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1

Innovative Learning Modules for Language in Context: MIMEA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learning foreign languages in the United States generally have little exposure to the target language outside the classroom. Web-based technology can facilitate language learning in context by offering easily accessible, authentic materials. This paper introduces MIMEA (Multimedia Interactive Modules for Education and Assessment), an…

Kraemer, Angelika; Ahn, Seongmee; Hillman, Sara; Fei, Fei

2009-01-01

2

Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines how the contexts in which language teaching occurs impact the aims and methods of language teaching. Ten papers focus on the following: "Introduction: Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning" (Mike Byram and Peter Grundy); "From Practice to Theory and Back Again" (Claire Kramsch); "Carrying a Baby…

Byram, Michael, Ed.; Grundy, Peter, Ed.

3

Reflection in the Context of Community Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Community Language Learning (CLL) and its unique characteristic of employing reflection as a way of learning a foreign language. The use of CLL in teaching oral English to Japanese students in Japan is described. (CFM)

La Forge, Paul G.

1979-01-01

4

Reviewing the Role of Mobile Learning Technology in Special Operations Forces Language Learning Contexts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes current trends, best practices, uses, and potential options suitable for the use of Mobile Learning Technology (MLT) in Special Operations Forces (SOF) language training contexts. In this report, we define MLT has any type of smart d...

2013-01-01

5

Learning Context and Its Effects on Second Language Acquisition: Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years ago, Dell Hymes (1972) observed that knowing what goes on outside the school setting is necessary to understanding what goes on inside. He noted further that "the key to understanding language in context is to start not with language but with context ... [and then to] systematically relate the two" (pp. xix-lvii). Recently, the…

Collentine, Joseph; Freed, Barbara F.

2004-01-01

6

Sing a Song Please: Musical Contexts and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six language-impaired children, aged 4-7, were studied in two routinized contexts (a lesson without music and a singing session) and child-teacher talk was analyzed. Results showed that the addition of music to a routinized context has the potential to increase the language-impaired child's ability to interact non-verbally. (Author/JDD)

Howarth, Lisa M.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

1987-01-01

7

Transformative Pedagogy and Language Learning in Maori and Irish Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing positive learning communities in classrooms where pedagogies are socially and culturally responsive and centred on shared life experiences is critical for the revitalisation of minoritised languages such as Irish and M?ori, which lack the dominance and power of the wider languages of government and communication. Transformative pedagogy and pedagogical re-positioning of teachers are essential to legitimising and affirming minoritised

Ted Glynn; Mere Berryman

8

Differences between the EFL and the ESL Language Learning Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the EFL and ESL learning contexts with respect to the availability of conditions that facilitate L2 acquisition. 6 volunteers from a group of students participating in a summer study abroad program filled out questionnaires regarding their English usage before and during the study abroad program. Analysis of the data found

Peter Longcope

9

Beliefs about second language learning: the influence of learning context and learning purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and\\/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In particular, it has been argued that L2 learning is facilitated when

Saleh Al-Osaimi; Martin Wedell

2012-01-01

10

Young Children Learning Languages in a Multilingual Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luxembourg is a trilingual country where residents communicate in Luxembourgish, French and German concurrently. Children therefore study these languages at primary school. In this paper I explore how six eight-year-old Luxembourgish children use and learn German, French and English in formal and informal settings over a period of one year. Their…

Kirsch, Claudine

2006-01-01

11

Distance Learning Class Model for Teaching a Foreign Language in University-Level Education Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to introduce the distance learning class model for a foreign language in university-level education context, and to prove that this class model is effective in cultivating the motivation and interest of university students for learning a foreign language. This distance learning lesson consists of two parts: Online chatting session,…

Lee, Sun-Min

2012-01-01

12

Using CALL in a Formal Learning Context to Develop Oral Language Awareness in ESL: An Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French learners at university meet difficulties in the comprehension of oral English. Being in a formal context of language learning, they need to develop language awareness to compensate for insufficient exposure to the English language. To meet the students' needs, data was collected in order to pinpoint the main errors made by French learners…

Vincent-Durroux, Laurence; Poussard, Cecile; Lavaur, Jean-Marc; Aparicio, Xavier

2011-01-01

13

Reviewing the Case for Explicit Grammar Instruction in the University Foreign Language Learning Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the extent to which research findings from second language and immersion programs--concerning the efficacy of different instructional approaches--are transferable to the context of foreign language learning in British higher education. Data are drawn from a study of German learners exposed to focus on form tuition and focus on forms…

Klapper, John; Rees, Jonathan

2003-01-01

14

Language Learning Strategy Use of ESL Students in an Intensive English Learning Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the language learning strategy use of 55 ESL students with differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds enrolled in a college Intensive English Program (IEP). The IEP is a language learning institute for pre-admissions university ESL students, and is an important step in developing not only students' basic Interpersonal…

Hong-Nam, Kyungsim; Leavell, Alexandra G.

2006-01-01

15

A study of language learning strategy use in the context of EFL curriculum and pedagogy reform in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language learning strategy (LLS) use is not only an individual attribute of language users, but also a group behaviour reflecting the learning culture and language pedagogy in a particular social context. This article reports a study on the LLS use of Chinese secondary school students of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Northeast China from the perspective of socio-cultural

Yuanfang Yu; Bing Wang

2009-01-01

16

A Study of Language Learning Strategy Use in the Context of EFL Curriculum and Pedagogy Reform in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning strategy (LLS) use is not only an individual attribute of language users, but also a group behaviour reflecting the learning culture and language pedagogy in a particular social context. This article reports a study on the LLS use of Chinese secondary school students of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Northeast China from…

Yu, Yuanfang; Wang, Bing

2009-01-01

17

Factors Influencing Language-Learning Strategy Use of English Learners in an ESL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), version 7.0 (ESL/EFL) developed by Oxford (1990) to examine differences in language-learning strategy use. It focused on how learner factors such as gender, age, nationality, and proficiency level influence the choice of language-learning strategies. The participants were 75…

Nguyen, Ngan; Godwyll, Francis

2010-01-01

18

A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Language Listening and Speaking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reported the results of a study that aimed to construct a sensor and handheld augmented reality (AR)-supported ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment called the Handheld English Language Learning Organization (HELLO), which is geared towards enhancing students' language learning. The HELLO integrates sensors, AR, ubiquitous…

Liu, T.-Y.

2009-01-01

19

The Impact of Cultural Background on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies in the JFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning strategies have been researched for more than 30 years yet there remain many unanswered questions. Some of these questions relate to the target language being studied, specifically Japanese, and the influence of learner variables on the choice of language learning strategies, specifically cultural background. This study seeks to…

Grainger, Peter

2012-01-01

20

"I Live in Tuuk-SON": Rethinking the Contexts of Language Learning along the Mexico-U.S. Border  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In language teaching, context is everything. English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers must learn about the worlds in which the students they teach use English. The teachers often inhabit worlds that are very different from the ones students know, because of the ways in which class, race, gender, ethnicity, education, and legal…

Ullman, Char

2010-01-01

21

Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this journal issue explore classroom methods for enhancing language acquisition. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) Forests and Trees: Conservation and Reforestation" (Joyce S. Steward); (2) "Using Literature to Teach Language" (Richard D. Cureton); (3) "Language Learning through Sentence Combining"…

Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

1985-01-01

22

Modern Foreign Language Learning and European Citizenship in the Irish Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents some of the findings of a study investigating young people's attitudes towards Europe and the European Union and their self-reported learning about European citizenship in Ireland. The paper considers adolescents' attitudes and motivations for language learning in light of recent literature arguing for the role of modern…

Hennebry, Mairin

2011-01-01

23

Essay: Learning a Second Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What challenges face students who are learning a second language at the same time as they are learning science? This essay considers some of the difficulties associated with learning to speak, read, and write in a second language. Although the principles of language learning discussed here can be generalized across languages and contexts, this essay considers situations in which English is both the language of instruction and the language being learned.

Ellen Bialystok, York U.

2008-01-01

24

Multimedia Integration for Language e-Learning: Content, Context and the e-Dossier  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the education world, it is widely accepted that language learning is one of the pioneering disciplines in the application and use of the information and communication technologies, initially preceded by the widespread use of audiovisual resources which, finally integrated in the digital space, bring about the use of multimedia. Additionally,…

Sanchez-Villalon, Pedro Pablo; Ortega, Manuel; Sanchez-Villalon, Asuncion

2010-01-01

25

Sustainability and computer-assisted language learning: factors for success in a context of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of university Italian teachers at an Australian university has been able to obtain enduring benefits from computer-assisted language learning (CALL), through projects that last, and indeed grow and develop over time. The projects have focused on supporting students in effective use of out-of-class time once they reach an intermediate level of proficiency. This article analyses the team's 15

Claire Kennedy; Mike Levy

2009-01-01

26

Practice Theory in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ortega (2011) has argued that second language acquisition is stronger and better after the social turn. Of the post-cognitive approaches she reviews, several focus on the social context of language learning rather than on language as the central phenomenon. In this article, we present Practice Theory not as yet another approach to language

Young, Richard F.; Astarita, Alice C.

2013-01-01

27

Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Adult Language Learners: Context and Innovation" presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with adults. Adult language learners are goal oriented and direct their learning to fulfill particular needs or demands: to advance their studies, to progress up the career ladder, to follow business opportunities, to pass a driving…

Smith, Ann F. V., Ed.; Strong, Gregory, Ed.

2009-01-01

28

Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

2006-01-01

29

Globalization, Children's Study Abroad, and Transnationalism as an Emerging Context for Language Learning: A New Task for Language Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amidst emerging trends in transnational migration via globalization, an increasing number of families have gone abroad to help their school-aged children and youth gain international education credentials and provide them an opportunity to acquire English as a global language as early as possible. This early study abroad before college (ESA) has…

Song, Juyoung

2011-01-01

30

Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

2013-01-01

31

Oral Language and Literacy Learning in Context: The Role of Social Relationships. Reading Research Report No. 57.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects on early literacy learning of two dimensions of learning contexts: formality (peer writing and pretend play) and social relationships (friends and acquaintances). Same gender dyads of kindergarten friends were observed in peer writing and pretend play settings across the school year. A total of 33 males and 23 females…

Pellegrini, A. D.; Galda, Lee

32

Context, Learning, and Extinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

2010-01-01

33

Effect of Academic Major on Students' Use of Language Learning Strategies: A Diary Study in a Chinese Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here explored how students' use of language learning strategies (LLS) was affected by their academic major. The data were collected by asking students to keep a four-week diary, and then the findings were examined within the model of learning developed by Biggs. An analysis of diary entries showed that, although there were…

Rao, Zhenhui; Liu, Fulan

2011-01-01

34

Language-Based Learning Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

Language-Based Learning Disabilities What is a language-based learning disability ? What are some signs or symptoms ... a language-based learning disability ? What is a language-based learning disability? Language-based learning disabilities are ...

35

Computer-assisted foreign language learning: Effects of text, context, and gender on listening comprehension and motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-based foreign language lesson was developed to study the effects of text, context, and gender on listening comprehension and motivation. A total of 109 fifth grade students responded to spoken commands, with text and a story absent or present. Presenting spoken language with text appeared to assist the development of listening skills. When text was present, students made fewer

Solveig Jakobsdóttir; Simon Hooper

1995-01-01

36

The Effect of the Context of Learning on the Use of Communication Strategies by Learners of Spanish as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of the context of learning--"at home" (AH) classroom versus study abroad (SA)--on the number and types of communication strategies (CSs) used by learners of Spanish as a second language. Oral data from 46 learners--20 AH and 26 SA--were analyzed before and after the treatment period, to discern the effect of…

Lafford, Barbara A.

2004-01-01

37

From Recording Linguistic Competence to Supporting Inferences about Language Acquisition in Context: Extending the Conceptualization of Student Models for Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student models for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) have largely focused on the acquisition of grammatical structures. In this paper, we motivate a broader perspective of student models for ICALL that incorporates insights from current research on second language acquisition and language testing. We argue for a student model that includes a representation of the learner's ability to use

Luiz Amaral; Detmar Meurers

38

Learning About Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinguishes between language study which implies a critical scrutiny of the language, and language learning directed at language fluency only. Suggests that a more effective approach would be a combination of the two methods. (DS)

Haile, H. G.

1970-01-01

39

Will Mobile Learning Change Language Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of mobile phones and other portable devices is beginning to have an impact on how learning takes place in many disciplines and contexts, including language learning. Learners who are not dependent on access to fixed computers can engage in activities that relate more closely to their current surroundings, sometimes crossing the border…

Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

2009-01-01

40

Statistical learning and language acquisition  

PubMed Central

Human learners, including infants, are highly sensitive to structure in their environment. Statistical learning refers to the process of extracting this structure. A major question in language acquisition in the past few decades has been the extent to which infants use statistical learning mechanisms to acquire their native language. There have been many demonstrations showing infants’ ability to extract structures in linguistic input, such as the transitional probability between adjacent elements. This paper reviews current research on how statistical learning contributes to language acquisition. Current research is extending the initial findings of infants’ sensitivity to basic statistical information in many different directions, including investigating how infants represent regularities, learn about different levels of language, and integrate information across situations. These current directions emphasize studying statistical language learning in context: within language, within the infant learner, and within the environment as a whole.

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2011-01-01

41

Issues in language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the current debate in Australia into the learning of literacy and foreign languages. It examines not only the literacy levels attained by Australian students in their national language (English) in comparison to these in other countries, as well as between Australian states, but also theories involved in school learning and the learning of language, with particular reference

John P. Keeves; I Gusti; Ngurah Darmawan

2007-01-01

42

LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

43

Learning Mathematics Within Contexts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 1-hr webcast Dr. Cathy Fosnot and a group of math educators discuss the significance of problem contexts for students' mathematics learning. They solve a problem involving fractions and proportional reasoning, share multiple solution strategies, and discuss the importance of solving problems before assigning them to children in order to anticipate the range of knowledge and skills that students might demonstrate. Video clips of a classroom foster a discussion of strategies for designing lesson problems and managing a congress.

2007-10-30

44

Language Acquisition and Language Learning: A Plea for Syncretism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the apparent opposition between the concepts of language learning and language acquisition in the context of adult second-language study. Proposes that these two concepts are mutually supportive, not mutually exclusive. Demonstrates how the implications of learning vs. acquisition can be integrated into a communicative…

Higgs, Theodore V.

1985-01-01

45

Context Change and Associative Learning.  

PubMed

The present article reviews the effects of changing the background context on performance in associative learning tasks in humans and animals. The findings are complementary and consistent over animal conditioning (Pavlovian and instrumental learning) and human predictive learning and memory paradigms. In many cases, a context change after learning can have surprisingly little disruptive influence on performance. Extinction, or retroactive interference treatments more generally, are more context-specific than the initial learning. Contexts become important if the participant is exposed to any of several treatments that involve prediction error, which may serve to increase attention to the context. Contexts also become important if they are given predictive or informational value. Studies of instrumental (operant) learning are further consistent with the idea that the context might also influence affordances that support voluntary actions. Context switch effects are not universal, but mainly occur when certain attention and perception processes can come into play. PMID:23772263

Rosas, Juan M; Todd, Travis P; Bouton, Mark E

2013-05-01

46

Context Change and Associative Learning  

PubMed Central

The present article reviews the effects of changing the background context on performance in associative learning tasks in humans and animals. The findings are complementary and consistent over animal conditioning (Pavlovian and instrumental learning) and human predictive learning and memory paradigms. In many cases, a context change after learning can have surprisingly little disruptive influence on performance. Extinction, or retroactive interference treatments more generally, are more context-specific than the initial learning. Contexts become important if the participant is exposed to any of several treatments that involve prediction error, which may serve to increase attention to the context. Contexts also become important if they are given predictive or informational value. Studies of instrumental (operant) learning are further consistent with the idea that the context might also influence affordances that support voluntary actions. Context switch effects are not universal, but mainly occur when certain attention and perception processes can come into play.

Rosas, Juan M.; Todd, Travis P.; Bouton, Mark E.

2013-01-01

47

Language and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as a Semiotic Apprenticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language Learning" (G. Brindley); "Task as a…

Bird, Norman, Ed.; And Others

48

Fast Mapping and Word Learning by Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment in a Supported Learning Context: Effect of Encoding Cues, Phonotactic Probability, and Object Familiarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate whether phonological or semantic encoding cues improved the fast mapping or word learning performance of preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) or typical development (TD) and whether performance varied for words containing high- or low-frequency sublexical sequences that named familiar or unfamiliar objects.…

Gray, Shelley; Brinkley, Shara

2011-01-01

49

Hypnosis and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

50

Boys Learning Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, teachers and schools in Australia have been struggling to keep boys engaged in language programs, especially beyond the years of compulsory language learning. This is a concern not just for Australian educators, as very similar concerns have been raised in other English-speaking countries. The clearest indicator (i.e. the one…

Pavy, Sarah

2006-01-01

51

Early Dual Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and child care personnel in English-dominant parts of the world often express misgivings about raising children bilingually. Their concerns are based on the belief that dual language learning during the infant-toddler stage confuses children, delays their development, and perhaps even results in reduced language competence. In this…

Genesee, Fred

2008-01-01

52

Language in Development Constrained: Three Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the political, ethical, and professional dilemmas faced by English-as-a-Second-Language professionals working in the context of Australian language aid projects in Laos, East Timor, and Cambodia. Illuminates how language aid practitioners have to deal with issues of language choice, ownership, and political context. (Author/VWL)

Appleby, Roslyn; Copley, Kath; Sithirajvongsa, Sisamone; Pennycook, Alastair

2002-01-01

53

Contextual Dynamics in Foreign Language Learning Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning context has increasingly been postulated to exert an influence on the dynamics of individual differences in language learning. In a longitudinal design that tested the proficiency gains of 1,682 learners over a 2-year foreign language program, a multilevel modeling approach was deployed in this study to account for variation in second…

Kozaki, Yoko; Ross, Steven J.

2011-01-01

54

Context Awareness and Adaptation in Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the importance of context-awareness and adaptation in mobile learning. Context-aware mobile learning that senses mobile environment and reacts to changing context during learning process has four interaction modes with three mobile entities of different mobility. Contexts in mobile learning are categorized into six dimensions that form a context space. Several mobile learning systems are examined according to

Yuan-kai Wang

2004-01-01

55

Language Learning in Formal and Informal Contexts. Proceedings of a Joint Seminar of the Irish and British Associations for Applied Linguistics (Dublin, Ireland, September 11-13, 1984).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of issues of central importance to understanding the nature of language, its acquisition and use were considered at a seminar on language learning. Papers delivered at the seminar are as follows: "Why Don't Learners Learn What Teachers Teach? The Interaction Hypothesis" (Dick Allwright); "The Role of Instruction in Second Language

Singleton, D. M., Ed.; Little, D. G., Ed.

