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1

Second Language Learning; Investigating the Classroom Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of second-language (L2) classroom-based research projects undertaken at the University of Stirling in Scotland. It is argued that a full understanding of classroom-based L2 learning requires the integration of sociolinguistic studies of the classroom context with psycholinguistic studies of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

Mitchell, Rosamond

1989-01-01

2

Context or Key? Language in Four Adult Learning Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context is a key factor in designing and delivering adult learning programmes, and in multilingual environments the choice of language plays a decisive role. Four programmes, two in Asia (Bhutan Myanmar) and two in Africa (Ghana and Uganda), which focus on learning for development, integrate language considerations in different ways, related both…

Robinson, Clinton

2007-01-01

3

Learning Shallow ContextFree Languages under Simple  

E-print Network

had semantic capacities. The name EMILE is also motivated by the book on education by J.­J. Rousseau In this paper I present the EMILE 3.0 algorithm 1 . It can learn shallow context­free grammars efficiently in natural language learning may lead to versions of EMILE 3.0 that can be implemented in real­life dialogue

Amsterdam, University of

4

Literacy through "Language Arts": Teaching and Learning in Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book gathers 25 essays and 80 shorter excerpts from the past 25 years of the K-8 journal "Language Arts." Essays in the book begin with (1) "Introduction" (Sharon Murphy and Curt Dudley-Marling). Under Section I--Opening Contexts for Thinking about Teaching the Language Arts--are the following essays: (2) "How Children Learn or How Teachers…

Murphy, Sharon, Ed.; Dudley-Marling, Curt, Ed.

5

At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test…

Gu, Lin

2014-01-01

6

Reflection in the Context of Community Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Community Language Learning (CLL) and its unique characteristic of employing reflection as a way of learning a foreign language. The use of CLL in teaching oral English to Japanese students in Japan is described. (CFM)

La Forge, Paul G.

1979-01-01

7

Weak semantic context helps phonetic learning in a model of infant language acquisition  

E-print Network

Weak semantic context helps phonetic learning in a model of infant language acquisition Stella Edinburgh, EH8 9AB, UK Abstract Learning phonetic categories is one of the first steps to learning a language, yet is hard to do using only distributional phonetic in- formation. Semantics could potentially

Edinburgh, University of

8

EXCELL: Experiences in Context for Early Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program focuses on therapeutic principles and methods for prelinguistic and early language learning, with the goals of increased cognitive functions and sensory awareness/interaction, expanded communicative repertoires, and increased caregiver interaction with the child through appropriate stimuli and assignment of communicative intent. The…

Raack, Catherine B.

9

Teaching Language, Learning Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

Swiderski, Richard M.

10

Language Ability and Social Withdrawal: Ratings of English Language Learning Children's Withdrawn Behavior in Native and Nonnative Language Contexts  

E-print Network

This study is one of the first investigations of withdrawn behavior in English language learning (ELL) children. Children with communication difficulties are known to have increased levels of withdrawn behavior. Withdrawn ...

Ash, Andrea Christine

2009-07-30

11

Word learning in context : the role of lifetime language input and sentential context  

E-print Network

patterns in language acquisition  in  children.     Indeed, Talking  to  children:  Language  input  and  acquisition.  children.     Rather  than  observing  a  pattern  where  greater  experience  hones  language acquisition 

Borovsky, Arielle

2008-01-01

12

Factors Influencing Language-Learning Strategy Use of English Learners in an ESL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), version 7.0 (ESL/EFL) developed by Oxford (1990) to examine differences in language-learning strategy use. It focused on how learner factors such as gender, age, nationality, and proficiency level influence the choice of language-learning strategies. The participants were 75…

Nguyen, Ngan; Godwyll, Francis

2010-01-01

13

A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Language Listening and Speaking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reported the results of a study that aimed to construct a sensor and handheld augmented reality (AR)-supported ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment called the Handheld English Language Learning Organization (HELLO), which is geared towards enhancing students' language learning. The HELLO integrates sensors, AR, ubiquitous…

Liu, T.-Y.

2009-01-01

14

The Impact of Cultural Background on the Choice of Language Learning Strategies in the JFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning strategies have been researched for more than 30 years yet there remain many unanswered questions. Some of these questions relate to the target language being studied, specifically Japanese, and the influence of learner variables on the choice of language learning strategies, specifically cultural background. This study seeks to…

Grainger, Peter

2012-01-01

15

A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use in an EFL Context: Monolingual Korean and Bilingual Korean-Chinese University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since language is socially mediated and context dependent, it would be expected that learners' use of language learning strategies may vary with the environment. Using the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1990), this study examines the language learning behaviors and thought processes of two geographically and…

Hong-Nam, Kyungsim; Leavell, Alexandra G.

2007-01-01

16

The Context of Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers concerns itself with language in a total situation. Specifically, there is a concern for linguistic capability, how it is to be defined, how it can be assessed, and how it is to be developed. Seven sections are included: (1) Introduction: Context of Situation; (2) Language in a Social Perspective; (3) Language and…

Wilkinson, A. M., Ed.

1971-01-01

17

Essay: Learning a Second Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What challenges face students who are learning a second language at the same time as they are learning science? This essay considers some of the difficulties associated with learning to speak, read, and write in a second language. Although the principles of language learning discussed here can be generalized across languages and contexts, this essay considers situations in which English is both the language of instruction and the language being learned.

Ellen Bialystok, York University

2008-01-01

18

Contexts for Learning: English Language Learners in a US Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the sociocultural theoretical framework that this paper adopts, learning, including second-language learning, is conceptualised as increasing participation in a community of practice. Thus it becomes of central importance to examine the nature of the community itself and the kinds of participatory opportunities that it supports or…

Haneda, Mari

2008-01-01

19

Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help…

Manabe-Kim, Rie

2012-01-01

20

Sustainability and Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Factors for Success in a Context of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A team of university Italian teachers at an Australian university has been able to obtain enduring benefits from computer-assisted language learning (CALL), through projects that last, and indeed grow and develop over time. The projects have focused on supporting students in effective use of out-of-class time once they reach an intermediate level…

Kennedy, Claire; Levy, Mike

2009-01-01

21

Website Analysis as a Tool for Task-Based Language Learning and Higher Order Thinking in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Besides focusing on grammar, writing skills, and web-based language learning, researchers in "CALL" and second language acquisition have also argued for the importance of promoting higher-order thinking skills in ESL (English as Second Language) and EFL (English as Foreign Language) classrooms. There is solid evidence supporting the…

Roy, Debopriyo

2014-01-01

22

Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts. Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the overseas experience of language learners in diverse contexts through a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, studies in this volume look at the acquisition of language use, socialization processes, learner motivation, identity and learning strategies. In this way, the volume offers a privileged window into learner…

DuFon, Margaret A., Ed.; Churchill, Eton, Ed.

2006-01-01

23

Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

2013-01-01

24

Examining the Effectiveness of Extensive Speaking Practice via Voice Blogs in a Foreign Language Learning Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational blogs have drawn the growing interest of researchers and language teachers due to the user-friendly interfaces as well as the powerful archiving features. The purpose of the current study is two-fold: (1) to examine the effectiveness of extensive speaking practice on speaking performance in voice blogs, and (2) to examine learners'…

Sun, Yu-Chih

2012-01-01

25

From Multilingualism to Plurilingualism: University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning in a Monolingual Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to highlight the representations that university students have about plurilingualism, in order to research how they can develop plurilingual competences in an essentially monolingual French academic setting. It is based on a survey of 684 students enrolled in two foreign language programmes across two year levels (first and fourth…

Jeoffrion, Christine; Marcouyeux, Aurore; Starkey-Perret, Rebecca; Narcy-Combes, Marie-Françoise; Birkan, Ilker

2014-01-01

26

Context, Learning, and Extinction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

2010-01-01

27

The Effect of the Context of Learning on the Use of Communication Strategies by Learners of Spanish as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of the context of learning--"at home" (AH) classroom versus study abroad (SA)--on the number and types of communication strategies (CSs) used by learners of Spanish as a second language. Oral data from 46 learners--20 AH and 26 SA--were analyzed before and after the treatment period, to discern the effect of…

Lafford, Barbara A.

2004-01-01

28

From Recording Linguistic Competence to Supporting Inferences about Language Acquisition in Context: Extending the Conceptualization of Student Models for Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student models for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) have largely focused on the acquisition of grammatical structures. In this paper, we motivate a broader perspective of student models for ICALL that incorporates insights from current research on second language acquisition and language testing. We argue for a student model that includes a representation of the learner's ability to use

Luiz Amaral; Detmar Meurers

29

Will Mobile Learning Change Language Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of mobile phones and other portable devices is beginning to have an impact on how learning takes place in many disciplines and contexts, including language learning. Learners who are not dependent on access to fixed computers can engage in activities that relate more closely to their current surroundings, sometimes crossing the border…

Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

2009-01-01

30

Language Acquisition As Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chomsky's proposition that language is handled by a language-specific faculty needs more justification. In language acquisition in particular, it is still in question whether the faculty is necessary or not. We succeeded in explaining one constraint on language acquisition in terms of a general learning mechanism. This paper describes a machine learning system Rhea applied to the domain of language

Mikiko Nishikimi; Hideyuki Nakashima; Hitoshi Matsubara

1992-01-01

31

Natural language processing technologies for developing a language learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) comes in many different flavors. Our research work focuses on developing an integrated e-learning environment that allows improving language skills in specific contexts. Integrated e-learning environment means that it is a Web-based solution that performs language learning tasks using common working environments like, for instance, Web browsers or Email clients. It should be accessible

Harald Wahl; Werner Winiwarter; Gerald Quirchmayr

2010-01-01

32

Learning Mathematics Within Contexts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 1-hr webcast Dr. Cathy Fosnot and a group of math educators discuss the significance of problem contexts for students' mathematics learning. They solve a problem involving fractions and proportional reasoning, share multiple solution strategies, and discuss the importance of solving problems before assigning them to children in order to anticipate the range of knowledge and skills that students might demonstrate. Video clips of a classroom foster a discussion of strategies for designing lesson problems and managing a congress.

2007-10-30

33

LANGUAGE LEARNING--READINGS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SELECTED ARTICLES ON SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND REPORTS OF RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING, PUBLISHED FROM 1960 TO 1966, ARE PROVIDED IN THIS PACKET. INCLUDED ARE--(1) "UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT IN FL LEARNING" BY PAUL PIMSLEUR, DONALD M. SUNDLAND, AND RUTH D. MCINTYRE, (2) "THE PREDICTION OF SUCCESS IN INTENSIVE FL TRAINING" BY JOHN B.…

Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

34

Problem-Based Learning in a Programming Context-Planning and Executing a Pilot Survey on Database Access in a Programming Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we describe a pilot survey on applying problem-based learning (PBL) in an undergraduate programming course. During the course the students have applied PBL as a complement to traditional teaching and learning techniques. The PBL problem in this survey combines both knowledge about programming and knowledge about databases. We argue that to handle programming the students have to learn programming according to the deep approach to learning in order to be able to apply their knowledge in new programming situations and contexts. The result from this pilot survey indicates from both a tutor and a student perspective that PBL could be one method to reach a deeper understanding on how to access databases in a programming language.

Bellström, Peter; Kilbrink, Nina

35

Context Change and Associative Learning.  

PubMed

The present article reviews the effects of changing the background context on performance in associative learning tasks in humans and animals. The findings are complementary and consistent over animal conditioning (Pavlovian and instrumental learning) and human predictive learning and memory paradigms. In many cases, a context change after learning can have surprisingly little disruptive influence on performance. Extinction, or retroactive interference treatments more generally, are more context-specific than the initial learning. Contexts become important if the participant is exposed to any of several treatments that involve prediction error, which may serve to increase attention to the context. Contexts also become important if they are given predictive or informational value. Studies of instrumental (operant) learning are further consistent with the idea that the context might also influence affordances that support voluntary actions. Context switch effects are not universal, but mainly occur when certain attention and perception processes can come into play. PMID:23772263

Rosas, Juan M; Todd, Travis P; Bouton, Mark E

2013-05-01

36

Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) Experiences with Scientific Language and Inquiry within a Real Life Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on…

Algee, Lisa M.

2012-01-01

37

Electronic Tandem Language Learning (eTandem): A Third Approach to Second Language Learning for the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tandem language learning occurs when two learners of different native languages work together to help each other learn the other language. First used in face-to-face contexts, Tandem is now increasingly being used by language-learning partners located in different countries who are linked via various forms of electronic communication, a context

Cziko, Gary A.

2004-01-01

38

Why Language Learning Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most education systems prepare their students to function in the national language and at least one additional language. However, only one-third of U.S. elementary schools offer students language-learning opportunities. Multilingual societies have competitive advantages over monolingual societies in international trade. Ameliorative steps are…

Met, Myriam

2001-01-01

39

Contextual Dynamics in Foreign Language Learning Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning context has increasingly been postulated to exert an influence on the dynamics of individual differences in language learning. In a longitudinal design that tested the proficiency gains of 1,682 learners over a 2-year foreign language program, a multilevel modeling approach was deployed in this study to account for variation in second…

Kozaki, Yoko; Ross, Steven J.

2011-01-01

40

Easifying Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to investigate some basic learning activities in order to identify strategies that make learning more effortless. Study topics focus on acquisition of new second-language vocabulary, students' organization of their notebooks, studying for tests, observation of classroom communication, and test-taking strategies. Nineteen…

Cohen, Andrew D.; Aphek, Edna

41

Hypnosis and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

42

Promoting ESP language learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article focuses on the current problem of teaching English for Specific Purposes(ESP) language vocabulary taking into consideration the ways how learners store and recall words and the influence of their mother tongue. Through incidental learning and explicit vocabulary instructions the elaborated vocabulary learning occurs involving the creation of an affective semantic network.

Mineeva, S. A.

2003-10-01

43

Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection of papers from the 6th Annual International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning (Urbana, Illinois, April 1992) include: "Discourse Markers Across Language" (Bruce Fraser); "Conjunction and Causality: Pragmatics and the Lexicon" (Yael Ziv); "Situated Discourse: The Sociocultural Context of Conversation in a Second Language"…

Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

44

Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

2000-01-01

45

1 Introduction Language Learning and Language Contact  

E-print Network

language change yields clues on what the learning processes are and conversely hypothe­ sised learning processes should predict possible language changes. This paper considers this issue by studying lexicon of contact. Luc Steels It is a fact that natural languages evolve at all levels: New sounds may get in

Steels, Luc

46

Putting the Context into Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores the conceptualization of learning and context from a number of perspectives and some of the theoretical and methodological issues raised when context is no longer considered as a container, but as a relational effect. It provides an introduction for the articles that follow, insofar as they take up lines of flight from the…

Edwards, Richard; Miller, Kate

2007-01-01

47

Learning Languages through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use…

Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

2007-01-01

48

Second Language Teaching & Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this volume is to provide a contemporary portrait of second language learning and teaching, to identify major trends and issues, to show where these trends and issues have come from, and to illustrate ways teachers can incorporate these ideas in their own teaching practice. The book is a personal account, tracing the author's…

Nunan, David

49

Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

2012-01-01

50

Language and literacy acquisition in bilingual contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the role of research and theory regarding language and literacy acquisition in planning for bilingual programmes involving lesser used languages. Three psycho?educational principles are outlined: the additive bilingual enrichment principle, the interdependence principle and the sufficient communicative interaction principle. The role of these principles in the educational language planning process is discussed in the context of a

Jim Cummins

1989-01-01

51

Analysing Language in Context: A Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook for students provides an accessible introduction to a range of ways of analyzing language in context. The workbook can be used in a number of ways, for example, as a student reference text to briefly review a particular kind of language analysis or as a course textbook to introduce students to a variety of approaches to language data…

Lillis, Theresa; McKinney, Carolyn

52

Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

Baker, B. S.

1974-01-01

53

Learning in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When geometry and career and technical education (CTE) are cotaught in the process of building a house, learning is enhanced, test scores improve, and there's a waiting list of students wanting in. Geometry in Construction is a class instructed by the authors--a CTE teacher (Scott Burke) and a mathematics teacher (Tom Moore). While Moore instructs…

Burke, Scott; Moore, Tom

2009-01-01

54

Teachers' Views on Digital Educational Tools in English Language Learning: Benefits and Challenges in the Turkish Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the clear benefits provided by digital educational tools, Turkish teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) are often seen as failing to take advantage of computing technologies in the classroom. Deficiencies in terms of teachers' digital literacies are often faulted for this omission. The majority of studies concerning Turkish…

Çelik, Servet; Aytin, Kübra

2014-01-01

55

Creativity and Foreign Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that in order to revitalize foreign language learning, language teachers must make every classroom a place where students can mold their personal tastes or apply the language to their own background and interests. Argues that language learning has a humanistic value in and of itself. (SED)

Giauque, Gerald S.

1985-01-01

56

Localization in minority language contexts  

E-print Network

software/resources Social media Software localization #12;Some perspective "The internet and digital in the 90's No web, no TG4, no streaming radio "Social media" = email list Gaeilge-A In 1999-2000 I world cannot save us. They cannot save Indigenous languages. Of course these things have benefits

Scannell, Kevin Patrick

57

Language Management in Education: The Australian Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offering a comprehensive review of Australian research directed toward the study of the language use of children from different social backgrounds, this book assesses the validity of Basil Bernstein's thesis that many lower working class children are confined to a restricted code of language use. This evaluation is set in two wider contexts: what…

Robinson, W. P.

58

Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…

Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.

59

The Complexity of Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

Nelson, Charles

2011-01-01

60

Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language

Pichette, Francois

2009-01-01

61

An Experiment on Supporting Children's English Vocabulary Learning in Multimedia Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning in context is an important component of second language (L2) vocabulary teaching and learning. However, young children may encounter some difficulties in dealing with the context. Hence learning support should be included to facilitate learning. The present study examined the effects of two types of learning support on Chinese children's (7 years of age) learning of English words: sentence-level

Yanqing Sun; Qi Dong

2004-01-01

62

Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

Rothwell, Julia

2011-01-01

63

Language-Based Learning Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

... or symptoms of a language-based learning disability? Dyslexia has been used to refer to the specific ... problems have spoken language problems. The child with dyslexia has trouble almost exclusively with the written (or ...

64

Does Language Matter in Multimedia Learning? Personalization Principle Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines one of the design principles of multimedia learning in a context dissimilar to the one in which it was originally tested. Personalization principle states that the amount of learning increases when the style of language is informal and conversational. In an attempt to uncover the relationship between learning and language

Kartal, Gunizi

2010-01-01

65

Skype Me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live…

Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

2014-01-01

66

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

67

Learning Languages, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal serves the profession by providing a medium for the sharing of information, ideas, and concerns among teachers, administrators, researchers, and others interested in the early learning of languages. Articles in this volume include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching: What We Can Learn from Other Countries" (Ingrid U. Pufahl,…

Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

2001-01-01

68

Multimedia for language learning  

E-print Network

Students studying foreign languages often wish to enjoy authentic foreign-language content - for example, foreign-language videos and comics. Existing means of presenting this content, however, are suboptimal from the ...

