F(E)O(2), respectively), as well as CO(2) output (VCO(2)) which were obtained from the metabolic cart and a Douglas bag system during 22 min submaximal and 5-8 min maximal running on a treadmill. For F(E)CO(2) and VCO(2) the metabolic cart gave readings that were 2.6% and 1.8% higher and for F(E)O(2) 0.2% lower than the Douglas bag method ( P<0.05). For the metabolic cart and the Douglas bag method the coefficient of variation (CV) for repeated determinations of VO(2) was 1.9% and 1.8%, respectively. For VO(2) and V(E), there were no significant differences between the two methods and the 95% confidence interval of the difference in VO(2) was within -30 and +20 ml min(-1). The CV of the differences in VO(2) between the two systems was 2.4% and it is concluded that a metabolic cart method based on inspiratory flow rate is suitable for measurement of VO(2) and V(E) during both submaximal and maximal exercise. PMID:12111279

  8. The CdC2000 Bordeaux Carte du Ciel catalogue (+11° ? ? ? +18°)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaport, M.; Ducourant, C.; Le Campion, J. F.; Fresneau, A.; Argyle, R. W.; Soubiran, C.; Teixeira, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Colin, J.; Daigne, G.; Périé, J. P.; Réquième, Y.

    2006-04-01

    Context: .This work is part of a program of proper motion measurements in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone.Aims.We present the CdC2000 catalogue issued from the reduction of the complete Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone observed at the begining of last century with the Bordeaux astrograph.Methods.Plates have been individually reduced using the TYCHO-2 Catalogue as the astrometric reference. Results.This catalogue is a positional catalogue of 344 781 stars covering the declination zone +11°???+18 °. The average epoch of positions is 1914.7. The data are from the 512 Carte du Ciel plates archived at the Bordeaux Observatory and scanned with the APM Cambridge automatic measuring machine. Astrometric standard errors are about 0.10 arcsec to 0.12 arcsec on positions and 0.6 mag on photographic magnitudes. Conclusions.A detailed study of errors and a comparison of various reduction methods are presented in order to take into account the significant propagated errors from the reference catalogue. The CdC2000 provides positions at the epoch of the plates for 50 682 TYCHO-2 stars. The associated positions are proved to be ?{2} more precise than the positions given by the TYCHO-2 catalogue at the epoch of the plates (0.11 arcsec instead of 0.15 arcsec). This work is part of a program of proper motion measurements in the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel zone.

  9. The Vending and à la Carte Policy Intervention in Maine Public High Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Davee; Janet E. Whatley Blum; Rachel L. Devore; Christina M. Beaudoin; Lori A. Kaley; Janet L. Leiter; Debra A. Wigand

    2005-01-01

    Background A healthy school nutrition environment may be impor- tant for decreasing childhood overweight. This article describes a project to make healthier snacks and beverages available in vending machines and à la carte programs in Maine public high schools. Context Seven public high schools in Maine volunteered to par- ticipate in this project. Four schools made changes to the nutrition

  10. Biomechanical loading of the shoulder complex and lumbosacral joints during dynamic cart pushing task.

    PubMed

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Sun, Yun; Jaridi, Majid; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the effect of dynamic cart pushing exertions on the biomechanical loading of shoulder and low back. Ten participants performed cart pushing tasks on flat (0°), 5°, and 10° ramped walkways at 20 kg, 30 kg, and 40 kg weight conditions. An optoelectronic motion capturing system configured with two force plates was used for the kinematic and ground reaction force data collection. The experimental data was modeled using AnyBody modeling system to compute three-dimensional peak reaction forces at the shoulder complex (sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and glenohumeral) and low back (lumbosacral) joints. The main effect of walkway gradient and cart weight, and gradient by weight interaction on the biomechanical loading of shoulder complex and low back joints was statistically significant (all p < 0.001). At the lumbosacral joint, negligible loading in the mediolateral direction was observed compared to the anterioposterior and compression directions. Among the shoulder complex joints, the peak reaction forces at the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints were comparable and much higher than the sternoclavicular joint. Increased shear loading of the lumbosacral joint, distraction loading of glenohumeral joint and inferosuperior loading of the acromioclavicular joint may contribute to the risk of work-related low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorder with prolonged and repetitive use of carts. PMID:23566675

  11. Energy and passivity based control of the double inverted pendulum on a cart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhong; Helmut Rock

    2001-01-01

    The paper considers the design of a nonlinear controller for the double inverted pendulum (DIP), a system consisting of two inverted pendulums mounted on a cart. The swingup controller bringing the pendulums from any initial position to the unstable up-up position is designed based on passivity properties and energy shaping. While the swingup controller drives the DIP into a region

  12. Golf cart related injuries in a North Carolina island community, 1992-4.

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, K. T.; Cole, T. B.; Morris, P. D.; Matthews, D. L.; MacKenzie, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The use of electric golf carts for roadway transportation is increasing in many regions of the United States, but injuries associated with the operation of these vehicles have not been previously described. In response to reports of golf cart related injuries in a North Carolina island community, we reviewed ambulance call report (ACR) information to identify and describe all injuries related to golf cart operation in this community in 1992-4. We also conducted telephone interviews with the subset of injured people who consented to be contacted. SETTING: Bald Head Island, North Carolina. RESULTS: Twenty two people were included in the case series, and 55% of these provided interview information to supplement ACR data. Fifty nine per cent of the 22 injured people were injured when they fell from a moving golf cart; of those injured in this manner, all with available information on seating position were passengers (rather than drivers). Eighty six per cent received immediate medical treatment at a mainland hospital. Thirty two per cent of injury incidents occurred among children aged 10 or younger. Forty per cent of injured adults were known to have been drinking alcohol before their injuries occurred, while alcohol was not known to have been involved in any of the children's injuries (in terms of drinking either by children or by accompanying adults). CONCLUSIONS: In settings where golf carts are used for road transportation, their users and traffic safety officials should be aware of potential safety hazards associated with the use of these vehicles, and installation of appropriate occupant restraints should be considered seriously. PMID:9346075

  13. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands of male rats with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Piotrowska, ?; Kna?, M; Lewandowska, A

    2014-10-01

    Adrenal activity is stimulated and secretion of stress hormones is increased during advanced stages of renovascular hypertension. The literature suggests that the neuropeptide, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), might regulate adrenal secretory function and thus could influence its activity. We assessed potential quantitative and qualitative changes in the cells that contained CART in the adrenal glands of rats with renovascular hypertension. The renal arteries of ten rats were subjected to a clipping procedure, i.e., two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model of arterial hypertension, and after 6 weeks each rat developed stable hypertension. CART was localized using immunohistochemistry. CART was detected in a large population of cells in the medulla, sparse nerve fibers in the cortex and the capsule of the adrenal gland. The population of CART-positive cells in adrenal glands of two kidney-one clip (2K1C) treated rats was greater and their immunoreactivity was increased compared to controls. Similarly, the length, width, area and diameter of CART-immunoreactive cells were significantly greater in the hypertensive rats than in controls. We demonstrated that renovascular hypertension alters the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells in adrenal glands. PMID:25151991

  14. A method for interpreting continental and analytic epistemology

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Sarah Ruth

    1999-01-01

    different language games. One can successfully interpret a particular language game from the perspective of another language game using the principle of charity. Specifically, the principle of charity allows analytic and continental epistemological...

  15. Predominant D1 Receptors Involvement in the Over-expression of CART Peptides after Repeated Cocaine Administration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Oh, Eun-Hye; Chung, Yeon Bok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of dopaminergic receptors (DR) in behavioral sensitization, as measured by locomotor activity, and the over-expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides after repeated administration of cocaine in mice. Repeated administrations of cocaine induced behavioral sensitization and CART over-expression in mice. The levels of striatal CART mRNA were significantly increased on the 3(rd) day. CART peptides were over-expressed on the 5(th) day in the striata of behaviorally sensitized mice. A higher proportion of CART(+) cells in the cocaine-treated mice were present in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell than in the dorsolateral (DL) part of caudate putamen (CP). The concomitant administration of both D1R and D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (D1R selective) and raclopride (D2R selective), blocked cocaine induced-behavioral sensitization, CART over-expression, and cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) signal pathways. SCH 23390 more predominantly inhibited the locomotor activity, CART over-expression, pCREB and PKA activity than raclopride. Cocaine induced-behavioral sensitization was also attenuated in the both D1R and D2R knockout (KO) mice, respectively. CART over-expression and activated cAMP/PKA/pCREB signal pathways were inhibited in the D1R-KO mice, but not in the D2R-KO mice. It is suggested that behavioral sensitization, CART over-expression and activated cAMP/PKA/pCREB signal pathways induced by repeated administration of cocaine could be more predominantly mediated by D1R. PMID:25729269

  16. Predominant D1 Receptors Involvement in the Over-expression of CART Peptides after Repeated Cocaine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Oh, Eun-Hye; Chung, Yeon Bok; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of dopaminergic receptors (DR) in behavioral sensitization, as measured by locomotor activity, and the over-expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides after repeated administration of cocaine in mice. Repeated administrations of cocaine induced behavioral sensitization and CART over-expression in mice. The levels of striatal CART mRNA were significantly increased on the 3rd day. CART peptides were over-expressed on the 5th day in the striata of behaviorally sensitized mice. A higher proportion of CART+ cells in the cocaine-treated mice were present in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell than in the dorsolateral (DL) part of caudate putamen (CP). The concomitant administration of both D1R and D2R antagonists, SCH 23390 (D1R selective) and raclopride (D2R selective), blocked cocaine induced-behavioral sensitization, CART over-expression, and cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) signal pathways. SCH 23390 more predominantly inhibited the locomotor activity, CART over-expression, pCREB and PKA activity than raclopride. Cocaine induced-behavioral sensitization was also attenuated in the both D1R and D2R knockout (KO) mice, respectively. CART over-expression and activated cAMP/PKA/pCREB signal pathways were inhibited in the D1R-KO mice, but not in the D2R-KO mice. It is suggested that behavioral sensitization, CART over-expression and activated cAMP/PKA/pCREB signal pathways induced by repeated administration of cocaine could be more predominantly mediated by D1R. PMID:25729269

  17. Anorexia induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors is mediated by increases in CART in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Alexandra; Conductier, Grégory; Manrique, Christine; Bouras, Constantin; Berta, Philippe; Hen, René; Charnay, Yves; Bockaert, Joël; Compan, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a growing concern in mental health, often inducing death. The potential neuronal deficits that may underlie abnormal inhibitions of food intake, however, remain largely unexplored. We hypothesized that anorexia may involve altered signaling events within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain structure involved in reward. We show here that direct stimulation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 4 receptors (5-HT4R) in the NAc reduces the physiological drive to eat and increases CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) mRNA levels in fed and food-deprived mice. It further shows that injecting 5-HT4R antagonist or siRNA-mediated 5-HT4R knockdown into the NAc induced hyperphagia only in fed mice. This hyperphagia was not associated with changes in CART mRNA expression in the NAc in fed and food-deprived mice. Results include that 5-HT4R control CART mRNA expression into the NAc via a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Considering that CART may interfere with food- and drug-related rewards, we tested whether the appetite suppressant properties of 3,4-N-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) involve the 5-HT4R. Using 5-HT4R knockout mice, we demonstrate that 5-HT4R are required for the anorectic effect of MDMA as well as for the MDMA-induced enhancement of CART mRNA expression in the NAc. Directly injecting CART peptide or CART siRNA into the NAc reduces or increases food consumption, respectively. Finally, stimulating 5-HT4R- and MDMA-induced anorexia were both reduced by injecting CART siRNA into the NAc. Collectively, these results demonstrate that 5-HT4R-mediated up-regulation of CART in the NAc triggers the appetite-suppressant effects of ecstasy. PMID:17913892

  18. Sign Language Interpretation via Mobile Videotelephony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Frowein; Harry Kamphuis; Eline Rikken

    Videotelephony allows deaf people to communicate in the way which is most natural to them, i.e. through signing and\\/or lip reading. Mobile videotelephony will have the additional advantage of providing deaf people with ubiquitous access. This will become possible with the introduction of broadband mobile networks, especially the UMTS. The experiments to be reported were carried out as part of

  19. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

  20. Interpretive model for a ''a concurrency method''

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, C.L.

    1986-06-01

    ''A Concurrency Method'' is a language embodying the data flow characteristics of data-drive and single-assignment. The interpreter for ''A Concurrency Method'' models a physical machine with an architecture directed toward this language. The interpreter is a complete system with scheduler, editor, load balancer and message handler. This model embraces some architectural features in other data flow machines and models and combines these features in a manner most conducive to this language. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Image Interpretation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document introduces aerial photography and satellite imagery. Methods for identifying objects are highlighted such as the fact that man-made constructions tend to be straight while natural features are not. The same information as a presentation can be found here: www.foothill.edu/fac/klenkeit/nsf/curriculum/ImageInterpretation.pptxThis is a helpful resource for the introductory GIS classroom.

  2. Society and the Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Hywel, Ed.

    The collection of essays on sociocultural factors in the second language classroom includes: "Autonomy and Ideology in the English Language Classroom" (Hywel Coleman); "Safe-Talk: Collusion in Apartheid Education" (J. Keith Chick); "English Language Education in Japan" (Virginia LoCastro); "Shadow Puppets and Language Lessons: Interpreting…

  3. The Use of Gestures in Consecutive Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga; And Others

    This study attempts to show the intrinsic connection between the verbal and nonverbal components of human communication. It suggests that consecutive interpreters should not transform spoken language into what amounts to an incomplete form of the corresponding written language, but that they should transfer gestures of the source language and…

  4. Selection of Pedaling Load and Design of Electric-Cart Control System with Continuously Adjustable Pedal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jin-Hua; Ishii, Shota; Yokota, Sho; Sakuma, Yuji; Ohyama, Yasuhiro

    A previously developed electric cart was improved by installing a knob that allows the driver to continuously vary the pedal load between the strenuous and assisted modes. This paper explains how the pedal load is determined and a design method for the cart control system. First, the largest pedal load is determined from the standpoint of ergonomics on the basis of the rating of perceived exertion and the Karvonen formula with a special focus on the motor function of the elderly. Then, a gain-scheduling cart control system for any pedal load in the allowed range is described, and a stability condition is derived using dynamic parallel distributed compensation. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the cart control system.

  5. Language Ideology or Language Practice? An Analysis of Language Policy Documents at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björkman, Beyza

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language…

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cordoba Carte du Ciel-Astrographic Catalog, CCAC (Orellana+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; de Biasi, M. S.; Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderon, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    This is Cordoba Carte du Ciel-Astrographic Catalog (CCAC) constructed from four Carte du Ciel and one Astrographic Catalog photographic plates for first epoch positions in the region of the open cluster Collinder 132. The plates were digitized using the MAMA measuring machine from the Paris Observatory. Stars from Tycho-2 catalogue (Hog et al., 2000, Cat. I/259) were used as reference stars. Every plate was reduced independently from the others adopting a first order polynomial in the measured coordinates. Proper motions were calculated using the CCAC positions as first epoch, and as second epoch the positions given by UCAC2 (Zacharias et al., 2004, Cat. I/289) and USNO-B1.0 (Monet et al., 2003, Cat. I/284). (2 data files).