56

Context, Judgment, and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the assessment of work-based learning, noting distinctions between "pure" and "professional" knowledge by offering a genealogy of learning; asserting that the distinction between academic and non-academic learning has become what Dewey termed a false dualism; examining relationships between judgment, activity, practice, and tradition;…

Halliday, John; Hager, Paul

2002-01-01

57

Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

2000-01-01

58

International ESL Graduate Student Perceptions of Online Learning in the Context of Second Language Acquisition and Culturally Responsive Facilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of technology has made adult and higher education learning opportunities increasingly more accessible to a growing number of people. With the number of courses steadily increasing to meet students' needs and demands, and because programs are likewise changing to incorporate more online learning opportunities, international, English…

Tan, Fujuan; Nabb, Lee; Aagard, Steven; Kim, Kioh

2010-01-01

59

Language Learning Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two programs that have been successful at integrating a number of suitable conditions for learning a foreign language in the online environment are Spanish at Rio Salado Community College in Tempe, Arizona, and French at Coastline Community College in Fountain Valley, California. Discussion includes instructional delivery; course lab experience;…

Donahue, Steven

2001-01-01

60

Learning Languages through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use…

Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

2007-01-01

61

Thinking and Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of thinking for language learning has been recognized for some time. ELT activities which encourage active mental processing have become increasingly common. However, there is evidence that the use of such activities has still not become widespread in a number of ELT situations. One reason for this may be lack of awareness about how…

Waters, Alan

2006-01-01

62

Bedtime Reading = Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project called "Show-Me Bedtime Reading" explored the effects of regular one-to-one evening reading and signing sessions on the development of expressive and receptive language skills of students with deafness. Test scores indicated the positive influence of individualized reading on the development of English competence. Learning strategies…

Rogers, Deborah

1993-01-01

63

Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

64

Designing Collaborative Learning Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes lessons learned across two programs of research which featured peer collaboration to promote advanced literacies, including text comprehension and scientific reasoning, identifying lessons learned from reciprocal teaching research and ways that this research influenced the design of cognitive tools and intellectual roles, which were…

Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert

2002-01-01

65

Discovering the Relationship between Context and Allophones in a Second Language: Evidence for Distribution-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The identification of stressed syllables by adult second-language (L2) Spanish learners was examined for evidence of influence of an allophonic alternation driven by word position and stress. The Spanish voiced stop-approximant alternation, whereby stops occur in stressed-syllable and word onsets, was utilized. If L2 learners track the…

Shea, Christine E.; Curtin, Suzanne

2011-01-01

66

Learning in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When geometry and career and technical education (CTE) are cotaught in the process of building a house, learning is enhanced, test scores improve, and there's a waiting list of students wanting in. Geometry in Construction is a class instructed by the authors--a CTE teacher (Scott Burke) and a mathematics teacher (Tom Moore). While Moore instructs…

Burke, Scott; Moore, Tom

2009-01-01

67

Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

Baker, B. S.

1974-01-01

68

Metacognitive Knowledge and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews theoretical and research literature on learner strategies and self-directed language learning, particularly concerning the role of metacognitive knowledge in learning. Argues that too little attention is given to the function of metacognition in language learning. Practical implications for second-language instruction are discussed.…

Wenden, Anita L.

1998-01-01

69

INPUT-DRIVEN LANGUAGE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Input-driven models provide an explicit and readily testable account of language learning. Although we share Ellis's view that the statisti- cal structure of the linguistic environment is a crucial and, until re- cently, relatively neglected variable in language learning, we also recognize that the approach makes three assumptions about cogni- tion and language learning that are not universally shared. The

Michael Harrington; Simon Dennis

2002-01-01

70

Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

2012-01-01

71

The Use of Technology for Second Language Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes distance learning (DL) for languages within the context of recent advances and research findings in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In addition to reviewing the different DL modalities, theoretical underpinnings, and the most appropriate technological applications to second language learning, the issues of…

Blake, Robert J.

2009-01-01

72

Context in the Context of Physics and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, re-centers the discussion of student learning to focus on context. A theoretically-grounded understanding of context and the relation of context to student learning are developed. This work argues for a contextual constructivist model of student learning, in order to support efforts in creating and analyzing environments that support student learning in physics.

Finkelstein, Noah D. M., 1968-

2010-08-06

73

Assessment in Intercultural Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides background to considering how to assess intercultural language learning. It describes why traditional views of assessment are not sufficient. Essentially, assessing intercultural language learning requires assessment of both students' performance of communication in the target language and how they understand and explain the…

Scarino, Angela

2008-01-01

74

Technology and Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current technology provides new opportunities to increase the effectiveness of language learning and teaching. Incorporating well-organized and effective technology into second language learning and teaching for improving students' language proficiency has been refined by researchers and educators for many decades. Based on the rapidly changing…

Lin, Li Li

2009-01-01

75

Language Learning within Academic Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a research project that examined nonnative Southampton University (England) students' attitudes to continued language learning and the importance of language learning and cultural adaptation. A survey was administered to pre-sessional and in-sessional students that included information on background, past and present language

Blue, George M.

76

The Complexity of Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

Nelson, Charles

2011-01-01

77

Awareness and Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses three major issues related to conscious and unconscious learning: incidental and intentional learning, attention and noticing, and implicit and explicit learning. All three point to the importance of awareness when learning a language. An annotated bibliography is included. (80 references) (LET)

Schmidt, Richard

1992-01-01

78

Learner Development in Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on learner development, a learner-centered innovation in foreign language-second language instruction that responds to learner diversity by aiming to improve the language learner's ability to learn a language. Describes various ideas that shaped early practice in learner development, and provides an evaluation of the theory and practice in…

Wenden, Anita L.

2002-01-01

79

Analyzing the Effect of Context of Second Language Learning: Domestic Intensive and Semi-Intensive Courses vs. Study Abroad in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the second language (L2) written and oral performance of three groups of Spanish-speaking university students after being exposed to English in different contexts. One group of learners was spending some time abroad (Erasmus students in the UK), and two groups were following classroom instruction in two different types of…

Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Angels; Tragant, Elsa

2011-01-01

80

Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

Rothwell, Julia

2011-01-01

81

Help Seeking in English Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of literature on the issue of help seeking (HS) has revealed a common theme: students will not always ask for help, even when they are aware that help is needed. The purpose of this action research study was to examine HS and help avoidance in the context of setting tasks in two types of English language-learning environment: a…

Skinner, Barbara; Madden, Mary Catherine

2010-01-01

82

Learning Languages, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal serves the profession by providing a medium for the sharing of information, ideas, and concerns among teachers, administrators, researchers, and others interested in the early learning of languages. Articles in this volume include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching: What We Can Learn from Other Countries" (Ingrid U. Pufahl,…

Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

2001-01-01

83

Willingness To Communicate in a Second Language: The Japanese EFL Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations among second language learning (L2) and L2 communication variables in the Japanese English as a foreign language context using the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) model and the socioeducational model as a framework. (Author/VWL)

Yashima, Tomoko

2002-01-01

84

The Learning Context: Influence on Learning to Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the influence of the learning context is considered when learning to program. For the purposes of this study, the lectures, study process, previous knowledge or teaching experience and tests comprised the learning context. The article argues that students' experiences of the learning context have important implications for teaching…

Govender, Irene

2009-01-01

85

Redefining Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While verbal language has traditionally determined our view of intelligence, this limited view ignores other systems for expressing intelligent thought. An expanded concept of language considers verbal language as one part of a mental modeling system, or internal representation, for any kind of sensory information available to us, visual or…

Thompson, Nancy S.

86

Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

87

Reflections on Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

88

Sheltered Initiation Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multilanguage project for development of a foreign-language curriculum is reported along with the teaching method that has evolved from it. The method is represented primarily in a set of "mini-courses," each being a short introduction to a given language. (Contains 34 references.) (Author/LB)

bar-Lev, Zev

1993-01-01

89

Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

Hinton, Leanne

2011-01-01

90

Cooperative Approaches to Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways that both cultural differences and learning styles affect a child's ability to learn and use language are discussed and applied to the situation faced by Native American students. Cultural differences are cited as holding the answer to questions about the Native American student's lack of success on standardized tests and in the American…

Hirst, Lois A.; Slavik, Christy

91

Predictors of Spoken Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

2011-01-01

92

Engaging Students in an Online Situated Language Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have emphasized the relationship between students' engagement and learning performance, and yet the context in which students and the teacher interact to engage each other has been ignored. In order to engage college students who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the context of a big class, this study developed a…

Yang, Yu-Fen

2011-01-01

93

Bots as Language Learning Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign Language Learning (FLL) students commonly have few opportunities to use their target language. Teachers in FLL situations do their best to create opportunities during classes through pair or group work, but a variety of factors ranging from a lack of time to shyness or limited opportunity for quality feedback hamper this. This paper…

Fryer, Luke; Carpenter, Rollo

2006-01-01

94

Social Learning, Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article supports the claim that there are strong interactive links between children's language development, cognitive reasoning and their success in school achievement. These links are best facilitated within a social learning framework where children's language and talk is encouraged, accepted and respected. This talk is the most authentic…

Hay, Ian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth

2012-01-01

95

Language learning: Cues or rules?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Child language researchers have often taken gender and case paradigms,to be interesting test cases for theories of language learning. In this paper we develop a computational model of the acquisition of the gender, number, and case paradigm for the German definite article. The computational formalism used is a connectionist algorithm developed by Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams (1986). Three models

B. Macwhinney; J. Leinbach; R. Taraban; J. Mc-donald

1989-01-01

96

Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) is often seen as a part of English for Specific Purposes/Language for Specific Purposes (ESP/LSP), which it is not in every case. The diverging characteristics and lines of development that these two branches of ELT have undergone are outlined and contrasted. Then, a discussion of the added value of a…

Vogt, Karin; Kantelinen, Ritva

2013-01-01

97

Journal of Celtic Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal is an international review for researchers and teachers of modern Celtic languages. This volume contains seven articles. There are three research articles: "Issues in the Design of Irish Credited Courses" (Thomas W. Ihde); "Learning Irish for Participation in the Irish Language Speech Community outside the Gaeltacht" (Muiris O…

O Laoire, Muiris, Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

2000-01-01

98

Language Learning Podcasts and Learners' Belief Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ubiquitous use of Internet-based mobile devices in educational contexts means that mobile learning has become a plausible alternative to or a good complement for conventional classroom-based teaching. However, there is a lack of research that explores and defines the characteristics and effects of mobile language learning (LL) through language

Basaran, Süleyman; Cabaroglu, Nese

2014-01-01

99

Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars  

PubMed Central

Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

2012-01-01

100

A cross-curricular approach to ‘learning to learnlanguages: government policy and school practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article connects two fields of research: ‘learning to learn’ and school-based teacher development. The context is a cross-curricular project between English and modern languages teachers. Carried out in two London schools, the study aimed to encourage students to transfer common language learning strategies across the two subjects. Findings from interviews with teachers and students highlight the gap between the

Vee Harris

2008-01-01

101

Learning to lead in the entrepreneurial context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of leadership learning in the entrepreneurial context, by building a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship. It draws on contemporary leadership literature to appreciate entrepreneurial leadership as a social process of becoming located in particular contexts and communities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Through qualitative phenomenological interviews with nine entrepreneurs the lived

Stephen Kempster; Jason Cope

2010-01-01

102

Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings suggest that participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increased ELL use of scientific language and understanding of scientific inquiry and motivation to learn. In addition, parent' funds of knowledge informed students' experiences in the science project. These findings suggest that the learning and teaching practices and the real life experiential learning contexts served as an effective means for increasing students' understandings and motivation to learn.

Algee, Lisa M.

103

A Model of Adaptive Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

Woodrow, Lindy J.

2006-01-01

104

Chinese as a Second/Foreign Language Teaching and Research: Changing Classroom Contexts and Teacher Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/FL) teaching and research, examining the diversification of contexts for CSL/FL learning in terms of learners needs, and advances in language learning research over the past 25 years that can provide a basis for informing teachers' choices in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

Linnell, Julian D.

2001-01-01

105

Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

2012-01-01

106

How to Learn a Foreign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book covers many practical aspects of language learning. The first section entitled "The 'Whys' of Language Learning" discusses such topics as the following: (1) everyone can learn a language; (2) easier and more difficult elements in a language and classification of languages according to difficulty for speakers of English; (3) length of…

Pimsleur, Paul

107

The End of CLT: A Context Approach to Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the dominance of communicative language teaching (CLT) has led to the neglect of one crucial aspect of language pedagogy, namely the context in which that pedagogy takes place. Suggests that it is time to replace CLT as the central paradigm in language teaching with a context approach. Concludes by outlining features of the context

Bax, Stephen

2003-01-01

108

The Athena Language Learning Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project at Massachusetts Institute of Technology concerned with making computer-assisted instruction more "human," communicative, and interactive for students learning a foreign language. The goal of the project is to create prototypes for beginning and intermediate courses in French, German, Spanish, Russian, and English as a second…

Morgenstern, Douglas

1986-01-01

109

Effective Motivation in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…

Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

2008-01-01

110

Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1992-01-01

111

Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the constraints of time and environment under which most language learning is done mean that a natural language situation can never be reproduced in school, many of the findings from first language acquisition studies apply to second language (L2) learning. This would mean therefore that instead of stressing speaking in a beginning L2…

Davies, Norman F.

112

Should Bilingual Children Learn Reading in Two Languages at the Same Time or in Sequence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed second- and third-grade children in two-way "dual-language learning contexts": (a) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (b) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other).…

Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2013-01-01

113

Physics Learning through a Telecommunications Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Physics Phones Home unit which is context-led and developed by the Supported Learning in Physics Projects. Teaches introductory magnetism; electric, magnetic and gravitational fields; and electricity and circular motion. (YDS)

Edwards, Christopher

2000-01-01

114

Learning Japanese as a Foreign Language in the Context of an American University: A Qualitative and Process-Oriented Study on De/Motivation at the Learning Situation Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivation plays an important role in foreign language learning. To investigate factors that influence motivation level, the researcher surveyed 102 students studying Japanese at the University of Washington and interviewed 10 of them. From their responses, the researcher identified four de/motivational factors: (1) teachers, (2) feedback, (3)…

Tsang, Sin Yi

2012-01-01

115

A Logic Based Context Query Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Context is a basic ingredient in pervasive computing. It refers to user’s both external environment and internal status, implying\\u000a user’s information needs during the interaction between the user and computer systems. By context-awareness, a variety of\\u000a context information from heterogeneous sources is sensed, inferred, and exploited to facilitate information systems to better\\u000a understand users’ needs and deliver the right context-aware

Ling Feng; Junhui Deng; Zhanjiang Song; Wenwei Xue

2010-01-01

116

Simultaneous and Successive Second Language Learning: Integral Ingredients of the Human Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes simultaneous and successive second language learning in the context of human development and schooling. The author defines important terms for the analysis before comparing acquisition of a second language to planned school learning of a second language after the mother tongue is acquired. Drawing from sociolinguistic perspective, human development, school learning and language policy, the author discusses

Selina Mushi

2002-01-01

117

Learning a Community Language as a Third Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a larger action research project on the role of secondary school language programmes in the maintenance and spread of community languages in Melbourne. The study focuses on bilinguals learning another community language (Greek or Spanish) as a third language, some of them having a home language with a connection to the target…

Clyne, Michael; Hunt, Claudia Rossi; Isaakidis, Tina

2004-01-01

118

Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

2012-01-01

119

Technology Enhanced Language Learning: A Collaborative Enterprise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) in the United Kingdom developed under the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP) and the Computers in Teaching Initiatives (CTI) Centre for Modern Languages. The use of technology for computer-assisted language learning, the integration of technology, and courseware development are…

Thompson, June

1998-01-01

120

Is the EFL Environment a Language Learning Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of whether the English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom is an environment that promotes input, feedback, and the production of output that is necessary for successful second language learning is addressed. Such questions have arisen within the context of a growing emphasis on communicative activities and student-to-student…

Mayo, Maria del Pilar Garcia; Pica, Teresa

2000-01-01

121

Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

2013-01-01

122

The role of language in learning physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics concepts; this categorization of physics concepts plays a key role in students' ability to solve physics problems. In summary, I present a theoretical framework that provides a possible explanation of the role that language plays in learning physics. The framework also attempts to account for how and why physicists' language influences students in the way that it does.

Brookes, David T.

123

Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language

To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

2012-01-01

124

Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.  

PubMed

Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

2014-05-01

125

Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

2011-01-01

126

Evidence Against the Context-Freeness of Natural Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In searching for universal constraints on the class of natural languages, linguists have investigated a number of formal properties, including that of context-freeness. Soon after Chomsky's categorization of languages into his well-known hierarchy Chomsky...

S. M. Shieber

1984-01-01

127

Language learning strategies and suggested model in adults processes of learning second language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language learning strategies have crucial values for second language learners because they are means for activity and self –evaluation. These strategies can help to progresses and these communicating competences. In regard to the importance of language English language as a foreign language and based on the resent research which implicated that foreign language learners use less language learning strategies than

Masoud Gholamali Lavasani; Fereshteh Faryadres

2011-01-01

128

On Stochastic Context-Free Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report, normalized stochastic grammars (nsg) and stochastic pushdown automata (spda) are defined. Based on the concept of nsg, procedures for constructing the Chomsky and Greibach normal forms for normalized stochastic context-free grammars (nscfg)...

T. Huang K. S. Fu

1970-01-01

129

"Homo Loquens": Language in the Context of Cosmic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses language in the context of human development and civilization, examining a limitless field of studies and observations including the absorbent mind, the acquisition of language and grammatical structure, the linguistic capacity for abstract thought, the power of language and world community, the role of language and human uniqueness, and…

Stephenson, Margaret E.

2001-01-01

130

American Indian Languages: Cultural and Social Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book introduces the general reader to the mosaic of American Indian languages and cultures as they exist in time and space, and supplies limited technical linguistic orientation to encourage further exploration of language interrelationships, cultures, and other ways of knowing. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status, diversity, and…

Silver, Shirley; Miller, Wick R.

131

Observations on Observing Learner Language: A Contribution to the Discussion about the Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Research and Foreign Language Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the contexts in which classroom data on foreign language acquisition has been collected and the effect that ignoring these contexts has had on the application of foreign language acquisition research to foreign language teaching and learning. A scheme to aid in analyzing the different approaches to linguistic data is presented. (SED)

Konigs, Frank G.; Hopkins, Edwin A.

1986-01-01

132

Applications of Cognitive Load Theory to Multimedia-Based Foreign Language Learning: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the multimedia instructional design literature based on cognitive load theory (CLT) in the context of foreign language learning. Multimedia are of particular importance in language learning materials because they incorporate text, image, and sound, thus offering an integrated learning experience of the four language skills…

Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Yen-Chang

2009-01-01

133

Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language

Xiao, Junhong

2012-01-01

134

Computing Laboratory Classes as Language Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas most research on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) tends to rely heavily on the assessment of academic achievement and language learning outcomes, this study involved an evaluation of the psychosocial learning environment in computing laboratories. The What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) and Attitude to Computers and…

Okan, Zuhal

2008-01-01

135

Weblogs for English Language Learning: Students' Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in…

Wan, Juida; Tan, Bee Hoon

2011-01-01

136

The Power of Vacillation in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some extensions are considered of Gold's influential model of language learning by machine from positive data. Studied are criteria of successful learning featuring convergence in the limit to vacillation between several alternative correct grammars. The main theorem of this paper is that there are classes of languages that can be learned if convergence in the limit to up to (n

John Case

1999-01-01

137

APPROACHES TO A REDEFINITION OF LANGUAGE LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MANY ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO DEFINE "AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD" FROM THE POINTS OF VIEW OF TWO COMPETING THEORIES OF LEARNING, THE BEHAVIORISTIC AND THE COGNITIVE. NONE HAS SUCCEEDED IN DEFINING SOME OF THE SPECIFIC TENETS TO BE ESTABLISHED FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING AS REQUIRED BY AN IMPROVED THEORY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING. A FLEXIBLE AND PROGRESSIVE…

BAUER, ERIC W.