Kovács, Géza, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

69

Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

Hinton, Leanne

2011-01-01

70

Predictors of spoken language learning  

PubMed Central

We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We found those who were successful to have higher activation in bilateral auditory cortex, larger volume in Heschl’s Gyrus, and more accurate pitch pattern perception. All of these measures were performed before training began. In the second set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned a phonological grammatical system governing the formation of words of an artificial language. Again, neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, and cognitive factors predicted to an extent how well these adults learned. Taken together, these experiments suggest that neural and behavioral factors can be used to predict spoken language learning. These predictors can inform the redesign of existing training paradigms to maximize learning for learners with different learning profiles. Learning outcomes: Readers will be able to: (a) understand the linguistic concepts of lexical tone and phonological grammar, (b) identify the brain regions associated with learning lexical tone and phonological grammar, and (c) identify the cognitive predictors for successful learning of a tone language and phonological rules. PMID:21601868

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

2011-01-01

71

Engaging students in an online situated language learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have emphasized the relationship between students' engagement and learning performance, and yet the context in which students and the teacher interact to engage each other has been ignored. In order to engage college students who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the context of a big class, this study developed a system, which is an

Yu-Fen Yang

2011-01-01

72

Linguistics and Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Authors believe that the best immediate contribution of systematic language study would be to sweep away the morass of simple ignorance in which literacy is now caught, the elaborate folklore that prevails in language matters. (Authors/MB)

Ives, Josephine P.; Ives, Sumner A.

1972-01-01

73

IRAKAZI: a web-based system to assess the learning process of Basque language learners  

E-print Network

IRAKAZI: a web-based system to assess the learning process of Basque language learners Aldabe I Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL); Natural Language Processing (NLP); interlanguage; error learners (age, language background, language level, learning context, etc.) and store students' deviations

Boyer, Edmond

74

Language Learning Podcasts and Learners' Belief Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ubiquitous use of Internet-based mobile devices in educational contexts means that mobile learning has become a plausible alternative to or a good complement for conventional classroom-based teaching. However, there is a lack of research that explores and defines the characteristics and effects of mobile language learning (LL) through language

Basaran, Süleyman; Cabaroglu, Nese

2014-01-01

75

Gender and language learning strategies: looking beyond the categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning contexts: speaking in class, listening in

Indika Liyanage; Brendan John Bartlett

2012-01-01

76

Gender and language learning strategies: looking beyond the categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning contexts: speaking in class, listening in

Indika Liyanage; Brendan John Bartlett

2011-01-01

77

Students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards English language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational factors and experiences have the potential to influence students’ attitudes and anxiety levels towards English language learning. Recognizing the importance and multi-dimensional complexities of motivational attitudes and anxiety, this mini-research study attempts to investigate gender wise students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards the learning of English as a second language in the multilingual context of Karachi, Pakistan. The study

Meenaz Shams

2008-01-01

78

The Role of Students' Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning in Online Language Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of students' motivation and attitudes in second language (L2) study within an online language course context (LOL). Students' attitudes and motivation were examined within a socioeducational framework (Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993) while learning contexts were examined based on Dorneyi's (1994) components of foreign…

Ushida, Eiko

2005-01-01

79

Language experience changes subsequent learning  

PubMed Central

What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

2013-01-01

80

Language Learning Stations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of learning stations at elementary and secondary levels. Explains vocabulary, grammar, conversation, listening, reading and culture stations; materials and equipment for stations; management concerns. (BK)

Strauber, Sandra K.

1981-01-01

81

Predictors of Spoken Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report two sets of experiments showing that the large individual variability in language learning success in adults can be attributed to neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, and perceptual factors. In the first set of experiments, native English-speaking adults learned to incorporate lexically meaningfully pitch patterns in words. We…

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc

2011-01-01

82

Journal of Celtic Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal is an international review for researchers and teachers of modern Celtic languages. This volume contains seven articles. There are three research articles: "Issues in the Design of Irish Credited Courses" (Thomas W. Ihde); "Learning Irish for Participation in the Irish Language Speech Community outside the Gaeltacht" (Muiris O…

O Laoire, Muiris, Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

2000-01-01

83

Vocationally Oriented Language Learning Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocationally oriented language learning (VOLL) is often seen as a part of English for Specific Purposes/Language for Specific Purposes (ESP/LSP), which it is not in every case. The diverging characteristics and lines of development that these two branches of ELT have undergone are outlined and contrasted. Then, a discussion of the added value of a…

Vogt, Karin; Kantelinen, Ritva

2013-01-01

84

Reflections on Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of papers, dedicated to Maria Antonieta Alba Celani, a celebrated English professor in Brazil, consists of writings by colleagues on four themes: developments stemming from Dr. Celani's Brazilian national project for the teaching of English for special purposes; language teacher training; language processing; and analysis of…

Barbara, Leila, Ed.; Scott, Mike, Ed.

85

(Re)Conceptualizing Design Approaches for Mobile Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study conducted at George Brown College in Toronto, Canada between 2007 and 2009 investigated language learning with mobile devices as an approach to augmenting ESP learning by taking learning outside the classroom into the real-world context. In common with findings at other community colleges, this study identified inadequate…

Hoven, Debra; Palalas, Agnieszka

2011-01-01

86

Should Bilingual Children Learn Reading in Two Languages at the Same Time or in Sequence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed second- and third-grade children in two-way "dual-language learning contexts": (a) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (b) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other).…

Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2013-01-01

87

The use of ICT in the assessment of modern languages: the English context and European viewpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ever increasing explosion of highly attractive multimedia resources on offer has boosted the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of modern languages. The use of ICT to assess languages is less frequent, however, although online testing is starting to develop. This paper examines the national context for the assessment of modern foreign language

Marilyn Hunt; Sean Neill; Ann Barnes

2007-01-01

88

Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the field of intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) and relates them to current practice in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and second language learning. Points out that ICALL applies expertise from artificial intelligence and the computer and cognitive sciences to the development of language learning

Harrington, Michael

1996-01-01

89

Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings suggest that participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increased ELL use of scientific language and understanding of scientific inquiry and motivation to learn. In addition, parent' funds of knowledge informed students' experiences in the science project. These findings suggest that the learning and teaching practices and the real life experiential learning contexts served as an effective means for increasing students' understandings and motivation to learn.

Algee, Lisa M.

90

Compulsory Language Studies for University Degrees: The Challenge of Decontextualization in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper discusses the decontextualization of learning in a case of compulsory Swedish language studies for university degrees. In this case learning Swedish is mostly disconnected, not only from the everyday lives of the students in a way typical of formal learning in general, but also from the study activities and contexts that students…

Horppu, Ritva; Ikonen-Varila, Merja

2005-01-01

91

Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

2012-01-01

92

Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

Young, Richard F.

2008-01-01

93

LanguageLand : a multimodal conversational spoken language learning system  

E-print Network

LanguageLand is a multimodal conversational spoken language learning system whose purpose is to help native English users learn Mandarin Chinese. The system is centered on a game that involves navigation on a simulated ...

Lee, Vivienne C. (Vivienne Catherine)

2004-01-01

94

English Language and Learning Procedures Category: Teaching and Learning  

E-print Network

1 English Language and Learning Procedures Category: Teaching and Learning 1. LEGISLATION/ENTERPRISE AGREEMENT/POLICY SUPPORTED English Language and Learning Policy 2. PROCEDURAL DETAILS English language and learning procedures are concerned with responsibilities related to the development of the English language

95

The Sociocultural Contexts of Learning in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines demographic dimensions of the work force: aging, gender, race, sexual orientation, immigration, language, religion. Suggests a workplace pedagogy that is sensitive to sociocultural context and includes the concept of workplace learning as a lifelong process, socioculturally sensitive policies, equal opportunity development, and diversity…

Bierema, Laura L.

2002-01-01

96

Training of Foreign Language Learning Strategies: Effects on Learning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been commonly assumed that language learning strategy training would improve language learning and should be included in foreign language instruction. However, few empirical studies have explored that effectiveness of strategy training in improving learners' target language learning. The effectiveness of strategy training on language

Huang, Shenghui Cindy

97

The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

2013-01-01

98

Empirical learning of natural language processing tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language learning has thus far not been a hot application for machine-learning (ML) research. This limited attention for work on empirical learning of language knowledge and behaviour from text and speech data seems unjustified. After all, it is becoming apparent that empirical learning of Natural Language Processing (NLP) can alleviate NLP's all-time main problem, viz. the knowledge acquisition bottleneck: empirical

Walter Daelemans; A. Van den Bosch

1997-01-01

99

Temporal context and conditional associative learning  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated how temporal context affects the learning of arbitrary visuo-motor associations. Human observers viewed highly distinguishable, fractal objects and learned to choose for each object the one motor response (of four) that was rewarded. Some objects were consistently preceded by specific other objects, while other objects lacked this task-irrelevant but predictive context. Results The results of five experiments showed that predictive context consistently and significantly accelerated associative learning. A simple model of reinforcement learning, in which three successive objects informed response selection, reproduced our behavioral results. Conclusions Our results imply that not just the representation of a current event, but also the representations of past events, are reinforced during conditional associative learning. In addition, these findings are broadly consistent with the prediction of attractor network models of associative learning and their prophecy of a persistent representation of past objects. PMID:20353575

2010-01-01

100

Evaluating Learning Gain in a Self-Access Language Learning Centre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If it is to be argued that self-access language learning centres (SACs) provide an efficient and effective alternative or complement to more traditionally accepted modes of language learning and teaching, it remains a serious concern that there is no research-based framework specifically developed for their evaluation. It is within the context of…

Morrison, Bruce

2005-01-01

101

Elderly Refugees and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For elderly refugees, coming from a variety of cultural situations and with varied educational backgrounds, transplantation to a new culture is an especially difficult process. There is no research evidence to suggest that older adults can not succeed in learning another language, although more deliberate efforts must be made to achieve this. In…

Grognet, Allene Guss

102

Second Language Learning vs. Pidginization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the differences between second language learning and pidginization to better understand the mechanisms involved in each process. Current research suggests similarities between the two. Both are characterized by reduction and simplification. Grammatical transformations tend to be eliminated, along with inflectional markers of…

Flick, William C.; Gilbert, Glenn G.

103

Effective Motivation in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is about the importance of the integrative, instrumental, and work avoidance motivation in second language learning and being successful. Firstly, we had a motivation questionnaire then we applied this questionnaire and the achievement test to 90 students in Education Faculty English Department. Before the motivation questionnaire…

Seven, Mehmet Ali; Engin, Ali Osman

2008-01-01

104

Physics Learning through a Telecommunications Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Physics Phones Home unit which is context-led and developed by the Supported Learning in Physics Projects. Teaches introductory magnetism; electric, magnetic and gravitational fields; and electricity and circular motion. (YDS)

Edwards, Christopher

2000-01-01

105

Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

Rumbaugh, Duane M.

1992-01-01

106

Management challenges of context-aware learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

Pankowska, Malgorzata

2015-02-01

107

Perirhinal Cortex Lesions Impair Context Aversion Learning  

PubMed Central

Rats with perirhinal cortex lesions were compared with sham controls on a conditional discrimination in which saccharin was paired with LiCl in context 1, but paired with saline in context 2. Perirhinal-lesioned rats were slightly slower to acquire the discrimination but reached control levels by the end of acquisition. Both groups showed transfer to familiar tap water, consuming less in context 1 than in context 2. Unlike sham rats, perirhinal rats failed to show an aversion to context 1 on a place choice test. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the postulated difference between Pavlovian conditioning and conditional learning. PMID:12773580

Howse, Dana J.; Squires, Amanda S.; Martin, Gerard M.; Skinner, Darlene M.

2003-01-01

108

Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

2013-01-01

109

"Language Immersion Tepee" as a Facilitator of Sámi Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the history of assimilation, power relations, and their sociolinguistic situation, the Sámi languages are categorized as endangered. The position of the Sámi languages in Sámi education is reviewed, and language immersion as a teaching method and as a means of language maintenance is discussed. Sámi language learning is described through…

Keskitalo, Pigga; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

2014-01-01

110

Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

2012-01-01

111

The Role of Language of Thought in Foreign Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores what is meant by "thinking" in a target language. Factors that determine both unplanned and planned use of more than one language for thinking are discussed, and empirical data from a mini-survey and from personal language learning and language using experiences are presented. The role of target-language thinking in improving…

Cohen, Andrew D.

1995-01-01

112

Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper, "Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica." examines how the narratives of students can offer useful understanding and insights into their attitudes and achievements in second language acquisition. These situations are specific to Creole-speaking learning environments in Jamaica…

Davids, Melva P.

2013-01-01

113

Enumeration of Context-Free Languages and Related Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the enumeration of context-free languages. In particular, for any reasonable descriptional complexity measure for context-free grammars, we demonstrate that the exact quantity of context-free languages of size is uncomputable. Nevertheless, we are able to give upper and lower bounds on the number of such languages. We also generalize our results to enumerate predicates that are

Michael Domaratzki; Alexander Okhotin; Jeffrey Shallit

2007-01-01

114

Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

Rasmussen, Palle

2014-01-01

115

Mobile Learning - Designing the Learning Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to the conceptualisation of school-based curriculum design processes that incorporate high quality mobile learning and considers the work of a recent m-learning project where classroom teachers embedded use of mobile technology into their working school programs. Project teachers devised a set of principles based on current education theory and practice to inform their curriculum design process. These

Kathy Stewart

116

Spoken language processing in a multilingual context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we overview the spoken language processing activities at LIMSI, which are carried out in a multilingual framework. These activities include speech-to-text conversion, spoken language sys- tems for information retrieval, speaker and language recognition, and speech response. The Spoken Language Processing Group has also been actively involved in corpora development and evaluation. The group has regularly participated in

Lori Lamel; Martine Adda-Decker; Jean-Luc Gauvain; Gilles Adda

1996-01-01

117

Foreign Language Learning Strategy Choice: Naturalistic versus Instructed Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether there are differences in the choice of language learning strategy and in the frequency of its use in the concurrent acquisition of two foreign languages, one being learned in a tutored and the other in a non-tutored manner. Specifically, it investigates the tutored learning of English in a formal setting and the…

Alptekin, Cem

2007-01-01

118

Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

2011-01-01

119

Wordplay and Language Learning for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The connections among language learning, language education, and children's wordplay are explored in this book. Each chapter examines some aspect of the interrelations between wordplay activities and the goals of language education. The book is divided into three sections, with the first section exploring wordplay and language learning in the…

Geller, Linda Gibson

120

Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition  

E-print Network

Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition Alexander Clark1 and Shalom Lappin2 1 Computational learning theory explores the limits of learnability. Studying language acquisition from- sults to motivate the claim that language acquisition requires a strong set of language specific

Clark, Alexander

121

Influence of Additional Language Learning on First Language Learning in Children with Language Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language

To, Carol K. S.; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin

2012-01-01

122

Context and Deep Learning Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual clarification is essential if we are to establish a stable and deep discipline of technology enhanced learning. The technology is alluring; this can distract from deep design in a surface rush to exploit the affordances of the new technology. We need a basis for design, and a conceptual unit of organization, that are applicable across…

Boyle, Tom; Ravenscroft, Andrew

2012-01-01

123

Micro Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Agency in Local Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper overviews some of the domains of application of micro-level language planning approaches to foster multilingual education. It examines the language planning of local agents and the contexts in which their work contributes to multilingual education, either to expand or limit educational possibilities. It identifies four broad contexts of…

Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry

2014-01-01

124

Context-sensitive Languages and Linear Bounded Andre Nies, Supervisor  

E-print Network

-sensitive languages (CSLs) was developed by Noam Chomsky in the 1950's as a tool for linguistic analysis. A context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 First Definition of Context Sensitive Languages . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 The Chomsky of their productions. This classification was made by Chomsky and now forms what is known as the Chomsky hierarchy[1

Nies, Andre

125

Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language

Boyd, Lynda

2009-01-01

126

English Language and Learning Policy Category: Teaching and Learning  

E-print Network

English Language and Learning Policy Category: Teaching and Learning 1. PURPOSE To provide for the development of enrolled students' English language and learning in accordance with the University's strategic considers the development of English language proficiency to be integral to the development of discipline

127

LEARNING ENGLISH FROM SONGS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING CENTER, MAHIDOL UNIVERSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to share the writer's experience with other teachers of English in preparing self-study materials for Learning English from Songs, a self-study section in the Language Learning Center, Mahidol University. In order to promote learning autonomy in language teaching the Department of Foreign Languages in collaboration with the Library and Information Center of Mahidol University

Ratana Vattanapath

128

MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION Early Language Learning  

E-print Network

begins in infancy. Developmental studies suggest that children learn more and learn earlier than previously thought. In the arena of language development, our studies show that children's early learning ``statistical learning,'' a form of implicit learning that occurs as children interact in the world, to acquire

129

Statistical language modeling using a variable context length  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate statistical language models with avariable context length. For such models the number of relevantwords in a context is not fixed as in conventional M-gram models but depends on the context itself. We develop a measure for the quality of variable-length models and present a pruning algorithm for the creation of such models, based on this

Reinhard Kneser; Forschungslaboratorien Aachen

1996-01-01

130

Supporting Authentic Learning Contexts Beyond Classroom Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the classroom level, contexts for learning are often limited in the experiential component. Teachers and trainers feel overwhelmed by the difficulty of inventing authentic learning contexts, and creating tasks that truly reflect the way knowledge would be used in the real world (Herrington et al. 2004). However, there are growing numbers of examples of how such authentic learning environments are being used in schools, higher education, and professional development in a variety of contexts and discipline areas, such as in literacy education (Ferry et al. 2006), in physical activity fitness and health (Rice et al. 1999), in Indigenous education (Marshall et al. 2001), in evaluation (Agostinho 2006), in multimedia and ICT (Bennett et al. 2001), in literature (Fitzsimmons 2006), and in business writing (Pennell et al. 1997). Teachers and trainers who subscribe to this approach to learning can be very inventive in developing learner perceptions of authentic contexts, but often financial, situational and time constraints limit the experiential elements of authentic learning settings.

Herrington, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Brickell, Gwyn; Harper, Barry

131

Context free languages in biological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of definitions is proposed which places a dynamic model of growth and stabilization in biological systems in a formal language framework. The language of stable adult strings achievable in a system without cellular interactions is studied. It is shown that o if every string is considered to be a possible initial string in development, then the class of

Gabor T. Herman; Adrian Walker

1975-01-01

132

American Indian Languages: Cultural and Social Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book introduces the general reader to the mosaic of American Indian languages and cultures as they exist in time and space, and supplies limited technical linguistic orientation to encourage further exploration of language interrelationships, cultures, and other ways of knowing. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the status, diversity, and…

Silver, Shirley; Miller, Wick R.

133

Language, Shyness and Social Contexts: Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language is a gift of special significance to the human species. Whether the source of the generosity is nature or nurture, or some combination, is controversial, but few scientists or laypeople would dispute the evolutionary and practical value of the key mode of communication. From infancy, language is integral to just about everything one does,…

Durkin, Kevin

2009-01-01

134

Cognitive-emotional interactions Language as context for the perception  

E-print Network

processes such as language. In this paper we suggest otherwise and offer the hypothesis that language,' `disgust,' `surprise' and `happiness' are not expressed as fixed patterns of facial behaviors, even though are being used as perceptual targets. Finally, we end by suggesting that the language-as-context hypothesis

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

135

A Teacher's Perspective: Learning a Second Language  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "Learning a Second Language," page 107, Ellen Bialystok explains the ways in which reading a science text in a second language makes learning more challenging. She explains that language is the core of science learning because it "is the primary medium through which scientific concepts are understood, constructed, and expressed." She talks about some of the challenges of learning through spoken language but focuses primarily on the obstacles students face when they are expected to learn science through texts. Ana Vaisenstein, a former first-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual school, shares her perspective.