  7. TD-TP Lithosphre Carte reprsente les terrains les plus anciens au contact du basalte

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    TD-TP Lithosphère Carte représente les terrains les plus anciens au contact du basalte #12;Age de la mise en place des basaltes de la croûte océanique. Le trait rouge sombre indique la position donné de la plaque sera donné par l'âge du sédiment les plus ancien au contact du basalte. C'est celui

  8. Practical Swing-up Control System Design of Cart-type Double Inverted Pendulum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Inoue; Mingcong Deng; Tomohiko Tanabe

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an RTLinux-based swing-up control system design of a cart-type double inverted pendulum experimental setup. First, 4 steps control strategy for the inverted pendulum system is introduced. Second, for real-time application of the system, RTLinux-based control of first step and second step is mainly concerned, where the proposed control scheme swings up the first pendulum with controlling the

  9. Integrating classification and regression tree (CART) with GIS for assessment of heavy metals pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Cheng; Xiuying Zhang; Ke Wang; Xuelong Dai

    2009-01-01

    The classification and regression tree (CART) model integrated with geographical information systems and the assessment of\\u000a heavy-metals pollution system was developed to assess the heavy metals pollution in Fuyang, Zhejiang, China. The integration\\u000a of the decision tree model with ArcGIS Engine 9 using a COM implementation in Microsoft® Visual Basic 6.0 provided an approach\\u000a for assessing the spatial distribution of

  10. Aspects of the quality of data from SGP cart site broadband radiation sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Wesely, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the performance of broadband radiometers the the southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site to estimate the uncertainties of irradiance observations. Net radiation is observed with net radiometer in the energy balance Bowen ratio station at the central facility and compared with the net radiation computed as the sum of component irradiances recorded by nearby pyranometers and pyrgeometers. This paper observes the uncertainties of readings from net radiometers which are known to be substantial.

  11. Fault detection and diagnosis of induction motors using motor current signature analysis and a hybrid FMM-CART model.

    PubMed

    Seera, Manjeevan; Lim, Chee Peng; Ishak, Dahaman; Singh, Harapajan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to detect and classify comprehensive fault conditions of induction motors using a hybrid fuzzy min-max (FMM) neural network and classification and regression tree (CART) is proposed. The hybrid model, known as FMM-CART, exploits the advantages of both FMM and CART for undertaking data classification and rule extraction problems. A series of real experiments is conducted, whereby the motor current signature analysis method is applied to form a database comprising stator current signatures under different motor conditions. The signal harmonics from the power spectral density are extracted as discriminative input features for fault detection and classification with FMM-CART. A comprehensive list of induction motor fault conditions, viz., broken rotor bars, unbalanced voltages, stator winding faults, and eccentricity problems, has been successfully classified using FMM-CART with good accuracy rates. The results are comparable, if not better, than those reported in the literature. Useful explanatory rules in the form of a decision tree are also elicited from FMM-CART to analyze and understand different fault conditions of induction motors. PMID:24808459

  12. Chemoinformatics profiling of ionic liquids--automatic and chemically interpretable cytotoxicity profiling, virtual screening, and cytotoxicophore identification.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Ancede-Gallardo, Evys; Jorge, Miguel; Dias Soeiro Cordeiro, Maria Natália

    2013-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) possess a unique physicochemical profile providing a wide range of applications. Their almost limitless structural possibilities allow the design of task-specific ILs. However, their "greenness," specifically their claimed relative nontoxicity has been frequently questioned, hindering their REACH registration processes and, so, their final application. Because the vast majority of ILs is yet to be synthesized, the development of chemoinformatics tools efficiently profiling their hazardous potential becomes essential. In this work, we introduce a reliable, predictive, simple, and chemically interpretable Classification and Regression Trees (CART) classifier, enabling the prioritization of ILs with a favorable cytotoxicity profile. Besides a good predictive capability (81% or 75% or 83% of accuracy or sensitivity or specificity in an external evaluation set), the other salient feature of the proposed cytotoxicity CART classifier is their simplicity and transparent chemical interpretation based on structural molecular fragments. The essentials of the current structure-cytotoxicity relationships of ILs are faithfully reproduced by this model, supporting its biophysical relevance and the reliability of the resultant predictions. By inspecting the structure of the CART, several moieties that can be regarded as "cytotoxicophores" were identified and used to establish a set of SAR trends specifically aimed to prioritize low-cytotoxicity ILs. Finally, we demonstrated the suitability of the joint use of the CART classifier and a group fusion similarity search as a virtual screening strategy for the automatic prioritization of safe ILs disperse in a data set of ILs of moderate to very high cytotoxicity. PMID:24068674

  13. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  14. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  15. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

  16. Green Carts (mobile produce vendors) in the Bronx--optimally positioned to meet neighborhood fruit-and-vegetable needs? — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Poor access to fresh produce likely contributes to disparities in obesity and diet-related diseases in the Bronx. New York City's Green Cart program is a partial response to the problem. We evaluated this program (permitting street vendors to sell fresh produce) by canvassing the Bronx for carts, interviewing vendors, and analyzing their locations and food offerings. Green Carts were clustered in areas of probable high pedestrian traffic, covering only about 57% of needy areas by liberal estimates.

  17. Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) neurons: histochemical relationship to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin\\/hypocretin and neuropeptide Y

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Broberger

    1999-01-01

    Recent demonstrations of the feeding-inhibitory properties of putative peptides derived from cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) raise the question of interactions between CART peptides and other messenger molecules implicated in the control of food intake. The present study investigated the histochemical relationship of CART to the neuropeptides thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), orexin\\/hypocretin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the

  18. search check out >1 items ($849.99)my cart:sign in for the trade Remodelers, designers and builders: click here!

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    : Update Cart Checkout Now Current Trends Home Appliances Kitchen & Bath Fixtures Lighting Decorative Hardware Outdoor Living For Your Kitchen Dining & Entertaining Furniture Rugs Decor & Seasonal Window

  19. Dealing with Interpretation Errors in Tutorial Dialogue. 

    E-print Network

    Dzikovska, Myroslava; Callaway, Charles; Farrow, Elaine; Moore, Johanna D.; Steinhauser, Natalie; Campbell, Gwendolyn

    We describe an approach to dealing with interpretation errors in a tutorial dialogue system. Allowing students to provide explanations and generate contentful talk can be helpful for learning, but the language that ...

  20. SCHEME: An Interpreter for Extended Lambda Calculus

    E-print Network

    Sussman, Gerald J.

    1975-12-01

    Inspired by ACTORS [Greif and Hewitt] [Smith and Hewitt], we have implemented an interpreter for a LISP-like language, SCHEME, based on the lambda calculus [Church], but extended for side effects, multiprocessing, and ...

  1. Is working memory working in consecutive interpreting

    E-print Network

    Jin, Ya-shyuan

    2010-01-01

    It is generally agreed that language interpreting is cognitively demanding; how- ever, to date there is little evidence to indicate how working memory is involved in the task, perhaps due to methodological limitations. ...

  2. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  3. Foreign Language Day--A Living Language Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Paul W.

    St. Bonaventure University holds a Language Day each spring, hosting some 3,900 area junior high and high school students. The buildings and facilities of the university campus are used, and activities include language competitions (exhibits, interpretative readings, language productions, audio-visual presentations and essays); a fiesta; foreign…

  4. SDL: A Surface Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maple, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    A new interpreted language specifically designed for surface grid generation is introduced. Many unique aspects of the language are discussed, including the farray, vector, curve, and surface data types and the operators used to manipulate them. Custom subroutine libraries written in the language are used to easily build surface grids for generic missile shapes.

  5. Influence of the Biosphere on Precipitation: July 1995 Studies with the ARM-CART Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Mocko, D. M.; Walker, G. K.; Koster, Randal D.

    2000-01-01

    Ensemble sets of simulation experiments were conducted with a single column model (SCM) using the Goddard GEOS II GCM physics containing a recent version of the Cumulus Scheme (McRAS) and a biosphere based land-fluxes scheme (SSiB). The study used the 18 July to 5 August 1995 ARM-CART (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement-Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Test-bed) data, which was collected at the ARM-CART site in the mid-western United States and analyzed for single column modeling (SCM) studies. The new findings affirm the earlier findings that the vegetation, which increases the solar energy absorption at the surface together with soil and soil-moisture dependent processes, which modulate the surface, fluxes (particularly evapotranspiration) together help to increase the local rainfall. In addition, the results also show that for the particular study period roughly 50% of the increased evaporation over the ARM-CART site would be converted into rainfall with the Column, while the remainder would be advected out to the large-scale. Notwithstanding the limitations of only one-way interaction (i.e., the large-scale influencing the regional physics and not vice versa), the current SCM simulations show a very robust relationship. The evaporation-precipitation relationship turns out to be independent of the soil types, and soil moisture; however, it is weakly dependent on the vegetation cover because of its surface-albedo effect. Clearly, these inferences are prone to weaknesses of the SCM physics, the assumptions of the large-scale being unaffected by gridscale (SCM-scale) changes in moist processes, and other limitations of the evaluation procedures.

  6. Bounded Functional Interpretation Fernando Ferreira a,1

    E-print Network

    Oliva, Paulo

    Introduction In 1958 Kurt G¨odel presented an interpretation of Heyting Arithmetic HA into a quantifier assignment of formulas. In contrast with G¨odel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation, the new interpre of first-order arithmetic to quantifier-free formulas of the language of T. G¨odel's so-called functional

  7. Translators and Interpreters: Professionals or Shoemakers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viaggio, Sergio

    Translators and interpreters are not currently trained as professionals, but taught a "do-as-I-do" system inherited from the medieval guilds. Most are self-made, having acquired technique and applied it to languages already known. However, there is now enough known about mediated interlingual communication to teach translators and interpreters how…

  8. Distribution and chemical coding pattern of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) immunoreactivity in the preoptic area of the pig.

    PubMed

    Bogus-Nowakowska, Krystyna; Robak, Anna; Równiak, Maciej; Wasilewska, Barbara; Najdzion, Janusz; Kolenkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Zakowski, Witold; Majewski, Mariusz

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a detailed description of cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) distribution and the co-localization pattern of CART and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cholecystokinin (CCK), and substance P (SP) in the preoptic area (POA) of the domestic pig. The POA displays a low density of immunoreactive cells and rich immunoreactivity for CART in fibers. CART-immunoreactive (CART-IR) cell bodies were single and faintly stained, and located in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and the periventricular region of the POA. A high density of immunoreactive fibers was observed in the periventricular preoptic nucleus (PPN); a high to moderate density of fibers was observed in the MPA; but in the dorso-medial region of the MPA the highest density of fibers in the whole POA was observed. The lateral preoptic area (LPA) exhibited a less dense concentration of CART-immunoreactive fibers than the MPA. The median preoptic nucleus (MPN) showed moderate to low expression of staining fibers. In the present study, dual-labeling immunohistochemistry was used to show that CART-IR cell bodies do not contain any GnRH and SP. CART-positive fibers were identified in close apposition with GnRH neurons. This suggests that CART may influence GnRH secretion. Double staining revealed that CART-IR structures do not co-express any of the substances we studied, but a very small population of CART-IR fibers also contain SOM, CCK or SP. PMID:22252754

  9. Consumers power delays new substation construction by controlling electric cart: Battery chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Bombery, M.F.; Duncan, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    During July of 1993, Consumers Power Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, was surprised by a series of electric system component failures due to overload. The outages resulted in widespread customer dissatisfaction within a 865 acre resort called Sandy Pines. Several conventional solutions were quickly implemented, but projections of continued load growth led to scheduling the construction of a new distribution substation. Current efforts are focusing on load control of electric golf cart battery chargers to shift the peak demand causing the overload and delay or cancel the planned new substation.

  10. Impact of Portion-Size Control for School a la Carte Items: Changes in Kilocalories and Macronutrients Purchased by Middle School Students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the impact of a pilot middle school a la carte intervention on food and beverage purchases, kilocalories, fat, carbohydrate, and protein sold per student, and nutrient density of the foods sold. A la carte sales were obtained from six middle schools in three states for 1 baseline week an...

  11. Second Servings and a La Carte Sales to Elementary Children in the National School Lunch Program and Potential Implications for Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    The sale of second servings and/or a la carte purchases made by elementary students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was investigated in this mixed methods case study. The percentage of elementary students in one school district who purchase second servings and/or a la carte items, in addition to the regularly purchased…

  12. A comparative study of CART and PTM for modelling water age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Xinyu; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Huiwang

    2015-02-01

    CART (Constituent-oriented age and residence time theory) and PTM (Particle-tracking method) are two widely used numerical methods to calculate water age. These two methods are essentially equivalent in theory but their results may be different in practice. The difference of the two methods was evaluated by applying them to calculate water age in an idealized one-dimensional domain. The model results by the two methods are consistent with each other in the case with either spatially uniform flow field or spatially uniform diffusion coefficient. If we allow the spatial variation in horizontal diffusion, a term called pseudo displacement arising from the spatial variation of diffusion coefficient likely plays an important role for the PTM to obtain accurate water age. In particular, if the water particle is released at a place where the diffusion is not the weakest, the water age calculated by the PTM without pseudo displacement is much larger than that by the CART. This suggests that the pseudo displacement cannot be neglected in the PTM to calculate water age in a realistic ocean. As an example, we present its potential importance in the Bohai Sea where the diffusion coefficient varies spatially and greatly.

  13. Shark Cart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners touch and observe skulls of sharks and rays to learn about their diversity (over 400 species of sharks alone!). Background information is provided about the types and functions of shark teeth. Additional information is provided about specific types of sharks: Great White, Bull Shark, Mako Shark, Zebra Shark, and Rays. The goal of the activity is to make sharks better understood and appreciated.

  14. Whale Cart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aquarium of the Pacific

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners interact with whale artifacts such as replicas of skulls, bones, teeth, and baleen (hair-like plates that form a feeding filter). Guiding questions help learners differentiate between toothed whales and baleen whales, including what they eat, how they breathe, and how humans are connected to them. Background information is provided about many of the details of how whales survive, including hunting and pollution problems caused by humans ("Save the whales!"). This activity is written to be used in a museum or aquarium, but could be used for general background information about whales, or in conjunction with a field trip.

  15. Subjectivistic Interpretations of Probability

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    Subjectivistic Interpretations of Probability The most recent and one of the most- abilities concern actual degrees of belief. Although this interpretation of probability was presented de Finetti, the subjectivistic interpretation o/ probability had no great effects on English

  16. The Language of Whole Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley-Marling, Curt; Dippo, Don

    1991-01-01

    Calls for resolution of the ambiguities and contradictions of the language and the practices of whole language. Attempts to elucidate conflicting conceptions and practices among whole-language advocates and thereby make whole language even stronger. (MG)

  17. Electrophysiological characteristics of paraventricular thalamic (PVT) neurons in response to cocaine and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Jiann Wei; James, Morgan H.; Graham, Brett A.; Dayas, Christopher V.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is mediated in part through projections from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, few studies have assessed how the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons are influenced by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. Further, our previous work did not assess how infusions of CART, which we found to decrease cocaine-seeking, altered the activity of PVT neurons. In the current study we address these issues by recording from anterior PVT (aPVT) neurons in acutely prepared brain slices from cocaine-treated (15 mg/ml, n = 8) and saline-treated (control) animals (n = 8). The excitability of aPVT neurons was assessed by injecting a series of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP) discharge properties. This analysis indicated that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibit tonic firing (TF), and initial bursting (IB) consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF), single spiking (SS) and reluctant firing (RF) patterns. Interestingly, cocaine exposure significantly increased the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. We then investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. Application of CART significantly suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT neurons in both cocaine-treated and control recordings. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioral data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behavior. Together, these studies suggest that cocaine exposure shifts aPVT neurons to a more excitable state (TF). We propose that the capacity of CART to reduce excitatory drive to this population balances the enhanced aPVT excitability to restore the net output of this region in the reward-seeking pathway. This is in line with previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in addiction. PMID:25309361

  18. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  19. Later cART Initiation in Migrant Men from Sub-Saharan Africa without Advanced HIV Disease in France

    PubMed Central

    de Monteynard, Laure-Amélie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; de Truchis, Pierre; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Khuong-Josses, Marie-Aude; Gilquin, Jacques; Rey, David; Simon, Anne; Pavie, Juliette; Mahamat, Aba; Matheron, Sophie; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the time from entry into care for HIV infection until combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation between migrants and non migrants in France, excluding late access to care. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals newly enrolled in the FHDH cohort between 2002–2010, with CD4 cell counts >200/?L and no previous or current AIDS events were included. In three baseline CD4 cell count strata (200–349, 350-499, ?500/?L), we examined the crude time until cART initiation within three years after enrolment according to geographic origin, and multivariable hazard ratios according to geographic origin, gender and HIV-transmission group, with adjustment for baseline age, enrolment period, region of care, plasma viral load, and HBV/HBC coinfection. Results Among 13338 individuals, 9605 (72.1%) were French natives (FRA), 2873 (21.4%) were migrants from sub-Saharan Africa/non-French West Indies (SSA/NFW), and 860 (6.5%) were migrants from other countries. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of cART initiation were significantly lower in SSA/NFW than in FRA individuals throughout the study period, regardless of the baseline CD4 stratum. After adjustment, the likelihood of cART initiation was respectively 15% (95%CI, 1–28) and 20% (95%CI, 2–38) lower in SSA/NFW men than in FRA men who had sex with men (MSM) in the 350-499 and ?500 CD4 strata, while no difference was observed between other migrant groups and FRA MSM. Conclusion SSA/NFW migrant men living in France with CD4 >350/?L at entry into care are more likely to begin cART later than FRA MSM, despite free access to treatment. Administrative delays in obtaining healthcare coverage do not appear to be responsible. PMID:25734445

  20. Monocytes as Regulators of Inflammation and HIV-Related Comorbidities during cART

    PubMed Central

    Anzinger, Joshua J.; Butterfield, Tiffany R.; Angelovich, Thomas A.; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Palmer, Clovis S.