138

LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PROCESS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIANA-PURDUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES AND INTRODUCED BY DIEKHOFF'S SPEECH ADVOCATING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE REVISION OF PROGRAM POLICY TO MEET CONTINUOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. IN THE FIRST SECTION, THE INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, ARE…

NAJAM, EDWARD W.

139

Web-Based English Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of another language is an advantage and it gives people to look at the world and in particular to the world's cultures with a broader perspective. Learning English as a second language is the process by which students learn it in addition to their native language. Today, internet is an important part of our lives as English. For this…

Sarica, Gulcin Nagehan; Cavus, Nadire

2008-01-01

140

Making Intercultural Language Learning Visible and Assessable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While languages education (Liddicoat, 2002) is being transformed by intercultural language learning theory, there is little illustration of either how students are achieving intercultural learning or how to assess it. This article reports on a study of high school language students in Sydney, Australia. Its findings make visible student…

Moloney, Robyn; Harbon, Lesley

2010-01-01

141

Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

Bae, Su-Young

2006-01-01

142

Aptitude for Learning a Foreign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Review research on foreign language aptitude and its measurement prior to 1990. Describes research areas in the 1990s, including affective variables, language learning strategies, learning styles as contributors to aptitude and aptitude as a cognitive construct affected by language variables. Reviews research on individual differences and the…

Sparks, Richard; Ganschow, Leonore

2001-01-01

143

Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

144

Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

1994-01-01

145

A Distributed Context-Free Language Constrained Shortest Path Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal language constrained shortest path problems are concerned with finding shortest paths in labeled graphs. These labeled paths have the constraint that the concatenation of labels along a path constitute a valid string in some formal language Lambda over alphabet Sigma. These problems are well studied where the formal language is regular or context-free, and have been used in a

Charles B. Ward; Nathan M. Wiegand; Phillip G. Bradford

2008-01-01

146

Self-Directed Language Learning and Third-Language Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the characteristics and behaviors of college students learning a third language. Four groups of students with backgrounds in Slavic second languages and enrolled in a variety of Slavic and non-Slavic third languages courses were studied using ethnographic techniques, including open-ended questionnaires, focus groups, classroom…

Rivers, William P.

147

Research in Practice: Group Membership and Identity Issues in Second Language Learning--Department of Education and Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance, Concordia University, Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning is inextricably linked to a social context, and this implies that context-related social variables, such as ethnicity or attitudes, can influence how language learning unfolds. Among the many group-engendered social factors, ethnic identity appears to have interesting consequences for language teaching and learning (Pavlenko…

Trofimovich, Pavel; Turuševa, Larisa; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

148

Language Learning Styles and Learning Strategies of Tertiary-Level English Learners in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the relationship between learning styles and language learning strategies in the EFL context in China. The study presents two kinds of data: quantitative and qualitative. In the quantitative study, the subjects consisted of 187 second-year undergraduates. Two self-reported inventories, the Chinese version of MBTI-G and a…

Jie, Li; Xiaoqing, Qin

2006-01-01

149

Resurrecting "Old" Language Learning Methods To Reduce Anxiety for New Language Learners: Community Language Learning to the Rescue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anxiety can impede language learning. By using the Community Language Learning method, a teacher helped young Spanish-language learners in Puerto Rico break through almost impenetrable social and psycholinguistic barriers that threatened their capability of learning a new language. This method focuses on strategies that reduce anxiety as the…

Ariza, Eileen N.

2002-01-01

150

Context in the Study of Human Languages and Computer Programming Languages: A Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human languages and computer programming languages are very different from one another. Nevertheless, in spite of this, is\\u000a it possible to accommodate both of them within a single overarching framework? In addressing this question, the various aspects\\u000a of context are surveyed, in order to facilitate a comparison between context in relation to natural language and context in\\u000a relation to programming

John H. Connolly

2001-01-01

151

Learning Strategies Used by Successful Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the language learning strategies employed by successful learners of English as a foreign and second language. Two successful English learners whose first languages are Mandarin were interviewed, and asked to complete a questionnaire and a self-evaluation measure to indicate their perceived level of language proficiency as well…

Thu, Tran Hoang

2009-01-01

152

Semantic Network Model for Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model for adult language learning is developed based on the postulates that language is semiotic, contextual, communicative, and cultural. Research in psycholinguistics has discovered that a cognitive and recognitional knowledge of language underlies and is greater than performative language. The move from the first level, the semantic base, to…

Davidian, Richard D.

153

A LINGUISTIC GUIDE TO LANGUAGE LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WRITTEN WITH THE IDEA THAT ONCE A LANGUAGE LEARNER HAS ACQUIRED A KIND OF LINGUISTIC SOPHISTICATION HE CAN LEARN ANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE MORE EFFICIENTLY, THIS INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE AND CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS PROVIDES SOME NEW INSIGHTS INTO HUMAN LANGUAGES. AFTER DISCUSSING BRIEFLY HOW DISTINCTLY ADVANTAGEOUS IT IS FOR THE…

MOULTON, WILLIAM G.

154

Language as context for the perception of emotion  

PubMed Central

In the blink of an eye, people can easily see emotion in another person’s face. This fact leads many to assume that emotion perception is given and proceeds independently of conceptual processes such as language. In this paper we suggest otherwise and offer the hypothesis that language functions as a context in emotion perception. We review a variety of evidence consistent with the language-as-context view and then discuss how a linguistically relative approach to emotion perception allows for intriguing and generative questions about the extent to which language shapes the sensory processing involved in seeing emotion in another person’s face.

Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Gendron, Maria

2008-01-01

155

Learning in Authentic Earth and Planetary Contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Virtual Field Trip project has been developed in collaboration with NASA Learning Technologies to allow students, internationally, to accompany scientists on a field trip to the Pilbara region of Western Australia to debate the relevance of ancient structures called stromatolites, to the origins of life on Earth and the search for life on Mars. The project was planned with the aim of exposing high school students to `science in the making', including exposure to the ongoing debate and uncertainties involved in scientific research. The development of the project stemmed from both research-based and anecdotal evidence that current science education programs are not providing secondary students with a good understanding of the processes of science. This study seeks to examine the effectiveness of student use of the tools to increase awareness of the processes of science and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tools in terms of student learning. The literature reports that there is a need for learning activities to be conducted within meaningful contexts. The virtual field trip tools create an environment that simulates key elements in the scientific process. Such an approach allows students to learn by doing, to work like scientists and apply their learning in an authentic context.

Fergusson, J. A.; Oliver, C. A.

2006-12-01

156

Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2012-01-01

157

Addressing Pedagogical Dilemmas in a Constructivist Language Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational constructivism has long been associated with advanced pedagogy on the basis that, it champions a learner-centered approach to teaching, advocates learning in meaningful contexts and promotes problem-based activities where learners construct their knowledge through interaction with their peers. Involving language learners in video…

Nikitina, Larisa

2010-01-01

158

Correlation of Anxiety and Motivation in English Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation of anxiety and motivation was studied by means of questionnaire. The results show that inner interest motivation and effort intensity are significantly and negatively correlated with anxiety while achievement motivation. Learning context motivation is significantly and positively correlated with anxiety. Pedagogic implications are given according to the findings of study, like developing students' interest in English language and its

Zheng Bin; Ji Lixia

2009-01-01

159

Learning to Teach with Videoconferencing in Primary Foreign Language Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigates the relationship between learning opportunities and teacher cognition in the context of a videoconferencing (VC) project for foreign languages (FL) in French primary schools. Six generalist primary teachers were followed throughout the initial six-month stage of the initiative, and data were collected from…

Whyte, Shona

2011-01-01

160

Attitude: A Crucial Differential Variable in Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts and roles of motivation and attitude in relation to second language learning are examined. Motivation can be characterized as primary or derivative, and intrinsic or extrinsic. Attitude is a motivational factor generated by context. Motivation and attitude play an important role in all situations which are not natural, such as school…

Titone, Renzo

161

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

162

Helping Language Learners Think about Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the beliefs about how to learn a second language held by 34 adults studying English as a second language and how these beliefs may influence what they do to learn. Describes eight modules designed to help these learners discover their own beliefs and consider alternative views. (SED)

Wenden, Anita

1986-01-01

163

Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

2011-01-01

164

Communicative Contributions and Communicative Genres: Language Production and Language Understanding in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution examines the connectedness between the production and understanding of language, and between language use\\u000a and context. It is firmly anchored to a relational conception of context and adapts Clark’s [4] conception of language use as both cognitive and social. The introduction spells out the basic premises for assigning language\\u000a production and understanding the statuses of social actions. The

Anita Fetzer

2003-01-01

165

The functions of contexts in associative learning.  

PubMed

Although contexts play many roles during training and also during testing, over the last four decades theories of learning have predominantly focused on one or the other of the two families of functions served by contexts. In this selective review, we summarize recent data concerning these two functions and their interrelationship. The first function is similar to that of discrete cues, and allows contexts to elicit conditioned responses and compete with discrete events for behavioral control. The second function is modulatory, and similar to that of discrete occasion setters in that in this role contexts do not elicit conditioned responses by themselves, but rather modulate instrumental responding or responding to Pavlovian cues. We first present evidence for these two functions, and then suggest that the spacing of trials, amount of training, and contiguity are three determinants of the degree to which the context will play each function. We also conclude that these two functions are not mutually exclusive, and that future research would benefit from identifying the conditions under which their functions dominate behavioral control. We close by discussing some misconceptions concerning contexts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con. PMID:24614400

Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

2014-05-01

166

Personalized Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effectively English Vocabulary Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid growth of wireless techniques, the mobile learning by the handheld devices has been gradually considered as a novel learning form. Developing context-aware ubiquitous learning environment can bring the most desired learning services for learners. Accordingly, this study proposed a personalized context-aware ubiquitous english vocabulary learning system which can exploit appropriate context based on learner's location, leisure learning

Chih-ming Chen; Yi-lun Li; Ming-chuan Chen

2007-01-01

167

Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses theoretical and practical issues connected with implicit and explicit learning of languages. Explicit learning is knowledge expressed in the form of rules or definitions; implicit knowledge can be inferred to exist because of observed performance but cannot be clearly described. Hypothesizes why explicit learning can lead to implicit…

McDermott, James E.

1999-01-01

168

Imagined Communities, Identity, and English Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the notion of imagined communities as a way to better understand the relationship between second language learning and identity. It is argued that language\\u000a learners’ actual and desired memberships in imagined communities affect their learning trajectories, influencing their agency,\\u000a motivation, investment, and resistance in the learning of English. These influences are exemplified with regard to five identity

Aneta Pavlenko; Bonny Norton

169

Empowering the Language Learner: Language Learning Strategy Training and Self-Regulation in an EFL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how an understanding of the Good Language Learner models described in the SLA literature can be used to tailor and implement a program of learning strategy training and self-regulatory practices in the classroom to empower L2 learners in an EFL context. The paper begins by reviewing the various…

Torres, Gabriella

2013-01-01

170

Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

171

The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

Chang, Bok-Myung

2011-01-01

172

Transnationalism and Literacy: Investigating the Mobility of People, Languages, Texts, and Practices in Contexts of Migration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of research offers a synthesis and analysis of research studies that address issues of language and literacy practices and learning in transnational contexts of migration. We consider how theoretical concepts from transnational migration studies, including particular Boudieusian-inspired concepts such as transnational social field,…

Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Warriner, Doris S.

2012-01-01

173

Issues in Contemporary Spain: A Multimedia Approach to Teaching Language and Culture in Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of combining second language learning and cultural education at the advanced level is described. In a third-year college Spanish course, the subject of post-Franco Spain is used as the context for developing reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills and also serves as content area in itself. In addition to instructional texts,…

Ramos, Rosa Alicia

174

Embodied Agents in Language Learning for Children with Language Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the value of face-to-face interaction in communication and learning, our persistent goal has been to develop, evaluate, and apply animated agents to produce realistic and accurate speech. We have implemented these agents as computer-assisted speech and language tutors for hard of hearing and autistic children, and other children with language challenges. Our language- training program utilizes conversational agents, who

Dominic W. Massaro

2006-01-01

175

Conceptualizing a Hypermedia Design for Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the philosophies and theories of language learning focuses on the development of a hypermedia language program. Levels of knowledge analysis are discussed, communicative language proficiency is described, learner interactions with the hypermedia program are examined, and the relationships of communication and culture are discussed.…

Gay, Geri; Mazur, Joan

1989-01-01

176

Journal of Celtic Language Learning. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual journal offers research articles, a teaching forum, and announcements on Celtic language learning. The publication's mission is to provide a forum where teachers and applied linguists can contribute to the literature presently available on second language acquisition as well as increase communication among Celtic language teachers and…

Ihde, Thomas W., Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

1995-01-01

177

Exploring Language Learning with the Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a problem-solving computer program, "The Refrigerator Game," designed for second language learners, which focuses on the meaning of language, rather than its form. The success of this program proves that students can learn well by focusing on a game's goal, rather than on language itself. (SL)

Agor, Barbara J.

1984-01-01

178

Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…

Levy, Mike

2009-01-01

179

Principles of instructed language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on meaning and on form, the need to

Rod Ellis

2005-01-01

180

Principles of Instructed Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

Ellis, Rod

2005-01-01

181

Technically Speaking: Transforming Language Learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…

von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus

2001-01-01

182

The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?  

PubMed

This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

2014-03-01

183

Learning scene context for multiple object tracking.  

PubMed

We propose a framework for multitarget tracking with feedback that accounts for scene contextual information. We demonstrate the framework on two types of context-dependent events, namely target births (i.e., objects entering the scene or reappearing after occlusion) and spatially persistent clutter. The spatial distributions of birth and clutter events are incrementally learned based on mixtures of Gaussians. The corresponding models are used by a probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter that spatially modulates its strength based on the learned contextual information. Experimental results on a large video surveillance dataset using a standard evaluation protocol show that the feedback improves the tracking accuracy from 9% to 14% by reducing the number of false detections and false trajectories. This performance improvement is achieved without increasing the computational complexity of the tracker. PMID:19423445

Maggio, Emilio; Cavallaro, Andrea

2009-08-01

184

Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

Pennington, Martha

2011-01-01

185

Web Assisted Language Learning (WALL) and Learning Management Systems (LMS) in Virtual Centres for Foreign Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of Learning Management System (LMS) software, which is necessary for the creation of a Virtual Centre for Foreign Language Learning. Also describes a new discipline called Web Assisted Language Learning (WALL), which can be broken down into three areas: the Web as a source of resources; the Web as a window of multimedia…

Ruiperez, German

2002-01-01

186

Language experience and consonantal context effects on perceptual assimilation of French vowels by American-English learners of French1  

PubMed Central

Recent research has called for an examination of perceptual assimilation patterns in second-language speech learning. This study examined the effects of language learning and consonantal context on perceptual assimilation of Parisian French (PF) front rounded vowels ?y? and ?œ? by American English (AE) learners of French. AE listeners differing in their French language experience (no experience, formal instruction, formal-plus-immersion experience) performed an assimilation task involving PF ?y, œ, u, o, i, ?, a? in bilabial ?rabVp? and alveolar ?radVt? contexts, presented in phrases. PF front rounded vowels were assimilated overwhelmingly to back AE vowels. For PF ?œ?, assimilation patterns differed as a function of language experience and consonantal context. However, PF ?y? revealed no experience effect in alveolar context. In bilabial context, listeners with extensive experience assimilated PF ?y? to ?ju? less often than listeners with no or only formal experience, a pattern predicting the poorest ?u-y? discrimination for the most experienced group. An “internal consistency” analysis indicated that responses were most consistent with extensive language experience and in bilabial context. Acoustical analysis revealed that acoustical similarities among PF vowels alone cannot explain context-specific assimilation patterns. Instead it is suggested that native-language allophonic variation influences context-specific perceptual patterns in second-language learning.

Levy, Erika S.

2009-01-01

187

How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln, 1994;…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2012-01-01

188

Language Teachers: Research and Studies in Language(s) Education, Teaching, and Learning in "Teaching and Teacher Education," 1985-2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews twelve of 79 articles focusing on language teachers, language(s) teacher education, teaching, and learning published in "Teaching and Teacher Education" since 1985. The twelve articles, divided into three sections, include narrative inquiry and identity, teacher education topics, and contexts. The articles provide local and…

Kleinsasser, Robert C.

2013-01-01

189

Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

2010-01-01

190

Differentiating Language Learning Disabled Populations from Non-Language Learning Disabled Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the type of language impairments found and the degree to which these impairments were being identified in a learning-disabled population in a middle school suburban setting, by use of the Fullerton Language Test for Adolescents, Revised. Subjects were categorized as language learning impaired (N=8 and mean age of 13 years)…

Schultze, Betty R.; And Others

191

The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

2010-01-01

192

Forgetting Exceptions is Harmful in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that in language learning, contrary to received wisdom, keeping exceptional training instances in memory can be beneficial for generalization accuracy. We investigate this phenomenon empirically on a selection of benchmark natural language processing tasks: grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, part-of-speech tagging, prepositional-phrase attachment, and base noun phrase chunking. In a first series of experiments we combine memory-based learning with training set

Walter Daelemans; Antal Van Den Bosch; Jakub Zavrel

1999-01-01

193

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Improves Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a reliable technique to improve motor learning. We here wanted to test its potential to enhance associative verbal learning, a skill crucial for both acquiring new languages in healthy individuals and for language reacquisition after stroke-induced aphasia. We applied tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) over the posterior part of the left peri-sylvian area

Agnes Flöel; Nina Rösser; Olesya Michka; Stefan Knecht; Caterina Breitenstein

2008-01-01

194

Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Native American Studies Department at the University of California - Davis has made available Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages, a resource offering "information on published and 'semi-published' teaching and general reference materials for North American Indian languages or groups of languages." It is a page of pointers to citations for dictionaries, descriptive grammars, pedagogic materials collections of bilingual narratives, and tapes, among others. This large resource is arranged alphabetically by language group, and also contains many cross references. Over 100 language groups are included, from Abenaki to Yukon languages. Citations contain bibliographic information and are thoroughly annotated. Learning Aids has been compiled from the "Society of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter."

195

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

196

Motivation: Its Crucial Role in Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of motivation in second language learning is explored. Motivation involves positive learner and teacher attitudes which must be sustained through every stage of the learning process. Factors that influence motivation are described, including: teaching methodology, understanding meanings of words, mastery, objectives, classroom techniques,…

Finocchiaro, Mary

197

Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

Tomlinson, Brian

2012-01-01

198

How Ubiquitous Computing can Support Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a computer supported ubiquitous learning (CSUL), called CLUE, the learners provide their own knowledge about the language learning in their everyday life, share them in the community and discuss about them. This paper focuses on knowledge awareness map and its design, implementation and evaluation. The map visualizes the relationship between the shared knowledge and the current and

Hiroaki Ogata; Yoneo Yano

199

Towards a Pattern Language for Networked Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of designing a useful, convivial networked learning environment is complex and demanding. People new to designing for networked learning face a number of major challenges when they try to draw on the experience of others – whether that experience is shared informally, in the everyday language of educational practice, or through published research and evaluation studies, or through

Peter Goodyear; Rune Baggetun; Sonia Bartoluzzi; Simeon Retalis; Frans Ronteltap; Ellen Rusman

2004-01-01

200

Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education  

PubMed Central

The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy.