Ana Vaisenstein, Sumner Elementary School, Boston Public Schools

2008-01-01

136

Intercultural Education and Foreign Language Learning: Issues of racism, identity and modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a particular attempt to represent ethnic and cultural diversity in the context of materials produced for advanced adult learners by the Open University. The course materials are designed to support distance learning of French language and culture. The authors argue that language learning has a particular political importance within the context of Europe, and note that foreign

Audrey Osler; Hugh Starkey

2000-01-01

137

Technology and Second Language Learning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, technology is incorporated into second language teaching and learning both in and out of classroom situations. The computer alone has many capabilities for enhancing language learning, but when combined with other technologies, the possibilities multiply for information retrieval, interactive audio- and video-assisted learning, use…

Willetts, Karen

138

Computing Laboratory Classes as Language Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas most research on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) tends to rely heavily on the assessment of academic achievement and language learning outcomes, this study involved an evaluation of the psychosocial learning environment in computing laboratories. The What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) and Attitude to Computers and…

Okan, Zuhal

2008-01-01

139

Web-Based English Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of another language is an advantage and it gives people to look at the world and in particular to the world's cultures with a broader perspective. Learning English as a second language is the process by which students learn it in addition to their native language. Today, internet is an important part of our lives as English. For this…

Sarica, Gulcin Nagehan; Cavus, Nadire

2008-01-01

140

LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES SEVERAL GAMELIKE ACTIVITIES WHICH ARE DESIGNED TO FACILITATE LANGUAGE LEARNING AMONG DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN. THE INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION EMPHASIZES (1) THE IMPORTANT ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND (2) THE NEED FOR A STRUCTURED PROGRAM OF LANGUAGE LEARNING ACTIVITIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. FOURTEEN ACTIVITIES (FOR…

BEREITER, CARL; ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED

141

Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

Bae, Su-Young

2006-01-01

142

Distance Learning for Foreign Language Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distance learning (DL) or online courses for teaching foreign languages (L2) has only recently attracted the field's attention; the major complaint voiced against learning languages through a DL format is that students fail to receive enough oral practice with face - to - face speaking. Implementing and evaluating DL language courses represent two separate issues, each with its respective challenges.

Fu Zhihai

2010-01-01

143

Implementing the European Language Portfolio in a Turkish Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the way in which the European Language Portfolio (ELP) is used for teaching English as a foreign language to young learners with the aim of enhancing their involvement in the language learning process. The data for the study were collected through observations in a fourth-grade and a fifth-grade classroom (students' ages varied…

Yilmaz, Sinem; Akcan, Sumru

2012-01-01

144

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1999-2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, comprising volume 5, issues 1-3 of Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL), includes the following articles: "Poverty, Race, and Foreign Language Immersion: Predictors of Math and English Language Arts Performance" (Stephen J. Caldas, Nicole Boudreaux); "Meet a Foreign Language

Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

2000-01-01

145

Foreign Language Methods Students' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated preservice foreign language teachers' preconceived ideas about language learning and teaching. Surveys were administered at the beginning and the end of two foreign language methods courses at different universities. Data analysis indicated that while many of the respondents' beliefs remained consistent throughout the…

Harrington, Stasie C.; Hertel, Tammy Jandrey

2000-01-01

146

Meaning in Second Language Learning and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of grammar rules and their relationship to language teaching, learning, and communicating are discussed in an attempt to stimulate language teachers to examine the approach they take in teaching grammar rules. (Contains five references.) (LB)

Chastain, Kenneth

1993-01-01

147

Learning Strategies Used by Successful Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the language learning strategies employed by successful learners of English as a foreign and second language. Two successful English learners whose first languages are Mandarin were interviewed, and asked to complete a questionnaire and a self-evaluation measure to indicate their perceived level of language proficiency as well…

Thu, Tran Hoang

2009-01-01

148

A LINGUISTIC GUIDE TO LANGUAGE LEARNING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WRITTEN WITH THE IDEA THAT ONCE A LANGUAGE LEARNER HAS ACQUIRED A KIND OF LINGUISTIC SOPHISTICATION HE CAN LEARN ANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE MORE EFFICIENTLY, THIS INTRODUCTION TO THE PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE AND CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS PROVIDES SOME NEW INSIGHTS INTO HUMAN LANGUAGES. AFTER DISCUSSING BRIEFLY HOW DISTINCTLY ADVANTAGEOUS IT IS FOR THE…

MOULTON, WILLIAM G.

149

Online Mind Maps for Language Learning : Assisted Risk-Taking Josphine Rmon1  

E-print Network

Online Mind Maps for Language Learning : Assisted Risk-Taking Joséphine Rémon1 Université Lumière learning, going towards a better understanding of this combination for enhanced teaching and learning. The context is digital literacy and English as a Foreign Language teaching at university. The students

Boyer, Edmond

150

Look Who's Talking: Speech Style and Social Context in Language Input to Infants Are Linked to Concurrent and Future Speech Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language input is necessary for language learning, yet little is known about whether, in natural environments, the speech style and social context of language input to children impacts language development. In the present study we investigated the relationship between language input and language development, examining both the style of parental…

Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

2014-01-01

151

Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

1994-01-01

152

An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

Zhao, Qing

2013-01-01

153

Cooperative Language Learning: Increasing Opportunities for Learning in Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper conceptualizes cooperative language learning, group instruction which is under the learner-centered approach where the groups are formed in such a way that each member performs his or her task to achieve the goal. Previous research indicates that cooperative language learning doesn't only improve learners' language skills, but also…

Wichadee, Saovapa; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2012-01-01

154

Addressing Pedagogical Dilemmas in a Constructivist Language Learning Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational constructivism has long been associated with advanced pedagogy on the basis that, it champions a learner-centered approach to teaching, advocates learning in meaningful contexts and promotes problem-based activities where learners construct their knowledge through interaction with their peers. Involving language learners in video…

Nikitina, Larisa

2010-01-01

155

Correlation of Anxiety and Motivation in English Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlation of anxiety and motivation was studied by means of questionnaire. The results show that inner interest motivation and effort intensity are significantly and negatively correlated with anxiety while achievement motivation. Learning context motivation is significantly and positively correlated with anxiety. Pedagogic implications are given according to the findings of study, like developing students' interest in English language and its

Zheng Bin; Ji Lixia

2009-01-01

156

Attitude: A Crucial Differential Variable in Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts and roles of motivation and attitude in relation to second language learning are examined. Motivation can be characterized as primary or derivative, and intrinsic or extrinsic. Attitude is a motivational factor generated by context. Motivation and attitude play an important role in all situations which are not natural, such as school…

Titone, Renzo

157

Questioning the Stability of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Motivation across Different Classroom Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether foreign language learner anxiety and motivational goal orientations remained stable across two different classroom contexts: a reading course and a conversation course. The researcher measured anxiety and four types of motivational goal orientations by surveying 59 Korean college students learning English in both…

Kim, Sung-Yeon

2009-01-01

158

Issues in Contemporary Spain: A Multimedia Approach to Teaching Language and Culture in Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of combining second language learning and cultural education at the advanced level is described. In a third-year college Spanish course, the subject of post-Franco Spain is used as the context for developing reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills and also serves as content area in itself. In addition to instructional texts,…

Ramos, Rosa Alicia

159

Transnationalism and Literacy: Investigating the Mobility of People, Languages, Texts, and Practices in Contexts of Migration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of research offers a synthesis and analysis of research studies that address issues of language and literacy practices and learning in transnational contexts of migration. We consider how theoretical concepts from transnational migration studies, including particular Boudieusian-inspired concepts such as transnational social field,…

Lam, Wan Shun Eva; Warriner, Doris S.

2012-01-01

160

"To Improve Language, You Have to Mix": Teachers' Perceptions of Language Learning in an Overseas Immersion Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overseas immersion environment has long been considered a superior context for language learning, supposedly providing unlimited exposure to target language (TL) input and countless opportunities for authentic interaction with expert users. This article focuses on immersion programmes (IPs) for in-service language teachers--a relatively…

Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon; Corder, Deborah; Stacey, Karen

2014-01-01

161

Learning in Authentic Earth and Planetary Contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Virtual Field Trip project has been developed in collaboration with NASA Learning Technologies to allow students, internationally, to accompany scientists on a field trip to the Pilbara region of Western Australia to debate the relevance of ancient structures called stromatolites, to the origins of life on Earth and the search for life on Mars. The project was planned with the aim of exposing high school students to `science in the making', including exposure to the ongoing debate and uncertainties involved in scientific research. The development of the project stemmed from both research-based and anecdotal evidence that current science education programs are not providing secondary students with a good understanding of the processes of science. This study seeks to examine the effectiveness of student use of the tools to increase awareness of the processes of science and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tools in terms of student learning. The literature reports that there is a need for learning activities to be conducted within meaningful contexts. The virtual field trip tools create an environment that simulates key elements in the scientific process. Such an approach allows students to learn by doing, to work like scientists and apply their learning in an authentic context.

Fergusson, J. A.; Oliver, C. A.

2006-12-01

162

Content-Based Language Teaching: Convergent Concerns across Divergent Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article serves as the introduction to this special issue of "Language Teaching Research" on content-based language teaching (CBLT). The article first provides an illustrative overview of the myriad contexts in which CBLT has been implemented and then homes in on the five studies comprising the special issue, each conducted in a distinct…

Lyster, Roy; Ballinger, Susan

2011-01-01

163

The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

Chang, Bok-Myung

2011-01-01

164

Empowering the Language Learner: Language Learning Strategy Training and Self-Regulation in an EFL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how an understanding of the Good Language Learner models described in the SLA literature can be used to tailor and implement a program of learning strategy training and self-regulatory practices in the classroom to empower L2 learners in an EFL context. The paper begins by reviewing the various…

Torres, Gabriella

2013-01-01

165

Modeling Social Learning of Language and Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms

Paul Vogt; Evert Haasdijk

2010-01-01

166

Language Distance Learning for the Digital Generation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article was to shed light on the potential of distance learning to overcome challenges in distance, space, time, and human and economic resources that limit access to language learning opportunities in cultural, literary, historical, geographical, and cross-cultural frames. Language and literature educators collectively have…

Duran-Cerda, Dolores

2010-01-01

167

Investigating University Students' Beliefs about Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to investigate beliefs students usually held about language learning, based on the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) questionnaire (Horwitz, 1988). For this purpose, 423 University learners of English in Iran were selected. Running descriptive statistics and the scree plot test, five factors were extracted:…

Mohebi, Sanaz Ghobadi; Khodadady, Ebrahim

2011-01-01

168

Narrative Research in Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative research in language teaching and learning (LTL) is concerned with the stories teachers and learners tell about their lived and imagined experiences. Teachers typically tell about their professional development and their practices, and learners about their experiences of learning and using languages. What stories are, and indeed what…

Barkhuizen, Gary

2014-01-01

169

CHATTER : a spoken language dialogue system for language learning applications  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to build a Computer Aided Language Learning game that simulates a casual conversation in Mandarin Chinese. In the envisioned system, users will chat with a computer on topics ranging from ...

Goldie, Anna Darling

2011-01-01

170

Plurilingualism, Language Learning Strategy Use and Learning Style Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper investigates the language learning strategy use and learning style preferences of Greek university students in order to find out the possible relations that hold between degrees of plurilingualism, strategy use and learning styles. The subjects were 1555 Greek undergraduates from a number of disciplines, learning foreign…

Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki; Kantaridou, Zoe

2009-01-01

171

Learning Grasp Context Distinctions that Generalize  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control-based approaches to grasp synthesis create grasping behavior by sequencing and combining control primitives. In the absence of any other structure, these approaches must evaluate a large number of feasible control sequences as a function of object shape, object pose, and task. This work explores a new approach to grasp synthesis that limits consideration to variations on a generalized localize-reach-grasp control policy. A new learning algorithm, known as schema structured learning, is used to learn which instantiations of the generalized policy are most likely to lead to a successful grasp in different problem contexts. Two experiments are described where Dexter, a bimanual upper torso, learns to select an appropriate grasp strategy as a function of object eccentricity and orientation. In addition, it is shown that grasp skills learned in this way can generalize to new objects. Results are presented showing that after learning how to grasp a small, representative set of objects, the robot's performance quantitatively improves for similar objects that it has not experienced before.

Platt, Robert; Grupen, Roderic A.; Fagg, Andrew H.

2006-01-01

172

Implementing Cooperative Learning at a Language School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes a program evaluation of cooperative learning in a private language school devoted to teaching English to Japanese students. Student resistance to cooperative learning was due to a lack of training of students, a lack of understanding of basic cooperative learning principles by administrators, and a lack of cooperative…

Lee, Soo-im

173

Language Learning in Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Multiple Pathways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text on teaching language to students with hearing impairments stresses the use of multiple language learning pathways to meet the individual needs of students. The introductory chapter looks at language issues in the context of history, instruction, technology, culture, and the law. Chapter 2, on language acquisition, discusses the nature of…

Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Baker, Sharon

174

Language Learning in Australia. Book 1. Australian Language Levels Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Australian Language Levels (ALL) Project, begun in 1985 to develop an organizational framework and curriculum guidelines for language instruction in elementary and secondary education, offers a coherent model for curriculum design drawing on recent research on teaching and learning. The first volume in the four-volume series outlines the…

Scarino, Angela; And Others

175

Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2009-01-01

176

Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence?  

PubMed Central

Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed 2nd and 3rd grade children in two-way dual-language learning contexts: (i) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (ii) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other). They were compared to matched monolingual English-only children in single-language English schools. Bilinguals (home language was Spanish only, English-only, or Spanish and English in dual-language schools), were tested in both languages, and monolingual children were tested in English using standardized reading and language tasks. Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses. By contrast, bilinguals in 90:10 programs performed better than bilinguals in the 50:50 programs on English Phonological Awareness and Reading Decoding tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for surface phonological regularity analysis. Notably, children from English-only homes in dual-language learning contexts performed equally well, or better than, children from monolingual English-only homes in single-language learning contexts. Overall, the findings provide tantalizing evidence that dual-language learning during the same developmental period may provide bilingual reading advantages. PMID:23794952

Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

2013-01-01

177

Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

178

The Roles of "Second Life" in a College Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Course in Taiwan, ROC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various language learning projects using "Second Life" (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL)…

Liou, Hsien-Chin

2012-01-01

179

The roles of Second Life in a college computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course in Taiwan, ROC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various language learning projects using Second Life (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course for 25 college students through task design

Hsien-Chin Liou

2011-01-01

180

The roles of Second Life in a college computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course in Taiwan, ROC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various language learning projects using Second Life (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course for 25 college students through task design

Hsien-Chin Liou

2012-01-01

181

Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education  

PubMed Central

The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy. PMID:21892359

Kuhl, Patricia K.

2011-01-01

182

Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

Pennington, Martha

2011-01-01

183

Discriminating languages in bilingual contexts: the impact of orthographic markedness  

PubMed Central

Does language-specific orthography help language detection and lexical access in naturalistic bilingual contexts? This study investigates how L2 orthotactic properties influence bilingual language detection in bilingual societies and the extent to which it modulates lexical access and single word processing. Language specificity of naturalistically learnt L2 words was manipulated by including bigram combinations that could be either L2 language-specific or common in the two languages known by bilinguals. A group of balanced bilinguals and a group of highly proficient but unbalanced bilinguals who grew up in a bilingual society were tested, together with a group of monolinguals (for control purposes). All the participants completed a speeded language detection task and a progressive demasking task. Results showed that the use of the information of orthotactic rules across languages depends on the task demands at hand, and on participants' proficiency in the second language. The influence of language orthotactic rules during language detection, lexical access and word identification are discussed according to the most prominent models of bilingual word recognition. PMID:24860536

Casaponsa, Aina; Carreiras, Manuel; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

2014-01-01

184

The Internet, Language Learning, and International Dialogue: Constructing Online Foreign Language Learning Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we call attention to the close connection between languages and globalization, and we also emphasize the importance of the Internet and online websites in foreign language teaching and learning as unavoidable elements of computer assisted language learning (CALL). We prepared a checklist by which we investigated 28 foreign…

Kartal, Erdogan; Uzun, Levent

2010-01-01

185

The Assessment of Meta-Cognition in Different Contexts: Individualized vs. Peer Assisted Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of assessing young children's meta-cognition in different contexts (i.e., individual learning (IL), peer assisted learning (PAL) and self-reports). Additionally, the contributions of declarative and procedural meta-cognition in IL and PAL, TOM and language ability on children's cognitive performance…

Shamir, Adina; Mevarech, Zemira R.; Gida, Carmit

2009-01-01

186

Tweet2Learn: Language learning via social media  

E-print Network

Tweet2Learn: Language learning via social media Kevin Scannell Saint Louis University May 30, 2013 #12;Social Media: Advantages Solves the "critical mass" problem Connects learners with native-study or formal pedagogy #12;Social Media: Disadvantages Still only a complement to "real" learning No oral

Scannell, Kevin Patrick

187

Language: The Heart of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the OMLTA Journal includes the following papers: "Helping Teacher Teach: A Foreign Language Collaborative in Southeast Ohio" (Barry G. Thomas); "Bilingual and Group Poetry in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Evelyn F. Brod); "So You Want To Be in Pictures: Videotaping in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Connie L. Bowman); "Theatre as…

Snyder, Barbara, Ed.

1985-01-01

188

Context-Free Languages A context-free grammar is a 4-tuple (V,,P,S), where  

E-print Network

Context-Free Languages A context-free grammar is a 4-tuple (V,,P,S), where · V is a nite set of non;Context-Free Languages recall the non-regular language {anban | n 0} · V = {S} · = {a,b} · productionSaaa aaabaaa 2 #12;Context-Free Languages We use to mean that can be obtained from using one application

Waterloo, University of

189

A Probe into Three Chinese Boys' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Learning English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this case study, we investigate three Chinese boys' self-efficacy beliefs learning English as a second language across English language learning tasks and home-based and school-based contexts. Participants reported higher self-efficacy to complete listening and speaking activities than during reading and writing activities. All participants…

Wang, Chuang; Pape, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

190

Social Positioning, Participation, and Second Language Learning: Talkative Students in an Academic ESL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guided by positioning theory and poststructural views of second language learning, the two descriptive case studies presented in this article explored the links between social positioning and the language learning experiences of two talkative students in an academic ESL classroom. Focusing on the macro- and micro-level contexts of communication,…

Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye

2014-01-01

191

Why Are You Learning a Second Language? Motivational Orientations and Self-Determination Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined self-determination theory (SDT) in the language learning context. Involved the development of a valid and reliable instrument to assess different subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and explored the link between these motivational sub-types and various orientations to language learning. Showed instrumental orientation and the…

Noels, Kimberly A.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Clement, Richard; Vallerand, Robert J.