    2014-01-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) extends the lifespan and the quality of life for HIV-infected persons but does not completely eliminate chronic immune activation and inflammation. The low level of chronic immune activation persisting during cART-treated HIV infection is associated with the development of diseases which usually occur in the elderly. Although T-cell activation has been extensively examined in the context of cART-treated HIV infection, monocyte activation is only beginning to be recognized as an important source of inflammation in this context. Here we examine markers and sources of monocyte activation during cART-treated HIV infection and discuss the role of monocytes during cardiovascular disease, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, and innate immune aging. PMID:25025081

  1. JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations (24th, Omiya, Saitama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, Andrew, Ed.; Betts, Robert, Ed.; Cunningham, Joyce, Ed.; Dunn, Neil, Ed.; Katsura, Haruko, Ed.; Kobayashi, Kunihiko, Ed.; Padden, Nina, Ed.; Parry, Neil, Ed.; Watanabe, Mayumi, Ed.

    This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in Class by JTEs" (Midori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities…

  2. Interpreting psychoanalytic interpretation: a fourfold perspective.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Victor L

    2011-12-01

    Following an overview of psychoanalytic interpretation in theory, practice, and historical context, as well as the question of whether interpretations have scientific validity, the author holds that hermeneutics, the philosophical and psychological study of interpretation, provides a rich understanding of recent developments in self psychology, inter-subjective and relational perspectives, attachment theory, and psycho-spiritual views on psychoanalytic process. He then offers four distinct hermeneutical vantage points regarding interpretation in the psychoanalytic context, including (1) Freud's adaptation of the Aristotelian view of interpretation as the uncovering of a set of predetermined meanings and structures; (2) the phenomenological view of interpretation as the laying bare of "the things themselves," that is, removing the coverings of objectification and concretization imposed by social norms and the conscious ego; (3) the dialogical existential view of interpretation as an ongoing relational process; and (4) the transformational understanding in which interpretation evokes a "presence" that transforms both patient and analyst. He concludes by contending that these perspectives are not mutually exclusive ways of conducting an analysis, but rather that all occur within the analyst's suspended attention, the caregiving and holding essential to good therapeutic outcomes, and the mutuality of the psychoanalytic dialogue. PMID:22221043

  3. Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judy I.

    This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language…

  4. The Disability Resource Center The Disability Resource Center (DRC) at Purdue Uni-

    E-print Network

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    courses), advanced tactile diagrams; sign language interpreting; CART; TypeWell; equipment loan; priority; sign language interpreting; CART/real-time reporting; video-captioning; assistive listening devices; document conversion services including electronic text, braille (literary as well as Nemeth Code for STEM

  5. Working with interpreters during international health responses.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard M

    2011-06-01

    Health care providers face multiple difficulties in providing care to a disaster-stricken community. Training, preparation, and a good attitude are important, as is adequate logistical support. An often-ignored issue is the difficulty encountered with language barriers during a response, and how using interpreters affects the quality and impact of the health care provided. This article reviews the use of interpreters and focuses on how they may affect an international health care response. PMID:21685310

  6. Identifying Depiction in American Sign Language Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thumann, Mary Agnes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines depiction in American Sign Language (ASL) presentations. The impetus for this study came from my work as an instructor in an interpreter education program. The majority of ASL/English interpreters are second language learners of ASL, and many of them find some features of ASL challenging to learn. These features are…

  7. The Interpretation of Linguistic Signs and the Role of Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yumin

    1991-01-01

    This discussion on the interpretation of language and the role of inference argues that language is a tool in the sense that it provides the basic operators and rules of operation for speech just as arithmetic does for calculation. It is suggested that because language is a tool that is restricted in its expressive potential by the linguistic…

  8. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  9. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  10. Late night workers keep University facilities Robert Soto uses a golf cart provided by the University to get to and from destinations around

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Late night workers keep University facilities operating Robert Soto uses a golf cart provided, a walkie-talkie so people at the office can contact him -- and loads it all into his University-issued golf

  11. U-interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind; Gostelow, K.P.

    1982-02-01

    The author argues that by giving a unique name to every activity generated during a computation, the u-interpreter can provide greater concurrency in the interpretation of data flow graphs. 19 references.

  12. DustCart, an autonomous robot for door-to-door garbage collection: From DustBot project to the experimentation in the small town of Peccioli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Ferri; Alessandro Manzi; Pericle Salvini; Barbara Mazzolai; Cecilia Laschi; Paolo Dario

    2011-01-01

    We report on the design and the experimental results of DustCart, a wheeled autonomous robot for door-to- door garbage collection. DustCart is able to navigate in urban environments avoiding static and dynamic obstacles and to interact with human users. The robot is managed by an Ambient Intelligence system (AmI) through a wireless connection: it navigates to collect garbage bags to

  13. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  14. A Car Transportation System in Cooperation by Multiple Mobile Robots for Each Wheel: iCART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwazaki, Koshi; Yonezawa, Naoaki; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yusuke; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shinozuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Koki; Ono, Yuki

    The authors proposed a car transportation system, iCART (intelligent Cooperative Autonomous Robot Transporters), for automation of mechanical parking systems by two mobile robots. However, it was difficult to downsize the mobile robot because the length of it requires at least the wheelbase of a car. This paper proposes a new car transportation system, iCART II (iCART - type II), based on “a-robot-for-a-wheel” concept. A prototype system, MRWheel (a Mobile Robot for a Wheel), is designed and downsized less than half the conventional robot. First, a method for lifting up a wheel by MRWheel is described. In general, it is very difficult for mobile robots such as MRWheel to move to desired positions without motion errors caused by slipping, etc. Therefore, we propose a follower's motion error estimation algorithm based on the internal force applied to each follower by extending a conventional leader-follower type decentralized control algorithm for cooperative object transportation. The proposed algorithm enables followers to estimate their motion errors and enables the robots to transport a car to a desired position. In addition, we analyze and prove the stability and convergence of the resultant system with the proposed algorithm. In order to extract only the internal force from the force applied to each robot, we also propose a model-based external force compensation method. Finally, proposed methods are applied to the car transportation system, the experimental results confirm their validity.

  15. Comparison of satellite-derived and observer-based determinations of cloud cover amount at the SGP CART site

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Y.P. [North Central College, Naperville, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cook, D.R.; Sisterson, D.L.; Gao, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Cloud-climate feedback is one of the most important factors in predicting the timing and magnitude of global climate change and its regional effects. Recent satellite measurements indicate that global effects of clouds on solar and infrared radiation are large. The experimental objective of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to characterize, empically, the radiative processes in the Earth`s atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. Therefore, the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties is crucial for reliable climate prediction. This study focuses on the analysis of cloud cover data for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site central facility. The data set was obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellites 11 and 12, and cloud observations made by SGP CART site operators. Such an analysis provides a basis for future evaluations with whole-sky cameras and provides a means of assessing the reliability of surface-based observations of cloud cover at the SGP CART site.

  16. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  17. Improvements of the CARTE thermochemical code dedicated to the computation of properties of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbiens, Nicolas; Dubois, Vincent; Matignon, Christophe; Sorin, Remy

    2011-06-01

    Predicting the thermodynamic properties of detonation products and the detonation parameters of explosives with thermochemical codes requires both the use of very accurate theoretical equations of state of fluid species and a precise calibration of the parameters of the species potentials. In this work, we present the methods used in the CARTE^(1) thermochemical code. The detonation product mixture is split in two phases (fluid phase plus condensed phase for the carbon). The improved KLRR^(2) method and a modified Van der Waals -- one fluid model^(3) are used to compute the properties of the mixture. The usual Ree -- Van Thiel equation of state for carbon is used. Ionic/polar species are taken into account by the use of methods already published in the literature^(4). We also consider a multiphase EOS model of carbon which evolves with the chemical composition of the explosives. The calibration of the parameters is then performed with a Monte Carlo minimisation method against a wide range of both theoretical and experimental data. This reference data base is mainly composed of shock or static compression data. Finally, we present some results obtained on a wide range of explosives. (1) Dubois et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 494, 2010, p 306 (2) Victorov et al., Proc. of the 13^th Int. Deto. Symp., 2006 (3) Desbiens et al., Proc. of 8^th New Models and Hydrocodes, 2010 (4) Bastea et al., Proc. of the 13^th Int. Deto. Symp., 2006

  18. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1993-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  19. Site scientific mission plan for the southern great plains CART site, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs Of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific Priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1995, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The Primary Purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisioned site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as Priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  20. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1994, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  1. Site Scientific Mission Plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, July--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six-months beginning on July 1, 1993, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides a planning focus for the ARM Functional Teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team, Operations Team, Data Management Team, Instrument Team, and Campaign Team), and it serves to disseminate the current plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the Science Team. This document includes a description of the site`s operational status and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods. Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program Functional Teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six-months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  2. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site, January-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.M.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1995, and also looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Experiment Support Team [EST], Operations Team, Data Management Team [DMT], Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary envisaged site activities, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). Amendments will be prepared and distributed whenever the content changes by more than 30% within a six-month period. The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site scientist, the Science Team through the ARM Program Science Director, The ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that will be updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  3. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site January--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  4. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1997-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  5. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  6. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plain CART site July-December 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, P.J.; Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1997-08-28

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  7. Site scientific mission plan for the southern Great Plains CART site, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1998-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. The primary purpose of this site scientific mission plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team, Operations Team, and Instrument Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the Site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  8. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  9. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1996, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding. The primary objectives of the ARM program are: to describe the radiative energy flux profile of the clear and cloudy atmosphere; to understand the processes determining the flux profile; and to parameterize the processes determining the flux profile for incorporation into general circulation models.

  10. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P.J. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This document defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1997, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this Site Scientific Mission Plan is to provide guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, Instrument Team [IT], and Campaign Team) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  11. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  12. The interpretation of disjunction in universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Child and adult speakers of English have different ideas of what 'or' means in ordinary statements of the form 'A or B'. Even more far-reaching differences between children and adults are found in other languages. This tells us that young children do not learn what 'or' means by watching how adults use 'or'. An alternative is to suppose that children draw upon a priori knowledge of the meaning of 'or'. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that all languages adopt the same meaning of 'or' in certain structures. For example, statements of the form 'not S[A or B]' have the same meanings in all languages, and disjunctive statements receive a uniform interpretation in sentences that contain certain focus expressions, such as English 'only'. These observations are relevant for the long-standing "nature versus nurture" controversy. A linguistic property that (a) emerges in child language without decisive evidence from experience, and (b) is common to all human languages, is a likely candidate for innate specification. Experience matters, of course. As child speakers grow up, they eventually learn to use 'or' in the same way as adults do. But, based on findings from child language and cross-linguistic research, it looks like certain aspects of language, including the interpretation of disjunction, are part of the human genome. PMID:18561548

  13. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. PMID:25526839

  14. Growth of Internet Use by Language Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidelman, Carolyn G.

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a survey showing increased use of the Internet by language professionals (e.g., language teachers, translators, interpreters). Results of the survey show a qualitative improvement in the Internet for information retrieval, teaching, and idea exchange. If K-12 foreign-language teachers receive appropriate equipment and training,…

  15. 46 CFR 15.730 - Language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...U.S.C. 8702 relating to language apply generally to vessels...to comply with the specified language requirements the Coast Guard...crew by the officers in the language ordinarily and customarily...not through an interpreter. Signs, gestures, or...

  16. 46 CFR 15.730 - Language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...U.S.C. 8702 relating to language apply generally to vessels...to comply with the specified language requirements the Coast Guard...crew by the officers in the language ordinarily and customarily...not through an interpreter. Signs, gestures, or...

  17. 46 CFR 15.730 - Language requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...U.S.C. 8702 relating to language apply generally to vessels...to comply with the specified language requirements the Coast Guard...crew by the officers in the language ordinarily and customarily...not through an interpreter. Signs, gestures, or...

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Language Metaphors of Life

    E-print Network

    Markos, Anton

    ORIGINAL PAPER Language Metaphors of Life Anton Markos & Dan Faltýnek Received: 10 January 2009 be gained, by such an approach, in order to understand the phenomenon of life. Keywords Language . Formal and natural . Interpretative abilities of life Language speaks. This means at the same time and before all

  19. Accessible Multimodal Web Pages with Sign Language Translations for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matjaz Debevc; Primoz Kosec; Milan Rotovnik; Andreas Holzinger

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a sign language interpreter module (SLIM), which delivers transparent sign language videos to deaf and hard of hearing users. Since their first language is the sign language, they rely on the visual modality with some speech input. Therefore in addition to text and images, a video of sign language interpreter should be provided. The SLIM

  20. Prepraring to Interpret: AA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-10-03

    Students will learn about Alcoholics Anonymous and prepare to interpret for a deaf member at a traditional AA meeting. Interpreting for Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) requires that the interpreter have an understanding of the purpose of the meetings, prepares adequately for frozen text and informal register that will be used, and has respect for the organization and its members. It can be a difficult, but rewarding assignment. Preparing to ...

  1. Photo observation & interpretation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sarah Titus

    Each week in Structural Geology, I assign students the task of sketching, describing, and interpreting an image. The images are chosen to match the relevant course material for that week. There is a specific form for this assignment, which is designed in part to physically separate their observations from interpretations on the page. In class, we spend 10-20 minutes discussing their different observations/interpretations.