Kuhl, Patricia K.

2011-01-01

201

Discriminating languages in bilingual contexts: the impact of orthographic markedness.  

PubMed

Does language-specific orthography help language detection and lexical access in naturalistic bilingual contexts? This study investigates how L2 orthotactic properties influence bilingual language detection in bilingual societies and the extent to which it modulates lexical access and single word processing. Language specificity of naturalistically learnt L2 words was manipulated by including bigram combinations that could be either L2 language-specific or common in the two languages known by bilinguals. A group of balanced bilinguals and a group of highly proficient but unbalanced bilinguals who grew up in a bilingual society were tested, together with a group of monolinguals (for control purposes). All the participants completed a speeded language detection task and a progressive demasking task. Results showed that the use of the information of orthotactic rules across languages depends on the task demands at hand, and on participants' proficiency in the second language. The influence of language orthotactic rules during language detection, lexical access and word identification are discussed according to the most prominent models of bilingual word recognition. PMID:24860536

Casaponsa, Aina; Carreiras, Manuel; Duñabeitia, Jon A

2014-01-01

202

Discriminating languages in bilingual contexts: the impact of orthographic markedness  

PubMed Central

Does language-specific orthography help language detection and lexical access in naturalistic bilingual contexts? This study investigates how L2 orthotactic properties influence bilingual language detection in bilingual societies and the extent to which it modulates lexical access and single word processing. Language specificity of naturalistically learnt L2 words was manipulated by including bigram combinations that could be either L2 language-specific or common in the two languages known by bilinguals. A group of balanced bilinguals and a group of highly proficient but unbalanced bilinguals who grew up in a bilingual society were tested, together with a group of monolinguals (for control purposes). All the participants completed a speeded language detection task and a progressive demasking task. Results showed that the use of the information of orthotactic rules across languages depends on the task demands at hand, and on participants' proficiency in the second language. The influence of language orthotactic rules during language detection, lexical access and word identification are discussed according to the most prominent models of bilingual word recognition.

Casaponsa, Aina; Carreiras, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon A.

2014-01-01

203

Sharing the Language of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating newcomers to help themselves provides the knowledge and security they will need to function better in the community, but it can also be a learning experience for students. This article describes an integrated curriculum at Community High School in West Chicago, Illinois, that combines Spanish native speaking (SNS) students and child…

Kozlowski, Patti R.

2005-01-01

204

Language-Learning Disorders and Youth Incarceration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many speech-language pathologists are serving delinquent boys with language-learning disorders who are both current and former residents of correctional institutions. These youngsters demonstrate personal maladjustments that have a negative impact on school performance and socialization. Those boys within chaotic families are at risk of poverty,…

Linares-Orama, N.

2005-01-01

205

Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

Ferrari, Pier Luigi

2004-01-01

206

Language Production Deficits in Learning Disabled Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated were language production deficits in 32 learning disabled (LD) adolescents. Ss were administered a battery of subtests containing tasks sensitive to language production difficulties in cognition, convergent and divergent production of semantic units, word retrieval, and retrieval of syntactic structures. Results indicated that speech…

Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Semel, Eleanor M.

207

Autonomous Language Learning against All Odds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptualizing learners' individuality as dynamic and contextually situated, this paper reports on an inquiry that examined the genesis of a disabled learner's success in learning foreign languages on the Chinese mainland. Using source texts such as the learner's published diaries, letters and her autobiography, the inquiry revealed that language

Gao, Xuesong

2010-01-01

208

Cognitive basis of language learning in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the theory that infants learn their language by 1st determining, independent of language, the meaning which a speaker intends to convey to them, and by then working out the relationship between the meaning and the expression they heard. The assumptions on which the thesis rests are discussed, especially the assumption that a speaker's linguistic system and his intentions are

John MacNamara

1972-01-01

209

Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have…

Li, Hong; Fox, Roy F.; Almarza, Dario J.

2007-01-01

210

Revising Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of over 1,000 learners of 10 different languages at different levels of instruction, this study collected and analyzed data over a 3-year period to compare the beliefs about language learning reported in the present study with those of Horwitz's (1988). (Author/VWL)

Rifkin, Benjamin

2000-01-01

211

Language Learning in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Multiple Pathways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text on teaching language to students with hearing impairments stresses the use of multiple language learning pathways to meet the individual needs of students. The introductory chapter looks at language issues in the context of history, instruction, technology, culture, and the law. Chapter 2, on language acquisition, discusses the nature of…

Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Baker, Sharon

212

TDD Conversations: A Context for Language Sampling and Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five hearing-impaired high-school students used telephone communication devices for the deaf (TDDs) to converse with each other and with the researchers. Results indicated that TDD conversational exchanges can be used as a language sampling context, and the Burton analysis system provides empirical information regarding the categories/patterns of…

Johnson, Harold A.; Barton, Lyle E.

1988-01-01

213

Electrophysiological Chronometry of Semantic Context Effects in Language Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we investigated semantic context effects in language production with event-related brain potentials, extracted from the ongoing EEG recorded during overt speech production. We combined the picture-word interference paradigm and the semantic blocking paradigm to investigate the temporal dynamics and functional loci of semantic…

Aristei, Sabrina; Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

2011-01-01

214

How Social Contexts Support and Shape Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human potential for language is based in human biology but makes requirements of the social environment to be realized. This paper reports evidence regarding (1) the nature of those environmental requirements, (2) the ways in which the varied social contexts in which children live meet those requirements, and (3) the effects of environmental…

Hoff, Erika

2006-01-01

215

Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the "National Assessment…

Cross, Russell

2011-01-01

216

Learning Ancestral Languages by Telephone: Creating Situations for Language Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the progress of a group of adults who have been connecting by telephone to learn to speak Deg Xinag, the language of the Deg Hit'an (Ingalik Athabaskan). The Deg Hit'an are the westernmost of the Athabaskan peoples, living near the confluence of the Yukon and Innoko Rivers in Alaska. Since Deg Xinag speakers, all elders,…

Taff, Alice

217

A Middleware for Adapting Context to Mobile and Collaborative Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid and accelerating move toward the adoption and use of mobile and wireless technologies creates opportunity for new research field-'mobile learning' that includes a variety of applications and new learning techniques. An efficient mobile learning system has to be sensitive to the context that characterizes the interactions between humans, applications and the surrounding environment. Researches in context aware mobile

Jihen Malek; Alain Derycke; Mona Laroussi

2006-01-01

218

The Context-Dependent Meaning of Learning. No. 82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although both the general public and research scientists intuitively understand the word learning, the meanings they assign to it vary. Nevertheless, there is too much concern about generalizing the meaning, and too little concern about learning context. Learning context is the internal, changing relation between individual and situation; it is…

Svensson, Lennart

219

Noninvasive brain stimulation improves language learning.  

PubMed

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a reliable technique to improve motor learning. We here wanted to test its potential to enhance associative verbal learning, a skill crucial for both acquiring new languages in healthy individuals and for language reacquisition after stroke-induced aphasia. We applied tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) over the posterior part of the left peri-sylvian area of 19 young right-handed individuals while subjects acquired a miniature lexicon of 30 novel object names. Every subject participated in one session of anodal tDCS, one session of cathodal tDCS, and one sham session in a randomized and double-blinded design with three parallel versions of the miniature lexicon. Outcome measures were learning speed and learning success at the end of each session, and the transfer to the subjects' native language after the respective stimulation. With anodal stimulation, subjects showed faster and better associative learning as compared to sham stimulation. Mood ratings, reaction times, and response styles were comparable between stimulation conditions. Our results demonstrate that anodal tDCS is a promising technique to enhance language learning in healthy adults and may also have the potential to improve language reacquisition after stroke. PMID:18303984

Flöel, Agnes; Rösser, Nina; Michka, Olesya; Knecht, Stefan; Breitenstein, Caterina

2008-08-01

220

Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.  

PubMed

This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases. PMID:23860945

Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

2014-01-01

221

Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence?  

PubMed Central

Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed 2nd and 3rd grade children in two-way dual-language learning contexts: (i) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (ii) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other). They were compared to matched monolingual English-only children in single-language English schools. Bilinguals (home language was Spanish only, English-only, or Spanish and English in dual-language schools), were tested in both languages, and monolingual children were tested in English using standardized reading and language tasks. Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses. By contrast, bilinguals in 90:10 programs performed better than bilinguals in the 50:50 programs on English Phonological Awareness and Reading Decoding tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for surface phonological regularity analysis. Notably, children from English-only homes in dual-language learning contexts performed equally well, or better than, children from monolingual English-only homes in single-language learning contexts. Overall, the findings provide tantalizing evidence that dual-language learning during the same developmental period may provide bilingual reading advantages.

Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2013-01-01

222

Ethnic Values and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sociocultural implications of ethnicity are explored in this paper. Three main questions are discussed: (1) What is ethnic?, (2) Who wants to be ethnic?, and (3) Why be ethnic? The author notes that in 1960 the ethnic diversity of the U.S. population was such that some 185 foreign language newspapers, 1,660 radio programs broadcast in the foreign…

Brault, Gerard J.

1972-01-01

223

Beyond Babel: Language Learning Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book and accompanying CD-ROM is designed to assist teachers who want to develop their own materials on the World Wide Web, are interested in integrating interesting Web sites and ideas into their curriculum, or are interested in students' perspectives of the Web. It is also for anyone who wishes to refresh a language or get a feel for a new…

Felix, Uschi

224

The Roles of "Second Life" in a College Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Course in Taiwan, ROC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various language learning projects using "Second Life" (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL)…

Liou, Hsien-Chin

2012-01-01

225

Learning context cues for synapse segmentation.  

PubMed

We present a new approach for the automated segmentation of synapses in image stacks acquired by electron microscopy (EM) that relies on image features specifically designed to take spatial context into account. These features are used to train a classifier that can effectively learn cues such as the presence of a nearby post-synaptic region. As a result, our algorithm successfully distinguishes synapses from the numerous other organelles that appear within an EM volume, including those whose local textural properties are relatively similar. Furthermore, as a by-product of the segmentation, our method flawlessly determines synaptic orientation, a crucial element in the interpretation of brain circuits. We evaluate our approach on three different datasets, compare it against the state-of-the-art in synapse segmentation and demonstrate our ability to reliably collect shape, density, and orientation statistics over hundreds of synapses. PMID:23771317

Becker, Carlos; Ali, Karim; Knott, Graham; Fua, Pascal

2013-10-01

226

A Probe into Three Chinese Boys' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Learning English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this case study, we investigate three Chinese boys' self-efficacy beliefs learning English as a second language across English language learning tasks and home-based and school-based contexts. Participants reported higher self-efficacy to complete listening and speaking activities than during reading and writing activities. All participants…

Wang, Chuang; Pape, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

227

Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language aptitude has been hypothesized as a factor that can compensate for postcritical period effects in language learning capacity. However, previous research has primarily focused on instructed contexts and rarely on acquisition-rich learning environments where there is a potential for massive amounts of input. In addition, the studies…

Granena, Gisela

2013-01-01

228

Supporting Pervasive Learning Environments: Adaptability and Context Awareness in Mobile Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mobile learning context, it is helpful to consider context awareness and adaptivity as two sides of the same coin. The purpose of the adaptivity and context awareness is to better support a variety of learners, given that they may have very different skills and motivations to learn in varying contexts. The recent research on adaptivity and context awareness

Antti Syvänen; Russell Beale; Mike Sharples; Mikko Ahonen; Peter Lonsdale

2005-01-01

229

Modeling social learning of language and skills.  

PubMed

We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge. PMID:20662596

Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

2010-01-01

230

Towards an Understanding of the Virtual Context in Mobile Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the literature theorising mobile learning emphasises the importance of context with physical and social contexts identified to date. Our work to design and implement authentic mobile simulation activities using SMS text messaging suggests that a third context may also be important. This is a virtual context, the learner-created cognitive…

Cornelius, Sarah; Marston, Phil

2009-01-01

231

Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

2012-01-01

232

Learner Agency in Language Learning: The Story of a Distance Learner of EFL in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner agency plays a key role in self-regulated learning. Yet, there is a paucity of research into its role in the distance learning context. Using reflective narratives written by a distance learner of English in China, this longitudinal case study aims to investigate the ways in which learner agency mediates the language learning in the…

Xiao, Junhong

2014-01-01

233

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 3. These issues contain the following major articles: "A National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL): A Brief History, 1987-1997;""Juguetes Fantasticos" (Mari Haas); "A Perspective on the Cultural Perspective" (Genelle Morain);…

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998

1998-01-01

234

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch); "Bring Back Childhood…

Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

1999-01-01

235

Learning and representation in speech and language.  

PubMed

Infants learn language with remarkable speed. By the end of their second year they speak in sentences with an 'accent' typical of a native speaker. How does an individual acquire a specific language? While acknowledging the biological preparation for language, this review focuses on the effects of early language experience on infants' perceptual and perceptual-motor systems. The data show that by the time infants begin to master the higher levels of language--sound-meaning correspondences, contrastive phonology, and grammatical rules--their perceptual and perceptual-motor systems are already tuned to a specific language. The consequences of this are described in a developmental theory at the phonetic level that holds promise for higher levels of language. PMID:7888763

Kuhl, P K

1994-12-01

236

Bridging the Gap between Learning Management Systems and Learning Object Repositories: Exploiting Learning Context Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the capabilities of a metadata framework based on learning technologies to make learning management systems (LMS) interoperate with learning object repositories (LOR), so that the LOR can obtain information from the LMS context that facilitates the retrieval of existing and insertion of new documents. The study distinguishes two uses cases (indexation of a SCORM compliant document and

Julien Broisin; Philippe Vidal; Michael Meire; Erik Duval

2005-01-01

237

An Investigation into the Relationship of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Sign Language Use among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Hungarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to point out the relationship between foreign language learning motivation and sign language use among hearing impaired Hungarians. In the article we concentrate on two main issues: first, to what extent hearing impaired people are motivated to learn foreign languages in a European context; second, to what extent sign…

Kontra, Edit H.; Csizer, Kata

2013-01-01

238

Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

2011-01-01

239

Acquisition of Multiple Languages among Children of Immigrant Families: Parents' Role in the Home-School Language Pendulum. Supporting Immigrant Children's Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined immigrant parents' role in their young children's language learning and development in linguistically different contexts. At home, participating children lived with parents who spoke little or no English and various other languages. At school, children were taught mostly by English speaking teachers, with occasional teacher…

Mushi, Selina L. P.

240

Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2011-01-01

241

Attention to Affect in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to affect…

Arnold, Jane

2011-01-01

242

A Framework of Context-Awareness Support for Peer Recommendation in the e-Learning Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For learners in distributed e-learning environments, it is difficult, but very important, to locate the right peer for collaboration on the right knowledge, at the right time and in the right way. This paper proposes the use of context awareness (CA) to support peer recommendation in the e-learning context. For this purpose, this paper explores…

Zheng, Yanlin; Yano, Yoneo

2007-01-01

243

Assessing English Language Learners' Opportunity to Learn Mathematics: Issues and Limitations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: English language learner (ELL) students are lagging behind because of the extra challenges they face relative to their peers in acquiring academic English language proficiency, and the added burden of learning content in a language in which they are not proficient. The mandated inclusion of ELL students in the nation's…

Abedi, Jamal; Herman, Joan

2010-01-01

244

A WORKBOOK FOR LEARNING PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS WORKBOOK WAS WRITTEN TO ENABLE PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS LIVING IN THE PHILIPPINES TO ANALYZE AND LEARN THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN IN THEIR REGION. IT WAS ASSUMED THAT THE VOLUNTEER WOULD HAVE SOME TRAINING IN TAGALOG BUT NOT NECESSARILY A KNOWLEDGE OF LINGUISTIC TERMS OR METHODS. THE AUTHOR ALSO ASSUMES THAT THE VOLUNTEER WILL WORK WITH A NATIVE…

MARQUEZ, ELY J.

245

Developing Oral Language. Learning Package No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on developing oral language is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

Hong, Zhang; Smith, Carl, Comp.

246

Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

Miller, Elizabeth R.

2012-01-01

247

Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

2009-01-01

248

Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

Ager, Dennis E.

1985-01-01

249

Cooperative Learning Activities for Language Arts: Challenging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to introduce teachers to cooperative learning techniques in the language arts, this book presents 24 activity units--12 on outer space (including the exploration of space and its many adventures), and 12 on "inner space" (the mind, the emotions, and the brain). After an introduction and overview, the first section of the book gives…

Jasmine, Grace; Nader, Lillian

250

Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

2011-01-01

251

Language Learning Strategy Use In Palestine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on current English language learning strategies used by Arabic-speaking English-majors enrolled at a University in Palestine. Results showed that gender and proficiency had no significant differences on the use of strategies. Recommends that more training should be given in using cognitive, memory and compensation strategies by embedding…

Shmais, Wafa Abu

2003-01-01

252

Structural Priming and Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

2012-01-01

253

Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

2012-02-01

254

Conducting Situated Learning in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital technology is an important factor for the development of modern education systems, especially the wireless communication technology and the sensor technology, which make the evolution of learning environments from Web-based learning to mobile learning or ubiquitous learning. In this paper, a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment which utilizes mobile devices, sensors and wireless networks to conduct situated learning. Moreover, a

Ting-ting Wu; Tzu-chi Yang; Gwo-jen Hwang; Hui-chun Chu

2008-01-01

255

An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning

Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

2013-01-01

256

Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

2012-12-01

257

Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2012-01-01

258

Context-Outcome Associations Mediate Context-Switch Effects in a Human Predictive Learning Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments explored the role of contexts in information retrieval after different levels of acquisition training in human predictive learning. Participants were trained where cue (X) was followed by an outcome in context A while a different cue (Y) was followed by the absence of the outcome in context B. When 4 training trials with each cue…

Leon, Samuel P.; Abad, Maria J. F.; Rosas, Juan M.

2011-01-01

259

Machine Learning in Human Language Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The undoubted usefulness of present-day information systems is only moderated by the fact that people have to invest substantial effort and training time in order to learn how to use them. Even modern applications with Graphical-User Interfaces (which are considered user-friendly), built-in wizards and on-line context-sensitive help, require a considerable self-training period, thus discouraging most people from fully exploiting their

Nikos D. Fakotakis; Kyriakos N. Sgarbas

2001-01-01

260

The Development of Social Learning in Interactive and Observational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the first year of life, imitative learning readily occurs in contexts where a demonstrator directly interacts with infants (i.e., "interactive contexts"), and at least by 18 months, imitation will also occur in third-party or observational contexts where infants witness a demonstration by another person that is not directed at them. However,…

Matheson, Heath; Moore, Chris; Akhtar, Nameera

2013-01-01

261

Using Language Learning Conditions in Mathematics. PEN 68.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet reports on a project in Tasmania exploring whether the "natural learning conditions" approach to language learning could be adapted for mathematics. The connections between language and mathematics, as well as the natural learning processes of language learning are described in the pamphlet. The project itself is described--small…

Stoessiger, Rex

262

Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…

Lichtman, Karen

2013-01-01

263

Beyond the Four Walls: Community-Based Learning and Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a time when languages in universities are under pressure, community-based learning language courses can have many positive benefits: they can increase interest in language learning, they can foster greater engagement with learning, and they can encourage active learning, creativity and teamwork. These courses, which link the classroom and the…

O'Connor, Anne

2012-01-01

264

Towards a Language-Based Theory of Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that educational knowledge is massively dependent on verbal learn- ing, theories of learning have not been specifically derived from observations of children's language development. But language development is learning how to mean; and because human beings are quintessentially creatures who mean (i.e., who engage in semiotic processes, with natural language as prototypical), all human learning is essentially

M. A. K. HALLIDAY

1994-01-01

265

An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning

Shaalan, Khaled F.

