Sample records for language learning context

  1. Second Language Learning; Investigating the Classroom Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rosamond

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a number of second-language (L2) classroom-based research projects undertaken at the University of Stirling in Scotland. It is argued that a full understanding of classroom-based L2 learning requires the integration of sociolinguistic studies of the classroom context with psycholinguistic studies of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  2. Language Proficiency, Reading Development, and Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the number of students studying abroad is increasing dramatically. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest among researchers in students' language gains in the study-abroad (SA) context. To deepen our understanding of second language (L2) reading acquisition in different contexts, it is necessary to examine…

  3. Social Context and Resources for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, research in applied linguistics has tended to treat learners in relative isolation from their context, and to study primarily classroom and other educational contexts. This paper in contrast focuses on the contexts which frame learning, and in particular the resources which these contexts provide. A model is outlined which includes…

  4. Adult Language Learning: A Survey of Welsh for Adults in the Context of Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Colin; Andrews, Hunydd; Gruffydd, Ifor; Lewis, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of adult language learning when a minority language is threatened. Language acquisition planning attempts to reproduce the language across generations. The research context is Wales with its strong history of adults learning Welsh. The history of the Welsh language shows a decline in the last century, but…

  5. Standards? Dictionaries and Their Development in Second Language Learning Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakir, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on English dictionaries and their development in second-language-learning contexts, taking the perspective that standards are usually codified in reference grammars, pronouncing dictionaries, and word dictionaries. Presents contemporary discussions of "English" and "Englishes" in Asia, a phenomenon that has come about through the global…

  6. Distributional Learning of some Context-free Languages with a Minimally Adequate Teacher

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alexander

    Distributional Learning of some Context-free Languages with a Minimally Adequate Teacher Alexander. Angluin showed that the class of regular languages could be learned from a Minimally Adequate Teacher (mat). This approach has two parts; first basing the states of the learned automata on the residual languages or right

  7. Learning Context and Its Effects on Second Language Acquisition: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joseph; Freed, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty years ago, Dell Hymes (1972) observed that knowing what goes on outside the school setting is necessary to understanding what goes on inside. He noted further that "the key to understanding language in context is to start not with language but with context ... [and then to] systematically relate the two" (pp. xix-lvii). Recently, the…

  8. Weak semantic context helps phonetic learning in a model of infant language acquisition

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Weak semantic context helps phonetic learning in a model of infant language acquisition Stella Edinburgh, EH8 9AB, UK Abstract Learning phonetic categories is one of the first steps to learning a language, yet is hard to do using only distributional phonetic in- formation. Semantics could potentially

  9. Redefining Professional Identity: The Voice of a Language Teacher in a Context of Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinho, Ana Sofia; Andrade, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Following a narrative and biographic approach, in this study, we present the case of an in-service language teacher and her professional learning trajectory in the context of the project "Languages and education: constructing and sharing training". This project aimed at the construction of a collaborative teacher education context for…

  10. Current Challenges in English Language Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Bayar, Adem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current challenges in English language learning and teaching in Turkey from high and low achievers' perspective. The study was qualitative in nature and the participants of the study were twenty-two students attending at various departments of a state university in Turkey. In this study, the…

  11. EXCELL: Experiences in Context for Early Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raack, Catherine B.

    This program focuses on therapeutic principles and methods for prelinguistic and early language learning, with the goals of increased cognitive functions and sensory awareness/interaction, expanded communicative repertoires, and increased caregiver interaction with the child through appropriate stimuli and assignment of communicative intent. The…

  12. Defining Opportunity to Learn for English Language Learners: Linguistic and Cultural Dimensions of ELLs' Instructional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Amabisca, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    Past research demonstrates the critical role of the context of learning in the achievement of students. This body of work justifies research and development of more contextualized opportunity to learn (OTL) models. We expound on an OTL framework that represents contextual features that can enrich or constrain opportunities for English language

  13. Effects of Language Context on Ratings of Shy and Unsociable Behaviors in English Language Learning Children

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Andrea C.; Rice, Mabel L.; Redmond, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this study was to explore the effect of the language context on the socially withdrawn behaviors of school aged-children who are English Language Learners (ELLs) from middle to high SES backgrounds. This is one of the first studies to address the frequently confused concepts of shyness and unsociability as independent constructs within the ELL population. This study also investigated the feasibility of an experimental parent and child questionnaire that examines shyness and unsociability across native and English speaking contexts. Method Children and parents (34 ELL and 37 native English speaking) were administered an experimental questionnaire examining shy and unsociable behavior in native language and English-speaking contexts. Results Parents and children from the ELL group reported significantly higher ratings of shy behavior in English versus native language contexts, whereas unsociable ratings did not differ across language contexts. Conclusions Shyness and unsociability are distinguishable behaviors in ELL children and these constructs should be considered when examining withdrawal. Additionally, examining ELL children’s behavior across language contexts provides a valuable method for investigating language influenced behavioral problems. This study demonstrates the need for service providers to evaluate behavior across subtype and language context before pathologizing withdrawal in ELL children. PMID:24687767