2003-01-01

192

Language Learning Strategies, Course Grades, and Age in EFL Secondary School Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In studies dealing with language learning strategies in the school context, the variables of proficiency and age are often difficult to isolate since students accumulate more hours of foreign language instruction as they move up from grade to grade. This study aimed to deal with these two variables independently by analysing learning strategy use…

Tragant, Elsa; Victori, Mia

2012-01-01

193

Mapping Successful Language Learning Approaches in the Adaptation of Generic Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the use of a generic piece of software, the "Copernic Summarizer" (www.copernic.com) as a language learning tool and considers two discrete pedagogical approaches used as part of its integration within the context of teaching and learning a foreign language. Firstly, this paper will present a brief overview on the emerging…

Hourigan, Triona; Murray, Liam

2006-01-01

194

Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language aptitude has been hypothesized as a factor that can compensate for postcritical period effects in language learning capacity. However, previous research has primarily focused on instructed contexts and rarely on acquisition-rich learning environments where there is a potential for massive amounts of input. In addition, the studies…

Granena, Gisela

2013-01-01

195

The Use of Blogs in Learning English as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the context of English as a foreign language (EFL), using blogs has emerged as a language learning tool. However, how teachers effectively incorporate blogs within the confines of an instructional framework and what the current research shows about using blogs as a learning tool remain unsolved issues. Thus, the current paper presents a…

Aydin, Selami

2014-01-01

196

Learning and the language of thought  

E-print Network

This thesis develops the hypothesis that key aspects of learning and development can be understood as rational statistical inferences over a compositionally structured representation system, a language of thought (LOT) ...

Piantadosi, Steven Thomas

2011-01-01

197

Learning Semantic Maps from Natural Language Descriptions  

E-print Network

This paper proposes an algorithm that enables robots to efficiently learn human-centric models of their environment from natural language descriptions. Typical semantic mapping approaches augment metric maps with higher-level ...

Walter, Matthew R.

198

An Investigation into the Relationship of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Sign Language Use among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Hungarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to point out the relationship between foreign language learning motivation and sign language use among hearing impaired Hungarians. In the article we concentrate on two main issues: first, to what extent hearing impaired people are motivated to learn foreign languages in a European context; second, to what extent sign…

Kontra, Edit H.; Csizer, Kata

2013-01-01

199

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Improves Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a reliable technique to improve motor learning. We here wanted to test its potential to enhance associative verbal learning, a skill crucial for both acquiring new languages in healthy individuals and for language reacquisition after stroke-induced aphasia. We applied tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) over the posterior part of the left peri-sylvian area

Agnes Flöel; Nina Rösser; Olesya Michka; Stefan Knecht; Caterina Breitenstein

2008-01-01

200

The Teaching of African Languages: Content, Context, and Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three interdependent components--content, context, and methodology--are discussed as they relate to the teaching of African languages to non-native speakers. Content depends on type and availability of instructional materials, which may be quite limited. If textbooks are not available, the teacher must select from varied authentic materials and…

Moshi, Lioba

1994-01-01

201

How Social Contexts Support and Shape Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The human potential for language is based in human biology but makes requirements of the social environment to be realized. This paper reports evidence regarding (1) the nature of those environmental requirements, (2) the ways in which the varied social contexts in which children live meet those requirements, and (3) the effects of environmental…

Hoff, Erika

2006-01-01

202

Expanding "Within Context" to "Across Contexts" Learning: A Case Study of Informal and Formal Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning happens not only in schools, but also in every context that affords new experiences and opportunities for metacognition. We aim to maximize the different activity-milieux in which learners are engaged in developing their life-long learning dispositions to learn within and across contexts. This paper is a follow up of an earlier published…

Kim, Mi Song; Hung, Wei Loong David; Jamaludin, Azilawati Bte; Lim, Seo Hong

2014-01-01

203

Media, Information Technology, and Language Planning: What Can Endangered Language Communities Learn from Created Language Communities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The languages of Klingon and Na'vi, both created for media, are also languages that have garnered much media attention throughout the course of their existence. Speakers of these languages also utilize social media and information technologies, specifically websites, in order to learn the languages and then put them into practice. While teaching a…

Schreyer, Christine

2011-01-01

204

On the neurobiological investigation of language understanding in context.  

PubMed

There are two significant problems in using functional neuroimaging methods to study language. Improving the state of functional brain imaging will depend on understanding how the dependent measure of brain imaging differs from behavioral dependent measures (the "dependent measure problem") and how the activation of the motor system may be confounded with non-motor aspects of processing in certain experimental designs (the "motor output problem"). To address these problems, it may be necessary to shift the focus of language research from the study of linguistic competence to the understanding of language use. This will require investigations of language processing in full multi-modal and environmental context, monitoring of natural behaviors, novel experimental design, and network-based analysis. Such a combined naturalistic approach could lead to tremendous new insights into language and the brain. PMID:15068912

Small, Steven L; Nusbaum, Howard C

2004-05-01

205

Learning Strategies in Reading and Writing: EAP Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presently, the importance of culture and context is becoming a significant feature of research in the field of learning strategies. To date, there has been little research into learning strategies utilized for reading and writing in Asian EAP (English for Academic Purposes) contexts, and in particular in the Thai context. With this in mind, this…

Baker, William; Boonkit, Kamonpan

2004-01-01

206

Comparing Linear Conjunctive Languages to Subfamilies of the Context-Free Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear conjunctive grammars define the same family of languages as one-way real-time cellular automata (Okhotin, "On the equivalence of linear conjunctive grammars to trellis automata", RAIRO ITA, 2004), and this family is known to be incomparable to the context-free languages (Terrier, "On real-time one-way cellular array", Theoret. Comput. Sci., 1995). This paper investigates subclasses of the context-free languages for possible containment in this class. It is shown that every visibly pushdown automaton (Alur, Madhusudan, "Visibly pushdown languages", STOC 2004) can be simulated by a one-way real-time cellular automaton, but already for LL(1) context-free languages and for one-counter DPDAs no simulation is possible.

Okhotin, Alexander

207

Measuring Opportunity to Learn and Academic Language Exposure for English Language Learners in Elementary Science Classrooms. CRESST Report 767  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study piloted a survey-based measure of Opportunity to Learn (OTL) and Academic Language Exposure (ALE) in fourth grade science classrooms that sought to distinguish teacher practices with ELL (English language learner) and non-ELL students. In the survey, participant teachers reported on their instructional practices and the context

Martinez, Jose Felipe; Bailey, Alison L.; Kerr, Deirdre; Huang, Becky H.; Beauregard, Stacey

2010-01-01

208

Crosslinguistic Differences in Implicit Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report three experiments that explore the effect of prior linguistic knowledge on implicit language learning. Native speakers of English from the United Kingdom and native speakers of Cantonese from Hong Kong participated in experiments that involved different learning materials. In Experiment 1, both participant groups showed evidence of…

Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.

2014-01-01

209

Pragmatics and Language Learning, Volume 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monographs on pragmatics and language learning include: "Do We All Apologize the Same?--An Empirical Study on the Act of Apologizing by Spanish Speakers Learning English" (Montserrat Mir); "Conversational Openings in Kiswahili: The Pragmatic Performance of Native and Non-Native Speakers" (Alwiya S. Omar); "Experimental and Observational Data in…

Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.; Kachru, Yamuna, Ed.

1992-01-01

210

Materials Development for Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the literature on the relatively new field of materials development for language learning and teaching. It reports the origins and development of the field and then reviews the literature on the evaluation, adaptation, production and exploitation of learning materials. It also reviews the literature, first, on a number of…

Tomlinson, Brian

2012-01-01

211

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

212

Experiential Language Learning for Professional Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the language training courses provided by the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) to government employees and their dependents, focusing on the use of experiential language learning and "bridging" classroom study to practical applications. Bridges are an important part of the FSI training program not only because they target…

Cruciani, Renee; And Others

213

Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have…

Li, Hong; Fox, Roy F.; Almarza, Dario J.

2007-01-01

214

Mobile Sign Language Learning Outside the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)

Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad

2012-01-01

215

Gesture in Modern Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades there have been linguists who proclaimed the significant role of kinesic expression in carrying the meaning of spoken language (e.g. Efron, 1941; Birdwhistell, 1952; Kendon, 1972). Drawing on such studies, there have also been pioneer studies of gesture in second language learning and use (McNeill, 1992; Gullberg, 1998, 2006), and…

Orton, Jane

2007-01-01

216

Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

1985-01-01

217

Global Contexts for Learning: Exploring the Relationship between Low-Context Online Learning and High-Context Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current research on culture and distance education suggests that cultural variables influence student success online. When online courses are writing-based, they may provide easy information dissemination; however, the low-context medium may restrict the learning experience and class dynamic due to the lack of nonverbal communication. Students who…

Westbrook, Timothy Paul

2014-01-01

218

Linking Learning to Looking: Habituation and Association in Infant Statistical Language Learning  

E-print Network

Linking Learning to Looking: Habituation and Association in Infant Statistical Language Learning in infant language acquisition. Computational models of such learning, however, often take the form-situational learning experiment which demonstrates robust individual differences in learning between infants. We

Yu, Chen

219

Context and Learner Modelling for the Mobile Foreign Language Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the growing use of mobile devices, there is now increasing interest in the potential for supporting the mobile learner. However, there remains much research to be undertaken, to find effective ways of facilitating learning with mobile devices. This paper considers how to support the mobile language learner using a handheld computer. It…

Cui, Yanchun; Bull, Susan

2005-01-01

220

Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines literacy and language learning across the lifespan within the context of immigrants in the Canadian context. It explores the process of improving literacy skills and acquiring second or third language skills through the systems of formal, non-formal and informal learning, as defined by the OECD [Organisation for Economic…

Eaton, Sarah Elaine

2011-01-01

221

Learner Agency in Language Learning: The Story of a Distance Learner of EFL in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner agency plays a key role in self-regulated learning. Yet, there is a paucity of research into its role in the distance learning context. Using reflective narratives written by a distance learner of English in China, this longitudinal case study aims to investigate the ways in which learner agency mediates the language learning in the…

Xiao, Junhong

2014-01-01

222

Seeing English Language Teaching and Learning through the Eyes of Japanese EFL and ESL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To uncover possible barriers to effective communication and learning, this study explored how college-level Japanese English language learners in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) contexts viewed their English teachers and classroom activities. Analysis of 100 questionnaires incorporating quantitative and…

Saito, Hiromi

2004-01-01

223

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes The Department of Modern Languages & Cultures  

E-print Network

Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes The Department of Modern Languages & Cultures The Department of Modern Languages and Cultures offers students a carefully integrated approach to the study of language, literature, and culture. Students acquire linguistic knowledge in the context of living cultures

Cantlon, Jessica F.

224

Exploring Content Teachers' Knowledge of Language Pedagogy: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project in a Dutch CLIL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…

Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick

2014-01-01

225

Language Evolution by Iterated Learning with Bayesian Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Languages are transmitted from person to person and generation to generation via a process of iterated learning: people learn a language from other people who once learned that language themselves. We analyze the consequences of iterated learning for learning algorithms based on the principles of Bayesian inference, assuming that learners compute…

Griffiths, Thomas L.; Kalish, Michael L.

2007-01-01

226

A Research on the Generative Learning Model Supported by Context-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on the generative learning model which involves context-based learning. Using the generative learning model, we taught the topic of Halogens. This topic is covered in the grade 10 chemistry curriculum using activities which are designed in accordance with the generative learning model supported by context-based learning. The…

Ulusoy, Fatma Merve; Onen, Aysem Seda

2014-01-01

227

Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

2012-01-01

228

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch); "Bring Back Childhood…

Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

1999-01-01

229

Biculturalism through Experiential Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the English as a Second Language Program developed for educationally disadvantaged Mexican-American adults as part of the educational offerings of Project Step-Up, an OEO-funded demonstration program in San Diego. Project Step-Up features a multifold methodological approach incorporating techniques from (1) life skills…

Brennan, Pamela; Donoghue, Anna Acitelli

230

Language technologies in speech-enabled second language learning games : from reading to dialogue  

E-print Network

Second language learning has become an important societal need over the past decades. Given that the number of language teachers is far below demand, computer-aided language learning software is becoming a promising ...

Xu, Yushi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

231

Language context modulates reading route: an electrical neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The orthographic depth hypothesis (Katz and Feldman, 1983) posits that different reading routes are engaged depending on the type of grapheme/phoneme correspondence of the language being read. Shallow orthographies with consistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor encoding via non-lexical pathways, where each grapheme is sequentially mapped to its corresponding phoneme. In contrast, deep orthographies with inconsistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor lexical pathways, where phonemes are retrieved from specialized memory structures. This hypothesis, however, lacks compelling empirical support. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of orthographic depth on reading route selection using a within-subject design. Method: We presented the same pseudowords (PWs) to highly proficient bilinguals and manipulated the orthographic depth of PW reading by embedding them among two separated German or French language contexts, implicating respectively, shallow or deep orthography. High density electroencephalography was recorded during the task. Results: The topography of the ERPs to identical PWs differed 300–360 ms post-stimulus onset when the PWs were read in different orthographic depth context, indicating distinct brain networks engaged in reading during this time window. The brain sources underlying these topographic effects were located within left inferior frontal (German > French), parietal (French > German) and cingular areas (German > French). Conclusion: Reading in a shallow context favors non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of frontal phonological areas in the shallow versus the deep orthographic context. In contrast, reading PW in a deep orthographic context recruits less routine non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of visuo-attentional parietal areas in the deep versus shallow orthographic context. These collective results support a modulation of reading route by orthographic depth. PMID:24600377

Buetler, Karin A.; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

2014-01-01

232

Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

2011-01-01

233

Jump PDA's, deterministic context-free languages principal AFDLs and polynomial time recognition—(Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every deterministic context-free language can be accepted by a deterministic finite delay pda with jumps. Increasing the number of types or occurrences of jumps increases the family of languages accepted with finite delay. Hence the family of deterministic context-free language is a principal AFDL; there is a context-free language Lo such that every context-free language is an inverse gsm image

Sheila A. Greibach

1973-01-01

234

School Cultures as Contexts for Informal Teacher Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study profiles and compares international social contexts for teacher workplace informal learning from the teachers' perspectives. Set in elementary schools in the U.S. and Lithuania, the study illustrates how teachers make sense of and engage in professional learning within their historical, political and administrative contexts. A…

Jurasaite-Harbison, Elena; Rex, Lesley A.

2010-01-01

235

Finding Voice: Learning about Language and Power  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Christensen discusses why teachers need to teach students "voice" in its social and political context, to show the intersection of voice and power, to encourage students to ask, "Whose voices get heard? Whose are marginalized?" As Christensen writes, "Once students begin to understand that Standard English is one language among many, we can help…

Christensen, Linda

2011-01-01

236

The Pumping Lemma, Part 2 Some languages are not context-free languages.  

E-print Network

The Pumping Lemma, Part 2 Some languages are not context-free languages. A pumping lemma can. #12; Proof of the Pumping Lemma Theorem: Let A be a CFL. There exists a num- ber p, for all w, if jsj; ) uvRyz #3; ) uvxyz S u R z R y v x #12; Using the Pumping Lemma A 1 = fa n b n c n : n #21; 0g Choose

Bylander, Tom

237

Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…

Lichtman, Karen

2013-01-01

238

Context-Outcome Associations Mediate Context-Switch Effects in a Human Predictive Learning Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments explored the role of contexts in information retrieval after different levels of acquisition training in human predictive learning. Participants were trained where cue (X) was followed by an outcome in context A while a different cue (Y) was followed by the absence of the outcome in context B. When 4 training trials with each cue…

Leon, Samuel P.; Abad, Maria J. F.; Rosas, Juan M.

2011-01-01

239

An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning

Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

2013-01-01

240

The Development of Social Learning in Interactive and Observational Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the first year of life, imitative learning readily occurs in contexts where a demonstrator directly interacts with infants (i.e., "interactive contexts"), and at least by 18 months, imitation will also occur in third-party or observational contexts where infants witness a demonstration by another person that is not directed at them. However,…

Matheson, Heath; Moore, Chris; Akhtar, Nameera

2013-01-01

241

Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

2012-12-01

242

Learning in Cultural Context: Developing Destinies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal from…

Rogoff, Barbara

2012-01-01

243

Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

2012-03-01

244

Games in Language Learning: Opportunities and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…

Godwin-Jones, Robert

2014-01-01

245

Student Language Learning Strategies across Eight Disciplines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the use of 50 common second language learning strategies by English for academic purposes students across eight disciplines--building, business, computing, engineering, English, mathematics, primary education, and science--in a university in Hong Kong. Compared and contrasted strategy use across disciplines and examined relationships…

Peacock, Matthew; Ho, Belinda

2003-01-01

246

Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

Ager, Dennis E.

1985-01-01

247

Language Learning Strategy Use In Palestine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on current English language learning strategies used by Arabic-speaking English-majors enrolled at a University in Palestine. Results showed that gender and proficiency had no significant differences on the use of strategies. Recommends that more training should be given in using cognitive, memory and compensation strategies by embedding…

Shmais, Wafa Abu

2003-01-01

248

Language Learning Strategies and Test Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of learner's strategies and skills in learning a foreign language has been investigated in the last three decades. However, the part it plays in ESP achievement tests is not seriously treated. Moreover, as students take the final exam, their chief complaint concerns the idea of test anxiety as a debilitating factor. Therefore, the present…

Shomoossi, Nematullah; Kooshan, Mohsen; Ketabi, Saeed

2008-01-01

249

Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

2009-01-01

250

Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

Miller, Elizabeth R.

2012-01-01

251

Ideational Frameworks in Integrated Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that schema theory and discourse analysis demonstrate that flow charts, grids, and tree diagrams are the most effective models of how the mind organizes ideas in information sets. It shows how each of these frameworks can be used as the central device in an integrated model of language learning. (15 references) (MDM)

Burgess, John

1994-01-01

252

The Exploring Nature of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and Their Relationship with Various Variables with Focus on Personality Traits in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) have the potential to be "an extremely powerful learning tool" (O'Malley, Chamot, Stewner-Manzanares, Russo & Kupper, 1985a, p.43), the use of LLSs helps the learners retrieve and store material, and facilitate their learning (Grander & Maclntyre, 1992), they are sensitive to the learning context and to…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2011-01-01

253

Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

Wonnacott, Elizabeth

254

Applying Blended Learning in an Industrial Context - an Experience Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, describes the experience made with coaching enriched blended learning in the context of industrial technology transfer projects. Based on numerous applications of our modular blended learning approach for teaching object-oriented software development with UML, an attempt has been made to improve the design, the organization and the execution of the blended learning arrangement. Therefore, we collected data on

Silke Steinbach-Nordmann

2006-01-01

255

Pitch enhancement facilitates word learning across visual contexts.  