2005-01-01

266

Why Are We Using Action Learning and in What Contexts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the contexts in which action learning has been used and provide implications for the design of action learning programmes. We performed a content analysis of 127 articles (case studies and case reports included) published in "Action Learning: Research and Practice" between 2004 and 2012. In this study, we…

Park, Sunyoung; Kang, Ingu; Valencic, Taryn R.; Cho, Yonjoo

2013-01-01

267

The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent psychological research and theory on the topic of consciousness, and looks at three questions in second-language learning related to the role of consciousness in input processing. The discussion involves the requirement in learning a second language of subliminal learning, implicit learning, and incidental learning. (142…

Schmidt, Richard W.

1990-01-01

268

Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

Nikitina, Larisa

2011-01-01

269

Pragmatic language development in language impaired and typically developing children: incorrect answers in context.  

PubMed

This study focussed on young children's incorrect answers to pragmatically demanding questions. Children with specific language impairment (SLI), including a subgroup with pragmatic language difficulties (PLD) and typically developing children answered questions targeting implicatures, based on a storybook and short verbal scenarios. Ninety-seven children participated in this study: 30 children with SLI of whom 12 had PLD, 32 typically developing children aged 5-6 years and 35 aged 7-11 years. The incorrect answers produced by the children with SLI were similar in their use of context to those of the 5-6 year old, suggesting developmental delay. The children with PLD produced significantly more irrelevant answers than both the language impaired children without PLD and the typically developing groups and had most difficulty when the context was presented solely verbally. Results are discussed in relation to a cognitive theory of communication and the clinical implications. PMID:23408122

Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva

2014-02-01

270

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 2. These issues contain the following major articles: "Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences Through Technology" (Janine Onffroy Shelley); "Student Reasons for Studying Language: Implications for…

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997

1997-01-01

271

Understanding Chinese Students' Language Beliefs and Learning Strategy Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the language attitudes and language learning strategies of 505 undergraduate students of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Taiwan. All had studied English formally for at least seven years; few had lived or traveled abroad. The subjects were administered three questionnaires: a language beliefs inventory; language learning

Yang, Nae-Dong

272

Sentential context modulates the involvement of the motor cortex in action language processing: an FMRI study.  

PubMed

Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition. PMID:23580364

Schuil, Karen D I; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A

2013-01-01

273

Second Life as a Foreign Language Learning Environment: A Review of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next…

Aydin, Selami

2013-01-01

274

A Heuristic Algorithm for Planning Personalized Learning Paths for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, learning systems can detect students' learning behaviors in the real-world with the help of context-aware (sensor) technology; that is, students can be guided to observe or operate real-world objects with personalized support from the digital world. In this study, an optimization problem that…

Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chuang, Kuo-Hsien

2010-01-01

275

Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

2014-01-01

276

The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

1999-01-01

277

Context-Aware Mobile Computing: Learning Context-Dependent Personal Preferences from a Wearable Sensor Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context-aware computing describes the situation where a wearable\\/mobile computer is aware of its user's state and surroundings and modifies its behavior based on this information. We designed, implemented, and evaluated a wearable system which can learn context-dependent personal preferences by identifying individual user states and observing how the user interacts with the system in these states. This learning occurs online

Andreas Krause; Asim Smailagic; Daniel P. Siewiorek

2006-01-01

278

PROGRAMMED LEARNING IN CENTRAL AFRICAN CONTEXTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SINCE 1964, THE PROGRAMMED LEARNING CENTRE AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF RHODESIA HAS BEEN INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIALITIES OF PROGRAMED LEARNING FOR CENTRAL AFRICA THROUGH A SERIES OF CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS USING LOCALLY-WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED PROGRAMS. ASSESSMENT OF THE DESIRABILITY AND USEFULNESS OF PROGRAMS IN TEACHING, AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR…

HAWKRIDGE, D.G.

279

Deep Belief Networks Learn Context Dependent Behavior  

PubMed Central

With the goal of understanding behavioral mechanisms of generalization, we analyzed the ability of neural networks to generalize across context. We modeled a behavioral task where the correct responses to a set of specific sensory stimuli varied systematically across different contexts. The correct response depended on the stimulus (A,B,C,D) and context quadrant (1,2,3,4). The possible 16 stimulus-context combinations were associated with one of two responses (X,Y), one of which was correct for half of the combinations. The correct responses varied symmetrically across contexts. This allowed responses to previously unseen stimuli (probe stimuli) to be generalized from stimuli that had been presented previously. By testing the simulation on two or more stimuli that the network had never seen in a particular context, we could test whether the correct response on the novel stimuli could be generated based on knowledge of the correct responses in other contexts. We tested this generalization capability with a Deep Belief Network (DBN), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network, and the combination of a DBN with a linear perceptron (LP). Overall, the combination of the DBN and LP had the highest success rate for generalization.

Raudies, Florian; Zilli, Eric A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

2014-01-01

280

Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beliefs are central constructs in every discipline which deals with human behaviour and learning. In addition to learner beliefs about language learning, language teachers themselves may hold certain beliefs about language learning that will have an impact on their instructional practices and that are likely to influence their students' beliefs…

Altan, Mustafa Zulkuf

2012-01-01

281

From Context to Curriculum: A Case Study of Communicative Language Teaching in China.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the implementation of communicative language teaching (CLT) methodology within the English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) context in the Peoples' Republic of China. It suggests investigating the context of an English language teaching program first, and then adapting the program to the Chinese context in order to more effectively…

Sun, Guangyong; Cheng, Liying

282

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into

David T. Brookes; Eugenia Etkina

2007-01-01

283

Don Quixote Meets "Ser" and "Estar": Multiple Perspectives on Language Learning in Spanish Literature Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multiple case study examines language-focused instruction in 3 university Spanish literature classes to examine the students' and instructors' perspectives on language learning in this context. The classes were studied for a semester through observations, instructor interviews and stimulated recalls, and student questionnaires. Among the…

Polio, Charlene; Zyzik, Eve

2009-01-01

284

Context and repetition in word learning  

PubMed Central

Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed.

Horst, Jessica S.

2013-01-01

285

Learning Physics in Context: A Study of Student Learning about Electricity and Magnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper re-centres the discussion of student learning in physics to focus on context. In order to do so, a theoretically motivated understanding of context is developed. Given a well-defined notion of context, data from a novel university class in electricity and magnetism are analysed to demonstrate the central and inextricable role of context

Finkelstein, Noah

2005-01-01

286

Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

2010-01-01

287

Assessment of Language Learning Strategies Used by Palestinian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the language learning strategies (LLSs) used by 194 high school and 184 university English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners in Palestine, using Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). It also explores the effect of language proficiency and gender on frequency of strategy use. The findings show…

Khalil, Aziz

2005-01-01

288

CMC-BASED LEARNING IN LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION: A GERMAN AMERICAN COLLABORATIVE PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a research project that integrated computer- mediated communication (CMC) into teacher education to provide future language teachers the opportunity to experience CMC-based learning. Overall goals of the project included preparing pre-service language teachers to use computer technology in their future teaching, and fostering electronic and professional literacy as well as cross-cultural learning. The research context

Carolin Fuchs

289

Thinking Maps®: A Visual Language for Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been a range of different types of visual tools used in schools over the past 50 years such as “graphic organizers,” mind mapping, and concept mapping. These tools are grounded in the mapping metaphor, reflecting our capacities to network information and create cognitive maps of content knowledge and concepts. This writing investigates a language of eight cognitive maps called Thinking Maps® and Thinking Maps® Software, used from early grades through college courses to foster cognitive development and content learning across disciplines by all students across entire schools.

Hyerle, David

290

Does learning in clinical context in anatomical sciences improve examination results, learning motivation, or learning orientation?  

PubMed

The preclinical compulsory elective course "Ready for the Operating Room (OR)!?" [in German]: "Fit für den OP (FOP)"] was implemented for students in their second year, who were simultaneously enrolled in the gross anatomy course. The objective of the study was to determine whether the direct practical application of anatomical knowledge within the surgical context of the course led to any improvement in learning motivation, learning orientation, and ultimately examination results in the gross anatomy course, as compared with a control group. Within the scope of five teaching sessions, the students learned surgical hand disinfection, suturing techniques, and the identification of commonly used surgical instruments. In addition, the students attended five surgical demonstrations performed by surgical colleagues on cadavers. Successful learning of these basic skills was then assessed based on an Objectively Structured Practical Examination. Learning motivation and learning orientation in both subgroups was determined using the SELLMO-ST motivation test and the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory test. While a significant increase in work avoidance was identified in the control group, this was not the case for FOP participants. Similarly, an increase in the "deep approach" to learning, as well as a decrease in the "surface approach," was able to be documented among the FOP participants following completion of the course. The results suggest that students enrolled in the gross anatomy course, who were simultaneously provided with the opportunity to learn in clinical context, were more likely to be successful at maintaining learning motivation and learning orientation required for the learning process, than students who attended the gross anatomy course alone. PMID:23733503

Böckers, Anja; Mayer, Christian; Böckers, Tobias Maria

2014-01-01

291

Enriching the Context for Musical Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors investigate how Korea's current educational policy's emphasis on artistic expression, and therefore music education, has been realized in the praxis of early childhood education. The authors view policy as discourses and texts that early childhood educators interpret and reinterpret within specific contexts. Policy…

Lim, Nam-Hee; Chung, Shunah

2008-01-01

292

Functional Context Education: Making Learning Relevant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This notebook discusses issues and methods of developing adult literacy education (ALE) programs according to functional context education (FCE) principles. Chapters 1-3 in Part 1, The Power of ALE, focus on current ALE; address why ALE is of growing importance; show how investments can return benefits for adults and others; look at issues…

Sticht, Tom

293

Learning and the Development of Contexts for Action  

PubMed Central

Neurophysiological evidence from animal studies suggests that frontal corticolimbic systems support early stages of learning, whereas later stages involve context representation formed in hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex. In dense-array EEG studies of human learning, we observed brain activity in medial prefrontal cortex (the medial frontal negativity or MFN) was not only observed in early stages, but, surprisingly, continued to increase as learning progressed. In the present study we investigated this finding by examining MFN amplitude as participants learned an arbitrary associative learning task over three sessions. On the fourth session the same task with new stimuli was presented to assess changes in MFN amplitude. The results showed that MFN amplitude continued to increase with practice over the first three sessions, in contrast to P3 amplitudes. Even when participants were presented with new stimuli in session 4, MFN amplitude was larger than that observed in the first session. Furthermore, MFN activity from the third session predicted learning rate in the fourth session. The results point to an interaction between early and late stages in which learning results in corticolimbic consolidation of cognitive context models that facilitate new learning in similar contexts.

Luu, Phan; Jiang, Zhongqing; Poulsen, Catherine; Mattson, Chelsea; Smith, Anne; Tucker, Don M.

2011-01-01

294

Telling and Retelling Stories: Learning Language and Literacy. Supporting Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares reading aloud and telling stories as ways to share literature with young children and support language and literacy learning. Describes how story telling can help children develop critical and active listening skills, and how retelling stories encourages children to create their own stories and later write and illustrate their stories.…

Isbell, Rebecca T.

2002-01-01

295

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning. Volume 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three numbers of the new journal contain these articles: "Content-Related Teaching Through Distance Learning: A Viable Alternative?" (Zoe E. Louton); "Teacher as Researcher: Motivating an Eighth Grade Spanish Class" (Emily Francomano); "Traveling to South America on the Internet" (Margaret Reardon); "U.S. Joins Global Language Education…

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996

1996-01-01

296

Measuring Student Language Use in the School Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After the experience of many years of teaching in two or three languages, the Basque speech community needs to know not merely how much students achieve in each language and what level of proficiency they attain but also which language they use, how often they use each language, and the relationship between language use and other variables. This…

de Luna, Inaki Martinez; Suberbiola, Pablo

2008-01-01

297

Language learning impairment: integrating research and remediation.  

PubMed

Timing cues present in the acoustic waveform of speech provide critical information for the recognition and segmentation of the ongoing speech signal. Research has demonstrated that deficient temporal perception rates, that have been shown to specifically disrupt acoustic processing of speech, are related to specific language-based learning impairments (LLI). Temporal processing deficits correlate highly with the phonological discrimination and processing deficits of these children. Electrophysiological single cell mapping studies of sensory cortex in brains of primates have shown that neural circuitry can be remapped after specific, temporally cohesive training regimens, demonstrating the dynamic plasticity of the brain. Recently, we combined these two lines of research in a series of studies that addressed whether the temporal processing deficits seen in LLIs can be significantly modified through adaptive training aimed at reducing temporal integration thresholds. Simultaneously, we developed a computer algorithm that expanded and enhanced the brief, rapidly changing acoustic segments within ongoing speech and used this to provide intensive speech and language training exercises to these children. Results to date from two independent laboratory experiments, as well as a large national clinical efficacy trial, demonstrate that dramatic improvements in temporal integration thresholds, together with speech and language comprehension abilities of LLI children, results from training with these new computer-based training procedures. PMID:9800537

Tallal, P; Merzenich, M; Miller, S; Jenkins, W

1998-09-01

298

Sound Symbolic Word Learning in Written Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound symbolism is the notion that the relation between word sounds and word meaning is not arbitrary for all words, but rather there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. This research investigates sound symbolism as a possible means of gaining semantic knowledge of…

Parault, Susan J.

2006-01-01

299

Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

2012-01-01

300

Teaching and Learning Language beyond the "Comfort Zone."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of a research project conducted at the University of South Carolina in the 1979-80 academic year. The purpose of the research was to determine whether or not Counseling Learning/Community Language Learning (CLL), an alternative approach to language learning developed by Charles Curran, would influence student…

Alber, Charles J.; And Others

301

On the Relationship between Gender and Perceptual Language Learning Styles: The Case of Iranian Academic EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few decades, research on gender and language learning styles (LLSs) across various EFL/ESL contexts has received remarkable attention. From these studies, a multitude of contradictory and heterogeneous findings has been observed which justify additional research in SLA contexts in general and EFL contexts like Iran in particular.…

Aliakbari, Mohammad; Tazik, Khalil

2011-01-01

302

Nested Contexts That Shape Assessment "for" Learning: School-Based Professional Learning Community and Classroom Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated the relationships between assessment for learning (AfL) and attributes of two school-related contexts--the classroom assessment culture (CAC) in which AfL is embedded, and the larger context in which CAC is nested, namely the school-based professional learning community (SBPLC). The research design comprised two…

Birenbaum, Menucha; Kimron, Helena; Shilton, Hany

2011-01-01

303

Personalised context-aware ubiquitous learning system for supporting effective English vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English sentences. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to increase the efficiency and performance of learning English vocabulary. ‘The

Chih-Ming Chen; Yi-Lun Li

2010-01-01

304

A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

Lawrence, Geoff

2013-01-01

305

Learning History and Learning Language: Focusing on Language in Historical Explanations to Support English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a History is a language-based discipline. In this discipline, language plays a central role in understanding, reasoning, and\\u000a explanation. Doing history entails engaging in close reading and evaluation of particular texts, reading across texts to establish\\u000a intertextual links, constructing meaning by juxtaposing a series of texts, and writing arguments to support a particular interpretation\\u000a of events, structures, themes, or metasystems (Leinhardt,

Mariana Achugar; Catherine Stainton

306

Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…

Thondhlana, Juliet

307

Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

2012-01-01

308

Foreign Language Exploratory Programs: Introduction to Language Learning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign Language Exploratory or Foreign Language Experience (FLEX) programs offer one approach to initiating foreign language instruction for children. One survey reported that 41 percent of United States elementary schools offering language instruction had FLEX programs. Statistics on FLEX programs in middle schools are unavailable. Most FLEX…

Marcos, Kathleen

309

The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on second language teaching and learning include: "Creativity with a Small 'c'" (Alan Maley); "National Standards & the Role of the Imagination in Foreign Language Learning" (Rebecca M. Valette); "Who Am I in English? Developing a Language Ego" (Jean Zukowski/Faust); "Steps to Dance in the Adult EFL Classroom" (David M. Bell); "Connecting…

Coreil, Clyde, Ed.; Napoliello, Mihri, Ed.

1997-01-01

310

Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "content and language integrated learning" is suggested as an umbrella term for a general pedagogical approach that includes a number of methods of teaching and learning non-language subjects through a second or foreign language. Usage of other, related terms is discussed, and distinctions are made between them. These include teaching…

Nikula, Tarja; Marsh, David

1998-01-01

311

Second Language Classrooms. Research on Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent classroom-centered research and its implications for the teaching and learning of languages are reviewed in this book. It synthesizes and evaluates critical research about the way student and teacher behaviors affect language learning, and discusses research methods. Chapters explore the following topics: (1) major issues in second language

Chaudron, Craig

312

A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the second…

Byram, Michael

2012-01-01

313

Learning Another Language May Help the Aging Brain  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Learning Another Language May Help the Aging Brain Even doing so ... 262 were able to speak at least two languages, with 195 of them learning a second language before age 18, and the ...

314

Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.

2012-01-01

315

A Learning Triangle. Language in the Classroom: A Series. 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is the sixth in a series of ten stemming from the view that language is central to learning, that teachers can gain insights into their work and into learning by examining the language of the classroom, and that current language theory can be the means to such insights. The pamphlet outlines a students-helping-students program for…

Marshall, Linda; Waddell, Ray

316

INTERACTION IS THE KEY TO SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction is the key to second language learning. The interactionist view of language learning is that language acquisition is the result of an interaction between the learner's mental abilities and the linguistic environment. The studies of foreigner talk and teacher talk have been conducted in lieu with the role of input and interaction in both the natural and classroom settings.

Rozanna Noraini Albakri

317

Should I Learn the Local Language When Teaching Abroad?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For practical reasons, teachers of English as a second language abroad may choose not to learn the local language. However, the advantages of learning even a little of the language far outweigh any inconvenience caused by extra study time. First, teachers abroad lead more comfortable lives when not depending on others for basic needs such as…

Katchen, Johanna E.

318

Individual Differences and Universals in Language Learning Aptitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following articles are included: (1) "Neurolinguistic Considerations on the Optimum Age for Second Language Learning" by Terence M. Walsh and Karl C. Diller; (2) "Major Variation in Language Skills Apparently under Genetic Influence (Discussed from the Viewpoint of Human Evolution)" by Brenda K. Sladen; (3) "Language Learning Strategies: Does…

Diller, Karl C., Ed.