  14. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  15. A study of language learning strategy use in the context of EFL curriculum and pedagogy reform in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanfang Yu; Bing Wang

    2009-01-01

    Language learning strategy (LLS) use is not only an individual attribute of language users, but also a group behaviour reflecting the learning culture and language pedagogy in a particular social context. This article reports a study on the LLS use of Chinese secondary school students of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Northeast China from the perspective of socio-cultural

  16. Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive English learning context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyungsim Hong-Nam; Alexandra G. Leavell

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the language learning strategy use of 55 ESL students with differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds enrolled in a college Intensive English Program (IEP). The IEP is a language learning institute for pre-admissions university ESL students, and is an important step in developing not only students’ basic Interpersonal Communications Skills (BICS), but more importantly their Cognitive Academic Language

  17. Personality Types and Language Learning in an EFL Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Patricia L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationships between the personality types of a group of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students in Indonesia and various measures of their academic performance in a course with EFL language measures. Students were almost evenly divided between extroverts and introverts with a distribution of types similar to those of…

  18. Language Learning Experience in School Context and Metacognitive Awareness of Multilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Pichon Vorstman, Emmanuelle; De Swart, Henriette; Ceginskas, Viktorija; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2009-01-01

    What is the influence of a language learning experience (LLE) in a school context on the metacognitive development of children? To answer that question, we presented 54 multilingual preschoolers with two movie clips and examined their reactions to an exolingual situation of communication. These preschoolers were aged four and a half to six and a…

  19. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Considerations in the Colombian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Bonces, Jaisson

    2012-01-01

    The present article seeks to encourage reflection on the characteristics and considerations when implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in a diverse context such as the Colombian one. Initially, the general aspects of an innovative and changing education in a globalized world are presented by stating the need to innovate.…

  20. Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

  1. The Context of Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobovits, Leon A.; Gordon, Barbara

    This book deals with the pedagogical, personal, and theoretical contexts of foreign language teaching. Part 1, on the pedagogical context, discusses the psychology of language learning, individualized language instruction, new directions in language teaching, and the role of pattern drills in language teaching. Part 2, on the personal context,…

  2. Synopsis in English of Searching for better language learning strategies: Studies on good language learners in the Japanese FL context. Tokyo: Shohakusha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Takeuchi

    This article reports on three qualitative studies about good foreign language learners conducted in the Japanese EFL\\/FL context. The first study examines the learning behaviors appearing in the language learning biographies written by 40 college-level good learners of EFL. A second study investigates the strategies frequently used by 18 highly advanced EFL learners. The last study analyzes the strategy use

  3. A Comparative Study of Language Learning Strategy Use in an EFL Context: Monolingual Korean and Bilingual Korean-Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong-Nam, Kyungsim; Leavell, Alexandra G.

    2007-01-01

    Since language is socially mediated and context dependent, it would be expected that learners' use of language learning strategies may vary with the environment. Using the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1990), this study examines the language learning behaviors and thought processes of two geographically and…

  4. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Language Listening and Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, T.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported the results of a study that aimed to construct a sensor and handheld augmented reality (AR)-supported ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment called the Handheld English Language Learning Organization (HELLO), which is geared towards enhancing students' language learning. The HELLO integrates sensors, AR, ubiquitous…

  5. Learning a Minoritized Language in a Majority Language Context: Student Agency and the Creation of Micro-Immersion Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renée

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the self-reported experiences of students participating in a Galician language and culture course. Galician, a language historically spoken in northwestern Spain, has been losing ground with respect to Spanish, particularly in urban areas and among the younger generations. The research specifically focuses on informal…

  6. A View of the Neural Representation of Second Language Syntax through Artificial Language Learning under Implicit Contexts of Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Deng, ZhiZhou; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Faretta- Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wong, Francis C. K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2…

  7. Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manabe-Kim, Rie

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help…

  8. Localization in minority language contexts

    E-print Network

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    to UNESCO #12;An Atypical Minority Language Support from cross-border language body Long written traditionLocalization in minority language contexts Kevin Scannell Saint Louis University 21 May 2013 #12;Endangered Languages More than 7000 languages spoken today Almost 2500 are endangered (UNESCO) 50

  9. Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages

    E-print Network

    Parthasarathy, Madhusudan

    Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Learning A Tutorial P. Madhusudan Learning Algorithms and Formal Verification #12;Computational Learning Theory Learning Regular Languages Applications to Verification Outline 1 Computational Learning Theory 2 Learning