PubMed

This study investigates word-learning using a new experimental paradigm that integrates three processes: (a) extracting a word out of a continuous sound sequence, (b) inferring its referential meanings in context, (c) mapping the segmented word onto its broader intended referent, such as other objects of the same semantic category, and to novel utterances. Previous work has examined the role of statistical learning and/or of prosody in each of these processes separately. Here, we combine these strands of investigation into a single experimental approach, in which participants viewed a photograph belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing a complex, five-word utterance containing a target word. Six between-subjects conditions were tested with 20 adult participants each. In condition 1, the only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of word and referents. This statistical cue was present in all conditions. In condition 2, the target word was sounded at a higher pitch. In condition 3, random words were sounded at a higher pitch, creating an inconsistent cue. In condition 4, the duration of the target word was lengthened. In conditions 5 and 6, an extraneous acoustic cue and a visual cue were associated with the target word, respectively. Performance in this word-learning task was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence only when pitch prominence consistently marked the target word. We discuss implications for the pragmatic value of pitch marking as well as the relevance of our findings to language acquisition and language evolution. PMID:25566144

Filippi, Piera; Gingras, Bruno; Fitch, W Tecumseh

2014-01-01

256

Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

1999-08-01

257

College students' learning styles in the computer and network-integrated foreign language learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to investigate Chinese college students' foreign language learning styles in the computer and network-integrated language learning environment. The survey data revealed the general trend of their learning styles and the effect of learning styles on learning achievements. The results indicated that a) college students do not have significant major learning style preferences, b) learning style preferences

Zhang Jingbi; Lu Xiuhong

2012-01-01

258

Adaptation of the Students' Motivation towards Science Learning (SMTSL) Questionnaire in the Greek Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed at adapting in the Greek language the Students' Motivation Towards Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire developed by Tuan, Chin, and Shieh ("INT J SCI EDUC" 27(6): 639-654, 2005a) into a different cultural context, a different age group, that is, in university students and with a focus on physics learning.…

Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Vavougios, Denis; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.

2013-01-01

259

Second Life as a Foreign Language Learning Environment: A Review of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next…

Aydin, Selami

2013-01-01

260

Content and Language Integrated Learning through an Online Game in Primary School: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper an educational design proposal is presented which combines two well established teaching approaches, that of Game-based Learning (GBL) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The context of the proposal was the design of an educational geography computer game, utilizing QR Codes and Google Earth for teaching English…

Dourda, Kyriaki; Bratitsis, Tharrenos; Griva, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Penelope

2014-01-01

261

The Correlation between Early Second Language Learning and Native Language Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been the assumption of many in the field of second language teaching that learning a second language helps to promote and enhance native language skill development, and that this correlation is direct and positive. Language professionals have assumed that learning a second language directly supports the development of better skills,…

Caccavale, Terry

2007-01-01

262

Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

2014-01-01

263

Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-01-01

264

Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

Shin, Hyunjung

2014-01-01

265

Teacher Professional Development through Collaborative Action Research: Impact on Foreign English-Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011 we, a group of English-as-a-foreign-language teachers at a secondary school in Argentina, decided to investigate our teaching practices through collaborative action research so as to improve our students' learning opportunities and thus revitalise English-language teaching in our context. We implemented and evaluated the integration of…

Banegas, Dario; Pavese, Anahi; Velazquez, Aurelia; Velez, Sandra Maria

2013-01-01

266

Don Quixote Meets "Ser" and "Estar": Multiple Perspectives on Language Learning in Spanish Literature Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multiple case study examines language-focused instruction in 3 university Spanish literature classes to examine the students' and instructors' perspectives on language learning in this context. The classes were studied for a semester through observations, instructor interviews and stimulated recalls, and student questionnaires. Among the…

Polio, Charlene; Zyzik, Eve

2009-01-01

267

Learning Korean language in China: motivations and strategies of non-Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career and strategies mainly in establishing Korean sociocultural context for Korean language

Fang Gao

2010-01-01

268

Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Learning English as a Second Language: Four Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

n These case studies provide a description of 4 fifth-graders' self- efficacy beliefs and use of self-regulated learning strategies related to studying English as a second language. Structured interviews with the children and their parents were conducted to investigate the family context of learning English and to elicit children's self- reported self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies. In addition,

CHUANG WANG; STEPHEN J. PAPE

2004-01-01

269

Language Learning Motivation and Language Learning Strategies of Taiwanese EFL Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between student motivation, both extrinsic and intrinsic, and learning strategies for English as a foreign language (EFL) students. Subjects were 46 Taiwanese undergraduate and graduate students of advanced EFL at a public university in the United States who were administered motivation and learning

Chang, Shanmao Frank; Huang, Shenghui Cindy

270

Technology enhanced language learning: student motivation in computer assisted language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a new investigation on the impact of implementing technology on Bulgarian students' motivation after a Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course. It suggests designing and applying instruments for assessing the level of student motivation in order to analyze which aspects of computerized learning are motivating (or demotivating). The expected outcome is developing

Anelly Kremenska

2007-01-01

271

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996-1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 2. These issues contain the following major articles: "Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences Through Technology" (Janine Onffroy Shelley); "Student Reasons for Studying Language: Implications for…

Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997

1997-01-01

272

Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning  

E-print Network

Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning Thierry Chanier1, Michael) "Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning". Cognitive Modelling and Interactive Environment in Language Learning, Engel F.L., Bouwhuis D.G., Bösser T., d'Ydewalle G. (dir

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

PARLING: e-literature for supporting children learning english as a second language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe Parling, a multimedia system for supporting learning of English as a second language (L2). It is devoted to 8-11 year-old primary school children. The idea behind the system is that famous children's literature offers the right motivating and low-anxiety context where users can improve their vocabulary and learn new language structures. The technological core of

Ornella Mich; Elena Betta; Diego Giuliani

2004-01-01

274

A Heuristic Algorithm for Planning Personalized Learning Paths for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, learning systems can detect students' learning behaviors in the real-world with the help of context-aware (sensor) technology; that is, students can be guided to observe or operate real-world objects with personalized support from the digital world. In this study, an optimization problem that…

Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chuang, Kuo-Hsien

2010-01-01

275

The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

1999-01-01

276

Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

2010-01-01

277

Assessment of Language Learning Strategies Used by Palestinian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the language learning strategies (LLSs) used by 194 high school and 184 university English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners in Palestine, using Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL). It also explores the effect of language proficiency and gender on frequency of strategy use. The findings show…

Khalil, Aziz

2005-01-01

278

Study-abroad, Language Proficiency, and Learner Beliefs about Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports an empirical study of a 1?-week study-abroad program for Japanese university students, examining changes in the students' beliefs about language learning (measured by means of a questionnaire) and in their English proficiency (measured by means of the TOEFL). The results showed statistically significant changes in the students' beliefs relating to analytic language learning, experiential language learning and

Koichi Tanaka

2003-01-01

279

Constructing VEGGIE: Machine Learning for Context-Sensitive Graph Grammars  

E-print Network

. As databases can be modeled as graphs, a graph parsing and induction system can infer a grammar from the givenConstructing VEGGIE: Machine Learning for Context-Sensitive Graph Grammars Keven Ates, Kang Zhang University of Texas at Dallas atescomp@utd.edu, kzhang@utd.edu Abstract Context-sensitive graph grammar

Zhang, Kang

280

Distributed Cognition in the Context of Virtual Collaborative Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the distribution of cognition in small virtual group learning and examines how the distribution of cognition is manifested in the context of student-student interaction. Describes a collaborative problem-solving situation in a virtual learning environment and presents an approach to analyzing and modeling asynchronous collaborative…

Daradoumis, T.; Marques, J. M.

2002-01-01

281

Similarity Attraction in Learning Contexts: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests a process model of learning in which trainer and trainee traits are simultaneously considered as endogenous variables of learning outcomes. The article builds on a social view of training and similarity-attraction paradigms. In this context, the authors hypothesize that trainer-trainee similarity in personality (agreeableness)…

Varela, Otmar E.; Cater, John James, III; Michel, Norbert

2011-01-01

282

Learning Physics in Context: A Study of Student Learning about Electricity and Magnetism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper re-centres the discussion of student learning in physics to focus on context. In order to do so, a theoretically motivated understanding of context is developed. Given a well-defined notion of context, data from a novel university class in electricity and magnetism are analysed to demonstrate the central and inextricable role of context

Finkelstein, Noah

2005-01-01

283

Does Recreational Reading in Native Language Influence Foreign Language Learning Process?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading…

Aydin, Selami

2011-01-01

284

Context and repetition in word learning  

PubMed Central

Young children learn words from a variety of situations, including shared storybook reading. A recent study by Horst et al. (2011a) demonstrates that children learned more new words during shared storybook reading if they were read the same stories repeatedly than if they were read different stories that had the same number of target words. The current paper reviews this study and further examines the effect of contextual repetition on children's word learning in both shared storybook reading and other situations, including fast mapping by mutual exclusivity. The studies reviewed here suggest that the same cognitive mechanisms support word learning in a variety of situations. Both practical considerations for experimental design and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23580347

Horst, Jessica S.

2013-01-01

285

On the Relationship between Gender and Perceptual Language Learning Styles: The Case of Iranian Academic EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few decades, research on gender and language learning styles (LLSs) across various EFL/ESL contexts has received remarkable attention. From these studies, a multitude of contradictory and heterogeneous findings has been observed which justify additional research in SLA contexts in general and EFL contexts like Iran in particular.…

Aliakbari, Mohammad; Tazik, Khalil

2011-01-01

286

Using the Learners-as-Ethnographers Approach to Enhance Intercultural Learning among American College Students Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how the learners-as-ethnographers (LAE) approach facilitated intercultural learning among American students learning Chinese as a foreign language. Two research questions addressed the effectiveness of the LAE approach and students' learning experiences in a non-immersion context. I designed six ethnographic tasks for the…

Lu, Minhui

2012-01-01

287

Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

2010-01-01

288

Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2012-01-01

289

Learning Decision Trees over Erasing Pattern Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a learning problem of decision trees over erasing patterns from positive examples in the framework of identification in the limit due to Gold and Angluin. An erasing pattern is a string pattern with constant symbols and erasable variables. A decision tree over erasing patterns can be applied to identify or express transmembrane domains of amino acid sequences, and gives intuitive knowledge expressions. We first show that the ordinary decision trees with height 1 over erasing regular patterns are learnable but those with height at most 2 are not learnable from positive examples. Then we introduce a co-pattern pc for an erasing pattern p, and we redefine the language of a decision tree over erasing patterns as a language obtainable by finitely many applications of union operations and intersection operations to the languages of erasing patterns and co-patterns. Under the new definition of decision trees, we show that these decision trees with height at most n are learnable from positive examples. Moreover, we investigate efficient learning algorithms for decision trees with height 1. Terada et al. discussed the same problem for decision trees over nonerasing patterns, and the results obtained in the present work are natural extensions of Terada's results.

Mukouchi, Yasuhito; Sato, Masako

2008-07-01

290

LEARNING AND THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE: THE ROLE OF CULTURAL VARIATION AND LEARNING COSTS IN  

E-print Network

LEARNING AND THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE: THE ROLE OF CULTURAL VARIATION AND LEARNING COSTS of compositional languages [11]. It specifically addresses the role of cultural variation and of learning costs effect, language evolution, neural networks, genetic algorithms, learning cost, cultural transmission

Cangelosi, Angelo

291

Constructing Identities in a Linguistically Diverse Learning Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the relationship between language, hegemony and identity in a desegregated school in suburban Johannesburg, South Africa. Drawing on post-structuralist theories of language learning and identity that evaluate cultural models of literacy, ideologies and institutional discourses, this article examines how multilingual…

Makoe, Pinky

2014-01-01

292

Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

2012-01-01

293

Using Indigenous Languages for Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for the use of indigenous languages as languages of teaching and learning, focusing on Zimbabwe. It describes the language situation in Zimbabwe, which has three national languages (all of which enjoy some prominence under the current Education Act) and fourteen minority indigenous languages. English plays a central role in…

Thondhlana, Juliet

294

Functional Context Education: Making Learning Relevant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This notebook discusses issues and methods of developing adult literacy education (ALE) programs according to functional context education (FCE) principles. Chapters 1-3 in Part 1, The Power of ALE, focus on current ALE; address why ALE is of growing importance; show how investments can return benefits for adults and others; look at issues…

Sticht, Tom

295

Mathematical Learning in a Context of Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we analyse a didactical situation centred on the creation and use of a symbolic play environment in a class of pupils aged five and six years-old. The main source of data for this paper comes from an experimentation planned in relation to the following research question: does symbolic play in simulated contexts help pupils to…

Edo, Meque; Planas, Nuria; Badillo, Edelmira

2009-01-01

296

Contexts of Learning for Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews classroom atmospheres that are commonly found in American schools and examines implications for instruction of minority students. Topics covered include (1) teacher expectations, (2) feminization of the classroom, (3) the cooperative context, (4) attribution of success and failure, (5) caring of the teacher, and (6) democracy of…

Vasquez, James A.

1988-01-01

297

Properties of Context-free Languages We give the Pumping Lemma.  

E-print Network

Properties of Context-free Languages We give the Pumping Lemma. #12;Proving Languages Not Context-Free Some languages cannot be recognized even by PDAs. But to prove this we need the Pumping Lemma. Pumping is in A for all i 0. We use notation z(i) = uviwxiy. Goddard 9b: 2 #12;Proof of Pumping Lemma Assume

Goddard, Wayne

298

MANDARIN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING IN DIALOGUE CONTEXT Yushi Xu, Jingjing Liu, Stephanie Seneff  

E-print Network

MANDARIN LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING IN DIALOGUE CONTEXT Yushi Xu, Jingjing Liu, Stephanie Seneff Spoken we introduce Mandarin language understanding methods developed for spoken language applications. We describe a set of strategies to improve the parsing performance for Mandarin. We also discuss two context

299

How Artefacts Mediate Small-Group Co-Creation Activities in a Mobile-Assisted Seamless Language Learning Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rich learning resources and contexts learners experience in their everyday life could play important roles in complementing formal learning, but are often neglected by learners and teachers. In this paper, we present an intervention study in "Move, Idioms!", a mobile-assisted Chinese language learning approach that emphasizes contextualized…

Wong, L. -H.; Chen, W.; Jan, M.

2012-01-01

300

Personalised context-aware ubiquitous learning system for supporting effective English vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English sentences. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to increase the efficiency and performance of learning English vocabulary. ‘The

Chih-Ming Chen; Yi-Lun Li

2010-01-01

301

Adventure Learning: Situating Learning in an Authentic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, Aaron Doering describes an adventure learning project that connected students to explorers and researchers participating in a trans-Arctic dogsled expedition. Adventure learning (AL) uses a hybrid online educational environment to provide students with opportunities to explore real-world issues through authentic learning

Doering, Aaron

2007-01-01

302

Practicing Action Learning in a Community Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Action research is used in community development practice by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Outreach Division. They view the community as the curriculum, co-develop education events, and use the research process as a theoretical framework that ties action, learning, and outcomes together. (JOW)

Folkman, Dan; Rai, Kalyani

2001-01-01

303

Content-Based Instruction: What Can We Learn from Content-Trained Teachers' and Language-Trained Teachers' Pedagogies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study of the pedagogies of two content-trained teachers and two language-trained teachers in their content-based second language (L2) classrooms at the middle-school level in two Chinese contexts: Hong Kong and Xi'an. The study aims to identify pedagogies that support content and language learning, referred to here as…

Kong, Stella

2009-01-01

304

Global Language Identities and Ideologies in an Indonesian University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnographic study of language use and English language learners in Central Java, Indonesia examines globalization processes within and beyond language; processes of language shift and change in language ecologies; and critical and comprehensive approaches to the teaching of English around the world. From my position as teacher-researcher and…

Zentz, Lauren

2012-01-01

305

Teaching and Learning Language beyond the "Comfort Zone."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of a research project conducted at the University of South Carolina in the 1979-80 academic year. The purpose of the research was to determine whether or not Counseling Learning/Community Language Learning (CLL), an alternative approach to language learning developed by Charles Curran, would influence student…

Alber, Charles J.; And Others

306

Foreign Language Learning for Older Learners: Problems and Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of some of the learning difficulties of Peace Corps volunteers 45 years of age and older who have attempted to learn a second language, combined with a review of research findings on the learning capacity of older learners, reveals areas in which the older learner can be helped to more complete success in foreign language study.…

Roumani, Judith

307

Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

2012-01-01

308

Using a Programmable Storytelling Robot to Motivate Learning Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a storytelling robot which learns by children's teaching. The robot is used on learning of the second language. It can reduce the negative emotion due to the anxiety of speaking foreign language, which thus motivates learning and enhances the speaking and listening abilities. Presently, our system is still at the initial stage of research. Therefore, we only

Ying-tsuan Lu; Chih-Wei Changgogo; Gwo-dong Chen

2007-01-01

309

Goofing: An Indicator of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Revised and abridged version of You Can't Learn without Goofing (An Analysis of Children's Second Language Errors')'' to appear in Jack Richards (ed.), Error Analysis -- Perspectives in Second Language Acquisition,'' (Longmans). A goof'' is a productive error made during the language learning process. (RS)

Dulay, Heidi C.; Burt, Marina K.

1972-01-01

310

The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on second language teaching and learning include: "Creativity with a Small 'c'" (Alan Maley); "National Standards & the Role of the Imagination in Foreign Language Learning" (Rebecca M. Valette); "Who Am I in English? Developing a Language Ego" (Jean Zukowski/Faust); "Steps to Dance in the Adult EFL Classroom" (David M. Bell); "Connecting…

Coreil, Clyde, Ed.; Napoliello, Mihri, Ed.

1997-01-01

311

The Cross-linguistic Assessment of Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a task that can be applied in a uniform fashion across different languages to compare levels of vocabulary development in foreign-language learning. Results indicate that the lexical decision task can be a useful tool for the assessment and cross-linguistic comparison of lexical development in foreign-language learning. (37 references)…

Kempe, Vera; MacWhinney, Brian

1996-01-01

312

E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

Georgalas, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

313

The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Learning Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the possible existence of causal links between anxiety and language learning difficulties by using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) to examine anxiety and the Foreign Language Screening Instrument for Colleges (FLSI-C) (Ganschow & Sparks, 1991) to explore learning

Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Goretti B. Y.

2004-01-01

314

A Note on Internationalisation, Internationalism and Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the editorial of "The Language Learning Journal" of July 2011, readers' attention is drawn to the decline in language teaching and learning in British schools and universities, and to the attempt of the British Academy to promote language teaching against this decline. The British Academy paper makes seven recommendations of which the second…

Byram, Michael

2012-01-01

315

The Distance Learning of Foreign Languages: A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into the distance learning of languages is now established as a significant avenue of enquiry in language teaching, with evident research trajectories in several domains. This article selects and analyses significant areas of investigation in distance language learning and teaching to identify new and emerging gaps, along with research…

White, Cynthia

2014-01-01

316

Helping Parents Learn a Second Language with Their Children: Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for parents of elementary school Spanish language students who wish to learn the language along with their children contains the following materials: (1) language learning hints; (2) pronunciation help including rhythm patterns; (3) conversation capsules (small dialogs and a selection of drawings to accompany the texts) permitting…

Gradisnik, Anthony, Comp.

317

Helping Parents Learn a Second Language with Their Children: French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is presented as a guide for parents of elementary school French language students who wish to learn the language along with their children. Divided into seven sections, the booklet presents: (1) language learning hints; (2) pronunciation help including practice in the repetition of phonemes and stress and rhythm patterns; (3)…

Gradisnik, Anthony

318

Helping Parents Learn a Second Language with Their Children: German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is presented as a guide for parents of elementary school German language students who wish to learn the language along with their children. Divided into seven sections, the booklet presents: (1) language learning hints; (2) pronunciation help consisting of practice in listening to and repeating German phonemes; (3) conversation…

Gradisnik, Anthony

319

Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency of Chinese University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…

Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.