  2. Language and Economics: Mutual Incompatibilities, or a Necessary Partnership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Uldis

    2003-01-01

    Misunderstandings between economic approaches to language and the field of language policy/language planning arise from deficiencies in the literature of both camps. This paper examines four examples: (1) liaison interpreting, where traditional economic analysis points to surprising benefits of engaging interpreters, often not recognised by…

  3. Community Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landon, John

    2001-01-01

    Presents historical and political contexts for discussing language maintenance and development in Scotland, explaining that research findings rarely have an impact on policy. While good practice exists in the maintenance of Gaelic and British Sign Language, these is a significant lack of support for other languages, and provision for all community…

  4. CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression

    PubMed Central

    Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Ménard, Amélie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. Methods From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naïve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm3 according to baseline CD4 cell count. Results A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3–96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2–46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130–336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. Results are presented in the Table 1. Conclusions This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naïve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts. PMID:25393990

  5. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in feeding- and reward-related brain areas of young OLETF rats

    PubMed Central

    Armbruszt, Simon; Abraham, Hajnalka; Figler, Maria; Kozicz, Tamas; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in brain areas involved in the control of appetite, drug reward and homeostatic regulation and it has an overall anorexigenic effect. Recently, we have shown that CART peptide immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in the rostral part of the nucleus accumbens and in the rostro-medial part of the nucleus of the solitary tract in adult CCK-1 receptor deficient obese diabetic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats compared to Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) lean controls. It is not clear, however, whether altered CART expression is caused primarily by the deficiency in CCK-1 signaling or whether is related to the obese and diabetic phenotype of the OLETF strain which develops at a later age. Therefore, in the present study, CART-immunoreaction in feeding-related areas of the brain was compared in young, age-matched (6-7 weeks old) non-obese, non-diabetic OLETF rats and in LETO controls. We found that, young, non-diabetic OLETF rats revealed unaltered distribution of CART-peptide expressing neurons and axons throughout the brain when compared to age-matched LETO rats. In contrast to previous results observed in the obese diabetic adult rats, intensity of CART immunoreaction did not differ in the areas related to control of food-intake and reward in the young OLETFs compared to young LETO rats. Our findings suggest that factors secondary to obesity and/or diabetes rather than impaired CCK-1 receptor signaling may contribute to altered CART expression in the OLETF strain. PMID:23545074

  6. The Language Divide

    PubMed Central

    Karliner, Leah S; Párez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gildengorin, Ginny

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE Provision of interpreter services for non-English-speaking patients is a federal requirement. We surveyed clinicians to describe their experience using interpreters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study we surveyed clinicians in three academic outpatient settings in San Francisco (N = 194) regarding their most recent patient encounter which involved an interpreter. Questions about the visit included type of interpreter, satisfaction with content of clinical encounter, potential problems, and frequency of need. Previous training in interpreter use, languages spoken, and demographics were also asked. Questionnaires were self-administered in approximately 10 minutes. RESULTS Of 194 questionnaires mailed, 158 were completed (81% response rate) and 67% were from resident physicians. Most respondents (78%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the medical care they provided, 85% felt satisfied with their ability to diagnose a disease and treat a disease, but only 45% were satisfied with their ability to empower the patient with knowledge about their disease, treatment, or medication. Even though 71% felt they were able to make a personal connection with their patient, only 33% felt they had learned about another culture as a result of the encounter. Clinicians reported difficulties eliciting exact symptoms (70%), explaining treatments (44%), and eliciting treatment preferences (51%). Clinicians perceived that lack of knowledge of a patient's culture hindered their ability to provide quality medical care and only 18% felt they were unable to establish trust or rapport. Previous training in interpreter use was associated with increased use of professional interpreters (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.5) and increased satisfaction with medical care provided (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.6). CONCLUSIONS Clinicians reported communication difficulties affecting their ability to understand symptoms and treat disease, as well as their ability to empower patients regarding their healthcare. Training in the use of interpreters may improve communication and clinical care, and thus health outcomes. PMID:15009797

  7. Figurative Language

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Whittier

    2010-01-28

    You need to identify figurative language in books, poetry, and in the lyrics of music. Use the knowledge you have already obtained in class concerning figurative language to help you complete this activity. Follow each step carefully to complete this assignment. Step 1: Books, poetry and music contain figurative language. Click on the video below to learn about figurative language: simile, metephore, personification explanation Step 2: Listen to these examples of figurative language in music. Click on on the video to watch and listen. examples of simile and metephor in music Step 3: These are two songs that ...

  8. QUANTIFYING HYDROMETEOR ADVECTION AND THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CLOUD FRACTION OVER THE SGP CART SITE

    SciTech Connect

    MILLER,M.; VERLINDE,J.

    1998-03-23

    A single column model (SCM) is, in essence, an isolated grid column of a general circulation model (GCM). Hence, SCMs have rather demanding input data requirements, but do not suffer from problems associated with balance of a GCM. Among the initial conditions that must be used to describe the initial state of the SCM column are the vertical profile of the horizontal wind components and the vertical profiles of cloud water and ice. In addition, the large-scale divergence and advective tendencies of cloud water and ice must be supplied as external parameters. Finally, the liquid and ice cloud amount as a function of height within the SCM column are required for model evaluation. The scale of the SCM column over which the initial conditions, external parameters, and model evaluation fields must apply is relatively large ({approximately}300 km). To quantify atmospheric structure on this scale, the ARM SGP CART site is located within the NOAA wind profiler network and has boundary and extended measurement facilities in an area compatible with the scale requirements of SCMs. Over an area this size, however, there is often rich mesoscale structure. This mesoscale variability creates a sampling problem that can thwart even the most sophisticated attempts to quantify the initial conditions and external parameters, and to evaluate model performance. There are two approaches that can be used to quantify the time varying quantities required for SCMs: objective analysis and data assimilation. The latter relies on products produced for operational forecasting, while the former involves methods that can be used to combine measurements from various sources to produce synoptic descriptions of the large-scale dynamical and thermodynamic fields. Since data assimilation from operational models introduces the uncertainty of the parameterizations used in the models, most of the focus in the SCM effort has been on developing objective analysis techniques.

  9. Language Ideology and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khubchandani, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    An examination of the language-related educational policies of South Asia, and particularly of India, finds that language policies among colonial administrators and the native elite for over a century has left a deep imprint on contemporary language ideologies of different nations. The discussion begins with a look at the Indian dual education…

  10. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the central nucleus of amygdala potentiates behavioral and hormonal responses of the rat exposed to its predator.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Manoj A; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2013-04-15

    Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) regulates anxiety and stress in amygdala, we hypothesized that the peptide may also process negative psychological experience like fear. During acute exposure to a cat, the rat showed freezing behavior and subsequently, profound signs of anxiety in social interaction test, and elevated serum cortisol concentration. While these behavioral effects were potentiated by the intracerebroventricular (icv) and intra-central nucleus of amygdala (intra-CeA) administration of CART peptide, they were blocked by CART antibody. On the other hand, chronic exposure for 7 days resulted in a steady reduction in freezing, increase in social interaction index and restored cortisol levels. In these rats, the behavior resembled with that of the time matched control rats suggesting habituation. However, CART peptide treatment, via the icv or intra-CeA route, chronically for 7 days, prevented habituation; significant freezing behavior and anxiety were noticed in these rats. The results suggest that CART peptide, in the framework of CeA, may process predator triggered innate fear in acute time scale, while chronic exposure might down-regulate the system and produce habituation. PMID:23299040

  11. Interpreting in Mental Health Settings: Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay; Miller, Katrina

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines expectations and stresses placed on sign language interpreters in mental health settings within a framework of demand and control theory. Translations of some specific psychological screening instruments and issues related to the Code of Ethics of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf are considered relative to…

  12. Web image interpretation: semi-supervised mining annotated words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei Wu; Dingyin Xia; Yueting Zhuang; Hanwang Zhang; Wenhao Liu

    2009-01-01

    An image is worth of thousand words. Automatic Web image annotation is a practical and effective way for both Web image retrieval and image understanding. However, current annotation techniques are very difficult to get natural language interpretation for images such as ldquopandas eat bamboordquo. In this paper, we proposed an approach to interpret image semantics through semi-supervised mining annotated words.

  13. Statutory Interpretation in Multilingual Jurisdictions: Typology and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny

    2012-01-01

    A contemporary phenomenon--multiplicity of authentic sources of law in different languages--complicates the process of statutory interpretation. In multilingual jurisdictions, problems arise when a literal interpretation of authentic versions of the law leads to inconsistent outcomes. Jurisdictions resolve such inconsistency in different ways.…

  14. Interpretacion: The Lived Experience of Interpretation in the Bilingual Psychotherapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchor, Rosemary Laura

    2008-01-01

    To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing…

  15. Interpreting Students' Writings: Misconception or Misrepresentation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Lay Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates one particular difficulty of interpreting students' use of language in science classrooms: determining whether a student's writing indicates a misconception or a misrepresentation. Students' written assignments from a case study are used to illustrate instances where multiple interpretations are possible.…

  16. Simultaneous and Consecutive Interpretation and Human Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerver, D.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of noise on the performance of simultaneous conference interpreters, and to carry out a detailed examination of verbal and temporal aspects of their output in relation to source language input. A further aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of simultaneous and consecutive interpretation…

  17. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, Fernando Sánchez; Nieto, Paulino José García; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier; Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; Suárez, Victor Manuel González

    2015-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique with the principal component analysis (PCA), dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs). Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL) with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.). Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks) also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines. PMID:25806876

  18. Deaf Students, Teachers, and Interpreters in the Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Brenda C.; Wynne, Dorothy H.; MacDonald, Gina

    2002-02-01

    This report describes an undergraduate research program at James Madison University that includes deaf and hard-of-hearing students from Gallaudet University, deaf teachers from schools for the Deaf, and both professional interpreters and students engaged in sign language interpreter training. Methods used over a three-year period to maximize participation and expand research opportunities for the students, teachers, and interpreters are shared with the hope that similar projects might be encouraged and replicated in other programs.

  19. Figurative Language

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Devitry

    2010-03-12

    Writers use figurative language to create images in the minds of readers. Explore the following information and complete the activities to master the art of figurative language! Figurative Language contains images created by comparing unlike items to make things clear to the reader or listener. It is not meant to be taken literally. If I say my pillow is a fluffy cloud, I'm comparing my pillow to a cloud, but it's ...

  20. Fuzzy Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ?-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  1. Neural Correlates of Language Comprehension in Autism Spectrum Disorders: When Language Conflicts with World Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesink, Cathelijne M. J. Y.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In individuals with ASD, difficulties with language comprehension are most evident when higher-level semantic-pragmatic language processing is required, for instance when context has to be used to interpret the meaning of an utterance. Until now, it is unclear at what level of processing and for what type of context these difficulties in language…

  2. Bringing Language to Life: Science Exploration and Inquiry in the Early Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seewald, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Preschool and early elementary science provides engaging opportunities for integrated content-based language learning. This instruction uses the concepts of other content areas as a springboard for language acquisition and self-expression. It is through the active interpretation of content standards by foreign language teachers that the ideas and…

  3. Functional Heads and Interpretation 

    E-print Network

    Adger, David

    This thesis examines the effect that functional heads have on the interpretation of arguments.It focuses on the functional head Agr, which is implicated in predicate-argument agreement relations; the import that other functional heads have...

  4. Programs for Training Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. programs for training interpreters for individuals with deafness. Schools are listed by state and include director and degree information. (Author/CR)

  5. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  6. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  7. Sign Language From the Space Station - Duration: 5:50.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson sent a special sign language message to Earth. Interpretation done by non-certified users of American Sign Language (ASL) who are fluent in conversational ASL; syntax...

  8. Assessing Dual-Role Staff-Interpreter Linguistic Competency in an Integrated Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Newman, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Background Interpreter services for medical care increase physician–patient communication and safety, yet a “formal certification” process to demonstrate interpreter competence does not exist. Testing and training is left to individual health care facilities nationwide. Bilingual staff are often used to interpret, without any assessment of their skills. Assessing interpreters’ linguistic competence and setting standards for testing is a priority. Objective To assess dual-role staff interpreter linguistic competence in an integrated health care system to determine skill qualification to work as medical interpreters. Design Dual-role staff interpreters voluntarily completed a linguistic competency assessment using a test developed by a language school to measure comprehension, completeness, and vocabulary through written and oral assessment in English and the second language. Pass levels were predetermined by school as not passing, basic (limited ability to read, write, and speak English and the second language) and medical interpreter level. Five staff-interpreter focus groups discussed experiences as interpreters and with language test. Results A total of 840 dual-role staff interpreters were tested for Spanish (75%), Chinese (12%), and Russian (5%) language competence. Most dual-role interpreters serve as administrative assistants (39%), medical assistants (27%), and clinical staff (17%). Two percent did not pass, 21% passed at basic level, 77% passed at medical interpreter level. Staff that passed at the basic level was prone to interpretation errors, including omissions and word confusion. Focus groups revealed acceptance of exam process and feelings of increased validation in interpreter role. Conclusions We found that about 1 in 5 dual-role staff interpreters at a large health care organization had insufficient bilingual skills to serve as interpreters in a medical encounter. Health care organizations that depend on dual-role staff interpreters should consider assessing staff English and second language skills. PMID:17957420

  9. JScheme : A Scheme Interpreter Embedded Within Java Source Code

    E-print Network

    De Volder, Kris

    JScheme : A Scheme Interpreter Embedded Within Java Source Code Jeff Sember CPSC 511 Term Project, Fall 2007 Jeff Sember (CPSC 511) JScheme 1 / 14 #12;Problem mixing programming languages Jeff Sember (CPSC 511) JScheme 2 / 14 #12;Problem mixing programming languages multiple compilers Jeff Sember (CPSC

  10. A Functional Schematic Interpreter: an environment for Model Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Addis; J. J. Townsend Addis

    1998-01-01

    There are two major reasons for the value of a functional schematic interpreter as a new programming language for constructing models. These reasons are the capacity of a functional language to express knowledge that has a formal representation on a computer and the rich informal semantics that can be attached to a set of diagrams (a schema). It is this

  11. Interpreting Infrared Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tom Whittaker

    Interpreting Infrared (IR) Imagery explains how radiometers are used in satellite meteorology including such topics as the types of radiometers, and how they capture and present images. An interactive exercise provides an introduction to interpreting satellite weather images typically seen on evening news programs. Users can "adjust" the air temperature (and cloud altitude) and surface temperature on this applet while observing how the image (in this case, a GOES-8 radiometer image) changes.

  12. Interpretations in projection.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1994-08-01

    The author uses the term 'interpretations in projection' to denote a form of interpretation which the analyst can use in extreme situations when he feels that he can no longer get through to his patient. This technique is particularly indicated with patients who resort to massive projective identification. The aim of interpretation in projection is to allow the patient to rediscover the bond of identity with the part of himself projected into the analyst. It falls into two stages, in the first of which the analyst becomes the spokesman for the 'healthy' part which the patient has projected into the analyst so as to protect it from the invading introjected object with which it is for the time being merged. In a second stage, the analyst may, where appropriate, give a complementary interpretation in which he addresses the analysand by his own name in order to interpret the relationship expressed in the transference through projection and introjection. The author gives some clinical examples of interpretations in projection. PMID:7989147

  13. Classificação geométrica de galáxias bianeladas através do metódo CART (Classification And Regression Trees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormeño, M. I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Cavada, G.

    2003-08-01

    A importância deste trabalho deve-se à seleção de objetos ainda não tratados particularmente como uma família e ao emprego de procedimento estatístico robusto que não precisa de pressupostos ou condições de contorno. Contribui, assim, ao melhor entendimento do cenário das Galáxias Aneladas do diagrama de Hubble via classificação e estudo de subclasses. Selecionaram-se 100 galáxias possuidoras de dois anéis do Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies compilado por Ronald Buta, de modo a construir uma amostra completa em termos de conhecimento dos semi-eixos dos anéis interno e externo projetados no plano do céu. Visando uma possível classificação destas galáxias aneladas normais em famílias de acordo com as características geométricas dos anéis, empregou-se primeiramente a Análise de Aglomerados (ferramenta de classificação: medições de semelhança em um espaço bidimensional) para explorar a possível existência de famílias. As variáveis analisadas foram: os diâmetros interiores menores d(I) e maiores D(I), os diâmetros exteriores menores d(E) e maiores D(E), e os ângulos de inclinação dos semi-eixos maiores interiores q(I) e exteriores q(E) dos anéis. Como metodologia de discriminação, empregou-se a construção de Árvores de Classificação. As árvores de classificação constituem um método de discriminação alternativo aos modelos clássicos, tais como a Análise Discriminante e a Regressão Logística, onde uma base de dados é dividida em partições (subgrupos) da árvore por ação de um predictor (variável específica). Os pacotes estatísticos utilizados para o processamento da informação foram: SAS versão 8.0 (Statistical Analisys System) e CART versão 3.6.3. Esta análise estatística sugere a existência de três possíveis famílias de galáxias bianeladas, com base apenas na geometria dos anéis. Como forma exploratória inicial deste resultado, a construção de um diagrama BT (magnitude total) versus o índice de cor (B-R), mostra que os três grupos distribuem-se de forma praticamente contínua, porém discriminadas entre si, ocupando três regiões distintas. A classe 3, por exemplo, é geralmente a mais azul, sendo a Classe 1 a mais avermelhada.