  10. MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION Early Language Learning

    E-print Network

    MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably's early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important

  11. Online Learning in Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Stirling

    2008-01-01

    This chapter will explore the implications of courseware design and use in online learning environments for not only individual learner expectations but also expectations of the learning community as a whole. The concept of context density and its importance in formal online learning environments will be stressed. It will be argued that the lack of adumbrations in online communication necessitates

  12. Vocational Options: The Impact of a Vocational Context on Teaching and Learning Modern Foreign Languages at Key Stage 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Francoise; Davies, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    In the light of recommendations made by the Tomlinson and Dearing reports, this article explores the distinctive contribution that vocational language courses can make to the language learning experience of secondary-school pupils. It starts by presenting an overview of vocational options currently on offer to stem the disaffection with modern…

  13. Assessment Measures for Specific Contexts of Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Tarone, Elaine

    A discussion of second language testing focuses on the need for collaboration among researchers in second language learning, teaching, and testing concerning development of context-appropriate language tests. It is argued that the nature of the proficiency construct in language is not constant, but that different linguistic, functional, and…

  14. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: A Plea for Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the apparent opposition between the concepts of language learning and language acquisition in the context of adult second-language study. Proposes that these two concepts are mutually supportive, not mutually exclusive. Demonstrates how the implications of learning vs. acquisition can be integrated into a communicative…

  15. Effect of Academic Major on Students' Use of Language Learning Strategies: A Diary Study in a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Zhenhui; Liu, Fulan

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here explored how students' use of language learning strategies (LLS) was affected by their academic major. The data were collected by asking students to keep a four-week diary, and then the findings were examined within the model of learning developed by Biggs. An analysis of diary entries showed that, although there were…

  16. Context, Learning, and Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Blei, David M.; Niv, Yael

    2010-01-01

    A. Redish et al. (2007) proposed a reinforcement learning model of context-dependent learning and extinction in conditioning experiments, using the idea of "state classification" to categorize new observations into states. In the current article, the authors propose an interpretation of this idea in terms of normative statistical inference. They…

  17. Electronic Tandem Language Learning (eTandem): A Third Approach to Second Language Learning for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cziko, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    Tandem language learning occurs when two learners of different native languages work together to help each other learn the other language. First used in face-to-face contexts, Tandem is now increasingly being used by language-learning partners located in different countries who are linked via various forms of electronic communication, a context

  18. Learning Logo: The Social Context of Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Miller, Gloria E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Seymour Papert's ideas on learning LOGO, a computer programing language which creates a context for learning. Claims that LOGO has been unfairly judged and that criticisms are rooted in misunderstanding. Argues that curriculum research in LOGO should use a multidisciplinary, multimethod approach. Concludes that the true potential of LOGO…

  19. Language in Development Constrained: Three Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Roslyn; Copley, Kath; Sithirajvongsa, Sisamone; Pennycook, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Explores the political, ethical, and professional dilemmas faced by English-as-a-Second-Language professionals working in the context of Australian language aid projects in Laos, East Timor, and Cambodia. Illuminates how language aid practitioners have to deal with issues of language choice, ownership, and political context. (Author/VWL)

  20. The Learning of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carroll E., Ed.

    Current thinking of specialists in the study of language learning provides the basis of this book. The 12 chapters of the book and their authors are as follows: 1. Introduction--Charles A. Ferguson; 2. The Acquisition of Language in Infant and Child--Martin D. S. Braine; 3. Development of Native Language Skills beyond the Early Years--John B.…

  1. Why Language Learning Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    2001-01-01

    Most education systems prepare their students to function in the national language and at least one additional language. However, only one-third of U.S. elementary schools offer students language-learning opportunities. Multilingual societies have competitive advantages over monolingual societies in international trade. Ameliorative steps are…

  2. Language learner strategy research and modern foreign language teaching and learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Grenfell

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a newly constituted British-based interest group dedicated to

  3. Contextual Dynamics in Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozaki, Yoko; Ross, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Learning context has increasingly been postulated to exert an influence on the dynamics of individual differences in language learning. In a longitudinal design that tested the proficiency gains of 1,682 learners over a 2-year foreign language program, a multilevel modeling approach was deployed in this study to account for variation in second…

  4. Language Resources and Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, Toma?

    Language Resources and Machine Learning Saso Dzeroski Department of Knowledge Technologies Institut technologies and linguistics · Language resources · The Multext-East resources ­ Learning morphological analysis/synthesis ­ Learning PoS tagging ­ Lemmatization · The Prague Dependency Treebank ­ Learning

  5. Sequential Expectations: The Role of Prediction-Based Learning in Language

    E-print Network

    Sequential Expectations: The Role of Prediction-Based Learning in Language Jennifer B. Misyak statistical learning and language within the context of nonadjacency processing. We first chart the trajectory; Sentence processing; Language comprehension; Statistical learning; Nonadja- cent dependencies; Serial