2005-01-01

320

A Bayesian view of language evolution by iterated learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of language evolution have demonstrated how aspects of human language, such as compositionality, can arise in populations of interacting agents. This pa- per analyzes how languages change as the result of a particular form of interaction: agents learning from one another. We show that, when the learners are rational Bayesian agents, this process of iterated learning con- verges to

Thomas L. Griffiths; Michael L. Kalish

321

Languages in a Global World: Learning for Better Cultural Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or…

Chiesa, Bruno Della, Ed.; Scott, Jessica, Ed.; Hinton, Christina, Ed.

2012-01-01

322

Identifying Our Approaches to Language Learning Technologies: Improving Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mid- to late 1990s was an exciting time for those concerned with incorporating new technology into their teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). Commonly referred to as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), or sometimes with the broader term Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), the field took huge leaps…

Petrie, Gina Mikel; Avery, Lisa

2011-01-01

323

Establishing a learning foundation in a dynamically changing world: Insights from artificial language work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that infants build a foundation for learning about the world through their incidental acquisition of the spatial and temporal regularities surrounding them. A challenge is that learning occurs across multiple contexts whose statistics can greatly differ. Two artificial language studies with 12-month-olds demonstrate that infants come prepared to parse statistics across contexts using the temporal and perceptual features that distinguish one context from another. These results suggest that infants can organize their statistical input with a wider range of features that typically considered. Possible attention, decision making, and memory mechanisms are discussed.

Gonzales, Kalim

324

Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language

Zascerinska, Jelena

2010-01-01

325

On the Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research studies have shown language anxiety to be related with broad-based indices of language achievement, like course grade. However, to date, the potential link between foreign language anxiety and language learning strategies has not been empirically investigated. This study is an attempt to identify the relationship between language

Noormohamadi, Rezvan

2009-01-01

326

Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

2011-01-01

327

Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory  

E-print Network

Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded' native and non-native phonetic perception skills predict later language ability, but in opposite better non-native language skill predicts slower advancement. We suggest that native language phonetic

328

Second Language Acquisition in a Study Abroad Context. Studies in Bilingualism 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on second language learning during study abroad includes: "Language Learning and Study Abroad" (Barbara F. Freed); "Predictors of Foreign Language Gain During Study Abroad" (Richard D. Brecht, Dan E. Davidson, Ralph B. Ginsberg); "A Canadian Interprovincial Exchange: Evaluating the Linguistic Impact of a Three-Month Stay…

Freed, Barbara F., Ed.

329

Telling and Retelling Stories: Learning Language and Literacy. Supporting Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares reading aloud and telling stories as ways to share literature with young children and support language and literacy learning. Describes how story telling can help children develop critical and active listening skills, and how retelling stories encourages children to create their own stories and later write and illustrate their stories.…

Isbell, Rebecca T.

2002-01-01

330

Curriculum Renewal in Second-Language Learning: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Directions in second-language curriculum development in Australia are discussed in the context of three contemporary educational value systems or ideologies: classical humanism, reconstructionism, and progressivism. (MSE)

Clark, John L.

1985-01-01

331

Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of an online survey and a usability test performed on three foreign language learning websites that use Web 2.0 technology. The online survey was conducted to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websites use them for learning and social purposes. The usability test was conducted to gain…

Stevenson, Megan P.; Liu, Min

2010-01-01

332

"Deja Vu"? A Decade of Research on Language Laboratories, Television and Video in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developments in the last ten years in the form of DVD, streaming video, video on demand, interactive television and digital language laboratories call for an assessment of the research into language teaching and learning making use of these technologies and the learning paradigms underpinning them. This paper surveys research on language

Vanderplank, Robert

2010-01-01

333

All together now: Concurrent learning of multiple structures in an artificial language  

PubMed Central

Natural languages contain many layers of sequential structure, from the distribution of phonemes within words to the distribution of phrases within utterances. However, most research modeling language acquisition using artificial languages has focused on only one type of distributional structure at a time. In two experiments, we investigated adult learning of an artificial language that contains dependencies between both adjacent and nonadjacent words. We found that learners rapidly acquired both types of regularities and that the strength of the adjacent statistics influenced learning of both adjacent and nonadjacent dependencies. Additionally, though accuracy was similar for both types of structure, participants’ knowledge of the deterministic nonadjacent dependencies was more explicit than their knowledge of the probabilistic adjacent dependencies. The results are discussed in the context of current theories of statistical learning and language acquisition. PMID:23772795

Romberg, Alexa R.; Saffran, Jenny R.

2013-01-01

334

Context Learning and the Effect of Context on Memory Retrieval in Lymnaea  

PubMed Central

Aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea was operantly conditioned so that the animals perform aerial respiration significantly less often. Using the standard training procedure (pond water made hypoxic by bubbling N2 through it) both food-deprived and fed animals learned and exhibited long-term memory (LTM). However, food-deprived animals exhibited neither learning nor memory when trained under a condition in which the hypoxic pond water also contained a food odorant (carrot, the food-odorant procedure). Fed animals, however, learned and exhibited LTM with the food-odorant procedure. Thus, the presence of the food odorant per se did not prevent learning or the establishment of LTM. Further experimentation, however, revealed that the ability of the snails to have recall (i.e., memory) for the learned behavior was dependent on the context in which memory was tested. That is, if animals were trained with the food-odorant procedure they could only exhibit recall if tested in the food-odorant context and vice versa with the standard training procedure. Thus, although fed animals could learn and show LTM with either training and testing procedure, LTM could only be seen when they were tested in the context in which they were trained. PMID:11160762

Haney, James; Lukowiak, Ken

2001-01-01

335

Context transfer in reinforcement learning using action-value functions.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457

Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

2014-01-01

336

Context Transfer in Reinforcement Learning Using Action-Value Functions  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457

Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

2014-01-01

337

Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning

Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

2013-01-01

338

Foreign Language Learning and SAT Verbal Scores Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language learning and verbal ability in English as measured by the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Reasoning Test. Comparing foreign language students to nonforeign language students in this study, the effect of taking a foreign language on SAT verbal…

Cooper, Thomas C.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Jahner, David; Webb, Elizabeth; Wilbur, Marcia L.

2008-01-01

339

Multimodal language acquisition based on motor learning and interaction  

E-print Network

Multimodal language acquisition based on motor learning and interaction Jonas Hörnstein, Lisa for language acquisition in humanoid robots that mimics that in children. Language acquisition is a complex for language acquisition in a humanoid robot. We have therefore chosen to avoid implementing any pre

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

340

Towards a Bio-computational Model of Natural Language Learning  

E-print Network

together the theory of Grammatical Inference and the studies of natural language acquisition. We discuss how the studies of natural language acquisition can improve results in the field of Grammatical in natural language learning. 1 Introduction Children, independently of their culture and the language

Boyer, Edmond

341

Intelligent Thai Text--Thai Sign Translation for Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the Intelligent Thai text--Thai sign translation for language learning (IT[superscript 3]STL). IT[superscript 3]STL is able to translate Thai text into Thai sign language simply and conveniently anytime, anywhere. Thai sign language is the language of the deaf in Thailand. In the translation process, the distinction between Thai text…

Dangsaart, Srisavakon; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Sirinaovakul, Booncharoen

2008-01-01

342

Applying a Multimedia Storytelling Website in Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Storytelling is a practical and powerful teaching tool, especially for language learning. Teachers in language classrooms, however, may hesitate to incorporate storytelling into language instruction because of an already overloaded curriculum. English foreign language (EFL) teachers in Taiwan report additional problems such as having little prior…

Tsou, Wenli; Wang, Weichung; Tzeng, Yenjun

2006-01-01

343

Community Language Learning and Counseling-Learning. TEAL Occasional Papers, Vol. l, 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community Language Learning (CLL) is a humanistic approach to learning which emphasizes the learner and learning rather than the teacher and teaching. In some situations where the teacher is not fluent in the various languages spoken by the students, such as in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom, advanced students may serve as…

Soga, Lillian

344

Second Language Research Forum Colloquia 2009: Colloquium--Language Learning Abroad: Insights from the Missionary Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have brought increasing attention to studies of language acquisition in a country where the language is spoken, as opposed to formal language study in classrooms. Research on language learners in immersion contexts is important, as the question of whether study abroad is valuable is still somewhat controversial among researchers…

Hansen, Lynne

2011-01-01

345

A Context-Based Computational Model of Language Acquisition by Infants and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research attempts to understand howchildren learn to use language. Instead ofusing syntax-based grammar rules to model thedifferences between children's language andadult language, as has been done in the past, anew model is proposed. In the new researchmodel, children acquire language by listeningto the examples of speech that they hear intheir environment and subsequently use thespeech examples that have been

Steven Walczak

2002-01-01

346

Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context.  

PubMed

An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes. PMID:25360123

McBride, Glen

2014-01-01

347

Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context  

PubMed Central

An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes. PMID:25360123

McBride, Glen

2014-01-01

348

Mixed-Methods Research in Language Teaching and Learning: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This state-of-the-art paper foregrounds mixed-methods research (MMR) in language teaching and learning by discussing and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research paradigm. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative…

Riazi, A. Mehdi; Candlin, Christopher N.

2014-01-01

349

Artificial Intelligence and Second Language Learning: An Efficient Approach to Error Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While theoretical approaches to error correction vary in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, most sources agree that such correction is useful and leads to learning. While some point out the relevance of the communicative context in which the correction takes place, others stress the value of consciousness-raising. Trying to…

Dodigovic, Marina

2007-01-01

350

Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

2012-01-01

351

Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian

2013-01-01

352

The Language-Learning Self, Self-Enhancement Activities, and Self Perceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of action research conducted in an EFL university context, regarding primarily the relationship between individual possible self-images, socially constructed possible self-images, and language-learning motivation. The study used three cycles of action research over the course of one 15-week university semester,…

Sampson, Richard

2012-01-01

353

Community Language Promotion in Remote Contexts: Case Study on Cameroon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In situations of extreme linguistic diversity, language promotion can be a very challenging undertaking. Decades of educational colonisation and foreign language dominance have produced inferiority complexes so that local or indigenous languages (Cameroonian mother tongues), because of their unofficial status, are perceived as liabilities rather…

Chiatoh, Blasius Agha-ah

2014-01-01

354

English Language Spread in Local Contexts: Turkey, Latvia and France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the discussion of English language spread policies, scholars have taken various viewpoints. One approach concerns the "diffusion-of-English" and "language ecology" paradigms, which distinguish externally dominant English spread and resistance to this hegemony. Others have questioned this approach, and proposed that English language spread is…

Uysal, Hacer Hande; Plakans, Lia; Dembovskaya, Svetlana

2007-01-01

355

Introducing Early Foreign Language Education in the Baltic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores changing language education policies and implementation processes in Central/Eastern Europe. There are conflicting language policy orientations that govern the scene, resulting from post-independence attempts on the one hand to strengthen the position of the national (state) language, and on the other to function as EU member…

Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

2010-01-01

356

Multilingualism in the Workplace: Language Practices in Multilingual Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modern workplace is international and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees are expected to be mobile, work increasingly in (virtual) teams (Gee et al. 1996) and to address complex organisational issues in a language that, often, is not their first language (L1). This results in a number of languages forming the ecosystem of…

Angouri, Jo

2014-01-01

357

Language, Reading, and Math Learning Profiles in an Epidemiological Sample of School Age Children  

PubMed Central

Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities. PMID:24155959

Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F.; Ansari, Daniel

2013-01-01

358

How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

2012-01-01

359

Learning behavioural patterns in a mobile context using smartphones  

E-print Network

Learning behavioural patterns in a mobile context using smartphones Jakub Ratajczak Kongens Lyngby based on the audio data collected by the smartphone devices. The system allows to detect whether two data recorded by the smartphone's built-in microphone as a source of information to analyze. Smartphone

360

Children's Learning in the Diverse Sociocultural Context of South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children develop in several interlocking systems--in the context of their family, and within the interaction of such settings as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children's diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods, and sociocultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn.…

Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

2012-01-01

361

Epistemic Metacognition in Context: Evaluating and Learning Online Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined epistemic metacognition as a reflective activity about knowledge and knowing in the context of online information searching on the Web, and whether it was related to prior knowledge on the topic, study approach, and domain-specific beliefs about science. In addition, we investigated whether Internet-based learning was…

Mason, Lucia; Boldrin, Angela; Ariasi, Nicola

2010-01-01

362

Learning in Authentic Contexts: Projects Integrating Spatial Technologies and Fieldwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, professional practice has been an issue of concern in higher education. The purpose of this study is to design students' projects to facilitate collaborative learning in authentic contexts. Ten students majoring in Management Information Systems conducted fieldwork with spatial technologies to collect data and provided information…

Huang, Kuo-Hung

2011-01-01

363

Context and occasion setting in Drosophila visual learning  

PubMed Central

In a permanently changing environment, it is by no means an easy task to distinguish potentially important events from negligible ones. Yet, to survive, every animal has to continuously face that challenge. How does the brain accomplish this feat? Building on previous work in Drosophila melanogaster visual learning, we have developed an experimental methodology in which combinations of visual stimuli (colors and patterns) can be arranged such that the same stimuli can either be directly predictive, indirectly predictive, or nonpredictive of punishment. Varying this relationship, we found that wild-type flies can establish different memory templates for the same contextual color cues. The colors can either leave no trace in the pattern memory template, leading to context-independent pattern memory (context generalization), or be learned as a higher-order cue indicating the nature of the pattern-heat contingency leading to context-dependent memory (occasion setting) or serve as a conditioned stimulus predicting the punishment directly (simple conditioning). In transgenic flies with compromised mushroom-body function, the sensitivity to these subtle variations is altered. Our methodology constitutes a new concept for designing learning experiments. Our findings suggest that the insect mushroom bodies stabilize visual memories against context changes and are not required for cognition-like higher-order learning. PMID:17015858

Brembs, Björn; Wiener, Jan

2006-01-01

364

Learning the Context of a Clinical Process Johny Ghattas1  

E-print Network

Learning the Context of a Clinical Process Johny Ghattas1 , Mor Peleg1,2 , Pnina Soffer1 and Yaron of Biomedical Informatics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 3 Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel GhattasJohny@gmail.com, morpeleg, pnina @{mis.hevra.haifa.ac.il}, Yarondp@clalit.org.il Abstract. Clinical

Peleg, Mor

365

Primary or "Specific" Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of…

Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

2009-01-01

366

Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indige- nous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Gua- rani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa\\/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language policies through multilingual education brings with it choices, dilemmas, and even contradictions in educational practice.

Nancy H. Hornberger

2006-01-01

367

Teachers' Beliefs about Developing Language Proficiency within the Context of Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study described here is grounded in naturalistic inquiry, a research methodology that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific settings. The goal of the study was to identify the beliefs about developing language proficiency of a group of North American French-as-a-foreign language teachers in the specific context of a three-week,…

Allen, Linda Quinn

2013-01-01

368

Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language

Hornberger, Nancy H.

2006-01-01

369

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-06-01

370

Language generation and speech synthesis in dialogues for language learning  

E-print Network

Since 1989, the Spoken Language Systems group has developed an array of applications that allow users to interact with computers using natural spoken language. A recent project of interest is to develop an interactive ...

Zhang, Julia, 1981-

2004-01-01

371

Aligning context-based statistical models of language with brain activity during reading  

E-print Network

Aligning context-based statistical models of language with brain activity during reading Leila for incoming words given the context. On the other hand, brain imaging studies have sug- gested that during reading, the brain (a) continu- ously builds a context from the successive words and every time

Knight, Kevin

372

On the Effectiveness of Robot-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study introduces the educational assistant robots that we developed for foreign language learning and explores the effectiveness of robot-assisted language learning (RALL) which is in its early stages. To achieve this purpose, a course was designed in which students have meaningful interactions with intelligent robots in an immersive…

Lee, Sungjin; Noh, Hyungjong; Lee, Jonghoon; Lee, Kyusong; Lee, Gary Geunbae; Sagong, Seongdae; Kim, Munsang

2011-01-01

373

Language Learning Strategy Use: Perceptions of Female Arab English Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the patterns of language learning strategy use among 120 female Arabic-speaking students majoring in English at a university in Qatar. Perceptions of strategy use were measured by the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, ESL/EFL Student Version). The study found that (1) this group of EFL learners featured medium…

Riazi, Abdolmehdi

2007-01-01

374

Online Synchronous Language Learning: SLMS over the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that distance learning environments often pose serious obstacles to second language instruction, Yuping Wang and Nian-Shing Chen propose that synchronous learning management systems (SLMS) can address the urgent need for real-time communication to support the student acquisition of language skills. To illustrate the pedagogical value of…

Wang, Yuping; Chen, Nian-Shing

2007-01-01

375

A Test of the Critical Period Hypothesis for Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical period for language learning is often defined as a sharp decline in learning outcomes with age. This study examines the relevance of the critical period for English-speaking proficiency among immigrants in the USA. It uses microdata from the 2000 US Census, a model of language acquisition and a flexible specification of an estimating…

Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

2008-01-01

376

Power within Blended Language Learning Programs in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within…

Hinkelman, Don; Gruba, Paul

2012-01-01

377

Whole Language Learning for Elementary School Teachers, Children, and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this booklet is to disseminate theoretical ideas and practical strategies concerning whole language so that learning for children and practice for teaching may be enlightened and improved. Chapters include: "Whole Language Learning" (William McCarthy and Alicia Sutton); "Planning the Program and Organizing the Classroom" (Marilyn…

McCarthy, William G., Ed.; And Others

378

Managing Self-Access Language Learning: Principles and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on a research project looking at the management of self-access language learning (SALL) from the perspective of the managers of self-access centres. It looks at the factors which influence the practice of seven managers of self-access language learning in tertiary institutions in Hong Kong. The discussion centres around five…

Gardner, David; Miller, Lindsay

2011-01-01

379

SignMT: An Alternative Language Learning Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning a second language is very difficult, especially, for the disabled; the disability may be a barrier to learn and to utilize information written in text form. We present the SignMT, Thai sign to Thai machine translation system, which is able to translate from Thai sign language into Thai text. In the translation process, SignMT takes into…

Ditcharoen, Nadh; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick

2010-01-01

380

Gender and Language Learning Strategies: Looking beyond the Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning

Liyanage, Indika; Bartlett, Brendan John

2012-01-01

381

Statistical Learning and Language: An Individual Differences Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although statistical learning and language have been assumed to be intertwined, this theoretical presupposition has rarely been tested empirically. The present study investigates the relationship between statistical learning and language using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered…

Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

2012-01-01

382

Mobile Language Learning: More than Just "The Platform"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is attracting a great deal of attention at present (Stockwell & Sotillo, 2011). However, it is important that teacher and researcher exploitation of technological developments be guided by more than just enthusiasm. "Language Learning & Technology's" commitment to empirical studies is admirable but, for…

Ballance, Oliver James

2012-01-01

383

Second Language Learning and Cultural Representations: Beyond Competence and Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The socio-contextual model of second language (L2) learning proposes that L2 learning is influenced by aspects of contact with the L2 community, L2 confidence, and identification to both the first language and L2 community ( Clement, 1980; Noels & Clement, 1996). The present study examines how these aspects are linked to individuals' cultural…

Rubenfeld, Sara; Clement, Richard; Lussier, Denise; Lebrun, Monique; Auger, Rejean

2006-01-01

384

Harmonious Learning: Yoga in the English Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at one way for teachers to make classrooms emotionally, mentally, and physically healthy places to learn--places where tensions and stresses are lessened and where teachers and students are concentrating, yet relaxed. "Harmonious language learning classroom" is the term the author coined to describe this kind of language

Morgan, Lisa

2011-01-01

385

Exploring the Language of Learning within Further Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers claim that a rise in the language of learning has led to education being seen as a commodity and the learner as a customer, leading to a market model in FE. To ascertain the impact the language of learning has had upon practitioners' understanding of education, their practice and their professional identities, semi-structured…

Smith, Andy; Swift, Debra

2014-01-01

386

Language-Switching Costs in Bilingual Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral studies on bilingual learning have revealed cognitive costs (lower accuracy and/or higher processing time) when the language of application differs from the language of learning. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to provide insights into the cognitive underpinnings of these costs (so-called…

Grabner, Roland H.; Saalbach, Henrik; Eckstein, Doris

2012-01-01

387

Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

2013-01-01

388

A Software Development Approach for Computer Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 5 years we have developed, produced, tested, and evaluated an authoring software package to produce web-based, interactive, audio-enhanced language-learning material. That authoring package has been used to produce language-learning material in French, Spanish, German, Arabic, and Tamil. We are currently working on increasing…

Cushion, Steve

2005-01-01

389

Language Learning through Social Networks: Perceptions and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of people study languages online, and little is known about their attitudes toward this new learning approach, what practices they engage in, or what kinds of interaction they are involved in. This dissertation investigates users' attitudes, practices, and interactions on the largest language-learning social network site,…

Lin, Chin-Hsi

2012-01-01

390

How "Language-Aware" Are Lesson Studies in an East Asian High School Context?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators worldwide have been attracted by lesson study for its teaching and learning enhancement potential. However, some believe it takes for granted language, out of which all teaching and subject matter are made. Employing a functional linguistics lens in an analysis of two second language science lesson studies, called "learning" studies in…

Walker, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

391

Language Rights versus Speakers' Rights: On the Applicability of Western Language Rights Approaches in Eastern European Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to contexts where two conceptions of linguistic rights--the rights of languages and the rights of speakers--come into conflict. To illustrate such conflict, I will examine justifications of language laws adopted in two post-Soviet countries, Latvia and Ukraine. I will begin with an…

Pavlenko, Aneta

2011-01-01

392

Language, Learning, and National Goals: A Native American View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a symposium on issues related to diversity and American education reform in the context of Goal 3 of the National Education Goals, this paper addresses public attitudes about languages that are different from official or national languages. It is noted that the use of a native language as the medium of instruction to rebuild historical…

Demmert, William G., Jr.