  14. Programming Languages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr David Berman

    CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

  15. Language Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Crain; Rosalind Thornton

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By four or five, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the NATURE VERSUS NURTURE

  16. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  17. Language Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website is a collaborative project started by a language enthusiast that not only aims to help language learners, but also to "provide a window into the culture of the people who speak those languages." So how does the site accomplish this feat? It provides interactive language lessons, quizzes, and texts that allow the language learner to hear the word or text pronounced by fluent, often native, speakers. The sound quality is high, and by simply scrolling over any of the pictures in categories as diverse as the alphabet, weather, insects, and money, visitors will hear the word read pronounced. Thirteen languages are offered, including "Vietnamese", "Arabic", "German", "Hindi" and "Hebrew", with the most fully realized lessons for "English", "French" and "Spanish". However, the collaborative nature of the site should soon fill out the lessons of the other languages, because the "Collaborate/Volunteer" section of the site shows the many contributions volunteers can make, such as "Translating", "Suggesting Words/Phrases" or Contribute Your Voice". As the content of the site continues to expand, visitors can sign up for the "Newsletter" to be notified when major new content for a specific language has been added.

  18. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Regression Tree (CART) applications for the indirect estimation of unsaturated soil shear strength parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, D. P.; Sharma, Shaifaly; Pain, Anindya

    2014-09-01

    The shear strength parameters of soil (cohesion and angle of internal friction) are quite essential in solving many civil engineering problems. In order to determine these parameters, laboratory tests are used. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Regression Tree (CART) techniques for the indirect estimation of these parameters. Four different models, considering different combinations of 6 inputs, such as gravel %, sand %, silt %, clay %, dry density, and plasticity index, were investigated to evaluate the degree of their effects on the prediction of shear parameters. A performance evaluation was carried out using Correlation Coefficient and Root Mean Squared Error measures. It was observed that for the prediction of friction angle, the performance of both the techniques is about the same. However, for the prediction of cohesion, the ANN technique performs better than the CART technique. It was further observed that the model considering all of the 6 input soil parameters is the most appropriate model for the prediction of shear parameters. Also, connection weight and bias analyses of the best neural network (i.e., 6/2/2) were attempted using Connection Weight, Garson, and proposed Weight-bias approaches to characterize the influence of input variables on shear strength parameters. It was observed that the Connection Weight Approach provides the best overall methodology for accurately quantifying variable importance, and should be favored over the other approaches examined in this study.

  19. "SIRIUS" Input Language for an Automatic Programming System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akselrod, I. R.; Belous, L. F.

    The SIRIUS language is intended for solving both numerical and analytical problems. The new language is realized by means of a two-phase translator. The first phase is a translation into an intermediate (Polish-nonparenthetic) language; the second phase is an interpretation from this language. Two modes of program execution are envisaged in the…

  20. A functional quantum programming language

    E-print Network

    Thorsten Altenkirch; Jonathan Grattage

    2005-04-19

    We introduce the language QML, a functional language for quantum computations on finite types. Its design is guided by its categorical semantics: QML programs are interpreted by morphisms in the category FQC of finite quantum computations, which provides a constructive semantics of irreversible quantum computations realisable as quantum gates. QML integrates reversible and irreversible quantum computations in one language, using first order strict linear logic to make weakenings explicit. Strict programs are free from decoherence and hence preserve superpositions and entanglement - which is essential for quantum parallelism.

  1. Considerations When Working with Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

  2. Scheme: an interpreter for extended lambda calculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Sussman; G. L. Steele

    1975-01-01

    Abstract. Inspired by ACTORS [7, 17], we have implemented an interpreter for a LISP-like language, SCHEME, based on the lambda calculus [2], but extended for side effects, multiprocessing, and process synchronization. The purpose of this implementation,is tutorial. We wish to: 1. alleviate the confusion caused by Micro-PLANNER, CONNIVER, etc., by clarifying the embedding of non-recursive control structures in a recursive

  3. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  4. Generic command interpreter for robot controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, J.

    1991-04-09

    Generic command interpreter programs have been written for robot controllers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Each interpreter program resides on a robot controller and interfaces the controller with a supervisory program on another (host) computer. We call these interpreter programs monitors because they wait, monitoring a communication line, for commands from the supervisory program. These monitors are designed to interface with the object-oriented software structure of the supervisory programs. The functions of the monitor programs are written in each robot controller's native language but reflect the object-oriented functions of the supervisory programs. These functions and other specifics of the monitor programs written for three different robots at SNL will be discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  5. SRI International: Natural Language Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website describes the Natural Language Program that is part of SRI International's Artificial Intelligence Center. The center's research focuses on natural language theory and applications, with emphasis on three subgroups of study. The subprogram on Multimedia / Multimodal Interfaces seeks to understand the optimal ways in which natural language can be incorporated into multimedia interfaces. The subprogram on Spoken Language Systems integrates linguistic processing with speech recognition for use in ATIS, a system for retrieving airline schedules, fares, and related information from a relational database. The subprogram on Written Language Systems researches the problems involved in interpreting and extracting information from written text, such as on-line newspaper articles. Additional information on these projects, related publications, and software are available from this website.

  6. Implementation of a structured English query language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morton M. Astrahan; Donald D. Chamberlin

    1975-01-01

    The relational model of data, the XRM Relational Memory System, and the SEQUEL language have been covered in previous papers and are reviewed. SEQUEL is a relational data sublanguage intended for ad hoc interactive problem solving by non-computer specialists. A version of SEQUEL that has been implemented in a prototype interpreter is described. The interpreter is designed to minimize the

  7. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  8. Understanding quantifiers and scope interpretations in a second language

    E-print Network

    Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    ?A.:/K@9AbC)685dUS14\\BcHklWXfg7_YP !"#$%RH6('C9,->*+2D1/.?@4;0=EcG:\\53N7BDA6)?:.7EHG`5K4]d\\a1Yc^SQU8PXh... to this article benefits you. 2012 ?!"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\\] !"#$%S^6(8*,=+D?'&-2>/@)EOAG:5@K(0+CDB:)?OP1478EHRcW_U][GaXfgb`hiZ !"#$%SR*K(,-'=2>B9/0@+`O6HCD;5...

  9. Questioning Interrogative Interpretation in Some Indo-European Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Elisabetta

    1996-01-01

    Compares indirect "wh"-questions and independent relatives, points to the absence of a clear-cut boundary between these two types of construction, and argues for the indispensability of semantic and pragmatic analysis for syntactic theory. The article emphasizes that it is the answer to a question that supplies the determinate element sought by…

  10. The Extensibility of an Interpreted Language Using Plugin Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herceg, Dorde; Radakovi?, Davorka

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) are computer programs that allow one to create and manipulate geometrical drawings. They are mostly used in teaching and studying geometry. However, DGS can also be used to develop interactive drawings not directly related to geometry. Examples include teaching materials for numerical mathematics at secondary school and university levels, or interactive mathematical games for elementary school children. Such applications often surpass the intended purposes of the DGS and may require complicated programming on behalf of the user. In this paper we present a simple plug-in model which enables easy development and deployment of interactive GUI components for "Geometrijica", a DGS we are developing on Silverlight.

  11. Aladdin: an assembly language assertion-driven debugging interpreter

    E-print Network

    Hardin, David Alan

    1977-01-01

    States is estimated at 20 billion dollars, and its part of the total computing cost as projected in Figure 2 [0] will soon make most hard- ware cost considerations academic questions at best. 1GO 80 Percent 60 Hardware Software evelopment Co" t... IT TO THE TOTAL KEEP GOING LIST OF NUMBERS END-OF-LIST ~ Fig. Al. Sample pxogram to be debugged. . ? S SYPIBOL TABLE LOCATION 005372 005376 005402 005406 005412 005416 005422 005426 005432 005436 005442 005446 005452 SYMBOL +AC 0 +AC 1 +AC...

  12. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  13. Interpretation as Abduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Paul A. Martin; Douglas Edwards

    1988-01-01

    An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

  14. Interpretations of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Lyn; Miller, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The National Literacy Strategy (NLS) was introduced into schools in England in 1998 with the aim of raising the literacy attainments of primary-aged children. The Framework for Teaching the Literacy Hour, a key component of the NLS, proposes an interpretation of literacy that emphasises reading, writing and spelling skills. An investigation of the…

  15. Interpretation as Abduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin

    1993-01-01

    Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

  16. Radar image interpretability analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Frost; J. A. Stiles; J. C. Holtzman

    1981-01-01

    The utility of radar images with respect to trained image interpreter ability to identify, classify and detect specific terrain features (linear, natural area, complex area features, and individual man-made features) was qualitatively determined. Further, radar images were evaluated with respect to their utility for determining vehicle movement potential and the level of activity within the test areas. Because there are

  17. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  18. Manchester visual query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, John P.; Davis, Darryl N.; Shann, Richard T.

    1993-04-01

    We report a database language for visual retrieval which allows queries on image feature information which has been computed and stored along with images. The language is novel in that it provides facilities for dealing with feature data which has actually been obtained from image analysis. Each line in the Manchester Visual Query Language (MVQL) takes a set of objects as input and produces another, usually smaller, set as output. The MVQL constructs are mainly based on proven operators from the field of digital image analysis. An example is the Hough-group operator which takes as input a specification for the objects to be grouped, a specification for the relevant Hough space, and a definition of the voting rule. The output is a ranked list of high scoring bins. The query could be directed towards one particular image or an entire image database, in the latter case the bins in the output list would in general be associated with different images. We have implemented MVQL in two layers. The command interpreter is a Lisp program which maps each MVQL line to a sequence of commands which are used to control a specialized database engine. The latter is a hybrid graph/relational system which provides low-level support for inheritance and schema evolution. In the paper we outline the language and provide examples of useful queries. We also describe our solution to the engineering problems associated with the implementation of MVQL.

  19. Language and cognition.

    PubMed

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2009-04-01

    What is the role of language in cognition? Do we think with words, or do we use words to communicate made-up decisions? The paper briefly reviews ideas in this area since 1950s. Then we discuss mechanisms of cognition, recent neuroscience experiments, and corresponding mathematical models. These models are interpreted in terms of a biological drive for cognition. Based on the Grossberg-Levine theory of drives and emotions, we identify specific emotions associated with the need for cognition. We demonstrate an engineering application of the developed technique, which significantly improves detection of patterns in noise over the previous state-of-the-art. The developed mathematical models are extended toward language. Then we consider possible brain-mind mechanisms of interaction between language and cognition. A mathematical analysis imposes restrictions on possible mechanisms. The proposed model resolves some long-standing language-cognition issues: how the mind learns correct associations between words and objects among an astronomical number of possible associations; why kids can talk about almost everything, but cannot act like adults, what exactly are the brain-mind differences; why animals do not talk and think like people. Recent brain imaging experiments indicate support for the proposed model. We discuss future theoretical and experimental research. PMID:19419838

  20. Language Assessment of Asian Students: Problems & Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ovid K.

    The problems and implications of language assessment of Asian students are examined. The theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner concerning the relationship between language and cognition are explored. Cognitive operations are assumed by many educators to be related to academic achievement. Culturally, Asians favor the Piagetian interpretation…

  1. Literacy Paradigms and Language Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jamie

    Differing views on how meaning in a literacy event is formed have a large impact upon literacy instruction and language research. Teaching and research are often conducted without considering who is in charge of meanings. Yet the answer to this question establishes an interpretive frame that creates the questions, methods, and findings in language…

  2. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  3. Ontology Language Integration: A Constructive Approach

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    even more impor- tant than in other information systems. In this context the "semantic web" [Berners-Lee Berners-Lee, the semantic web requires a set of languages of in- creasing expressiveness and anyone can to interpret the knowledge acquired through the semantic web. 2 Language Construction In the words of Tim

  4. Targeted deletion of melanocortin receptor subtypes 3 and 4, but not CART, alters nutrient partitioning and compromises behavioral and metabolic responses to leptin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yubin Zhang; Gail E Kilroy; Tara M. Henagan; Vera Prpic-Uhing; William G. Richards; Anthony W. Bannon; Randall L. Mynatt; Thomas W. Gettys

    2005-01-01

    Mouse lines with targeted disruption of the cocaine amphetamine-related transcript (CART), melanocortin receptor 3 (MCR3), or melanocortin re- ceptor 4 (MCR4) were used to assess the role of each component in mediating the anorectic and metabolic effects of leptin, and in regulating the partitioning of nutrient energy between fat and protein deposition. Leptin was administered over a 3 day period

  5. [Clinical translational research of chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cells for the treatment of relapsed and refractory B-cell lymphoma/leukemia].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shun-Zong; Su, Hang

    2014-08-01

    B-cell lymphoma and leukemia are the most common subtypes of malignant lymphomas. Relapse and refractory to multiple therapy are the main reasons of treatment failure. As the classical anti-tumor methods, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and palliative therapy have cured lots of cancer patients. However, each year many patients still died of different kinds of hard-to-treat cancers. Although the ratio of complete remission of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia patients particularly with CD20 positive mature B cell malignancies has been largely increased after the application of Rituximab in clinic, nearly 20%-40% patients still died due to relapse and refractory to the treatment. During last five years, the development of chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cells, especially CD19 CAR-T cells, which can recognize CD19 specifically expressed on B cells and have been demonstrated to be significantly effective to relapsed and refractory B cell lymphoma/leukemia in clinical trials, has gradually attracted extensively concerning from researchers and clinicians. Many medical institutions all over the world (besides in China) have registered the clinical trials for B-cell lymphoma/leukemia patients by use of CAR-T cells. In this review, we summarize the developmental history, the main ongoing clinical trials and proved potential adverse affects of CD19 CAR-T cells for the treatment of patients with B-cell lymphoma/leukemia. PMID:25130844

  6. The North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) cart site begins operation: Collaboration with SHEBA and FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D. B.; Church, H.; Ivey, M.; Yellowhorse, L.; Zirzow, J.; Widener, K. B.; Rhodes, P.; Turney, C.; Koontz, A.; Stamnes, K.; Storvold, R.; Eide, H. A.; Utley, P.; Eagan, R.; Cook, D.; Hart, D.; Wesely, M.

    2000-04-04

    Since the 1997 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has come into being. Much has happened even since the 1998 Science Team Meeting at which this paper was presented. To maximize its usefulness, this paper has been updated to include developments through July 1998.

  7. Resolving Interpretive Ambiguity in Text: Children's Generation of Multiple Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Studied text interpretation in four experiments with second and fourth graders, manipulating several story variables. Found that both groups were skilled at providing two text interpretations, although second graders were more likely than fourth graders to use extra-story information in their second interpretations. Subjects' first interpretations…

  8. Language Games and Language Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Alan L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides sample classroom exercises to develop middle school and high school youngsters' sensitivity to language skills, spelling, and grammar. Includes riddles, puns, puzzles, and other games drawn from J. Shipley's "Word Play." (JG)

  9. Spatial aggregation: Language and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey-Kellogg, C.; Zhao, F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Yip, K. [MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Spatial aggregation is a framework for organizing computations around image-like, analogue representations of physical processes in data interpretation and control tasks. It conceptualizes common computational structures in a class of implemented problem solvers for difficult scientific and engineering problems. It comprises a mechanism, a language, and a programming style. The spatial aggregation mechanism transforms a numerical input field to successively higher-level descriptions by applying a small, identical set of operators to each layer given a metric, neighborhood relation and equivalence relation. This paper describes the spatial aggregation language and its applications. The spatial aggregation language provides two abstract data types - neighborhood graph and field - and a set of interface operators for constructing the transformations of the field, together with a library of component implementations from which a user can mix-and-match and specialize for a particular application. The language allows users to isolate and express important computational ideas in different problem domains while hiding low-level details. We illustrate the use of the language with examples ranging from trajectory grouping in dynamics interpretation to region growing in image analysis. Programs for these different task domains can be written in a modular, concise fashion in the spatial aggregation language.