  6. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning

  7. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    Essays on language transfer in language learning include: excerpts from "Linguistics across Cultures" (Robert Lado); "Language Transfer" (Larry Selinker); "Goofing: An Indication of Children's Second Language Learning Strategies" (Heidi C. Dulay, Marina K. Burt); "Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations" (Susan Gass); "A Role for the…

  8. Infant artificial language learning and language acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Gómez; LouAnn Gerken

    2000-01-01

    The rapidity with which children acquire language is one of the mysteries of human cognition. A view held widely for the past 30 years is that children master language by means of a language-specific learning device. An earlier proposal, which has generated renewed interest, is that children make use of domain-general, associative learning mechanisms. However, our current lack of knowledge

  9. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  10. RESIDENTIAL PROGRAM FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    RESIDENTIAL PROGRAM FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING Live on-campus in 2014-15 and participate in a unique Spanish language immersion opportunity! Learn about Hispanic cultures and improve your language skills-house "language pledge" will be supported by UCI Spanish language courses (at various levels) and conversational

  11. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English–Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., “Can you give me the blicket?” Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment.

  12. Learning Languages through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    While posing important questions about how learning proceeds with new technologies, this volume demonstrates how teachers captivate the imagination of learners, from schoolchildren to postgraduates, by providing real-world purposes for language. The authors are from educational institutions in many regions of the world, and describe technology use…

  13. Creating Meaningful Contexts in Schools for English Language Learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Hong

    \\u000a In this chapter, Min Hong explores a series of problems that English Language Learners encounter in schools and shares strategies\\u000a and solutions to make learning more purposeful for them. She launches her chapter by asking the question: How do we create\\u000a meaningful contexts in schools for young English Language Learners? Hong writes that as schools focus more on test scores,

  14. Context, Judgment, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John; Hager, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Examines the assessment of work-based learning, noting distinctions between "pure" and "professional" knowledge by offering a genealogy of learning; asserting that the distinction between academic and non-academic learning has become what Dewey termed a false dualism; examining relationships between judgment, activity, practice, and tradition;…

  15. Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333 Distributional Language Learning

    E-print Network

    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333 Distributional Language Learning: Mechanisms and Models University In the past 15 years, a substantial body of evidence has confirmed that a powerful distributional This article is a summary of a talk presented at the Workshop on Infant Language Development held in San

  16. The effects of context on incidental vocabulary learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Webb

    2008-01-01

    Japanese university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) encountered 10 target words in 3 sets of 10 short contexts that were rated on the amount of information available to infer the target words' meanings. One group of learners met the target words in contexts rated more highly than the contexts read by the other group. A surprise vocabulary

  17. The Effects of Context on Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Japanese university students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) encountered 10 target words in 3 sets of 10 short contexts that were rated on the amount of information available to infer the target words' meanings. One group of learners met the target words in contexts rated more highly than the contexts read by the other group. A…

  18. Penelope, A Language for Realizing Context Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sovrin Tolia

    2002-01-01

    semantic query, programming languages, resource description framework, meta-data Context Spaces aim to provide a new class of document management services in which storage, organization and retrieval of information is based on semantically rich and active meta-data. It enhances the access to existing document resources by making it more proactive, mobile and context-aware. We have designed a new language, Penelope, to

  19. Intercultural Learning across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasbř, Kristin Beate

    2013-01-01

    International youth work in Europe (i.e. non-formal learning) demands a renewal of the prominent intercultural theory and framework in the youth field in order to cope with contemporary questions concerning pluralism and global challenges. This article provides a new theoretical framework for intercultural learning that departs from a complex,…

  20. International ESL Graduate Student Perceptions of Online Learning in the Context of Second Language Acquisition and Culturally Responsive Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Fujuan; Nabb, Lee; Aagard, Steven; Kim, Kioh

    2010-01-01

    The development of technology has made adult and higher education learning opportunities increasingly more accessible to a growing number of people. With the number of courses steadily increasing to meet students' needs and demands, and because programs are likewise changing to incorporate more online learning opportunities, international, English…

  1. Bodies and language: process drama and intercultural language learning in a beginner language classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Rothwell

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires, she justifies the need for learners to experience

  2. Bodies and Language: Process Drama and Intercultural Language Learning in a Beginner Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws on classroom video recordings and student commentary to explore ways in which the kinaesthetic elements of a process drama provided the context and the space for beginner additional language learners to engage with intercultural language learning. In the light of student comments in interviews and questionnaires,…