319

E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

Georgalas, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

320

Structure of Intellect Factors and Foreign Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the intellectual talents involved in learning a foreign language compared the composite predicted score of high school students on the Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery with selected factor scores on the Structure of Intellect-Learning Abilities Test to determine whether any of the factors correlate highly with foreign language

Raile, Frederick N.

321

Identifying Our Approaches to Language Learning Technologies: Improving Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mid- to late 1990s was an exciting time for those concerned with incorporating new technology into their teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). Commonly referred to as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), or sometimes with the broader term Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), the field took huge leaps…

Petrie, Gina Mikel; Avery, Lisa

2011-01-01

322

A Bayesian view of language evolution by iterated learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of language evolution have demonstrated how aspects of human language, such as compositionality, can arise in populations of interacting agents. This pa- per analyzes how languages change as the result of a particular form of interaction: agents learning from one another. We show that, when the learners are rational Bayesian agents, this process of iterated learning con- verges to

Thomas L. Griffiths; Michael L. Kalish

323

How Artefacts Mediate Small-Group Co-Creation Activities in a Mobile-Assisted Seamless Language Learning Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rich learning resources and contexts learners experience in their everyday life could play important roles in complementing formal learning, but are often neglected by learners and teachers. In this paper, we present an intervention study in "Move, Idioms!", a mobile-assisted Chinese language learning approach that emphasizes contextualized…

Wong, L. -H.; Chen, W.; Jan, M.

2012-01-01

324

The role of context specificity in learning: the effects of training context on explosives detection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various experiments revealed that if an animal learns a stimulus–response–reinforcer relationship in one context and is then tested in another context there is usually a lessening of stimulus control, and the same discriminative stimuli that reliably controlled the behavior in the first context will have less effect in the new context. This reduction in performance is known as the “context

Irit Gazit; Allen Goldblatt; Joseph Terkel

2005-01-01

325

Spatial context learning survives interference from working memory load  

PubMed Central

The human visual system is constantly confronted with an overwhelming amount of information, only a subset of which can be processed in complete detail. Attention and implicit learning are two important mechanisms that optimize vision. This study addresses the relationship between these two mechanisms. Specifically we ask: Is implicit learning of spatial context affected by the amount of working memory load devoted to an irrelevant task? We tested observers in visual search tasks where search displays occasionally repeated. Observers became faster searching repeated displays than unrepeated ones, showing contextual cueing. We found that the size of contextual cueing was unaffected by whether observers learned repeated displays under unitary attention or when their attention was divided using working memory manipulations. These results held when working memory was loaded by colors, dot patterns, individual dot locations, or multiple potential targets. We conclude that spatial context learning is robust to interference from manipulations that limit the availability of attention and working memory.

Vickery, Timothy J.; Sussman, Rachel S.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

2010-01-01

326

Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning

Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

2013-01-01

327

Language Learning and Its Impact on the Brain: Connecting Language Learning with the Mind through Content-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive sciences are discovering many things that educators have always intuitively known about language learning. However, the important point is actively using this new information to improve both students learning and current teaching practices. The implications of neuroscience for educational reform regarding second language (L2) learning

Kennedy, Teresa J.

2006-01-01

328

Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of an online survey and a usability test performed on three foreign language learning websites that use Web 2.0 technology. The online survey was conducted to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websites use them for learning and social purposes. The usability test was conducted to gain…

Stevenson, Megan P.; Liu, Min

2010-01-01

329

Making Connections: Learning and Teaching Chemistry in Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though several studies have reported positive attitudinal outcomes from context-based chemistry programs, methodological\\u000a obstacles have prevented researchers from comparing satisfactorily the chemistry-learning outcomes between students who experience\\u000a a context-based program with those who experience a content-driven program. In this narrative inquiry we are able to address\\u000a the question: how do the recalled experiences of a student and her teacher

Donna King; Alberto Bellocchi; Stephen M. Ritchie

2008-01-01

330

Learning Fuzzy Context-Free Grammar - A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper takes up the topic of a task of learning fuzzy context-free grammar from data. The induction process is divided\\u000a into two phases: first the generic grammar is derived from the positive sentences, next the membership grades are assigned\\u000a to the productions taking into account the occurrences of productions in a learning set. The problem of predicting the location

Olgierd Unold

2010-01-01

331

Developmental Differences in Implicit Learning of Spatial Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether a form of implicit memory that has been unambiguously dissociated from conscious awareness—learning of spatial context on the contextual cuing task introduced by M. M. Chun and Y. Jiang (1998)—is mature in childhood as predicted by an evolutionary view of cognition. School-aged children did not show reliable learning relative to adults who performed the same version

Chandan J. Vaidya; Marianne Huger; Darlene V. Howard

2007-01-01

332

Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

333

Papers in Language Learning and Language Acquisition. AFinLA Yearbook 1980. No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers include: (1) "Language Acquisitional Universals: L1, L2, Pidgins, and FLT" (Henning Wode); (2) "Language Acquisition, Language Learning and the School Curriculum" (Norman F. Davies); (3) "Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication" (Kari Sajavaara, Jaakko Lehtonen); (4) "On the Distinction between Second-Language Acquisition and…

Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

334

Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

2011-01-01

335

Foreign Languages: Early Language Learning, Standards for Teacher Preparation, National Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers makes the case for early and sustained foreign language education as part of the core K-12 curriculum, and for training teachers prepared to create such an education for their students. "Early Language Learning: A National Necessity" (Christine L. Brown), discusses the importance of early language learning, resources for…

Poliakoff, Anne Rogers, Ed.

2002-01-01

336

The Use of the First Language in Second Language Learning Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to study new techniques in second language learning involving the active use of the mother tongue in classroom situations. Several teaching methods will be discussed such as The Alternating Approach, The New Concurrent Method, and Community Language Learning method. These methods of employing the first language recognise the link…

Halasa, Najwa Hanna; Al-Manaseer, Majeda

2012-01-01

337

Learning by Designing Instruction in the Context of Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares learning from designing instruction in the context of simulation-based inquiry learning with learning from expository teaching. The domain of instruction was the electricity domain of high-pass and low-pass filters. Participants were students from a technical vocational school. In the experimental condition ("N" =…

Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Ton; Gijlers, Hannie

2013-01-01

338

The Culture of the English Language Teacher in an EFL Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 300 secondary school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers in Turkey investigated their views on ESL teaching and curriculum, language attitudes, language learning, classroom practices, role perceptions, and views of language teaching as a profession. Demographic data show most were trained in English language teaching in Turkish…

Altan, Mustafa Zulkuf

339

Text-Based Peer-Peer Collaborative Dialogue in a Computer-Mediated Learning Environment in the EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates EFL learners' dialogues in synchronous task-based computer-mediated communication (CMC). The focus is on whether learners engage each other in text-based dialogues regarding the language use in pursuit of the task goal in the CMC context and how their mutual engagement impacts their language learning. Sixteen Chinese…

Zeng, Gang; Takatsuka, Shigenobu

2009-01-01

340

A Three-Dimensional Context-Awareness Model for Peer Recommendation in the E-Learning Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely recognized that peer interaction is valuable for improving learning and achievement. This article proposes a three-dimensional context-awareness (CA) model to help learners in distributed e-learning settings to find suitable peers for potential collaboration. Based on the recognition of the e-learning context that involves the…

Zheng, Yanlin; Li, Luyi

2008-01-01

341

Communicative Competence and Grammatical Accuracy in Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article questioned the linguistic assumptions that underlie most language teaching and suggested that a clearer recognition of the communicative function of language might result in a more realistic and effective learning experience. (Author/RK)

Littlewood, William T.

1974-01-01

342

The Development of Bilingual Behavior: Language Choice and Social Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All speakers alter language stylistically in response to particular social circumstances at the moment of speech. Additionally, bilingual speakers switch codes. In fact, language differentiation and code switching are fundamental to behaving bilingually. This article examines how language differentiation and code switching developed in a young…

Fantini, Alvino E.

343

English Language Spread in Local Contexts: Turkey, Latvia and France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the discussion of English language spread policies, scholars have taken various viewpoints. One approach concerns the "diffusion-of-English" and "language ecology" paradigms, which distinguish externally dominant English spread and resistance to this hegemony. Others have questioned this approach, and proposed that English language spread is…

Uysal, Hacer Hande; Plakans, Lia; Dembovskaya, Svetlana

2007-01-01

344

Authentic-Context Learning Activities in Instrumental Music Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between the frequency of particular authentic-context learning activities during undergraduate instrumental music teacher training and the initial teaching performance of undergraduate instrumental music student teachers. Focuses on early field experience teaching, peer-teaching, student subjects viewing their teaching…

Paul, Stephen J.; Teachout, David J.; Sullivan, Jill M.; Kelly, Steven N.; Bauer, William I.; Raiber, Michael A.

2001-01-01

345

Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

2012-01-01

346

Mentoring in Adult Learning Contexts: Partners in Dialogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document critiques various discourses about mentoring within the context of adult learning environments in general and adult literacy programs in particular. Mentoring is defined as an enabling or developmental relationship that occurs in partnerships wherein experienced individuals kindle knowledge and offer support to protgs in joint…

McDonald, Marya; Castleton, Geraldine

347

Strategies for Reuse of Learning Objects: Context Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on research in ten projects in a university, corporate learning, and military context, a set of dimensions is found that can help decision makers to develop strategies for reuse (Strijker, 2004). This article describes how these dimensions and their relation with human and technical aspects can be used in a reuse strategy. The dimensions can…

Strijker, Allard; Collis, Betty

2006-01-01

348

Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

Regmi, Kapil Dev

2011-01-01

349

Epistemic Metacognition in Context: Evaluating and Learning Online Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined epistemic metacognition as a reflective activity about knowledge and knowing in the context of online information searching on the Web, and whether it was related to prior knowledge on the topic, study approach, and domain-specific beliefs about science. In addition, we investigated whether Internet-based learning was…

Mason, Lucia; Boldrin, Angela; Ariasi, Nicola

2010-01-01

350

Adults as a Context for Social Learning in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tests is a well-established tradition in the study of children's learning. Most of these tests claim to establish a child's general understanding, independent of situations and well-known contexts. I have studied narratives told by a four-year-old boy who failed to pass a false belief test (a test designed to examine whether a child is…

Gjems, Liv

2009-01-01

351

Analogical Learning for Knowledge Transfer in Sport Coaching Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge management is a significant issue for successful coaching knowledge transfer. Methods and tools for knowledge management are becoming sufficiently mature that they can be exploited to improve the process of knowledge transfer. Analogy is a kind of methods that has proven especially useful for tacit knowledge transfer in motor skills learning context. In this paper, we give overviews of

Xia Xu

2010-01-01

352

Children's Categorisation of Play and Learning Based on Social Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much time has been spent deliberating about the definition of play, little emphasis has been placed on what children themselves perceive as play. The aim of the present study was to examine social context as a cue for children's perceptions of play and learning. Ninety-two children aged between four and six years (mean four years nine…

Howard, Justine; Jenvey, Vickii; Hill, Carly

2006-01-01

353

Context and occasion setting in Drosophila visual learning  

PubMed Central

In a permanently changing environment, it is by no means an easy task to distinguish potentially important events from negligible ones. Yet, to survive, every animal has to continuously face that challenge. How does the brain accomplish this feat? Building on previous work in Drosophila melanogaster visual learning, we have developed an experimental methodology in which combinations of visual stimuli (colors and patterns) can be arranged such that the same stimuli can either be directly predictive, indirectly predictive, or nonpredictive of punishment. Varying this relationship, we found that wild-type flies can establish different memory templates for the same contextual color cues. The colors can either leave no trace in the pattern memory template, leading to context-independent pattern memory (context generalization), or be learned as a higher-order cue indicating the nature of the pattern-heat contingency leading to context-dependent memory (occasion setting) or serve as a conditioned stimulus predicting the punishment directly (simple conditioning). In transgenic flies with compromised mushroom-body function, the sensitivity to these subtle variations is altered. Our methodology constitutes a new concept for designing learning experiments. Our findings suggest that the insect mushroom bodies stabilize visual memories against context changes and are not required for cognition-like higher-order learning.

Brembs, Bjorn; Wiener, Jan

2006-01-01

354

Content-Based Instruction: What Can We Learn from Content-Trained Teachers' and Language-Trained Teachers' Pedagogies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of the pedagogies of two content-trained teachers and two language-trained teachers in their content-based second language (L2) classrooms at the middle-school level in two Chinese contexts: Hong Kong and Xi'an. The study aims to identify pedagogies that support content and language learning, referred to here as…

Kong, Stella

2009-01-01

355

The Learning of Ancient Languages as (super)Human Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems around teaching ancient languages are discussed. It is suggested to assume that learning and teaching of languages require some superhuman effort. Author's experience of teaching ancient languages and producing electronic educational tools both for text version and for Internet in Faculty of Theology in University of Latvia is described. Problems around cognitive models of reasoning and place of languages

Dainis Zeps

356

The Tablet PC: A New Language-learning Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) provided students with tablet PCs to facilitate language learning. Since the inception of the tablet PC initiative, the school has encountered many challenges to successful implementation. The speakers will share their experience and insights regarding utilization of Table PC in the language classroom and successful implementation of technology integration plans. Features of

Su-Ling Hsueh; Yan Wang

357

Foreign Language Learning and SAT Verbal Scores Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language learning and verbal ability in English as measured by the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Reasoning Test. Comparing foreign language students to nonforeign language students in this study, the effect of taking a foreign language on SAT verbal…

Cooper, Thomas C.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Jahner, David; Webb, Elizabeth; Wilbur, Marcia L.

2008-01-01

358

Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language

Diamond, Kathleen K.

359

Second Language Learning in Children: A Proposed Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three types of processes occur in language learning, each intricately connected with the others. Social processes are the steps by which learners and target language speakers create a social situation in which target language communication is possible and desired. Linguistic processes are the ways in which assumptions held by target language

Fillmore, Lily Wong

360

Listening and Language Learning: Aspects of Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four areas relating to listening and language learning are examined: current directions in second language instruction, listening instruction in second language programs, listening as a means to an end versus listening comprehension as an end in itself, and the influence of listening research on materials development for second language

Morley, Joan

361

Implicit Language Learning: Adults' Ability to Segment Words in Norwegian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener's language

Kittleson, Megan M.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; Tokerud, Gry Line; Plante, Elena; Asbjornsen, Arve E.

2010-01-01

362

Context dependent learning in the serial RT task  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the development of contextual dependencies for sequential perceptual-motor learning on static features in the learning environment. In three experiments we assessed the effect of manipulating task irrelevant static context features in a serial reaction-time task. Experiment 1 demonstrated impaired performance after simultaneously changing display color, placeholder shape, and placeholder location. Experiment 2 showed that this effect was mainly caused by changing placeholder shape. Finally, Experiment 3 indicated that changing context affected both the application of sequence knowledge and the selection of individual responses. It is proposed either that incidental stimulus features are integrated with a global sequence representation, or that the changed context causes participants to strategically inhibit sequence skills.

Verwey, Willem B.

2007-01-01

363

Community Language Learning and Counseling-Learning. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. l, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Language Learning (CLL) is a humanistic approach to learning which emphasizes the learner and learning rather than the teacher and teaching. In some situations where the teacher is not fluent in the various languages spoken by the students, such as in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom, advanced students may serve as…

Soga, Lillian

364

Examining the effect of written languaging: the role of metanotes as a mediator of second language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using language (languaging) has been identified to contribute to second language (L2) learning. In this respect, it has been argued that research tools such as think-aloud and stimulated recall can also be learning tools and that they should be regarded as language learning processes. Compared with oral languaging, written languaging seems to have been less explored. In order to fill

Masako Ishikawa

2012-01-01

365

All together now: concurrent learning of multiple structures in an artificial language.  

PubMed

Natural languages contain many layers of sequential structure, from the distribution of phonemes within words to the distribution of phrases within utterances. However, most research modeling language acquisition using artificial languages has focused on only one type of distributional structure at a time. In two experiments, we investigated adult learning of an artificial language that contains dependencies between both adjacent and non-adjacent words. We found that learners rapidly acquired both types of regularities and that the strength of the adjacent statistics influenced learning of both adjacent and non-adjacent dependencies. Additionally, though accuracy was similar for both types of structure, participants' knowledge of the deterministic non-adjacent dependencies was more explicit than their knowledge of the probabilistic adjacent dependencies. The results are discussed in the context of current theories of statistical learning and language acquisition. PMID:23772795

Romberg, Alexa R; Saffran, Jenny R

2013-01-01

366

Second Language Research Forum Colloquia 2009: Colloquium--Language Learning Abroad: Insights from the Missionary Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have brought increasing attention to studies of language acquisition in a country where the language is spoken, as opposed to formal language study in classrooms. Research on language learners in immersion contexts is important, as the question of whether study abroad is valuable is still somewhat controversial among researchers…

Hansen, Lynne

2011-01-01

367

Ojibwe Language Revitalization, Multimedia Technology, and Family Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Indigenous language loss and revitalization are not new topics of academic work nor new areas of community activism (e.g., King, 2001; Grenoble & Whaley, 2006), increased attention has been paid in recent years to the ways that new technology can support efforts to teach and renew endangered languages such as Ojibwe. However, much of the…

Hermes, Mary; King, Kendall A.

2013-01-01

368

CYBERL@B: TECHNOLOGY ENRICHED ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING IN COSTA RICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers design, development and evaluation of a site of technology resources called CyberL@b and the affiliated English language learning instruction for 7-9th grades at six high schools in diverse urban and rural settings in Costa Rica. CyberL@b uses interactive media resources designed to engage student learning within authentic contexts. The project is designed to create an environment that

Allen G. Quesada; Ronald J. Aust

369

Language Learning, Teaching and Educational Reform in Rural Thailand: An English Teacher's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses English language teaching in Thailand through a biographical case study of a teacher working in a government school in the rural north-east. It explores a particular context of teaching and learning, showing how an individual comes to be a teacher and deals with the day-to-day demands of teaching, as well as reflecting on…

Hayes, David

2010-01-01

370

Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian

2013-01-01

371

Legitimacy of Foreign Language Learning and Identity Research: Structuralist and Constructivist Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes empirical studies the author and her associates have carried out in the past decade pertaining to English language learning and cultural identity changes in China, and related criticism. In response to challenges on the legitimacy of such research regarding unified definition, cause attribution and context relevance, the paper introduces an epistemological distinction between structuralism and constructivism, which

Yihong Gao

372

The Language-Learning Self, Self-Enhancement Activities, and Self Perceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of action research conducted in an EFL university context, regarding primarily the relationship between individual possible self-images, socially constructed possible self-images, and language-learning motivation. The study used three cycles of action research over the course of one 15-week university semester,…

Sampson, Richard

2012-01-01

373

Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

2012-01-01

374

Artificial Intelligence and Second Language Learning: An Efficient Approach to Error Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While theoretical approaches to error correction vary in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, most sources agree that such correction is useful and leads to learning. While some point out the relevance of the communicative context in which the correction takes place, others stress the value of consciousness-raising. Trying to…

Dodigovic, Marina

2007-01-01

375

A Psycholinguistic Definition of the "Glossodynamic Model" of Language Behavior and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving methodological problems of language instruction lies in analyzing the dynamics of verbal behavior and the process of language acquisition. The glossodynamic model of language learning is based on the recognition that language behavior is basically a stratificational and hierarchical system of dynamic structures. An integrated view of…

Titone, Renzo

1973-01-01

376

Language acquisition: when does the learning begin?  