  10. Language barriers

    PubMed Central

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Musto, Richard; King-Shier, Kathryn M.; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of regular medical doctors (RMDs), as well as awareness and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services, by official language minorities (OLMs) in Canada. Design Analysis of data from the 2006 postcensal survey on the vitality of OLMs. Setting Canada. Participants In total, 7691 English speakers in Quebec and 12 376 French speakers outside Quebec, grouped into those who experienced language barriers and those with no language barriers. Main outcome measures Health services utilization (HSU) by the presence of language barriers; HSU measures included having an RMD, use of an RMD’s services, and awareness of and use of telephone health lines or telehealth services. Multivariable models examined the associations between HSU and language barriers. Results After adjusting for age and sex, English speakers residing in Quebec with limited proficiency in French were less likely to have RMDs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87) and to use the services of their RMDs (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86), but were more likely to be aware of the existence of (AOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.93) and to use (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.11) telephone health lines or telehealth services. This pattern of having and using RMDs and telehealth services was not observed for French speakers residing outside of Quebec. Conclusion Overall we found variation in HSU among the language barrier populations, with lower use observed in Quebec. Age older than 45 years, male sex, being married or in common-law relationships, and higher income were associated with having RMDs for OLMs. PMID:23242902

  11. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  12. CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Tooman, T. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  13. Influence of Sub-grid-Scale Isentropic Transports on McRAS Evaluations using ARM-CART SCM Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G. K.; Tao, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    In GCM-physics evaluations with the currently available ARM-CART SCM datasets, McRAS produced very similar character of near surface errors of simulated temperature and humidity containing typically warm and moist biases near the surface and cold and dry biases aloft. We argued it must have a common cause presumably rooted in the model physics. Lack of vertical adjustment of horizontal transport was thought to be a plausible source. Clearly, debarring such a freedom would force the incoming air to diffuse into the grid-cell which would naturally bias the surface air to become warm and moist while the upper air becomes cold and dry, a characteristic feature of McRAS biases. Since, the errors were significantly larger in the two winter cases that contain potentially more intense episodes of cold and warm advective transports, it further reaffirmed our argument and provided additional motivation to introduce the corrections. When the horizontal advective transports were suitably modified to allow rising and/or sinking following isentropic pathways of subgrid scale motions, the outcome was to cool and dry (or warm and moisten) the lower (or upper) levels. Ever, crude approximations invoking such a correction reduced the temperature and humidity biases considerably. The tests were performed on all the available ARM-CART SCM cases with consistent outcome. With the isentropic corrections implemented through two different numerical approximations, virtually similar benefits were derived further confirming the robustness of our inferences. These results suggest the need for insentropic advective transport adjustment in a GCM due to subgrid scale motions.

  14. Interpreting the Urinalysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Braun, Mark

    This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn interpretation of the urinalysis. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. General introductory material is followed by a series of short clinical vignettes illustrating diagnostic application of the test with various medical conditions. QuickTime movie player and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (braunm@indiana.edu).

  15. Interpreting Geologic Sections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Morris

    Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

  16. National Association for Interpretation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

  17. Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, J C; Tanenhaus, M K; Chambers, C G; Carlson, G N

    1999-06-22

    While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal adjectives. Experiment 1 focused on intersective adjectives. Experiment 1A provided further evidence that intersective adjectives are processed incrementally. Experiment 1B compared response times to follow instructions such as 'Pick up the blue comb' under conditions where there were two blue objects (e.g. a blue pen and a blue comb), but only one of these objects had a contrasting member in the display. Responses were faster to objects with a contrasting member, establishing that the listeners initially assume a contrastive interpretation for intersective adjectives. Experiments 2 and 3 focused on vague scalar adjectives examining the time course with which listeners establish contrast for scalar adjectives such as tall using information provided by the head noun (e.g. glass) and information provided by the visual context. Use of head-based information was examined by manipulating the typicality of the target object (e.g. whether it was a good or poor example of a tall glass. Use of context-dependent contrast was examined by either having only a single glass in the display (the no contrast condition) or a contrasting object (e.g. a smaller glass). The pattern of results indicated that listeners interpreted the scalar adjective incrementally taking into account context-specific contrast prior to encountering the head. Moreover, the presence of a contrasting object, sharply reduced, and in some conditions completely eliminated, typicality effects. The results suggest a language processing system in which semantic interpretation, as well as syntactic processing, is conducted incrementally, with early integration of contextual information. PMID:10444906

  18. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  19. English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy

    E-print Network

    University of Technology, Sydney

    English Language Policy 1 English Language Policy Abstract This policy sets out UTS's requirements for, and expectations of, UTS students' English language proficiency at admission and during Roles and responsibilities Acknowledgments Version control and change history #12;English Language

  20. PFISTER et al.: LARGE-SCALE LEARNING OF SIGN LANGUAGE BY WATCHING TV 1 Large-scale Learning of Sign Language by

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    PFISTER et al.: LARGE-SCALE LEARNING OF SIGN LANGUAGE BY WATCHING TV 1 Large-scale Learning of Sign is to automatically learn a large number of signs from sign language-interpreted TV broadcasts. We achieve five hours of sign language-interpreted TV programmes are broadcast every day by the BBC. This data

  1. Human Language

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-04-19

    If you put an English speaker, a Mandarin Chinese speaker, and a Swahili speaker in the same room, chances are they'd have trouble communicating. But according to one scientific theory, they're really all speaking the same language.

  2. Effect of Awareness of Language Law on Language Access in the Health Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Chen, Alice Hm; Bindman, Andrew B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fernandez, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Federal law obligates health care providers receiving federal funding to ensure language access to limited English-proficient (LEP) individuals who cannot communicate with their provider. OBJECTIVE To determine whether LEP individual awareness of this law improved language access through interpreter utilization. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In June 2003, a telephone survey of 1,200 Californians was conducted in 11 non-English languages. MEASUREMENTS The survey included items on English proficiency, awareness of language law, health care utilization, and communication methods. Language access was defined as having a provider who speaks the individual's language (language-concordant) or utilizing an interpreter. RESULTS There were 1,000 LEP participants, of whom 371 (37%) were aware of the language law. Four hundred and ninety-one (49%) of LEP participants had a language-concordant provider. Of the remaining 509 LEP participants without a language-concordant provider, 111 (22%) reported interpreter utilization in the health care setting. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, insurance status, years in the United States, health care utilization, and level of English proficiency, awareness of law was not associated with interpreter utilization (odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 1.17; P = 0.16), but was associated with having a language-concordant provider (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.19, 2.26; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION Awareness of language law is not sufficient to resolve language barriers for LEP individuals. Provider and organization level barriers to language access must be addressed. PMID:16808766

  3. Modelling Audit Security for Smart-Cart Payment Schemes with UML-SEC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Jürjens

    2001-01-01

    To overcome the difficulties of correct secure systems design, we propose formal modelling using the object-oriented modelling\\u000a language UML. Specifically, we consider the problem of accountability through auditing.\\u000a \\u000a We explain our method at the example of a part of the Common Electronic Purse Specifications (CEPS), a candidate for an international\\u000a electronic purse standard, indicate possible vulnerabilities and present concrete security

  4. Endangered Languages: Language Loss and Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenoble, Lenore A., Ed.; Whaley, Lindsay J., Ed.

    This edited volume provides an overview of issues surrounding language loss from sociological, economic, and linguistic perspectives. Four parts cover general issues in language loss; language-community responses, including native language instruction in school, community, and home; the value of language diversity and what is lost when a language…

  5. The interpretation of IPCC probabilistic statements around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budescu, David V.; Por, Han-Hui; Broomell, Stephen B.; Smithson, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) uses verbal descriptions of uncertainty (for example, Unlikely) to convey imprecision in its forecasts and conclusions. Previous studies showed that the American public misinterprets these probabilistic statements. We report results from a multi-national study involving 25 samples in 24 countries and 17 languages. As predicted, laypeople interpret IPCC statements as conveying probabilities closer to 50% than intended by the IPCC authors. We show that an alternative presentation format supplementing the verbal terms with numerical ranges increases the correspondence between the public's interpretations and the IPCC guidelines, and the terms are better differentiated. These qualitative patterns are remarkably stable across all samples and languages. In fact, interpretations of the terms in various languages are more similar under the new presentation format. These results suggest changing the way the IPCC communicates uncertainty.

  6. Interpretation of Conventional Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  7. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  8. LACIE analyst interpretation keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, J. G.; Payne, R. W.; Palmer, W. F. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    Two interpretation aids, 'The Image Analysis Guide for Wheat/Small Grains Inventories' and 'The United States and Canadian Great Plains Regional Keys', were developed during LACIE phase 2 and implemented during phase 3 in order to provide analysts with a better understanding of the expected ranges in color variation of signatures for individual biostages and of the temporal sequences of LANDSAT signatures. The keys were tested using operational LACIE data, and the results demonstrate that their use provides improved labeling accuracy in all analyst experience groupings, in all geographic areas within the U.S. Great Plains, and during all periods of crop development.

  9. Graphs: Interpret Line Plots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

  10. Assessing the need for a medical interpreter: are all questions created equal?

    PubMed

    Okrainec, Karen; Miller, Mark; Holcroft, Christina; Boivin, Jean-François; Greenaway, Christina

    2014-08-01

    Language preference is currently being used in clinical practice to determine whether an interpreter is needed. The concordance of ability to communicate and language proficiency with each other and to language preference was measured with kappa agreement scores, sensitivity and specificity among 1,000 patients surveyed in Montreal, Canada. Though concordance between language preference and language proficiency or ability to communicate was moderate, both variables had low sensitivity (69 and 55 % respectively). A total of 25 % of persons with limited language proficiency and 15 % of those with limited ability to communicate were not identified to have a language preference for their mother tongue. Also, 31 and 45 % of those who preferred to be served in their mother tongue had good language proficiency and good ability to communicate. When assessing a patients' need for an interpreter, language preference is insufficient as a stand-alone question. PMID:23564398

  11. Performance Evaluations: PPA Interpretations Page 1 Interpretations on

    E-print Network

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    performance against position summary & amend for the next year ­ Invite employee to write a self evaluationPerformance Evaluations: PPA Interpretations Page 1 Interpretations on Performance Evaluation Process D. MacFarlane June 4th, 2009 #12;Performance Evaluations: PPA Interpretations Page 2 Reasons

  12. Heritage and hermeneutics: towards a broader interpretation of interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip Gordon Ablett; Pamela Kay Dyer

    2009-01-01

    This article re-examines the theoretical basis for environmental and heritage interpretation in tourist settings in the light of hermeneutic philosophy. It notes that the pioneering vision of heritage interpretation formulated by Freeman Tilden envisaged a broadly educational, ethically informed and transformative art. By contrast, current cognitive psychological attempts to reduce interpretation to the monological transmission of information, targeting universal but

  13. Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

  14. A sentence to remember: Instructed language switching in sentence production.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-04-01

    In the current study, we set out to investigate the influence of a sentence context on language switching. The task required German-English bilinguals to produce responses based on an alternating language sequence (L1-L1-L2-L2- …) and concepts in a specific sequential order. The concept sequence was either a sentence which was syntactically correct in both languages (language-unspecific sentence), a sentence which was correct in just one language (language-specific sentence) or a sentence which was syntactically incorrect in both languages (scrambled sentence). No switch costs were observed in language-unspecific sentences. Consequently, switch costs were smaller in those sentences than in the language-specific or scrambled sentences. The language-specific and scrambled sentence did not differ with respect to switch costs. These results demonstrate an important role of sentence context for language switch costs and were interpreted in terms of language interference and preparation processes. PMID:25659539

  15. Interpretive research methodology: broadening the dialogue.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, J S

    1993-12-01

    This article expands the dialogue on interpretive research methodology, locating this set of approaches within a broad historical and interdisciplinary context. Several of the most commonly held misconceptions in nursing, particularly those related to the meanings and derivations ascribed to "grounded theory," "symbolic interactionism," and "ethnography," are examined. The interpretive research approaches not only have gained broader acceptance across disciplines, but also have shifted in more radical and often less structured directions during the past decade. Several pivotal areas of these ongoing shifts are analyzed for their relevance to nursing research: the influence of critical and feminist theory and postmodernism, the ambiguity inherent in both every-day life and the research enterprise, the importance of locating the researcher, power and status inequities, the problematic aspects of language, meaning, and representation, and the emphasis on reflexivity and context as constitutive of meaning. PMID:7508706

  16. Approaches to Language Testing. Advances in Language Testing Series: 2. Papers in Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard, Ed.

    This volume, one in a series on modern language testing, collects four essays dealing with current approaches to lanquage testing. The introduction traces the development of language testing theory and examines the role of linguistics in this area. "The Psycholinguistic Basis," by E. Ingram, discusses some interpretations of the term…

  17. Tactical Language and Culture Training Systems: Using Artificial Intelligence to Teach Foreign Languages and Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lewis Johnson; André Valente

    2008-01-01

    The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) helps people quickly acquire communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. More than 20,00 0 learn- ers worldwide have used TLCTS courses. TLCTS utilizes artificial intelligence technologies in multiple wa ys: during the authoring process, and at run time to process l earner speech, interpret learner actions, control the resp onse of

  18. Development of computer sign language translation technology for deaf people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail G. Grif; Olga O. Korolkova; Yelena A. Demyanenko; Yevgeny B. Tsoy

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers computer sign language translation technology for deaf people. A detailed characteristic of the Russian text analysis stage, including prior semantic and semantic interpretation within the framework of developing a program for Russian text computer sign language translator into colloquial Russian sign language is given. Problems arising at this stage are also emphasized. Peculiarities of the Russian sign

  19. Our Perception of Woman as Determined by Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayim, Maryann

    Recognition of gender as a significant factor in the social parameters of language is a very recent phenomonon. The external aspects of language as they relate to sexism have social and political ramifications. Using Peirce's definition of sign, which encompasses the representation, the object, and its interpretation, sexually stereotypic language…

  20. 75 FR 27256 - Implementation of Section 304 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996: Commercial Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...services of multichannel video programming distributors (``MVPDs...accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART...services of multichannel video programming distributors (``MVPDs...access multichannel video programming and other services...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Commission will make every effort to provide accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and...

  2. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Commission will make every effort to provide accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and...

  3. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to revise certain rules...accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by...governing the amateur service vanity call sign system. The Commission also...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Commission will make every effort to provide accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Commission will make every effort to provide accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Commission will make every effort to provide accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and...

  7. 2 Services for Students with Disabilities Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    . . . . . . . . 21 Captioning Videos, CART Services, Personal FM System, Sign Language Interpreter Services, Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Access to Overheads or PPT Presentations, Adaptive Equipment, Alternative Text, Copy of Class to Text Transcription Services Exam accommodations

  8. 77 FR 43567 - Medical Area Body Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...08-59; FCC 12-54] Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications...issues related to the designation of Medical Body Area Network (``MBAN'') coordinator...accommodations (accessible format documents, sign language interpreters, CART, etc.) by...

  9. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  10. Fos but not Cart (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is overexpressed by several drugs of abuse: a comparative study using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Laurendeau, Ingrid; Canestrelli, Corine; Courtin, Cindie; Vidaud, Michel; Roques, Bernard; Noble, Florence

    2003-07-17

    It has been reported that cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (Cart) peptides can increase locomotor activity and produce a conditioned place preference. To establish whether or not Cart can be consider as a valuable marker of addiction we performed a comparative study of the expression of Cart and Fos genes by several drugs of abuse. This was achieved using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in four rat brain structures: prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. As expected, a significant induction of the immediate early gene Fos was observed after acute administration of morphine, cocaine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol. On the contrary none of these drugs was able to produce a significant change in Cart mRNA levels demonstrating that the expression of this gene is not modulated by drugs of abuse in these brain structures. PMID:12821175

  11. Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site from the Center for History & New Media (CHNM) at George Mason University is an expanded online version of a March 1999 Journal of American History roundtable. The site features translations of the Declaration of Independence into eight languages: Japanese, Polish, Italian, Spanish, German, Hebrew, French, and Russian (some include multiple versions, retranslations, and commentary), with links to essays about how the Declaration has been translated and interpreted in the related countries. These roundtable essays are also grouped together, with a Foreward and Appendices, in a separate section. CHNM intends for the project to evolve and welcomes contributions.