  3. Language Learning within Academic Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, George M.

    This paper reports on a research project that examined nonnative Southampton University (England) students' attitudes to continued language learning and the importance of language learning and cultural adaptation. A survey was administered to pre-sessional and in-sessional students that included information on background, past and present language

  4. Unsupervised learning of natural languages.

    PubMed

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-08-16

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  5. Unsupervised learning of natural languages

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Zach; Horn, David; Ruppin, Eytan; Edelman, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    We address the problem, fundamental to linguistics, bioinformatics, and certain other disciplines, of using corpora of raw symbolic sequential data to infer underlying rules that govern their production. Given a corpus of strings (such as text, transcribed speech, chromosome or protein sequence data, sheet music, etc.), our unsupervised algorithm recursively distills from it hierarchically structured patterns. The adios (automatic distillation of structure) algorithm relies on a statistical method for pattern extraction and on structured generalization, two processes that have been implicated in language acquisition. It has been evaluated on artificial context-free grammars with thousands of rules, on natural languages as diverse as English and Chinese, and on protein data correlating sequence with function. This unsupervised algorithm is capable of learning complex syntax, generating grammatical novel sentences, and proving useful in other fields that call for structure discovery from raw data, such as bioinformatics. PMID:16087885

  6. An Experiment on Supporting Children's English Vocabulary Learning in Multimedia Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanqing Sun; Qi Dong

    2004-01-01

    Learning in context is an important component of second language (L2) vocabulary teaching and learning. However, young children may encounter some difficulties in dealing with the context. Hence learning support should be included to facilitate learning. The present study examined the effects of two types of learning support on Chinese children's (7 years of age) learning of English words: sentence-level

  7. Discovering the Relationship between Context and Allophones in a Second Language: Evidence for Distribution-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christine E.; Curtin, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The identification of stressed syllables by adult second-language (L2) Spanish learners was examined for evidence of influence of an allophonic alternation driven by word position and stress. The Spanish voiced stop-approximant alternation, whereby stops occur in stressed-syllable and word onsets, was utilized. If L2 learners track the…

  8. Teachers' Views on Digital Educational Tools in English Language Learning: Benefits and Challenges in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Servet; Aytin, Kübra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear benefits provided by digital educational tools, Turkish teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) are often seen as failing to take advantage of computing technologies in the classroom. Deficiencies in terms of teachers' digital literacies are often faulted for this omission. The majority of studies concerning Turkish…

  9. This Language-Learning Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Harold E.; Redman, H. Vere

    This compilation of writings, first published in 1932, provides a historical overview of early thought concerning the nature of language and language instruction. The authors, pioneers in the field of "natural" language learning, consider language as: (1) code, (2) literature, (3) conversation, (4) communication, (5) sounds, and (6) speech. In a…

  10. Second Language Anxiety and Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichette, Francois

    2009-01-01

    This study compared anxiety profiles of classroom and distance language learners, and compared anxiety levels between first-semester and more experienced students in both learning environments. Participants were 186 French-speaking learners of English or Spanish, who were tested in Canada in 2006. They were tested for general foreign language

  11. Social Factors, Interlanguage and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    This paper considers a number of diverse contexts in which English is learned as a second language and in which nonstandard dialects arise because of social and linguistic factors. The varieties considered here are immigrant English, indigenous-minority varieties of English, pidginization and creolization, local varieties of non-native English,…

  12. Help Seeking in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Barbara; Madden, Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    An examination of literature on the issue of help seeking (HS) has revealed a common theme: students will not always ask for help, even when they are aware that help is needed. The purpose of this action research study was to examine HS and help avoidance in the context of setting tasks in two types of English language-learning environment: a…

  13. Contexts of Possibility in Simultaneous Language Learning: Using the L2 Motivational Self System to Assess the Impact of Global English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Motivation in simultaneous L2 learning situations is an area of research largely overlooked and studies from contexts where people are engaged in learning more than one L2 are rare. In their large-scale Hungarian research, Dornyei, Csizer and Nemeth found that pupils' positive attitudes to one L2 could cause interferences with attitudes to others,…

  14. HTML Validation of Context-Free Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Mřller; Mathias Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a We present an algorithm that generalizes HTML validation of individual documents to work on context-free sets of documents.\\u000a Together with a program analysis that soundly approximates the output of Java Servlets and JSP web applications as context-free\\u000a languages, we obtain a method for statically checking that such web applications never produce invalid HTML at runtime. Experiments\\u000a with our prototype implementation

  15. Analyzing the Effect of Context of Second Language Learning: Domestic Intensive and Semi-Intensive Courses vs. Study Abroad in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Angels; Tragant, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the second language (L2) written and oral performance of three groups of Spanish-speaking university students after being exposed to English in different contexts. One group of learners was spending some time abroad (Erasmus students in the UK), and two groups were following classroom instruction in two different types of…