393

Magda and Albana: Learning to Read with Dual Language Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which dual language books are used in England to support bilingual pupils in school. While pupils in many schools speak a wide range of languages at home, these hardly feature in the curriculum. In the context of a project in which an education authority provided dual language books to primary schools, the paper…

Sneddon, Raymonde

2008-01-01

394

Children's use of language context in lexical ambiguity resolution.  

PubMed

Lexical ambiguity resolution was examined in children aged 7 to 10 years and adults. In Experiment 1, participants heard sentences supporting one (or neither) meaning of a balanced ambiguous word in a cross-modal naming paradigm. Naming latencies for context-congruent versus context-incongruent targets and judgements of the relatedness of targets to the sentence served as indices of appropriate context use. While younger children were faster to respond to related targets regardless of the sentence context, older children and adults showed priming only for context-appropriate targets. In Experiment 2, only a single-word context preceded the homophone, and in contrast to Experiment 1, all groups showed contextual sensitivity. Individual working-memory span and inhibition ability were also measured in Experiment 2, and more mature executive function abilities were associated with greater contextual sensitivity. These findings support a developmental model whereby sentential context use for lexical ambiguity resolution increases with age, cognitive processing capacity, and reading skill. PMID:19424907

Khanna, Maya M; Boland, Julie E

2010-01-01

395

The Language of Instruction Dilemma in the Turkish Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic…

Sert, Nehir

2008-01-01

396

Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

Yang, Eunah

397

Language, Geography and Politics: The "Territorial Imperative" Debate in the European Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A response to an argument that Canadian language policy prevents the self-defense of minority languages through exclusive territorial control (LaPonce, 1984) addresses the relative neglect of research concerning language and territoriality in the European context and contrasts the contemporary multilingual situations in Spain and Switzerland to…

Mar-Molinero, Clare; Stevenson, Patrick

1991-01-01

398

Language Testing in the Context of Citizenship and Asylum: The Case of Estonia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the current article is language testing in the context of citizenship and asylum in Estonia, a country that regained independence in 1991. Estonian as the single official language of the country (according to the new language legislation laws) and a new political system have caused changes in use of and attitudes toward Estonian among…

Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

2009-01-01

399

Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

2014-01-01

400

Literacy and the Second Language Learner. Research in Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers is the first in a series that will highlight cutting-edge research in the area of second language learning and teaching. After an introduction, "The Second Language Educator's Challenge: Learning about Literacy" (JoAnn Hammadou Sullivan), 12 papers include the following: (1) "Theoretical Developments in Reading Chinese…

Sullivan, JoAnn Hammadou, Ed.

401

The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

2011-01-01

402

Exploring Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores young learners' awareness of foreign language learning and of their learning conditions. The participants were 76 Catalan-Spanish children who were learning English at primary school. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected by means of two different interviews that contained questions related to…

Muñoz, Carmen

2014-01-01

403

The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

Swain, Merrill

2013-01-01

404

Learning and Teaching Styles In Foreign and Second Language Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways in which an individual characteristically acquires, retains, and retrieves information are collectively termed the individual's learning style. Mismatches often occur be- tween the learning styles of students in a language class and the teaching style of the instructor, with unfortunate effects on the quality of the students' learning and on their attitudes toward the class and the subject.

Richard M. Felder; Eunice R. Henriques

1995-01-01

405

Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.  

PubMed

The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2015-01-01

406

Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context  

PubMed Central

The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning.

Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2015-01-01

407

A Computer Model of Language Acquisition - Syllable Learning - Based on Hebbian Cell Assemblies and Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract—Investigating language acquisition is one of the most challenging problems in the area of studying language. Syllable learning as a level of language acquisition has a considerable significance since it plays an important role in language acquisition. Because of impossibility of studying language acquisition directly with children, especially in its developmental phases, computer models will be useful in examining

Sepideh Fazeli; Fariba Bahrami

2009-01-01

408

LANGUAGE TEACHING--BROADER CONTEXTS. REPORTS OF THE WORKING COMMITTEES OF THE NORTHEAST CONFERENCE ON THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES, 1966.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO FOCUS ATTENTION ON CURRENT PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THE PROFESSION, THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE ON THE TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHED ITS WORKING COMMITTEE REPORTS ON LANGUAGE LEARNING RESEARCH, WIDER USES FOR LANGUAGES, AND THE SUPERVISION AND COORDINATION OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING. THE FIRST REPORT, "RESEARCH AND LANGUAGE LEARNING,"…

MEAD, ROBERT G., JR.

409

Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

2014-01-01

410

The Spread of Computer-Assisted Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I…

Chapelle, Carol A.

2010-01-01

411

Adult Language/Learning Disability: Issues and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A language/learning disability (LLD) is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech in both adults and children. Most research, treatment, and support resources emphasize childhood LLD, but the problems do not disappear once a person has…

Comstock, Renee; Kamara, Carol A.

412

Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text provides future and practicing teachers of deaf children with basic theoretical and research knowledge as well as specific principles and practices for fostering the development of language and reading. In this third edition of "Language Learning Practices with Deaf Children," the authors have added a section on language assessment in…

Rose, Susan; McAnally, Patricia L.; Quigley, Stephen P.

2004-01-01

413

Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

Park, Ji Yong

2015-01-01

414

Isolated Words Enhance Statistical Language Learning in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants are adept at tracking statistical regularities to identify word boundaries in pause-free speech. However, researchers have questioned the relevance of statistical learning mechanisms to language acquisition, since previous studies have used simplified artificial languages that ignore the variability of real language input. The experiments…

Lew-Williams, Casey; Pelucchi, Bruna; Saffran, Jenny R.

2011-01-01

415

Teaching Languages to Students with Specific Learning Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to help language teachers to work effectively and successfully with students who have specific learning differences (SpLD) such as dyslexia. The book takes an inclusive and practical approach to language teaching and encourages teachers to consider the effects that an SpLD could have on a language learner. It suggests…

Kormos, Judit; Smith, Anne Margaret

2012-01-01

416

Metaphor and Second Language Learning: The State of the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…

Hoang, Ha

2014-01-01

417

First and Second Language Speech Perception: Graded Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the process of language learning, individuals must acquire different types of linguistic knowledge, such as the sounds of the language (phonemes), how these may be combined to form words (phonotactics), and morphological rules. Early and late bilinguals tend to perform like natives on second language phonological tasks that involve pre-lexical…

Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Diaz, Begona

2012-01-01

418

Incorporating principles of general learning in theories of language acquisition  

E-print Network

Incorporating principles of general learning in theories of language acquisition Lori L. Holt1 exciting, central questions as to the processes involved in language acquisition. Among these questions of the initial state is paramount in theoretical importance for language acquisition. The rapidity and seeming

Holt, Lori L.

419

A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography aims to serve the language teacher educators who are working in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by making a collection of 1732 bibliographic entries, which stem from mainly books and journal articles in English that date back to 1980 and provide good discussions on the theory of technology in language

Kilickaya, Ferit

2009-01-01

420

Teaching and Learning Chinese: Heritage Language Classroom Discourse in Montreal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores issues of teaching and learning Chinese as a heritage language in a Chinese heritage language school, the Zhonguo Saturday School, in Montreal, Quebec. With a student population of more than 1000, this school is the largest of the eight Chinese Heritage Language schools in Montreal. Students participating in this study were…

Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

2006-01-01

421

Computers for English Language Learning in Japanese Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that computer assisted language learning (CALL) can and should be used in language education in Japan in more effective ways. It suggests practical ideas for incorporating the use of computers into English language instruction in Japan. Japanese teachers of English have many concerns about the use and efficacy of computers in…

Kataoka, Ko

422

How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?  

PubMed Central

Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor. PMID:24027521

Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

423

Context and Crowding in Perceptual Learning on a Peripheral Contrast Discrimination Task: Context-Specificity in Contrast Learning  

PubMed Central

Perceptual learning is an improvement in sensitivity due to practice on a sensory task and is generally specific to the trained stimuli and/or tasks. The present study investigated the effect of stimulus configuration and crowding on perceptual learning in contrast discrimination in peripheral vision, and the effect of perceptual training on crowding in this task. 29 normally-sighted observers were trained to discriminate Gabor stimuli presented at 9° eccentricity with either identical or orthogonally oriented flankers with respect to the target (ISO and CROSS, respectively), or on an isolated target (CONTROL). Contrast discrimination thresholds were measured at various eccentricities and target-flanker separations before and after training in order to determine any learning transfer to untrained stimulus parameters. Perceptual learning was observed in all three training stimuli; however, greater improvement was obtained with training on ISO-oriented stimuli compared to CROSS-oriented and unflanked stimuli. This learning did not transfer to untrained stimulus configurations, eccentricities or target-flanker separations. A characteristic crowding effect was observed increasing with viewing eccentricity and decreasing with target-flanker separation before and after training in both configurations. The magnitude of crowding was reduced only at the trained eccentricity and target-flanker separation; therefore, learning for contrast discrimination and for crowding in the present study was configuration and location specific. Our findings suggest that stimulus configuration plays an important role in the magnitude of perceptual learning in contrast discrimination and suggest context-specificity in learning. PMID:23696807

Yeotikar, Nisha S.; Khuu, Sieu K.; Asper, Lisa J.; Suttle, Catherine M.

2013-01-01

424

From recording linguistic competence to supporting inferences about language acquisition in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student models for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) have largely focused on the acquisition of grammatical structures. In this paper, we motivate a broader perspective of student models for ICALL that incorporates insights from current research on second language acquisition and language testing. We argue for a student model that includes a representation of the learner's ability to use

Luiz Amaral; Detmar Meurers

2008-01-01

425

Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.  

PubMed

The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1?mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3?mol l(-1) NaCl or 60?mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. PMID:25788729

de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

2015-03-01

426

Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.  

PubMed

The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

Graf Estes, Katharine

2014-10-01

427

Ojibwe Language Revitalization, Multimedia Technology, and Family Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Indigenous language loss and revitalization are not new topics of academic work nor new areas of community activism (e.g., King, 2001; Grenoble & Whaley, 2006), increased attention has been paid in recent years to the ways that new technology can support efforts to teach and renew endangered languages such as Ojibwe. However, much of the…

Hermes, Mary; King, Kendall A.

2013-01-01

428

Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

2008-01-01

429

Learning physics in context: a study of student learning about electricity and magnetism  

E-print Network

Learning physics in context: a study of student learning about electricity and magnetism This paper a novel university class in electricity and magnetism are analyzed to demonstrate the central in electricity and magnetism. Many of these students, who had passed the introductory courses with high grades

Colorado at Boulder, University of

430

Widening the lens: what the manual modality reveals about language, learning and cognition.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to widen the lens on language to include the manual modality. We look first at hearing children who are acquiring language from a spoken language model and find that even before they use speech to communicate, they use gesture. Moreover, those gestures precede, and predict, the acquisition of structures in speech. We look next at deaf children whose hearing losses prevent them from using the oral modality, and whose hearing parents have not presented them with a language model in the manual modality. These children fall back on the manual modality to communicate and use gestures, which take on many of the forms and functions of natural language. These homemade gesture systems constitute the first step in the emergence of manual sign systems that are shared within deaf communities and are full-fledged languages. We end by widening the lens on sign language to include gesture and find that signers not only gesture, but they also use gesture in learning contexts just as speakers do. These findings suggest that what is key in gesture's ability to predict learning is its ability to add a second representational format to communication, rather than a second modality. Gesture can thus be language, assuming linguistic forms and functions, when other vehicles are not available; but when speech or sign is possible, gesture works along with language, providing an additional representational format that can promote learning. PMID:25092663

Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2014-09-19

431

Linguistics and Language Learning Beckman Institute  

E-print Network

encompass fields such as language processing, psycholinguistics (the study of language and psychology of the acquisition and use of language, and in the development of applications such as automatic speech recognizers Lansing studies how people select and integrate visual and auditory information to process language. She

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

432

Fostering Learner Autonomy: Power and Reciprocity in the Relationship between Language Learner and Language Learning Adviser  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in lifelong learning and learner autonomy have given fresh impetus to the debate about learning without formal teaching. This paper concerns the educational relationship between learner and adviser in self-directed schemes. Two French self-directed language learning set-ups were observed, one situated at university level (Systeme…

Ciekanski, Maud

2007-01-01

433

Language Development and Learning to Read: The Scientific Study of How Language Development Affects Reading Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on reading has tried, and failed, to account for wide disparities in reading skill even among children taught by the same method. Why do some children learn to read easily and quickly while others, in the same classroom and taught by the same teacher, don't learn to read at all? In "Language Development and Learning to Read", Diane…

McGuinness, Diane

2005-01-01

434

Epistemic metacognition in context: evaluating and learning online information  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined epistemic metacognition as a reflective activity about knowledge and knowing in the context of online\\u000a information searching on the Web, and whether it was related to prior knowledge on the topic, study approach, and domain-specific\\u000a beliefs about science. In addition, we investigated whether Internet-based learning was influenced by epistemic metacognition\\u000a and the individual differences examined. Seventy 8th

Lucia Mason; Angela Boldrin; Nicola Ariasi

2010-01-01

435

Adults as a context for social learning in kindergarten  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of tests is a well?established tradition in the study of children's learning. Most of these tests claim to establish a child's general understanding, independent of situations and well?known contexts. I have studied narratives told by a four?year?old boy who failed to pass a false belief test (a test designed to examine whether a child is able to understand

Liv Gjems

2009-01-01

436

76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice... Title of Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre Program Survey...exchange programs that focus on critical language learning instruction. Estimated...

2011-08-31

437

Musical experience influences statistical learning of a novel language.  

PubMed

Musical experience may benefit learning of a new language by increasing the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes sound. In the current study, participants with varying degrees of musical experience were exposed to two statistically defined languages consisting of auditory Morse code sequences that varied in difficulty. We found an advantage for highly skilled musicians, relative to lower-skilled musicians, in learning novel Morse code-based words. Furthermore, in the more difficult learning condition, performance of lower-skilled musicians was mediated by their general cognitive abilities. We suggest that musical experience may improve processing of statistical information and that musicians' enhanced ability to learn statistical probabilities in a novel Morse code language may extend to natural language learning. PMID:23505962

Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Schroeder, Scott R

2013-01-01

438

Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more and more dual language learners enter the school system, now is the ideal time for this second edition of the bestselling textbook--essential for preparing speech language pathologists (SLPs) and educators to work with young children who are bilingual or learning a second language. This comprehensive, student-friendly text takes the…

Paradis, Johanne; Genesee, Fred; Crago, Martha B.

2011-01-01

439

"Language Learning" Is Forty Years Old. Motives for the Study of Modern Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To mark the 40th anniversary of "Language Learning," the journal's first article is reprinted and identifies five motives for studying foreign languages: (1) "knowledge of a foreign language is the sign of a cultivated man"; (2) foreign insularism; (3) necessity of creating a political fusion; (4) trade and colonization; and (5) scientific and…

Catford, J. C.; Marckwardt, Albert H.

1988-01-01

440

Attitudes toward Task-Based Language Learning: A Study of College Korean Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores second/foreign language (L2) learners' attitudes toward task-based language learning (TBLL) and how these attitudes relate to selected learner variables, namely anxiety, integrated motivation, instrumental motivation, and self-efficacy. Ninety-one college students of Korean as a foreign language, who received task-based…

Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

2013-01-01

441

SIMPLE is a good idea (and better with context learning).  

PubMed

Selective and iterative method for performance level estimation (SIMPLE) is a multi-atlas segmentation technique that integrates atlas selection and label fusion that has proven effective for radiotherapy planning. Herein, we revisit atlas selection and fusion techniques in the context of segmenting the spleen in metastatic liver cancer patients with possible splenomegaly using clinically acquired computed tomography (CT). We re-derive the SIMPLE algorithm in the context of the statistical literature, and show that the atlas selection criteria rest on newly presented principled likelihood models. We show that SIMPLE performance can be improved by accounting for exogenous information through Bayesian priors (so called context learning). These innovations are integrated with the joint label fusion approach to reduce the impact of correlated errors among selected atlases. In a study of 65 subjects, the spleen was segmented with median Dice similarity coefficient of 0.93 and a mean surface distance error of 2.2 mm. PMID:25333139

Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J; Shanahan, Peter L; Abramson, Richard G; Landman, Bennett A

2014-01-01

442

Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.  