  12. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  13. The Bermuda Triangle: Natural Language Semantics Between Linguistics, Knowledge Representation, and Knowledge Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bosch

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic parameters alone cannot determine the interpretation of natural language utterances. They can only constrain their interpretation and must leave the rest to other knowledge sources and other processes: language understanding is not just a matter of knowing the language, but also to a considerable degree a matter of logical inference and world knowledge. This is no news as far

  14. Ohio Guidelines for Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Special Education.

    This document presents Ohio's state guidelines to assist school districts in providing appropriate educational interpreting services for students who have hearing impairments. A section on the primary role of the educational interpreter considers: necessary knowledge and skills, modes of communication, interpreting environments, testing…

  15. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  16. Interpretation of Helioseismic Traveltimes

    E-print Network

    Burston, Raymond; Birch, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    Time-distance helioseismology uses cross-covariances of wave motions on the solar surface to determine the travel times of wave packets moving from one surface location to another. We review the methodology to interpret travel-time measurements in terms of small, localized perturbations to a horizontally homogeneous reference solar model. Using the first Born approximation, we derive and compute 3D travel-time sensitivity (Fr\\'echet) kernels for perturbations in sound-speed, density, pressure, and vector flows. While kernels for sound speed and flows had been computed previously, here we extend the calculation to kernels for density and pressure, hence providing a complete description of the effects of solar dynamics and structure on travel times. We treat three thermodynamic quantities as independent and do not assume hydrostatic equilibrium. We present a convenient approach to computing damped Green's functions using a normal-mode summation. The Green's function must be computed on a wavenumber grid that ha...

  17. Second Language Transfer During Third Language Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirin Murphy

    A recent focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence is the role of transfer during third language acquisition. How do the learner's first and second languages influence the acquisition of a third language? Current research suggests that the multilingual dynamic differs from L1 effects during second language acquisition. This literature review will examine L2 transfer during third language acquisition within

  18. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements�

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sergey Matrosov

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  19. System-level factors affecting clinicians' perceptions and use of interpreter services in California public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Baurer, Danielle; Yonek, Julie C; Cohen, Alan B; Restuccia, Joseph D; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana

    2014-04-01

    Professional language interpreters are skilled in the nuances of interpretation and are less likely to make errors of clinical significance but clinicians infrequently use them. We examine system-level factors that may shape clinicians' perceptions and use of professional interpreters. Exploratory qualitative study in 12 California public hospitals. We conducted in-person key informant interviews with hospital leadership, clinical staff, and administrative staff. Five emergent themes highlight system-level factors that may influence clinicians' perceptions and use of professional interpreters in hospitals: (1) organization-wide commitment to improving language access for LEP patients; (2) organizational investment in remote interpreter technologies to increase language access; (3)training clinicians on how to access and work with interpreters; (4) hospital supports the training and certification of bilingual staff to serve as interpreters to expand in-person, on-site, interpreter capacity; and (5)organizational investment in readily accessible telephonic interpretation. Multiple system-level factors underlie clinicians' use of professional interpreters. Interventions that target these factors could improve language services for patients with limited English proficiency. PMID:23054539

  20. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS) were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222), an internet sample (n=123), and psychiatric outpatients (n=30). Results The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted. PMID:23580403

  1. Evaluation of CART-, glucagon-, and insulin-immunoreactive cells in the pancreas of an experimental rat model of unilateral renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, I; Janiuk, I; Piotrowska, Z

    2015-04-01

    Hypertension is one of the most frequently occurring diseases worldwide. Approximately 10% of the population with hypertension reveal the secondary type of hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cells containing CART, insulin and glucagon in the pancreas of rats with renovascular hypertension. An experimental model of hypertension in rats according to Goldblatt (2K1C model of hypertension) was used in the study. The experimental material (pancreas) was collected in the 6th week of the study. Cells containing CART, insulin and glucagon were evaluated using immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. Pancreatic islet cells were evaluated based on the number and intensity of staining. The investigation showed an increase in the number and immunoreactivity of CART containing cells, 6 weeks after partial unilateral ligation of the renal artery. There was a significant decrease in the number of glucagon-IR cells. Although intensity of staining these cells did not change. No differences were observed in the number and staining affinity of insulin-containing cells. On the basis of the study it can be stated that the endocrine system of pancreas undergoes changes in the course of renovascular hypertension. This may affect the production of hormones and contribute to the development of possible hypertension complications. PMID:25229552

  2. Appropriate use of medical interpreters.

    PubMed

    Juckett, Gregory; Unger, Kendra

    2014-10-01

    More than 25 million Americans speak English "less than very well," according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This population is less able to access health care and is at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as drug complications and decreased patient satisfaction. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act mandates that interpreter services be provided for patients with limited English proficiency who need this service, despite the lack of reimbursement in most states. Professional interpreters are superior to the usual practice of using ad hoc interpreters (i.e., family, friends, or untrained staff). Untrained interpreters are more likely to make errors, violate confidentiality, and increase the risk of poor outcomes. Children should never be used as interpreters except in emergencies. When using an interpreter, the clinician should address the patient directly and seat the interpreter next to or slightly behind the patient. Statements should be short, and the discussion should be limited to three major points. In addition to acting as a conduit for the discussion, the interpreter may serve as a cultural liaison between the physician and patient. When a bilingual clinician or a professional interpreter is not available, phone interpretation services or trained bilingual staff members are reasonable alternatives. The use of professional interpreters (in person or via telephone) increases patient satisfaction, improves adherence and outcomes, and reduces adverse events, thus limiting malpractice risk. PMID:25369625

  3. Quantum Measure Theory: A New Interpretation

    E-print Network

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2009-06-01

    Quantum measure theory can be introduced as a histories based reformulation (and generalisation) of Copenhagen quantum mechanics in the image of classical stochastic theories. These classical models lend themselves to a simple interpretation in which a single history (a single element of the sample space) is deemed to be 'real'; we require only that this real history should not be ruled out by the dynamics, the axioms of which ensure that not all histories are precluded. However, applying this interpretation naively to quantum measure theory we can find experimentally realisable systems (notably the Peres-Kochen-Specker system) in which every history is ruled out by the dynamics, challenging us to formulate a deeper realist framework. Our first response is to hold on to our existing interpretative framework and attempt a revision of the dynamics that would reduce quantum measure theory to a classical dynamics. We explore this approach by examining the histories formulation of a stochastic-collapse model on a simple (discrete) null-lattice, concluding that the drawbacks of this approach outweigh the benefits. Our second response is to abandon our classically inspired interpretation in favour of Sorkin's 'co-events', a more general ontology that still allows for strict realism. In this case the 'potentially real' objects of the theory (the 'beables' in Bell's language) are not individual histories but truth valuation maps, or co-events. We develop & evaluate various co-event schemes that have been suggested to date, finally adopting the multiplicative scheme; the current working model of co-event theory and a promising interpretation of quantum measure theory, though still a work in progress. We conclude by exploring the expression of the dynamics & predictions in this new framework.

  4. Predictors of CNS injury as measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the setting of chronic HIV infection and CART.

    PubMed

    Harezlak, J; Cohen, R; Gongvatana, A; Taylor, M; Buchthal, S; Schifitto, G; Zhong, J; Daar, E S; Alger, J R; Brown, M; Singer, E J; Campbell, T B; McMahon, D; So, Y T; Yiannoutsos, C T; Navia, B A

    2014-06-01

    The reasons for persistent brain dysfunction in chronically HIV-infected persons on stable combined antiretroviral therapies (CART) remain unclear. Host and viral factors along with their interactions were examined in 260 HIV-infected subjects who underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Metabolite concentrations (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and Glx/Cr) were measured in the basal ganglia, the frontal white matter, and gray matter, and the best predictive models were selected using a bootstrap-enhanced Akaike information criterion (AIC). Depending on the metabolite and brain region, age, race, HIV RNA concentration, ADC stage, duration of HIV infection, nadir CD4, and/or their interactions were predictive of metabolite concentrations, particularly the basal ganglia NAA/Cr and the mid-frontal NAA/Cr and Glx/Cr, whereas current CD4 and the CPE index rarely or did not predict these changes. These results show for the first time that host and viral factors related to both current and past HIV status contribute to persisting cerebral metabolite abnormalities and provide a framework for further understanding neurological injury in the setting of chronic and stable disease. PMID:24696364

  5. Water Hyacinth Identification Using CART Modeling With Hyperspectral Data in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Hestir, E. L.; Santos, M. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Ustin, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive aquatic weed that is causing severe economic and ecological impacts in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California, USA). Monitoring its distribution using remote sensing is the crucial first step in modeling its predicted spread and implementing control and eradication efforts. However, accurately mapping this species is confounded by its several phenological forms, namely a healthy vegetative canopy, flowering canopy with dense conspicuous terminal flowers above the foliage, and floating dead and senescent forms. The full range of these phenologies may be simultaneously present at any time, given the heterogeneity of environmental and ecological conditions in the Delta. There is greater spectral variation within water hyacinth than between any of the co-occurring species (pennywort and water primrose), so classification approaches must take these different phenological stages into consideration. We present an approach to differentiating water hyacinth from co-occurring species based on knowledge of relevant variation in leaf chlorophyll, floral pigments, foliage water content, and variation in leaf structure using a classification and regression tree (CART) applied to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  6. Audiometry screening and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation. PMID:23317024

  7. Interpreting Ambiguous Advertisements: The Effect of Frontal Lobe Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha Pearce; Skye McDonald; Max Coltheart

    1998-01-01

    Despite intact primary language processes patients with frontal lobe deficits often have impaired communication skills including impaired capacity to understand conversational inference. This study examined the ability of three patients with demonstrated frontal lobe pathology to interpret lexically ambiguous advertisements. When compared to a nonbrain-damaged control group it was found that the frontal lobe patients were poorer at comprehending the

  8. Roadmap: Special Education Educational Interpreter -Bachelor of Science in Education

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Special Education ­ Educational Interpreter - Bachelor of Science in Education [EH-BSE-SPED-EI] College of Education, Health and Human Services School of Lifespan Development and Educational Sciences Introduction to Deaf Studies 3 C Fulfills writing-intensive requirement ASL 29201 American Sign Language III

  9. Impromptu Speaking and Interpretation Studies: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to look at forensics-based competition events and determine what, if any, impact they could have on the language learning and public speaking skills of interpreters in training. This paper details the nature of the impromptu and extemporaneous speaking events in forensics competitions and introduces a…

  10. English/Japanese Professional Interpretation: Its Linguistic and Conceptual Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Luli

    1995-01-01

    A study of simultaneous interpretation from Japanese to English focused on problems inherent in simultaneous language processing. Data were drawn from a discussion session at an international conference of physicians concerning nuclear war. Transcription of the Japanese source text (romanized), English product, and a gloss of lexical equivalents…

  11. Relational Interpretations of Recursive Types in an Operational Setting

    E-print Network

    Harper, Robert

    Relational Interpretations of Recursive Types in an Operational Setting Lars Birkedal and Robert running head: Recursive Types in an Operational Setting Mailing address of corresponding author: Lars and a target language, each with a well-de ned syntax and seman- tics. The problem is then to prove

  12. Trained interpretive bias and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Salemink, Elske; van den Hout, Marcel; Kindt, Merel

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between anxiety and interpretive bias has been studied extensively, but the causal direction of this relationship remains largely unexplored. Do negative interpretations cause anxiety or is anxiety the cause of negative interpretations? Or are the two mutually reinforcing? The present study addressed this issue by experimentally inducing either a negative or a positive interpretive bias using Mathews and Mackintosh' [(2002). Induced emotional interpretation bias and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 604-615] training paradigm and then examining its impact on state anxiety and anxiety vulnerability. In addition, it was investigated as to whether the interpretive bias was trained implicitly. Results indicated that style of interpreting could be manipulated. That is, when confronted with ambiguous information after the training, participants (n=118) interpreted this information congruent with their (positive or negative) training condition. Data on the issue of implicitness showed that participants tended to be explicitly aware of the valence of their training stimuli. Effects of trained interpretive bias on anxiety were only marginal and absent on anxiety vulnerability. It appears that interpretive bias can be trained reliably, but its effects on mood and vulnerability require further explanation. PMID:16859638

  13. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  14. Quantum physics and language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc

    1988-07-01

    A novel theory, when it appears, cannot but use old words to label new concepts. In some cases, the extension in meaning thus conferred to standard terminology is natural enough so that the transfer may not lead to too many misunderstandings. Most often, however, and especially when the conceptual gap between the old and the new theory is a wide one, a casual transfer of términology may lead to epistemological and pedagogical difficulties. This situation has been and still is particularly serious in quantum theory. Here, the careless use of words taken from classical physics - such as quantum “mechanics”, “uncertainty”, etc. - , is compounded by the uncritical use of interpretative terms linked to a definite, if implicit, philosophical point of view - such as “complementarity”, “wave-particle duality”, “observables”, etc. While these words and the ideas they represent have played a major role in the birth of quantum physics more than half a century ago, they are no longer necessarily the best ones to be used today. It is not argued here that we should start afresh and create from scratch a supposedly adequate vocabulary for quantum physics. Abuse of language certainly is unavoidable in science as it is in any human communication; without it, language would not live and evolve. But, at the very least, let us recognize it for what it is, so that it does not add its troubles to already complicated issues. And in some definite instances, still, a willing effort to replace specially ambiguous words might be worthwhile.

  15. A Priority Fuzzy Logic Extension of the XQuery Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrbi?, Srdjan; Wettayaprasit, Wiphada; Saeueng, Pannipa

    2011-09-01

    In recent years there have been significant research findings in flexible XML querying techniques using fuzzy set theory. Many types of fuzzy extensions to XML data model and XML query languages have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce priority fuzzy logic extensions to XQuery language. Describing these extensions we introduce a new query language. Moreover, we describe a way to implement an interpreter for this language using an existing XML native database.

  16. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with you, teachers, and other professionals to improve speech and language skills. Good language skills help with learning, behavior, self- ... Here are more activities for building your child's speech and language skills. What causes preschool language disorders? Often the cause ...

  17. Date _____________________ Language Partner Program

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    ? ___________________________________________________________________ Are you interested in a particular language/culture Date _____________________ Language Partner Program Volunteer Application Form The purpose of the Language Partner Program is to provide English as an additional language (EAL) students

  18. Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products.

    The first working draft of the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition is now available. The document "defines the process of Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition and the syntax and semantics of semantic interpretation tags that can be added to speech recognition grammars." The document is a draft, open for suggestions from W3C members and other interested users.