  16. Input-Driven Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Dennis, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Responds to Ellis (2002), which suggests the statistical structure of the linguistic environment is a crucial and relatively neglected variable in language learning. This approach makes three assumptions about cognition and language learning that are not universally shared. Describes a distributed, instance-based approach that retains key features…

  17. Students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards English language learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meenaz Shams

    2008-01-01

    Motivational factors and experiences have the potential to influence students’ attitudes and anxiety levels towards English language learning. Recognizing the importance and multi-dimensional complexities of motivational attitudes and anxiety, this mini-research study attempts to investigate gender wise students’ attitudes, motivation and anxiety towards the learning of English as a second language in the multilingual context of Karachi, Pakistan. The study

  18. FACET AND PRISM BASED MODEL FOR PEDAGOGICAL INDEXATION OF TEXTS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FACET AND PRISM BASED MODEL FOR PEDAGOGICAL INDEXATION OF TEXTS FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING.ponton}@u-grenoble3.fr Keywords: Pedagogical indexation, Computer assisted language learning, Natural language of texts for language learning and address it under the scope of the notion of "pedagogical context

  19. The Role of Students' Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning in Online Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushida, Eiko

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of students' motivation and attitudes in second language (L2) study within an online language course context (LOL). Students' attitudes and motivation were examined within a socioeducational framework (Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993) while learning contexts were examined based on Dorneyi's (1994) components of foreign…

  20. Engaging Students in an Online Situated Language Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized the relationship between students' engagement and learning performance, and yet the context in which students and the teacher interact to engage each other has been ignored. In order to engage college students who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the context of a big class, this study developed a…

  1. Engaging students in an online situated language learning environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Fen Yang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized the relationship between students' engagement and learning performance, and yet the context in which students and the teacher interact to engage each other has been ignored. In order to engage college students who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the context of a big class, this study developed a system, which is an

  2. On Conservative Learning of Recursively Enumerable Languages #

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    On Conservative Learning of Recursively Enumerable Languages # Ziyuan Gao 1 , Sanjay Jain 2 partial learning is a variant of partial learning whereby the learner, on a text for a target language L''. A class of languages is learnable i# there is a recursive learner which learns every language in the class

  3. Speech Technologies for Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin-Jones, Bob

    2000-01-01

    Provides a description of the following speech technologies for language learning: recorded speech (from analog to digital); speech recognition; speech synthesis; multilingual speech to speech; speech on the Web. A resource list is also provided. (Author/VWL)

  4. Efficient Computation of Throughput Values of Context-Free Languages

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a representation by a regular language (a finite automaton) with each alphabet symbol representing a con- stantEfficient Computation of Throughput Values of Context-Free Languages Didier Caucal a Jurek value of a given context-free language L. The language is given by a grammar G of size n, together

  5. (Re)Conceptualizing Design Approaches for Mobile Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, Debra; Palalas, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study conducted at George Brown College in Toronto, Canada between 2007 and 2009 investigated language learning with mobile devices as an approach to augmenting ESP learning by taking learning outside the classroom into the real-world context. In common with findings at other community colleges, this study identified inadequate…

  6. Language Performance, Context and the Personality of the Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, John

    Interpreting is an example of context-bound performance in which the interpreter has a prescribed role in infinitely varied contexts. The use of interpreting to train language students in confident and competent language use in less demanding contexts contributes to the development of both interpersonal skills and the ability to switch language

  7. Team Learning of Formal Languages Sanjay Jain

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Team Learning of Formal Languages Sanjay Jain Dept. of Info. Systems & Computer Science National been studied extensively. However, team learning of languages turns out to be a more suitable for this is that language learning can model both learning from positive data and learning from positive and negative data

  8. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  9. Language learning: Cues or rules?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Macwhinney; J. Leinbach; R. Taraban; J. Mc-donald

    1989-01-01

    Abstract: Child language researchers have often taken gender and case paradigms,to be interesting test cases for theories of language learning. In this paper we develop a computational model of the acquisition of the gender, number, and case paradigm for the German definite article. The computational formalism used is a connectionist algorithm developed by Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams (1986). Three models

  10. Bots as Language Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Luke; Carpenter, Rollo

    2006-01-01

    Foreign Language Learning (FLL) students commonly have few opportunities to use their target language. Teachers in FLL situations do their best to create opportunities during classes through pair or group work, but a variety of factors ranging from a lack of time to shyness or limited opportunity for quality feedback hamper this. This paper…

  11. Reconceptualising Learning Programs for Intercultural Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the need to reconceptualise teaching and learning programs for intercultural language learning. The shift is from concepts such as "content" and its "coverage" (intended to address "learner needs and interests") to developing programs focused on meaning making in interaction and on learners as meaning makers. Specific…

  12. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  13. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  14. LanguageLand : a multimodal conversational spoken language learning system

    E-print Network

    Lee, Vivienne C. (Vivienne Catherine)

    2004-01-01

    LanguageLand is a multimodal conversational spoken language learning system whose purpose is to help native English users learn Mandarin Chinese. The system is centered on a game that involves navigation on a simulated ...