PubMed

Language acquisition is quite sophisticated by four months of age. Two cues that babies use to discriminate their language from another are the stress patterns of words and visual cues inherent in language production. PMID:17714647

Hespos, Susan J

2007-08-21

377

Learning Strategy Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom: Listening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide is designed to provide foreign language teachers with suggestions for helping students learn how to become better language learners. The four chapters of the guide for teaching listening skills are as follows: (1) Teaching Learning Strategies (e.g., rationale for teaching, types, useful strategies, guidelines, instructional…

Chamot, Anna Uhl; And Others

378

Computer-Assisted Learning in British Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fact that language teaching can be operationalized through computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has directed researchers' attention to the learning task, which, in this case, is considered to be the unit that demands analysis of the communicative processes in which the learner is involved while working with CALL. Research focuses on…

Mertzani, Maria

2011-01-01

379

The Influence of Dialect and Reading on Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that the static model of language which is prerequisite for contrastive analysis is inadequate in pinpointing potential difficulties in second language learning. The student learning graphemic-phonetic correspondences encounters two types of difficulties not exposed by contrastive analysis: dialectal difficulties and reading…

Hameyer, Klaus; Grosse, Carmen

380

Online Synchronous Language Learning: SLMS over the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that distance learning environments often pose serious obstacles to second language instruction, Yuping Wang and Nian-Shing Chen propose that synchronous learning management systems (SLMS) can address the urgent need for real-time communication to support the student acquisition of language skills. To illustrate the pedagogical value of…

Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing

2007-01-01

381

Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

2012-01-01

382

Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language

Morgan, Lisa

2011-01-01

383

Managing Self-Access Language Learning: Principles and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a research project looking at the management of self-access language learning (SALL) from the perspective of the managers of self-access centres. It looks at the factors which influence the practice of seven managers of self-access language learning in tertiary institutions in Hong Kong. The discussion centres around five…

Gardner, David; Miller, Lindsay

2011-01-01

384

Machine Learning and the Cognitive Basis of Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine learning and statistical methods have yielded impressive results in a wide variety of natural language processing tasks. These advances have generally been regarded as en- gineering achievements. In fact it is possible to argue that the success of machine learning methods is significant for our understanding of the cognitive basis of language acquisition and processing. Recent work in unsupervised

Shalom Lappin

2004-01-01

385

On the Effectiveness of Robot-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study introduces the educational assistant robots that we developed for foreign language learning and explores the effectiveness of robot-assisted language learning (RALL) which is in its early stages. To achieve this purpose, a course was designed in which students have meaningful interactions with intelligent robots in an immersive…

Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae; Sagong, Seongdae; Kim, Munsang

2011-01-01

386

Gender and Language Learning Strategies: Looking beyond the Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning

Liyanage, Indika; Bartlett, Brendan John

2012-01-01

387

The sex variable in foreign language learning: an integrative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to determine the role of the sex variable in foreign language learning success by reviewing and connecting data gathered from several tests and studies, all of them dealing with boys' and girls' achievement, attitudes, motivation, opinions and learning strategies as regards foreign languages. In the light of the data analysed, the hypothesis put forward

PAULA LÓPEZ RÚA

388

SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

2010-01-01

389

Dichotomies, Difference, and Ritual in Second Language Learning and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions the distinction between "natural" and "instructed" language learning. Introduces two extracts in which adolescents use Panjabi as a second language in peer-group recreation, and then shows how these contradict orthodox images of natural acquisition and classroom learning. (Author/VWL)

Rampton, Ben

1999-01-01

390

Power within Blended Language Learning Programs in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within…

Hinkelman, Don; Gruba, Paul

2012-01-01

391

A Software Development Approach for Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 5 years we have developed, produced, tested, and evaluated an authoring software package to produce web-based, interactive, audio-enhanced language-learning material. That authoring package has been used to produce language-learning material in French, Spanish, German, Arabic, and Tamil. We are currently working on increasing…

Cushion, Steve

2005-01-01

392

Preferred Learning Styles in the Second Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the preferred learning styles of students studying second languages, offering suggestions for their application in second-language classrooms. The paper describes the right-brain/left-brain theory and how the two brain hemispheres are involved in learning; presents four classroom strategies (diversification, contextualization,…

Cincotta, Madeline Strong

1998-01-01

393

Language-Switching Costs in Bilingual Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral studies on bilingual learning have revealed cognitive costs (lower accuracy and/or higher processing time) when the language of application differs from the language of learning. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to provide insights into the cognitive underpinnings of these costs (so-called…

Grabner, Roland H.; Saalbach, Henrik; Eckstein, Doris

2012-01-01

394

Situational context, variation, and second language acquisition theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a rationale for examining second-language acquisition (SLA) using a variationist perspective, and demonstrates how this perspective can help us to understand and explain the process of acquisition of a second language. Data from Liu (1991; under review) show how a learner's participation in different kinds of social interactions resulted in variable production of IL forms at any

Elaine Tarone

395

The Language of Instruction Dilemma in the Turkish Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic…

Sert, Nehir

2008-01-01

396

The Sociocultural Context of English Language Teaching in the Gulf.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the challenges faced by English-as-a-Foreign-Language teachers in the Arabian Gulf. Seeks to identify structural and contextual issues that have contributed to the present state of language education there. Focuses on four central contributing aspects; contextual framework, human resource development, systems and standards, and research…

Syed, Zafar

2003-01-01

397

An Evaluation of a Counseling-Community Learning Approach to Foreign Language Teaching or Counseling-Learning Theory Applied to Foreign Language Learning. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the counseling-learning approach to foreign language instruction as compared with traditional methods in terms of language achievement and change in personal orientation and in attitude toward learning. Twelve students volunteered to learn Spanish or German under simultaneous exposure to both languages using the…

Gallagher, Rosina Mena

398

Language learning: how much evidence does a child need in order to learn to speak grammatically?  

PubMed

In order to learn grammar from a finite amount of evidence, children must begin with in-built expectations of what is grammatical. They clearly are not born, however, with fully developed grammars. Thus early language development involves refinement of the grammar hypothesis until a target grammar is learnt. Here we address the question of how much evidence is required for this refinement process, by considering two standard learning algorithms and a third algorithm which is presumably as efficient as a child for some value of its memory capacity. We reformulate this algorithm in the context of Chomsky's 'principles and parameters' and show that it is possible to bound the amount of evidence required to almost certainly speak almost grammatically. PMID:15210311

Page, Karen M

2004-07-01

399

Receptive Language of Gifted and Learning Disabled?Gifted Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three tests of receptive language were administered to thirty children enrolled in regular, gifted, and learning disabled?gifted programs. Analyses of variance indicated that the Token Test for Children differentiated the learning disabled?gifted children and the Verbal Absurdities Subtest of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude differentiated the gifted children from the other two groups.

Gail D. Chermak; Donna M. Burgerud

1983-01-01

400

Doomed to Read in a Second Language: Implications for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to elucidate whether and how reliance on a second language impacts the learning of new information under very basic learning conditions. The paradigm used to investigate this issue required individuals to learn a series of associations between numerals and particular letter strings. Participants were two groups of…

Miller, Paul; Peleg, Ora

2010-01-01

401

Learning and Teaching Styles In Foreign and Second Language Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways in which an individual characteristically acquires, retains, and retrieves information are collectively termed the individual's learning style. Mismatches often occur be- tween the learning styles of students in a language class and the teaching style of the instructor, with unfortunate effects on the quality of the students' learning and on their attitudes toward the class and the subject.

Richard M. Felder; Eunice R. Henriques

1995-01-01

402

Integration of Andragogy in Adult Second Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Current adult learning theory roots from andragogy. Andrag ogy, a method of adult learning based on six assumptions about adult learners, can be applied to adult second language acquisition with adults. Section 1 details the history of adult learning, the foundations of andragogy, and the debates regarding the method. Section 2 will search for similarities between the foundations of

Laura Middaugh

403

Exploring Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores young learners' awareness of foreign language learning and of their learning conditions. The participants were 76 Catalan-Spanish children who were learning English at primary school. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected by means of two different interviews that contained questions related to…

Muñoz, Carmen

2014-01-01

404

Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo

2011-01-01

405

Language Learning Edutainment: Mixing Motives in Digital Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in digital video have lead to a convergence of mainstream entertainment (e.g., movies) and language learning tools. An example is a software system/media player called L1, which provides interactive subtitling and learning support for DVD entertainment products. Convergence of entertainment and learning resources raises challenging…

Bird, Stephen A.

2005-01-01

406

Three Ideal Observer Models for Rule Learning in Simple Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learning the inflections of their native language show the ability to generalize beyond the perceptual particulars of the examples they are exposed to. The phenomenon of "rule learning"--quick learning of abstract regularities from exposure to a limited set of stimuli--has become an important model system for understanding generalization…

Frank, Michael C.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

2011-01-01

407

Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language

Hornberger, Nancy H.

2006-01-01

408

Teachers' Beliefs about Developing Language Proficiency within the Context of Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study described here is grounded in naturalistic inquiry, a research methodology that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific settings. The goal of the study was to identify the beliefs about developing language proficiency of a group of North American French-as-a-foreign language teachers in the specific context of a three-week,…

Allen, Linda Quinn

2013-01-01

409

Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indige- nous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Gua- rani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa\\/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language policies through multilingual education brings with it choices, dilemmas, and even contradictions in educational practice.

Nancy H. Hornberger

2006-01-01

410

The Effects of Context on the Classroom Discourse Skills of Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of context on the classroom discourse skills of children with language impairment (LI). Method: Four classroom contexts were audiotaped among 11 children with LI: a journal-writing conference, a small-group lesson, a peer play session, and sharing time. Results: Context affected the…

Peets, Kathleen F.

2009-01-01

411

Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.  

PubMed

Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities. PMID:24155959

Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

2013-01-01

412

Language, Reading, and Math Learning Profiles in an Epidemiological Sample of School Age Children  

PubMed Central

Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F.; Ansari, Daniel

2013-01-01

413

Necessity and Sufficiency in Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article criticizes present-day overemphasis of contrastive analysis procedures in second language instruction. Recommendations are for language teachers to reappraise their classroom objectives and to give paramount importance to mastery of language use rather than mastery of language structure. Pedagogical procedures based on situational…

Newmark, Leonard; Reibel, David A.

1968-01-01

414

Learning builds on learning: Infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.  

PubMed

The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

Graf Estes, Katharine

2014-10-01

415

Investigating Pragmatic Language Learning in Foreign Language Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lot of research addressing learners' development of pragmatics has recently been conducted (Kasper and Schmidt 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2002; Kasper and Rose 2002). From this same approach, a review of theoretical perspectives on pragmatic learning and how they have been operationalised in interlanguage pragmatic research is presented. Second, by…

Soler, Eva Alcon

2008-01-01

416

The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety…

Chapelle, Carol A.

2009-01-01

417

The Effects of Frequency, Distribution, Mode of Presentation, and First Language on Learning an Artificial Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation presents results from a series of experiments investigating adult learning of an artificial language and the effects that input frequency (high vs. low token frequency), frequency distribution (skewed vs. balanced), presentation mode (structured vs. scrambled), and first language (English vs. Japanese) have on such learning.…

Miyata, Munehiko

2011-01-01

418

Towards A Comprehensive Learning Object Metadata: Incorporation of Context to Stipulate Meaningful Learning and Enhance Learning Object Reusability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the learning object (LO) concept has been introduced to allow sharing of smaller and portable learning materials on the Internet. Its features, concept, components, and other related matters have been fairly debated among researchers and practitioners. Attempts have been made to derive definition, model, and its working application. However, the failure to embed learning context and pedagogical

Yazrina Yahya; Mohammed Yusoff

419

On Using Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Real-Life Foreign Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the motivation and prerequisites for successful integration of Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) tools into current foreign language teaching and learning (FLTL) practice. We focus on two aspects, which we argue to be important for effective ICALL system development and use: (i) the relationship between…

Amaral, Luiz A.; Meurers, Detmar

2011-01-01

420

Japanese Learners' Language Learning Strategies: The Relationship between Learners' Personal Factors and Their Choices of Language Learning Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated (1) whether Japanese learners of a second language have the same learning strategies as other groups previously studied, and (2) whether the experience of studying or living abroad affects learning strategy use. Subjects were 24 Japanese third-year college students, learners of English as a second language who were studying in…

Tamada, Yutaka

421

Language Rights versus Speakers' Rights: On the Applicability of Western Language Rights Approaches in Eastern European Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to contexts where two conceptions of linguistic rights--the rights of languages and the rights of speakers--come into conflict. To illustrate such conflict, I will examine justifications of language laws adopted in two post-Soviet countries, Latvia and Ukraine. I will begin with an…

Pavlenko, Aneta

2011-01-01

422

Language Development and Learning to Read: The Scientific Study of How Language Development Affects Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on reading has tried, and failed, to account for wide disparities in reading skill even among children taught by the same method. Why do some children learn to read easily and quickly while others, in the same classroom and taught by the same teacher, don't learn to read at all? In "Language Development and Learning to Read", Diane…

McGuinness, Diane

2005-01-01

423

Reconceptualizing Interactional Groups: Grouping Schemes for Maximizing Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the field of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL), it has long been recognized that for second language acquisition to occur learners must use English to construct meaning and interact with others in authentic contexts. The importance of learner interaction in acquiring a second language has made the "teacher-directed…

Rance-Roney, Judith A.

2010-01-01

424

Magda and Albana: Learning to Read with Dual Language Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the ways in which dual language books are used in England to support bilingual pupils in school. While pupils in many schools speak a wide range of languages at home, these hardly feature in the curriculum. In the context of a project in which an education authority provided dual language books to primary schools, the paper describes

Raymonde Sneddon

2008-01-01

425

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicistsâ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicistsâ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicistsâ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2008-07-23

426

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-06-01

427

How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?  

PubMed Central

Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

428

Les langues minoritaires en contexte; Minderheitensprachen im Kontext (Minority Languages in Context).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in Italian, English, French, and German address issues in minority languages and minority language groups. They include: "The Role of Italian in Some Changes in Walser Morphosyntax" (article in Italian); "Compensatory Linguistic Strategies in the Gradual Death Process of a Minority Language: Evidence from Some Dying Dialects of Basque";…

Gross, Anna-Alice Dazzi, Ed.; Mondada, Lorenza, Ed.

1999-01-01

429

How Children Learn a Second Language. Fastback 278.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this fastback is to help teachers find out how children acquire a second language and explore the linguistic foundations on which sound English as a Second Language (ESL) curricula can be developed. It is intended for the regular classroom teacher, not the ESL specialist. Central findings in research on second language learning

Johns, Kenneth M.

430

Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text provides future and practicing teachers of deaf children with basic theoretical and research knowledge as well as specific principles and practices for fostering the development of language and reading. In this third edition of "Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children," the authors have added a section on language assessment in…

Rose, Susan; McAnally, Patricia L.; Quigley, Stephen P.

2004-01-01

431

Adult Language/Learning Disability: Issues and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language/learning disability (LLD) is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech in both adults and children. Most research, treatment, and support resources emphasize childhood LLD, but the problems do not disappear once a person has…

Comstock, Renee; Kamara, Carol A.

432

Teaching Languages to Students with Specific Learning Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to help language teachers to work effectively and successfully with students who have specific learning differences (SpLD) such as dyslexia. The book takes an inclusive and practical approach to language teaching and encourages teachers to consider the effects that an SpLD could have on a language learner. It suggests…

Kormos, Judit; Smith, Anne Margaret

2012-01-01

433

Extraction of linguistically relevant pragmatic contrast through language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores whether pragmatic contrast that is not expressed as relevant in the subjects' native language is extracted through language learning. Miniature artificial languages were used. In Experiment 1, a contrast was created such that four persons appeared together in each situation, with three persons performing the same activities and the fourth one performing a different target activity. Under

Hiroshi Nagata

1987-01-01

434

Research Handbook on Children's Language Learning. Preliminary Edition. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook serves as an introduction to the study of children's language development and as a supplementary aid in the training of research workers in the field of children's language learning. As a teaching aid, it is suggested this work be used with a film entitled "Psycholinquistic Research Techniques: Children's Language." Major chapters…

Dato, Daniel P.

435

Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

2006-01-01

436

Epistemic metacognition in context: evaluating and learning online information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined epistemic metacognition as a reflective activity about knowledge and knowing in the context of online\\u000a information searching on the Web, and whether it was related to prior knowledge on the topic, study approach, and domain-specific\\u000a beliefs about science. In addition, we investigated whether Internet-based learning was influenced by epistemic metacognition\\u000a and the individual differences examined. Seventy 8th

Lucia Mason; Angela Boldrin; Nicola Ariasi

2010-01-01

437

Image categorization by learning with context and consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel semi-supervised learning method which can make use of intra-image semantic context and inter-image cluster consistency for image categorization with less labeled data. The image representation is first formed with the visual keywords generated by clustering all the blocks that we divide images into. The 2D spatial Markov chain model is then proposed to capture the

Zhiwu Lu; Horace H. S. Ip

2009-01-01

438

Musical Experience Influences Statistical Learning of a Novel Language  

PubMed Central

Musical experience may benefit learning a new language by enhancing the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes sound. In the current study, participants with varying degrees of musical experience were exposed to two statistically-defined languages consisting of auditory Morse-code sequences which varied in difficulty. We found an advantage for highly-skilled musicians, relative to less-skilled musicians, in learning novel Morse-code based words. Furthermore, in the more difficult learning condition, performance of lower-skilled musicians was mediated by their general cognitive abilities. We suggest that musical experience may lead to enhanced processing of statistical information and that musicians’ enhanced ability to learn statistical probabilities in a novel Morse-code language may extend to natural language learning.

Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Schroeder, Scott R.

2014-01-01

439

Transducer-Learning Experiments on Language Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in using Finite-State Models in a large varietyof applications is recently growing as more powerful techniques for learningthem from examples have been developed. Language Understandingcan be approached this way as a problem of language translation inwhich the target language is a formal language rather than a naturalone. Finite-state transducers are used to model the translation process,and are automatically

David Picó; Enrique Vidal

1998-01-01

440

Early Modern Language Learning: Conditions of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language education specialist who has studied elementary school second language programs, primarily in France but also in other European countries, outlines the factors he has found contributing to program success and makes recommendations for further development of second language education in Europe. Seven conditions for effective programs of…

Girard, Denis

441

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

442

Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: evidence for the role of inhibition in second-language learning.  