PubMed

We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

2012-06-01

443

The "Burden" of Emotions in Language Teaching: Negotiating a Troubled Past in "Other"-Language Learning Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on language classes where Greek-Cypriot students learn Turkish as their second Modern Foreign Language (MFL). Literature on MFL learning and emotions tends to focus on learners' emotions in relation to the production of the new language; however, MFL learning is also a space that provides the opportunity to language

Charalambous, Constadina

2013-01-01

444

Faculty Development in Context: Changing Learning Cultures in Higher Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, research on the effectiveness of initial training programs for novice faculty is limited, and results fail to offer apparent evidences on the impact of such programs in changing teachers' practices and, at a larger scale, teaching and learning cultures at universities. In addition to faculty development initiatives, the wider organizational context should be considered in order to foster transfer of acquired teaching competences into teaching practice. In this article, we suggest a conceptual framework that includes a description of prevailing teaching cultures in European higher education; a discussion on what we mean by faculty development and its relationship to teaching cultures; a definition of learning cultures; and a framework of the environmental factors affecting learning transfer. Among the outcomes, we expect to adapt Holtons' model to the higher education context and design a set of instruments to identify primarily environmental factors influencing the impact of faculty development. Results might show the necessity to pay greater attention to the conditions under which novice teachers teach, the importance of peer and coordinator support, and all aspects that contribute in the end to changed teaching and learning cultures in higher education.

Feixas, Mònica; Zellweger, Franziska

445

Tone of voice guides word learning in informative referential contexts  

PubMed Central

Listeners infer which object in a visual scene a speaker refers to from the systematic variation of the speaker’s tone of voice (ToV). We examined whether ToV also guides word learning. During exposure, participants heard novel adjectives (e.g., “daxen”) spoken with a ToV representing hot, cold, strong, weak, big, or small while viewing picture pairs representing the meaning of the adjective and its antonym (e.g., elephant-ant for big-small). Eye fixations were recorded to monitor referent detection and learning. During test, participants heard the adjectives spoken with a neutral ToV, while selecting referents from familiar and unfamiliar picture pairs. Participants were able to learn the adjectives’ meanings, and, even in the absence of informative ToV, generalise them to new referents. A second experiment addressed whether ToV provides sufficient information to infer the adjectival meaning or needs to operate within a referential context providing information about the relevant semantic dimension. Participants who saw printed versions of the novel words during exposure performed at chance during test. ToV, in conjunction with the referential context, thus serves as a cue to word meaning. ToV establishes relations between labels and referents for listeners to exploit in word learning. PMID:23134484

Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; Nygaard, Lynne C.

2012-01-01

446

A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Conducting Complex Science Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is an innovative approach that integrates wireless, mobile, and context-awareness technologies to detect the situation of learners in the real world and provide adaptive support or guidance accordingly. In this paper, a context-aware u-learning environment is developed for guiding inexperienced…

Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

2009-01-01

447

On the neurobiological investigation of language understanding in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two significant problems in using functional neuroimaging methods to study language. Improving the state of func- tional brain imaging will depend on understanding how the dependent measure of brain imaging differs from behavioral dependent measures (the ''dependent measure problem'') and how the activation of the motor system may be confounded with non-motor aspects of processing in certain experimental

Steven L. Small; Howard C. Nusbaum

448

On the neurobiological investigation of language understanding in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two significant problems in using functional neuroimaging methods to study language. Improving the state of functional brain imaging will depend on understanding how the dependent measure of brain imaging differs from behavioral dependent measures (the “dependent measure problem”) and how the activation of the motor system may be confounded with non-motor aspects of processing in certain experimental designs

Steven L. Small; Howard C. Nusbaum

2004-01-01

449

On the Neurobiological Investigation of Language Understanding in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two significant problems in using functional neuroimaging methods to study language. Improving the state of functional brain imaging will depend on understanding how the dependent measure of brain imaging differs from behavioral dependent measures (the ''dependent measure problem'') and how the activation of the motor system may be…

Small, Steven L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2004-01-01

450

Positioning Foreign English Language Teachers in the Japanese University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs positioning theory to explore the experiences of adjunct foreign English language teachers (AFELT) in the Japanese university sector. The research is located in the broad internationalisation discourse and considers AFELT positions as "foreign" teachers at a time when the Japanese university sector is aiming to…

Whitsed, Craig; Volet, Simone

2013-01-01

451

Finding Common Language around Educational Equity in a Neoliberal Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2005, New Orleans has proved fertile ground for the most extensive education reform movement in the United States. As such, the educational landscape in New Orleans is a highly contested space. Yet stakeholders across the pro/anti-charter divide lack a fully developed language that accommodates the multi-vocality of participants contributing…

Bierbaum, Lauren

2014-01-01

452

Reactivation of Lapsed Languages in the Context of Modern Foreign Languages Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the problems encountered by trainee language teachers who strive to maintain their language skills at their optimum level in the classroom. Many trainees will admit that their language skills need refreshing and a significant number of mentors agree with them. This article explores language attrition and strategies that can be…

Llewellyn-Williams, Jill

2014-01-01

453

The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language

Skerrett, Delaney Michael

2014-01-01

454

Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutions of higher education realise the importance of the role of learning organisations in terms of providing personnel training and updating. Yet further consideration should be given to flexible and accessible means for meeting the growing request for continuous learning. Jason Hughes describes an organization's capability to "learn how to…

Mesh, Linda Joy

2010-01-01

455

Sentential Context Modulates the Involvement of the Motor Cortex in Action Language Processing: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Theories of embodied cognition propose that language comprehension is based on perceptual and motor processes. More specifically, it is hypothesized that neurons processing verbs describing bodily actions, and those that process the corresponding physical actions, fire simultaneously during action verb learning. Thus the concept and motor activation become strongly linked. According to this view, the language-induced activation of the neural substrates for action is automatic. By contrast, a weak view of embodied cognition proposes that activation of these motor regions is modulated by context. In recent studies it was found that action verbs in literal sentences activate the motor system, while mixed results were observed for action verbs in non-literal sentences. Thus, whether the recruitment of motor regions is automatic or context dependent remains a question. We investigated functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in response to non-literal and literal sentences including arm and leg related actions. The sentence structure was such that the action verb was the last word in the subordinate clause. Thus, the constraining context was presented well before the verb. Region of interest analyses showed that action verbs in literal context engage the motor regions to a greater extent than non-literal action verbs. There was no evidence for a semantic somatotopic organization of the motor cortex. Taken together, these results indicate that during comprehension, the degree to which motor regions are recruited is context dependent, supporting the weak view of embodied cognition. PMID:23580364

Schuil, Karen D. I.; Smits, Marion; Zwaan, Rolf A.

2013-01-01

456

Language Learning, Social Identity, and Immigrant Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues, using a feminist poststructuralist perspective, that second language acquisition (SLA) theorists have struggled to explore the relationship between the language learner and the social world because they do not question how structures of power in the social world impact on individual language learners and the opportunities they…

Peirce, Bonny Norton

457

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

458

A Knowledge-Based Approach to Retrieving Teaching Materials for Context-Aware Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid development of wireless communication and sensor technologies, ubiquitous learning has become a promising solution to educational problems. In context-aware ubiquitous learning environments, it is required that learning content is retrieved according to environmental contexts, such as learners' location. Also, a learning content…

Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

2009-01-01

459

Students' Learning Activities within and between the Contexts of Education and Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many professional educational programs combine learning at an educational institute with learning in the workplace. The differences between these contexts, and the resulting challenges for learning, have been well-documented. However, there are few studies that explore the same students' learning in both contexts, and even fewer that compare…

Endedijk, Maaike D.; Bronkhorst, Larike H.

2014-01-01

460

Ontologies for Effective Use of Context in E-Learning Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an ontology-based framework aimed at explicit representation of context-specific metadata derived from the actual usage of learning objects and learning designs. The core part of the proposed framework is a learning object context ontology, that leverages a range of other kinds of learning ontologies (e.g., user modeling…

Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Knight, Colin; Richards, Griff

2007-01-01

461

Race and Language Learning in Multicultural Canada: Towards Critical Antiracism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of race constitute an emerging area of inquiry in language education. Yet, race, racialisation and racism are still stigmatised topics of discussion in everyday and professional contexts in multiracial and multiethnic countries. Canada is especially an interesting context in this regard due to its official policy of multiculturalism that…

Kubota, Ryuko

2015-01-01

462

Investigating Pragmatic Language Learning in Foreign Language Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lot of research addressing learners' development of pragmatics has recently been conducted (Kasper and Schmidt 1996; Bardovi-Harlig, 2002; Kasper and Rose 2002). From this same approach, a review of theoretical perspectives on pragmatic learning and how they have been operationalised in interlanguage pragmatic research is presented. Second, by…

Soler, Eva Alcon

2008-01-01

463

Methods for pronunciation assessment in computer aided language learning  

E-print Network

Learning a foreign language is a challenging endeavor that entails acquiring a wide range of new knowledge including words, grammar, gestures, sounds, etc. Mastering these skills all require extensive practice by the learner ...

Peabody, Mitchell A. (Mitchell Aaron)

2011-01-01

464

The Decision-Making Process in Language Program Placement: Test and Nontest Factors Interacting in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of tests has been targeted as a critical point in validity, which suggests that contexts for test use warrant closer investigation. This article describes a study of decision making during test use in the context of a university intensive English language program. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, data were collected by audio-recording…

Plakans, Lia; Burke, Maureen

2013-01-01

465

Chomsky: Selected Readings. Language and Language Learning Series, No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this collection of Noam Chomsky's writings over the past 12 years is to present the main outlines of transformational theory, using as far as possible Chomsky's own words, but arranged in such a way that a non-specialist will have no difficulty in following the text. The topics covered include syntax, phonology, semantics, and language

Allen, J. P. B., Ed.; Van Buren, Paul, Ed.

466

CoOL: A Context Ontology Language to Enable Contextual Interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a context modelling approach using on- tologies as a formal fundament. We introduce our Aspect-Scale-Context (ASC) model and show how it is related to some other models. A Con- text Ontology Language (CoOL) is derived from the model, which may be used to enable context-awareness and contextual interoperability during service discovery and execution in a proposed distributed

Thomas Strang; Claudia Linnhoff-popien; Korbinian Frank

2003-01-01

467

Looking across Contexts in Foreign Language Student Teacher Supervision: A Self-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the following self-study, I consider how my involvement in a teacher preparation program that features looking across multiple contexts of second language teaching influenced my supervisory practice with a particular student teacher during her secondary foreign language student teaching placement. I conduct this inquiry by identifying and…

Martel, Jason

2012-01-01

468

Processing of a Free Word Order Language: The Role of Syntax and Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In languages with flexible constituent order (so-called "free word order languages"), available orders are used to encode given/new distinctions; they therefore differ not only syntactically, but also in their context requirements. In Experiment 1, using a self-paced reading task, we compared Russian S V IO DO (canonical), DO S V IO and DO IO V S…

Slioussar, Natalia

2011-01-01

469

Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

Epcacan, Cahit

2013-01-01

470

Examining Relations among Mothers', Fathers', and Children's Language Use in a Dyadic and Triadic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated mothers' and fathers' language use in dyadic and triadic contexts. Specific attention was paid to factors associated with the quantity and quality of mother and father language use in triadic settings. Sixty-three predominantly middle-class, two-parent families with toddlers (age 16 to 37 months) participated. Mother-child…

Bingham, Gary E.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

2013-01-01

471

Language Brokering Contexts and Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment among Latino Parents and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual…

Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark

2009-01-01

472

A Longitudinal Study of a Tunisian Adolescent's Learning of English Morphemes in a Classroom Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal case study examining the learning of English (focusing on grammatical morphemes) by a Tunisian adolescent speaker of Arabic and French showed that the second language learner relies on his prior linguistic knowledge to facilitate new learning and that second language learning like first language acquisition is a creative process.…

Ghrib, Esma Maamouri

1987-01-01

473

Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

Bird, Steve

2012-01-01

474

Improving Clinical Practices for Children with Language and Learning Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This lead article of the Clinical Forum addresses some of the gaps that exist between clinical practice and current knowledge about instructional factors that influence learning and language development. Method: Topics reviewed and discussed include principles of learning, generalization, treatment intensity, processing interventions,…

Kamhi, Alan G.

2014-01-01

475

Serious Games in language learning and teaching - a theoretical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on a part of a new project Serious Games on a Global Market which focuses on language learning and teaching. Serious Games are digital games and equipment with an agenda of educational design. The paper makes a theoretical argument for a Serious Games product based on theories of educational design and learning in relation to games. Furthermore

Birgitte Holm Sørensen; Bente Meyer

476

The relationship between motivational systems and second language learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is based on research was done to study the relationship between motivational systems and second language learning. To do so, from 31000 students of high school in Ardabil city in 2008–9 academic years, 780 participants were selected via multi stage cluster sampling by using Cochran's formula. The instrument for date gathering was the Motivated Strategies for Learning

Maryam Mohammadi; Mahdi Moenikia; Adel Zahed-Babelan

2010-01-01

477

Task-Based Language Teaching and Expansive Learning Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has become increasingly recognized as an effective pedagogy, but its location in generalized sociocultural theories of learning has led to misunderstandings and criticism. The purpose of this article is to explain the congruence between TBLT and Expansive Learning Theory and the benefits of doing so. The merit…

Robertson, Margaret

2014-01-01

478

Online Games for Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young learners' use of instructional games in foreign language learning is not yet well understood. Using games that were part of the learning tools for an online assessment, Jido-Eiken, a standardized English proficiency test for young learners in Japan, we examined young learners' game-playing behaviours and the relationship of these…

Butler, Yuko Goto; Someya, Yuumi; Fukuhara, Eiji

2014-01-01

479

"A Priori" Assessment of Language Learning Tasks by Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' competence to estimate the effectiveness of learning materials is important and often neglected in programmes for teacher education. In this lecture I will try to explore the possibilities of designing scaffolding instruments for a "priori" assessment of language learning tasks, based on insights from SLA and cognitive psychology, more…

Westhoff, Gerard J.

2009-01-01

480

Integrating Intercultural Competence into Language Learning through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture has long been seen as a fundamental component of language learning. While its importance is universally recognized, there is no consensus on what the term encompasses, how culture should be integrated into language instruction, or on what role technology can and should play in that process. In this column, we will be looking at the latter…

Godwin-Jones, Robert

2013-01-01

481

A Look at Early Language Learning in Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The state of Utah is leading the nation in a surge of new elementary language immersion programs. Their unprecedented growth of programs, over a four-year span, has been both intentional and systemic, taking advantage of a supportive base and promoting language learning as a way to increase economic benefits for the state. While math and science…

Von Houton, Jacque Bott

2013-01-01

482

Language Learning Motivation: Who Do You Want to Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author critiques six articles. Five of the six articles are about motivation in language learning, an area which has seen considerable theoretical and empirical development over the last decade. The articles she reviews include: (1) Udo Jung's report on the top twelve "most prestigious FLT (foreign language teaching) journals"…

Broady, Elspeth

2005-01-01

483

Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

Kuhl, Patricia K.

2011-01-01

484

Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

2012-01-01

485

The Relationship Between Consciousness, Interaction, and Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between consciousness, language learning, and social interaction from an ecological perspective. Argues that consciousness and language are integral parts of the human ecology, that is, they can be defined in terms of social activity and relationships among people, as well as in terms of mental operations or cerebral…

van Lier, Leo

1998-01-01

486

New Trends in Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this special issue include the following: "ICT and Modern Foreign Languages: Learning Opportunities and Training Needs" (Graham Davies); "Authoring, Pedagogy and the Web: Expectations Versus Reality" (Paul Bangs); "Web-based Instructional Environments: Tools and Techniques for Effective Second Language Acquisition" (Esperanza Roman);…

Perez-Paredes, Pascual, Ed.; Cantos-Gomez, Pascual, Ed.

2002-01-01

487

Serious Use of a Serious Game for Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners acquire communication skills through a combination of interactive lessons and serious games. Artificial intelligence plays multiple roles in this learning environment: to process the learner's…

Johnson, W. Lewis

2010-01-01

488

Language Play, a Collaborative Resource in Children's L2 learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within '"communicative language teaching," "natural" language has had a privileged position, and a focus on form has been seen as something inauthentic or as something that is inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramsch and Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of an immersion classroom, it was found that children with…

Cekaite, Asta; Aronsson, Karin

2005-01-01

489

Activity-Centred Approaches to Second Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research in psycholinguistics shows that experience with language in its communicative function is essential for learning to speak a second language. A suitable linguistic environment provides for the development of strategies for aural comprehension and for the acquisition of means of expression. A different approach to curriculum is…

Stevens, Florence

490

Serious Use of a Serious Game for Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in fore ign languages and cultures. Learners acquire communication skills through a combination of interactive lessons and serious games. Artificial intelligence plays multiple roles in this learning environment: to process the learner's spee ch, to interpret and evaluate learner actions, to control the response of non-pla

W. Lewis Johnson

2007-01-01

491

Development of Igbo Language E-Learning System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-Learning involves using a variety of computer and networking technologies to access training materials. The United Nations report, quoted in one of the Nigerian dailies towards the end of year 2006, says that most of the minor languages in the world would be extinct by the year 2050. African languages are currently suffering from discard by…

Oyelami, Olufemi Moses

2008-01-01

492

Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

Chen, Xiao-Bin

2013-01-01

493

Iranian EFL Learners' Pattern of Language Learning Strategy Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of an investigation into Iranian EFL learners' perceived use of language learning strategies (LLSs) overall, the six strategy categories (memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social) as well as the 50 individual strategies appearing in Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language

Riazi, Abdolmehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad

2005-01-01

494

Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

Larrotta, Clarena

2011-01-01

495

The Digital Playground: Kindergarten Children Learning Sign Language through Multimedia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses a study of 4-5 year old children's use of technology to assist and enhance the acquisition of a play lexicon within a formal educational setting. The new language system to be learned was Auslan, a signed/nonverbal language. A purpose specific software program was developed by the authors, "Auslan Kids," in order to test and…

Ellis, Kirsten; Blashki, Kathy

2007-01-01

496

Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies: Investigating Possible Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was conducted to investigate the existence of any possible relationship between the use of language learning strategies and multiple intelligences' scores of foreign language learners of English. Ninety subjects participated in the study. To measure the participants' multiple intelligence scores, MIDAS, a commercially designed…

Akbari, Ramin; Hosseini, Kobra

2008-01-01

497

Digital Gaming and Language Learning: Autonomy and Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between digital game play and second language (L2) learning is a particularly tricky issue in East Asia. Though there is an emerging presence of Chinese online games, many more young people are playing the English- or Japanese-language versions of the most popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) video games. In other words, most…

Chik, Alice

2014-01-01

498

Learning English Language by Radio in Primary Schools in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio is one of the most affordable educational technologies available for the use in education and development in developing countries. This article explores the use of school radio broadcast to assist teachers and pupils to learn and improve English language both written and spoken in Kenyan primary schools. English language occupies a central…

Odera, Florence Y.

2011-01-01

499

The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the…

Risager, Karen

2011-01-01

500

Experience with Serious Games for Learning Foreign Languages and Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) that is an interactive learning platform t hat helps people quickly acquire communication skills i n foreign languages and cultures. It integrates se rious game technology and intelligent tutoring system technolo gy. Learners alternate between working on interact ive lessons that teach communication skills and interactive games th at require learners to

W. Lewis Johnson; Ning Wang; Shumin Wu