  15. Language Experience Changes Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual…

  16. LANGUAGE LEARNING AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Mark W.

    LANGUAGE LEARNING AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of Philosophy by Mark William Andrews May 2003 #12;© 2003 Mark William Andrews ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;LANGUAGE investigates language learning. The questions that motivate this analysis in- clude: What is language learning

  17. How Languages are Learnt: Primary Children's Language Learning Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Kolb

    2007-01-01

    Language learners bring different ideas and preconceptions of the learning process to the classroom. These are referred to as language learning beliefs. This paper explores primary children's language learning beliefs, a field which has rarely been researched so far. It draws on a qualitative study on the learners' perspective in two primary EFL classes in Germany. Special tasks were designed

  18. Incremental Context-Dependent Analysis for Language-Based Editors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Reps; Tim Teitelbaum; Alan J. Demers

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of a programming language's grammar allows language-based editors to enforce syntactic correctness at all times during development by restricting editing operations to legitimate modifica- tions ot ~ the program's context-free derivation tree; however, not all language constraints can be enforced in this way because not all features can be described by the context-free formalism. Attribute grammars permit context-dependent language

  19. A Data Model and its Implementation for a Web-Based Language Learning System

    E-print Network

    Gamper, Johann

    an adaptive Web-based language learning system for the German and Italian languages. In this paper we focusA Data Model and its Implementation for a Web-Based Language Learning System Johann Gamper Free on the devel- opment and implementation of a data model for this system. While in the general context of e-learning

  20. First Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallen, Jeffrey L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface: The Acquisition of Celtic Languages" (Jeffrey L. Kallen); "The Development of Finiteness in Early Welsh" (Robert D. Borsley and Bob Morris Jones); "Acquiring Subject and Object Relatives; Evidence from Irish" (Helen Goodluck, Eithne Guilfoyle, and Sile Harrington); "The Language

  1. Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper, "Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica." examines how the narratives of students can offer useful understanding and insights into their attitudes and achievements in second language acquisition. These situations are specific to Creole-speaking learning environments in Jamaica…

  2. Materials for Language Learning and Teaching. Anthology Series 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bikram K., Ed.

    Papers from a seminar on instructional materials for second language teaching include the following: "Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?" (Ted Rodgers); "Principles of Communicative Task Design" (David Nunan); "Teaching Spoken English in the Non-Native Context: Considerations for the Materials Writer" (Mary W. J. Tay); "The Texts for…

  3. Look Who's Talking: Speech Style and Social Context in Language Input to Infants Are Linked to Concurrent and Future Speech Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; García-Sierra, Adrián; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2014-01-01

    Language input is necessary for language learning, yet little is known about whether, in natural environments, the speech style and social context of language input to children impacts language development. In the present study we investigated the relationship between language input and language development, examining both the style of parental…

  4. English Language and Learning Procedures Category: Teaching and Learning

    E-print Network

    by the Faculty in consultation with the Faculty English Language Development Coordinator. (a) For first year1 English Language and Learning Procedures Category: Teaching and Learning 1. LEGISLATION/ENTERPRISE AGREEMENT/POLICY SUPPORTED English Language and Learning Policy 2. PROCEDURAL DETAILS English language

  5. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    PubMed

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjřrnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  6. Context and Relevance Theory in Language Teaching: An Exploratory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Alain J. E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses aspects of context from a relevance-theoretic perspective and considers how this may lead to a better understanding of how language learners recover verbal input. Proposes that the way context is defined affects (1) the relationship between knowledge of language and context and (2) the way speakers access assumptions in everyday…

  7. The Additional Uses of CALL in the Endangered Language Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the additional uses of CALL in the Endangered Language (EL) context. It briefly reviews ELs and reports on CALL for ELs in general. It then reviews the extra uses of CALL for ELs; these include changing negative attitudes towards the language, arousing interest in the language and contributing to language maintenance and…

  8. Language Learning Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauber, Sandra K.

    1981-01-01

    Describes use of learning stations at elementary and secondary levels. Explains vocabulary, grammar, conversation, listening, reading and culture stations; materials and equipment for stations; management concerns. (BK)

  9. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  10. Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alexander

    Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition Alexander Clark1 and Shalom Lappin2 1 Computational learning theory explores the limits of learnability. Studying language acquisition from. To the extent that such assumptions accurately reflect human language learning, a model that invokes them can