PubMed

Adults are notoriously poor second-language (L2) learners. A context that enables successful L2 acquisition is language immersion. In this study, we investigated the effects of immersion learning for a group of university students studying abroad in Spain. Our interest was in the effect of immersion on the native language (L1), English. We tested the hypothesis that immersion benefits L2 learning as a result of attenuated influence of the L1. Participants were English-speaking learners of Spanish who were either immersed in Spanish while living in Spain or exposed to Spanish in the classroom only. Performance on both comprehension and production tasks showed that immersed learners outperformed their classroom counterparts with respect to L2 proficiency. However, the results also revealed that immersed learners had reduced L1 access. The pattern of data is most consistent with the interpretation that the L1 was inhibited while the learners were immersed. PMID:19906121

Linck, Jared A; Kroll, Judith F; Sunderman, Gretchen

2009-12-01

443

Language, Education and Development: Case Studies from the Southern Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many Southern countries, there are multiple and conflicting perspectives regarding the central role of language, particularly in relation to educational and developmental issues. A great number of multilingual, multicultural and multi-ethnic Southern countries are using "English" or some other dominant tongue as their only "official", and/or…

Dei, George J. Sefa; Asgharzadeh, Alireza

2003-01-01

444

Positioning Foreign English Language Teachers in the Japanese University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs positioning theory to explore the experiences of adjunct foreign English language teachers (AFELT) in the Japanese university sector. The research is located in the broad internationalisation discourse and considers AFELT positions as "foreign" teachers at a time when the Japanese university sector is aiming to…

Whitsed, Craig; Volet, Simone

2013-01-01

445

Feedback Processes in Multimedia Language Learning Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feedback has been one of the important elements of learning and teaching theories and still pervades the literature and instructional models, especially computer and web-based ones. However, the mechanisms about feedback dominating the fundamentals of all the instructional models designed for self-learning have changed considerably with the…

Kartal, Erdogan

2010-01-01

446

Language, Geography and Politics: The "Territorial Imperative" Debate in the European Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A response to an argument that Canadian language policy prevents the self-defense of minority languages through exclusive territorial control (LaPonce, 1984) addresses the relative neglect of research concerning language and territoriality in the European context and contrasts the contemporary multilingual situations in Spain and Switzerland to…

Mar-Molinero, Clare; Stevenson, Patrick

1991-01-01

447

Testing-Context Analysis: Assessment Is Just Another Part of Language Curriculum Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In keeping with the theme of the International Language Testing Association/Language Testing Research Colloquium Conference in 2008, "Focusing on the Core: Justifying the Use of Language Assessments to Stakeholders," I define "stakeholder-friendly tests," "defensible testing," and "testing-context analysis." I then go on to discuss the rational…

Brown, James Dean

2008-01-01

448

Language Testing in the Context of Citizenship and Asylum: The Case of Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the current article is language testing in the context of citizenship and asylum in Estonia, a country that regained independence in 1991. Estonian as the single official language of the country (according to the new language legislation laws) and a new political system have caused changes in use of and attitudes toward Estonian among…

Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

2009-01-01

449

Language Learning Down Under: Community Language Programs in the Primary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the second-language and native language maintenance programs of Brunswick North Primary School (Australia), a school that offers its students opportunities to learn Turkish, Italian, Greek, or Arabic. An integrated curriculum ensures that students acquire or maintain a language other than English. (SLD)

Corsetti, Maria

1993-01-01

450

The Two-Way Language Bridge: Co-Constructing Bilingual Language Learning Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sociocultural theoretical lens, this study examines the nature of student interactions in a dual immersion school to analyze affordances for bilingual language learning, language exchange, and co-construction of language expertise. This article focuses on data from audio- and video-recorded interactions of fifth-grade students engaged in…

Martin-Beltran, Melinda

2010-01-01

451

How Might Pragmatic Language Skills Affect the Written Expression of Students with Language Learning Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes ways in which pragmatic language abilities may play a role in the writing performance of children and adolescents with language learning disabilities. First, a brief overview is presented of how pragmatic language difficulties might negatively influence writing performance. Next, research on the writing performance of…

Troia, Gary A.

2011-01-01

452

Attitudes toward Task-Based Language Learning: A Study of College Korean Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores second/foreign language (L2) learners' attitudes toward task-based language learning (TBLL) and how these attitudes relate to selected learner variables, namely anxiety, integrated motivation, instrumental motivation, and self-efficacy. Ninety-one college students of Korean as a foreign language, who received task-based…

Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

2013-01-01

453

Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more and more dual language learners enter the school system, now is the ideal time for this second edition of the bestselling textbook--essential for preparing speech language pathologists (SLPs) and educators to work with young children who are bilingual or learning a second language. This comprehensive, student-friendly text takes the…

Paradis, Johanne; Genesee, Fred; Crago, Martha B.

2011-01-01

454

Innovation in learning and development in multilingual and multicultural contexts: Principles learned from a higher educational study programme in Luxembourg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multilingualism in education is a conceptual as well as a pedagogical challenge of the 21st century. Luxembourg, with its three statutory official languages (Luxembourgish, French and German), is an especially complex setting. The gap between traditional principles of language education on the one hand and the challenging impacts of today's multilingualisms on the other led the University of Luxembourg (founded in 2003) to set up a developmentally-driven Master's programme in 2007, entitled "Learning and Development in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts". After a presentation of the general multilingual settings in Luxembourg, this paper discusses the constellation of the multilingual University's staff and students and provides an analysis of the concept of the course by outlining its innovative approach, its principles and lessons learned with regard to running a trilingual higher education programme.

Ziegler, Gudrun

2011-12-01

455

Language Proficiency Tests in the Iranian Context: Do They Represent Communicative Language Testing Model?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize CLT. As…

Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

2011-01-01

456

A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Conducting Complex Science Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is an innovative approach that integrates wireless, mobile, and context-awareness technologies to detect the situation of learners in the real world and provide adaptive support or guidance accordingly. In this paper, a context-aware u-learning environment is developed for guiding inexperienced…

Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

2009-01-01

457

Connecting Domains in Concept-Context Learning: A Model to Analyse Education Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of context-concept education alongside existing approaches is valuable. In this article we introduce a three-domain model for concept-context learning that supports both the design process as well as the idea of concept learning. The model shows how practical and abstract knowledge should be combined to improve context-concept learning.…

Koski, Marja-Ilona; Klapwijk, Remke; de Vries, Marc

2011-01-01

458

From Recording Linguistic Competence to Supporting Inferences about Language Acquisition in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student models for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) have largely focused on the acquisition of grammatical structures. In this paper, we motivate a broader perspective of student models for ICALL that incorporates insights from current research on second language acquisition and language testing. We argue for a student model…

Amaral, Luiz; Meurers, Detmar

2008-01-01

459

Learning Your Lines: Negotiating Language and Content in Subject English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subject English is a central feature of state-mandated curriculum in English-speaking contexts and a high-stakes barrier to be negotiated for successful graduation from secondary school, irrespective of language and cultural background. In an increasingly globalized world, subject English is also being reconstituted in new and unfamiliar contexts,…

Davison, Chris

2005-01-01

460

A propositional perspective on context effects in human associative learning.  

PubMed

Propositional models of associative learning postulate that the behavioral impact of regularities in the presence of two events is mediated by the formation of propositions about the relation between these events. Because the mere statistical contingency between events often does not provide enough information to infer the nature of the relation between those events (e.g., whether one event is a cause or an effect of the other event), it is likely that people will take into account relational information that is provided by the context when forming propositions about the relation between events. Hence, propositional models predict that contextual cues which provide relational information can moderate associative learning. The present paper provides a brief review of several studies that support this prediction. These findings contribute not only to the cognitive literature on the mental mechanisms that mediate associative learning but also to the functional literature on associative learning by providing novel evidence for arbitrarily applicable relational responding. Vice versa, functional research on relational responding can provide a new source of information for the development of cognitive theories of associative learning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013. PMID:24518680

De Houwer, Jan

2014-05-01

461

Ontologies for Effective Use of Context in E-Learning Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an ontology-based framework aimed at explicit representation of context-specific metadata derived from the actual usage of learning objects and learning designs. The core part of the proposed framework is a learning object context ontology, that leverages a range of other kinds of learning ontologies (e.g., user modeling…

Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Knight, Colin; Richards, Griff

2007-01-01

462

A Knowledge-Based Approach to Retrieving Teaching Materials for Context-Aware Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid development of wireless communication and sensor technologies, ubiquitous learning has become a promising solution to educational problems. In context-aware ubiquitous learning environments, it is required that learning content is retrieved according to environmental contexts, such as learners' location. Also, a learning content…

Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

2009-01-01

463

Affecting Factors in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were…

Andreou, G.; Vlachos, F.; Andreou, E.

2005-01-01

464

Do Idiomatic Constructions Always Aid Language Learning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaschak and Saffran (2006) reported that the presence of an idiomatic syntactic construction (i.e., a construction whose structure violates the rules that govern the structure of the other sentences in the language) in training had a positive effect on participants' ability to acquire the phrase structure of an artificial language, but only when the idiomatic construction was given a distinctive

John L. Jones; Michael P. Kaschak

2009-01-01

465

Applied Language Learning, 1989-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal is intended to be a vehicle for professional communication, discussion, and debate in the field of foreign language education, with a special emphasis on the instruction of adults in both commonly taught and less commonly taught languages, for functional purposes, in an intensive setting. Topics in this volume include the following:…

Woytak, Lidia, Ed.

1998-01-01

466

Communicative Language Learning as a Motivating Factor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is seen as a system for communicative purposes and as such it involves more than just a structural organization. Indeed this view of language considers different kinds of competence which make communication really meaningful: linguistic, sociolinguistic discourse, and strategic. Linguistic competence is what we usually regard as the basis…

Tosuncuoglu, Irfan

2011-01-01

467

THE PREDICTABILITY OF LANGUAGE LEARNING RESULTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IF LANGUAGE CAN BE CONSIDERED AS ONE FORM AMONG SEVERAL BY MEANS OF WHICH MEANING CAN BE CONCEIVED AND TRANSFERRED, THEN IT FOLLOWS THAT LANGUAGE TEACHING SHOULD LEAD ABOVE ALL TO THE FACILE TRANSFER OF MEANING. ACCEPTANCE OF THIS CONCEPT WILL INFLUENCE THE CHOICE OF METHODS AND MATERIALS BEST SUITED TO YIELD THIS RESULT. THE TEACHER'S PURPOSE IS…

ROEMING, ROBERT F.

468

76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice... Title of Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre Program Survey...exchange programs that focus on critical language learning instruction. Estimated...

2011-08-31

469

Shifting Roles: From Language Teachers to Learning Advisors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although learning advisors are often qualified teachers, the skills they apply, such as those discussed by Kelly (1996), require a significant shift in approach regarding interaction with students. As teachers reorient themselves to advising, their role changes quite markedly from teaching language to advising on learning (Mozzon-McPherson, 2001).…

Morrison, Brian R.; Navarro, Diego

2012-01-01

470

A Blend of Adaptive and Digital Learning Towards Language Proficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital media and information have taken the world by storm highlighting the importance of a proper education in the English Language towards Information Communication Technologies (ICT). This importance is expected to grow further creating an interest in online or digital learning among students, educators and software developers. Novel software and various tools for online or digital learning are likely to

Jagath Wickremaratne; Geethanjali Wimalaratne; Vineeta Goonetilleke

2008-01-01

471

Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

Bird, Steve

2012-01-01

472

Goal Setting for Learning English Language of EFL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated goal setting for learning English language of Bangkok University students. A set of questionnaires for the assessment of goal settings and problems of learning English was administered to 370 second-year students. The study revealed that the goal setting was at a moderate level. There were statistically significant…

Srichanyachon, Napaporn

2010-01-01

473

Beginners and programming: insights from second language learning and teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will consider issues that are important in the teaching and learning of programming to students in their first year of an undergraduate course in a computer science discipline. We will suggest that the current educational climate offers the opportunity to move the focus onto the learner and their experience, and that second language learning and teaching in the

LYNNE P. BALDWIN; ROBERT D. MACREDIE

1999-01-01

474

"A Priori" Assessment of Language Learning Tasks by Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' competence to estimate the effectiveness of learning materials is important and often neglected in programmes for teacher education. In this lecture I will try to explore the possibilities of designing scaffolding instruments for a "priori" assessment of language learning tasks, based on insights from SLA and cognitive psychology, more…

Westhoff, Gerard J.

2009-01-01

475

Computer game based learning approach for Mandarin language  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a multinational and multicultural country with diverse population, Malaysia comprises of 3 races such as Malays, Indians and Chinese. There are 2 other languages that need to be learned by Malaysian that is Mandarin and Tamil. Mandarin was chosen in this study because Chinese is the second largest ethnic group in Malaysia and most of the Asian countries. Learning

Annisa Dwiana; Dalbir Singh

2011-01-01

476

Learning a Language in the Field: Problems of Linguistic Relativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author feels that there is no reason to suppose that adults are less capable than children in learning a second language, given adequate opportunity and motivation. In terms of amount learned in comparable time, the adult is about five times as efficient as the child. This is what would be expected of any other kind of intellectual or rational…

Catford, J.C.

477

Effective Awareness-Raising in Language Learning Strategy Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated how students of English as a second language (ESL) improved their use of learning strategies through awareness-raising in group interviews and informal training. Subjects were 68 Taiwanese university students in two freshman English classes. Subjects responded to an English learning strategy questionnaire in the beginning and…

Yang, Nae-Dong

478

Enhancing metacognition in self-directed language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, learner training has been undertaken in many programmes aiming to achieve learners' autonomy. Quite often, however, this training has only focused on the teaching of tactics and strategies, overlooking other important factors such as students' attitude towards autonomy, beliefs and expectations about language learning and teaching, personal needs and objectives, learning styles and self-evaluation. One of the

Mia Victori; Walter Lockhart

1995-01-01

479

A Case Study: Teachers' Learning and Language Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five teachers used exploratory talk as a tool for learning as they developed policy concerning the use of writing across the curriculum. Transcripts were analyzed for development of scientific concepts (learning) through increased use of specialized vocabulary (language growth). (Author/MT)

Bayer, Ann Shea

1986-01-01

480

Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

2013-01-01

481

Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

2008-01-01

482

Learning in a personal context: Levels of choice in a free choice learning environment in science and natural history museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to characterize contextual learning during class visits to science and natural history museums. Based on previous studies, we assumed that outdoor learning is different from classroom-based learning, and free choice learning in the museums enhances the expression of learning in personal context. We studied about 750 students participating in class visits at four museums, focusing on the

Yael Bamberger; Tali Tal

2007-01-01

483

Language as a Tool in Diverse Forms of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript we report on a curriculum design project in which we worked with students in an urban immigrant community to study their own language practices in different contexts. We gathered videotaped data of students in the classroom as well as videos they took of their language practices in other settings. We focus on one student's…

Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich; Martinez, Danny C.; Lee, Clifford H.; Montano, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

484

Item-based language learning in children and connectionist networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of children's early language is grammatical. This fact has been used as a support for the idea that babies are born with abstract grammatical categories and rules. However, some recent investigations suggest that the grammaticality of early utterances can be attributed largely to imitation of adults. That is, children's early language is item-based or context-bound and based on specific

Rutvik Desai

485

The language learning of a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language development of the author's child through the first 36 months is described, showing the growth of vocabulary, the comparison of parts of speech, and the growth of the ability to master the phonetic sounds.

W. N. Brigance

1934-01-01

486

Evaluating Predictors of Foreign Language Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides evidence-based recommendations for assigning individuals to foreign languages for initial acquisition training (IAT) at the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School (USAJFKSWCS). This report attempts to determine th...

2011-01-01

487

Nutrition and Language-Learning Development in Preschool Programs for Children with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nutritional program used at the Pediatric Language Laboratory--a day care center for preschool children with language-learning disabilities is discussed. Some "do's" and "don'ts" regarding appropriate nutrition are presented. (Author)

Adler, Sol

1982-01-01

488

Experiments in Unsupervised Learning of Natural Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the body of the paper, we present ongoing experiments which aim to evaluate different choices of algorithm and metric, and extend the paradigm in directions which are designed to overcome the present limitations. These are presented in the rather unglamorous context of the first stage of classification or as an intuitive multidimensionally scaled map, and later in dendrograms under

David Powers

489

CoOL: A Context Ontology Language to Enable Contextual Interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a context modelling approach using on- tologies as a formal fundament. We introduce our Aspect-Scale-Context (ASC) model and show how it is related to some other models. A Con- text Ontology Language (CoOL) is derived from the model, which may be used to enable context-awareness and contextual interoperability during service discovery and execution in a proposed distributed

Thomas Strang; Claudia Linnhoff-popien; Korbinian Frank

2003-01-01

490

Reforming English As A Foreign Language (EFL) CUrriculum In Romania: The Global And The Local Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform in Romania from the perspective of the influence of the global and local contexts on education. To characterize the EFL curriculum reform in Romania from the interaction of the globalization movement with the local contexts in education, a model of representation was designed.

Florin M. Mihai

2003-01-01

491

The Decision-Making Process in Language Program Placement: Test and Nontest Factors Interacting in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tests has been targeted as a critical point in validity, which suggests that contexts for test use warrant closer investigation. This article describes a study of decision making during test use in the context of a university intensive English language program. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, data were collected by audio-recording…

Plakans, Lia; Burke, Maureen

2013-01-01

492

Mnemotechnics in second-language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the author's keyword method, a mnemonic aid for vocabulary learning. According to this method, a foreign word is connected to its English translation by a chain of 2 links-similarity in sound (acoustic link) and a mental image of the interaction between the 2 words (imagery link). Experiments using Russian and Spanish vocabularies are described to illustrate that the keyword

Richard C. Atkinson

1975-01-01

493

Creative Movement: A Language for Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When educators consciously integrate the arts and education, the benefits are magnified. Kinesthetic learning has wide-ranging applications, such as interpreting a concept through physical means to increase comprehension, exploring literature themes and feelings through creative movement, exploring the universality and particularity of human…

Griss, Susan

1994-01-01

494

Critique of a Language-Learning Website  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listening plays a crucial part in the learning of overseas students in the United Kingdom. Students can never follow a lecture or discussion in English without listening. Traditional classroom teaching in listening limits students' time and space. However, the Web-based listening course accommodates listeners a great deal, enabling them to access…

Kan, Soh Or

2011-01-01

495

Language Learning Motivation: Who Do You Want to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author critiques six articles. Five of the six articles are about motivation in language learning, an area which has seen considerable theoretical and empirical development over the last decade. The articles she reviews include: (1) Udo Jung's report on the top twelve "most prestigious FLT (foreign language teaching) journals"…

Broady, Elspeth

2005-01-01

496

Seeking Inclusivity in English Language Learning Web Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contributes to research on critical perspectives in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and on evaluative frameworks for English language learning (ELL) Web sites. The research addressed the following questions: (a) To what extent do ELL Web sites depict diverse representations of gender, race, socioeconomic…

McClure, Kristene K.

2010-01-01

497

Learning Strategy Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom: Speaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide is designed to provide foreign language teachers with suggestions for helping students become better language learners. The four chapters of the guide for teaching speaking skills are as follows: (1) Teaching Learning Strategies (e.g., rationale for teaching, types, useful strategies, guidelines, instructional sequence, and…

Chamot, Anna Uhl; And Others

498

Development of Igbo Language E-Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-Learning involves using a variety of computer and networking technologies to access training materials. The United Nations report, quoted in one of the Nigerian dailies towards the end of year 2006, says that most of the minor languages in the world would be extinct by the year 2050. African languages are currently suffering from discard by…

Oyelami, Olufemi Moses

2008-01-01

499

The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the…

Risager, Karen

2011-01-01

500

Evaluating the Integration of Technology and Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of a program evaluation project that assessed the integration of technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) into a second semester, college-level French course. Thirty-three French II students participated in the study. The results suggest that it is both feasible and desirable to integrate TELL activities into the language

Adair-Hauck, Bonnie; Willingham-McLain, Laurel; Youngs, Bonnie Earnest

2000-01-01