  19. Not a batch language; A control language!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Bristol

    1995-01-01

    The dream of much Batch Control standardization has been the development of a common Batch language. In practice, Batch languages are superposed on collections of archaic control data bases and diagrammatic representations. A common Control Language could integrate all aspects of control. Such a language could capture the insights of continuous, logical and batch control together, and still be measured

  20. Language Standardization and Signed Language Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the issue of the use of signed language dictionaries in the standardization of signed languages with reference to the Australian Sign language (Auslan) dictionaries. Details the structure of the Auslan dictionaries and argues that bilingual, bidirectional dictionaries of this type must be produced if communities are to encourage language…

  1. Extension Language Programmes Evening Language Teaching

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    (except Gaelic classes) Evening Language Teaching Ends 28th November 2014 (except Gaelic classes) TuitionExtension Language Programmes Evening Language Teaching Booking Form Semester 1 2014-2015 Please do. This refers to your general education, not your language level

  2. Language and imagery: effects of language modality

    E-print Network

    Vigliocco, Gabriella

    hammer) do not generally evoke mental images associated to meanings. However, across signed languages of English speakers and British sign language (BSL) signers in meaning similarity judgement tasks in their language than to those that are not; and that language modality (spoken versus signed) can affect

  3. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  4. Language barriers and qualitative nursing research: methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Squires, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim This review of the literature synthesizes methodological recommendations for the use of translators and interpreters in cross-language qualitative research. Background Cross-language qualitative research involves the use of interpreters and translators to mediate a language barrier between researchers and participants. Qualitative nurse researchers successfully address language barriers between themselves and their participants when they systematically plan for how they will use interpreters and translators throughout the research process. Experienced qualitative researchers recognize that translators can generate qualitative data through translation processes and by participating in data analysis. Failure to address language barriers and the methodological challenges they present threatens the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of cross-language qualitative nursing research. Through a synthesis of the cross-language qualitative methods literature, this article reviews the basics of language competence, translator and interpreter qualifications, and roles for each kind of qualitative research approach. Methodological and ethical considerations are also provided. Conclusion By systematically addressing the methodological challenges cross-language research presents, nurse researchers can produce better evidence for nursing practice and policy making when working across different language groups. Findings from qualitative studies will also accurately represent the experiences of the participants without concern that the meaning was lost in translation. PMID:19522941

  5. Mantoux test and its interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19(th) century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test. PMID:23130251

  6. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration; and 3) invest in faculty development for successful and sustainable delivery. PMID:25473325

  7. The Dynamics of Second Language Emergence: Cycles of Language Use, Language Change, and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an emergentist account whereby the limited end-state typical of adult second language learners results from dynamic cycles of language use, language change, language perception, and language learning in the interactions of members of language communities. In summary, the major processes are: 1. "Usage leads to change": High…

  8. Domain-Independent Discourse Ontology for Utterance Interpretation and Generation in Human-Computer Dialogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Popescu; Jean Caelen; Corneliu Burileanu

    This paper is concerned with the design, development and usage of a domain- and language-independent discourse ontol- ogy, useful for utterance interpretation and generation in service- oriented human-computer dialogue. Although the syntagm \\

  9. Priming the interpretation of ambiguous noun-noun compounds in young children 

    E-print Network

    Fialka, Justine K B

    2010-06-30

    Abstract: Investigation into adult language users’ interpretation of ambiguous noun-noun compounds has been considerably explored and documented. However, investigation into the same phenomenon in a population such as young children has been...

  10. Adults' Interpretation of Meaningful Infant-Directed Facial Speech: Implications for Infants' Categorization Abilities

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Adults' Interpretation of Meaningful Infant-Directed Facial Speech: Implications for Infants by adults to modulate infants' affect, attention, and to facilitate language learning (Fernald, 1992 facial expressions when communicating with their infants (Chong et al., 2003). But, what were

  11. Moral mediation in interpreted health care consultations.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Al-Sarraj, Hela; Webb, Sarah; Kelly, Moira

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the moral work done in routine diabetes review consultations in primary care with nurses. Consultations with fluent English speakers are compared with consultations where an interpreter was present, largely involving patients of Bangladeshi origin. The study setting was Tower Hamlets in London, where type 2 diabetes is particularly common. Existing research has shown some dissatisfaction with diabetes care amongst Bangladeshi patients, and studies of care providers in other locations suggest that they at times experience the care of this group as particularly challenging. Through analysis of video-recorded consultations recorded in 2010-2011 we shed light on possible reasons for these difficulties. The 12 non-English speakers often experienced difficulties in raising issues that concerned them, particularly if their interpreter did not translate their utterance because it was deemed to be unrelated to diabetes. These difficulties were not shared by the 24 fluent English speakers, who also found it easier to convey a positive moral reputation and to excuse behaviour that deviated from recommended self-management practices. Interpreters at times also acted as moral mediators. For example, where a participant in the consultation made statements that appeared to convey a negative moral judgement of an other participant, these would often go untranslated. Probably, neither health care providers nor patients are fully aware of the nature of their communication difficulties. Given this, interpreters possess considerable power to influence matters. Understanding the moral work of consultations is important in explaining the findings of other studies showing difficulties in the provision of diabetes care to people with limited English language skills. PMID:24331892

  12. Oral language, written language and language awareness Christophe Parisse

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    starts to include some conscious processing and written language becomes partly automatic and unconscious language is a basically unconscious process that would be better modelled by data-oriented, probabilistic & Kemmer, 2000; Bod, 1998; Daelemans, 1999), whereas written language is basically a conscious process

  13. Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Donald Hughes

    2000-01-01

    Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

  14. Dream Interpretation and False Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni; Pasquale Lombardo; Stefano Malvagia; Elizabeth F. Loftus

    1999-01-01

    Dream interpretation is a common practice in psychotherapy. In the research presented in this article, each participant saw a clinician who interpreted a recent dream report to be a sign that the participant had had a mildly traumatic experience before age 3 years, such as being lost for an extended time or feeling abandoned by his or her parents. This

  15. Museum Docents' Understanding of Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Amanda C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore docents' perceptions of their interpretive role in art museums and determine how those perceptions shape docents' practice. The objective was to better understand how docents conceive of their role and what shapes the interpretation they give on tours to the public. The conceptual…

  16. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  17. Interpretative Decision Making in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland-Gholson, Jane; Ettinger, Linda F.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that all research is interpretive and that reality is constructed at every stage of a research project. Explores three research constructs: (1) role of the researcher; (2) research questions; and (3) underlying assumptions of the researcher. Presents and applies a foundation for an interpretative research framework. (CFR)

  18. Demographic and Financial Characteristics of School Districts with Low and High À La Carte Sales in Rural Kansas Public Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nollen, Nicole L.; Kimminau, Kim; Nazir, Niaman

    2013-01-01

    Reducing à la carte (ALC) items in schools – i.e., foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program -- may have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce ALC offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some food service programs operate with limited ALC sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high ALC sales. Food service financial records (2007–2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education (KSDE) for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to ALC sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low ALC sales. In rural districts with low ALC sales, lunch prices and participation were higher; lunch costs and ALC quality were lower; and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high ALC sales. Lunch price (OR=1.2, 95% CI = 1.1–1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.0–9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low ALC sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high ALC sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low ALC sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of ALC items without compromising food service revenue. PMID:21616201

  19. Five Years of Continuous Surface Aerosol Measurements From the DOE/ARM Southern Great Plains CART Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, P. J.; Andrews, E.; Jefferson, A.; Ogren, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Continuous measurements of the optical and microphysical properties of aerosol particles have been made at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (DOE/ARM) Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site covering the five-year period from July 1996 through June 2001. Hourly, daily and monthly statistics have been calculated that illustrate aerosol variability over a range of time scales. A pronounced peak in total particle number, centered on the mid-afternoon hours (local time), is evident in the hourly statistics. A broad early morning peak in the concentration of particles larger than 0.1 ? m aerodynamic diameter corresponds with a similar peak in aerosol light scattering coefficient, ? sp. No strong cycles were observed in the daily statistics, suggesting that day-of-the-week has only a minor influence on the observed aerosol variability. The occurrence of an autumn decrease in single-scattering albedo, ? 0, was observed and may be caused by regional-scale agricultural or transportation activities or seasonal changes in atmospheric flow patterns. The median value for ? 0 over the five-year period was 0.95, but this value has decreased ~0.5% per year presumably due to increased agricultural burning. The aerosol hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH)), corresponding to a relative humidity increase of 40% to 85%, showed a median value of 1.83 for the year 1999, although much lower values were observed during periods that were probably influenced by locally-generated smoke and dust aerosols. A long-term program of light aircraft flights over the site was started last year, and a statistical analysis of the aerosol properties at altitude and their relation to the surface aerosol properties is discussed. Some of the aerosol properties remain relatively constant (up to >3000 m altitude) in vertical profiles over the site while others show dramatic variation from the surface properties.

  20. Arabic-speaking migrants’ experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. Method A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Results Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter’s task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter’s dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter’s qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. Conclusion The study showed that the personal qualities of a good interpreter not only cover language ability but also origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views. Thus, there is need to develop strategies for personalized healthcare in order to avoid inappropriate communication, to satisfy the preferences of the person in need of interpreters and improve the impact of interpretation on the quality of healthcare. PMID:24934755

  1. Status of GDL - GNU Data Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, A.; Schellens, M.; Gales, J.; Arabas, S.; Boquien, M.; Chanial, P.; Messmer, P.; Fillmore, D.; Poplawski, O.; Maret, S.; Marchal, G.; Galmiche, N.; Mermet, T.

    2010-12-01

    Gnu Data Language (GDL) is an open-source interpreted language aimed at numerical data analysis and visualisation. It is a free implementation of the Interactive Data Language (IDL) widely used in Astronomy. GDL has a full syntax compatibility with IDL, and includes a large set of library routines targeting advanced matrix manipulation, plotting, time-series and image analysis, mapping, and data input/output including numerous scientific data formats. We will present the current status of the project, the key accomplishments, and the weaknesses - areas where contributions are welcome!

  2. The double-slit quantum eraser experiments and Hardy's paradox in the quantum linguistic interpretation

    E-print Network

    Shiro Ishikawa

    2014-07-23

    Recently we proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics (called quantum and classical measurement theory), which was characterized as a kind of metaphysical and linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical systems but also yield the quantum mechanical world view (i.e., quantum philosophy or quantum language). The purpose of this paper is to formulate the double-slit experiment, the quantum eraser experiment, Wheeler's delayed choice experiment, Hardy's paradox and the three boxes paradox (the weak value associated with a weak measurement due to Aharonov, et al.) in the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. Through these arguments, we assert that the linguistic interpretation is just the final version of so called Copenhagen interpretation. And therefore, we conclude that the Copenhagen interpretation does not belong to physics (i.e., the realistic world view) but the linguistic world view.

  3. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  4. The Language of the Bilingual Medical Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Brian; And Others

    A study investigated translation problems arising in physician-patient interviews conducted in two languages with the help of an interpreter. Subjects were four adult native speakers of Gujarati, aged 42-70, whose physician interviews were videotape-recorded and translated, and the discourse was analyzed. Patients spoke in Gujarati, and the…

  5. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  6. Lost in Translation: The Power of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Fitzsimons, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines some philosophical aspects of translation as a metaphor for education--a metaphor that avoids the closure of final definitions, in favour of an ongoing and tentative process of interpretation and revision. Translation, it is argued, is a complex process involving language, within and among cultures, and in the exercise of power.…

  7. Practicing Language Arts Skills Using Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Suzanne A.

    This paper attempts to show a one-to-one relationship between the various activities involved in dramatic interpretation and specific language arts skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The skills listed in this model reflect both the cognitive and the affective domains and include concentration, perception, factual recall,…

  8. Calibrated Peer Review for Interpreting Linear Regression Parameters: Results from a Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Felicity B.; Jenkins, Sarah; Hoverman, Verna

    2010-01-01

    Biostatistics is traditionally a difficult subject for students to learn. While the mathematical aspects are challenging, it can also be demanding for students to learn the exact language to use to correctly interpret statistical results. In particular, correctly interpreting the parameters from linear regression is both a vital tool and a…

  9. Children's Interpretation of Indefinites in Sentences Containing Negation: A Reassessment of the Cross-Linguistic Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon; Gualmini, Andrea; Helder, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children's behavior with respect to the interpretation of indefinite objects in negative sentences may differ depending on the target language: whereas young English-speaking children tend to select a surface scope interpretation (e.g., Musolino (1998)), young Dutch-speaking children consistently prefer an inverse…

  10. Distance Learning as an Effective Tool for Medical Interpreting Training in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güven, Mine

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the need for trained medical interpreters in various local/ethnic languages especially at public health institutions in Turkey, and argues that distance learning would be an effective tool for medical interpreting training, given the particular constraints of the situation. Designed to meet the respective needs of different…

  11. Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

  12. Engaging Student Interpreters in Vocabulary Building: Web Search with Computer Workbench

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of Web portals in a workbench for assisting student interpreters in the search for and collection of vocabulary. The experiment involved a class of fifteen English as a Foreign Language (EFL) student interpreters, who were required to equip themselves with the appropriate English vocabulary to handle an…

  13. Increased risk of non-AIDS-related events in HIV subjects with persistent low CD4 counts despite cART in the CoRIS cohort.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Y M; Jarrin, I; Rosado, I; Campins, A A; Berenguer, J; Iribarren, J A; Rivero, M; Muñoz-Medina, L; Bernal-Morell, E; Gutiérrez, F; Leal, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to analyze clinical complications in HIV-infected subjects who persistently maintain low CD4 levels despite virological response to cART in the Spanish CoRIS cohort. The main inclusion criteria were CD4 counts <200cells/mm(3) at cART-initiation and at least 2years under cART achieving a viral load <500copies/mL. Those patients with CD4 counts <250cells/mm(3) 2years after cART were classified as the Low-CD4 group, and clinical events were collected from this time-point. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios of death, AIDS-defining events, serious non-AIDS-defining events (NAE) and of each specific NAE category (non-AIDS-defining malignancies (non-ADM), cardiovascular, kidney- and liver-related events). Of 9667 patients in the cohort, a total of 1128 met the criteria and 287 (25.4%) were classified in the Low-CD4 group. A higher risk of death (aIRR: 4.71; 95% CI: 1.88-11.82; p-value=0.001) and of non-ADM were observed in this group (aIRR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.07-4.63; p=0.03). Our results stress the need to control accelerated aging in this population to counter their increased risk of non-AIDS-defining diseases, particularly cancer, and are consistent with the concept that clinical complications are potentially affected by genetics and lifestyle. PMID:25766861

  14. BEYSIK: Language description and handbook for programmers (system for the collective use of the Institute of Space Research, Academy of Sciences USSR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. G.

    1979-01-01

    The BASIC algorithmic language is described, and a guide is presented for the programmer using the language interpreter. The high-level algorithm BASIC is a problem-oriented programming language intended for solution of computational and engineering problems.

  15. Language Effects in Trilinguals: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Xavier; Midgley, Katherine J.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Pu, He; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded during the visual presentation of words in the three languages of French-English-Spanish trilinguals. Participants monitored a mixed list of unrelated non-cognate words in the three languages while performing a semantic categorization task. Words in L1 generated earlier N400 peak amplitudes than both L2 and L3 words, which peaked together. On the other hand, L2 and L3 words did differ significantly in terms of N400 amplitude, with L3 words generating greater mean amplitudes compared with L2 words. We interpret the effects of peak N400 latency as reflecting the special status of the L1 relative to later acquired languages, rather than proficiency in that language per se. On the other hand, the mean amplitude difference between L2 and L3 is thought to reflect different levels of fluency in these two languages. PMID:23133428

  16. Language Interoperability and Logic Programming Languages 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Jonathan J

    We discuss P#, our implementation of a tool which allows interoperation between a concurrent superset of the Prolog programming language and C#. This enables Prolog to be used as a native implementation language for Microsoft's .NET platform. P...

  17. Linguistics in Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  18. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  19. Language Acquisition As Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikiko Nishikimi; Hideyuki Nakashima; Hitoshi Matsubara

    1992-01-01

    Chomsky's proposition that language is handled by a language-specific faculty needs more justification. In language acquisition in particular, it is still in question whether the faculty is necessary or not. We succeeded in explaining one constraint on language acquisition in terms of a general learning mechanism. This paper describes a machine learning system Rhea applied to the domain of language

  20. Barriers to Language Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabina R. Neugebauer

    2002-01-01

    This thesis will explore the acquisition of a second language by normal adults and children, and first language acquisition by children with learning disabilities, more precisely specific language impairment (SLI). It will investigate the striking similarities and the differences between these language groups. Special attention will be paid to morphological and phonological processes that are particularly problematic for both language