  11. Second Language Learning Centre ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUMMER SCHOOL 2014

    E-print Network

    Herrmann, Samuel

    Second Language Learning Centre ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUMMER SCHOOL 2014 Course Overview This four week intensive English language and cultural studies programme offers 21 hours a week guided learning opportunities at intermediate, upper intermediate and advanced levels of English ­ subject to sufficient student

  12. LEARNING IN THE CITY: CONTEXT FOR COMMUNITIES AND COLLABORATIVE LEARNING

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    LEARNING IN THE CITY: CONTEXT FOR COMMUNITIES AND COLLABORATIVE LEARNING Sobah Abbas Petersen and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Email: {sap,anderpe}@idi.ntnu.no INTRODUCTION Intelligent environments learning, where the city becomes an active arena in the learning process and learning could be situated

  13. Language and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, James

    This book is based upon the theory that we use language as a means of organizing a representation of the world--each for himself--and that the representation so created constitutes the world we operate in, the basis of all the predictions by which we set the course of our lives. Chapter 1 discusses this theory; Chapter 2 relates what is relevant…

  14. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    PubMed Central

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  15. Learning to lead in the entrepreneurial context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Kempster; Jason Cope

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of leadership learning in the entrepreneurial context, by building a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship. It draws on contemporary leadership literature to appreciate entrepreneurial leadership as a social process of becoming located in particular contexts and communities. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Through qualitative phenomenological interviews with nine entrepreneurs the lived

  16. Teachers' Discourse on English Language Learners: Cultural Models of Language and Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Heineke

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores teacher learning about English language learners (ELLs) in a small-group, school-based context at an urban elementary school inArizona. Sociocultural perspectives on teacher learning guided the analysis of teachers’ participation in a teacher study group over six months. The teacher study group aimed to support educators of ELLs at a time of new language policy implementation,

  17. Cross Language Transfer and Foreign Language Learning Motivation in English and Chinese 

    E-print Network

    Cho, Eunhee

    2014-11-12

    in South Korea ............................................................................... 103 B-2 Reliabilities, Means and Standard Deviations (SDs) of All Measures for Korean, English, and Chinese.../foreign languages. This research is based on one specific case of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) context in Korea where English is learned as an L2 and Chinese as an L3. However, this language education environment is not unique to Korea; it can be observed...

  18. The role of language in learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, David T.

    Many studies in PER suggest that language poses a serious difficulty for students learning physics. These difficulties are mostly attributed to misunderstanding of specialized terminology. This terminology often assigns new meanings to everyday terms used to describe physical models and phenomena. In this dissertation I present a novel approach to analyzing of the role of language in learning physics. This approach is based on the analysis of the historical development of physics ideas, the language of modern physicists, and students' difficulties in the areas of quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and thermodynamics. These data are analyzed using linguistic tools borrowed from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar. Specifically, I combine the idea of conceptual metaphor and grammar to build a theoretical framework that accounts for: (1) the role and function that language serves for physicists when they speak and reason about physical ideas and phenomena, (2) specific features of students' reasoning and difficulties that may be related to or derived from language that students read or hear. The theoretical framework is developed using the methodology of a grounded theoretical approach. The theoretical framework allows us to make predictions about the relationship between student discourse and their conceptual and problem solving difficulties. Tests of the theoretical framework are presented in the context of "heat" in thermodynamics and "force" in dynamics. In each case the language that students use to reason about the concepts of "heat" and "force" is analyzed using the theoretical framework. The results of this analysis show that language is very important in students' learning. In particular, students are (1) using features of physicists' conceptual metaphors to reason about physical phenomena, often overextending and misapplying these features, (2) drawing cues from the grammar of physicists' speech and writing to categorize physics concepts; this categorization of physics concepts plays a key role in students' ability to solve physics problems. In summary, I present a theoretical framework that provides a possible explanation of the role that language plays in learning physics. The framework also attempts to account for how and why physicists' language influences students in the way that it does.

  19. Grounding language models in spatiotemporal context

    E-print Network

    Roy, Brandon C.

    Natural language is rich and varied, but also highly structured. The rules of grammar are a primary source of linguistic regularity, but there are many other factors that govern patterns of language use. Language models ...

  20. Tracking Context Changes through Meta-Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Widmer; Ryszard S. Michalski; Janusz Wnek

    1997-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of learning incrementally (‘on-line’) in domains where the target concepts are context-dependent, so that changes in context can produce more or less radical changes in the associated concepts. In particular, we concentrate on a class of learning tasks where the domain provides explicit clues as to the current context (e.g., attributes with characteristic values).

  1. Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing

    E-print Network

    Collobert, Ronan

    Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing Ronan Collobert Jason Weston NEC Labs America;Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing Ronan Collobert Jason Weston NEC Labs America, Princeton Learning As with the history of the world, machine learning has a history of and exploration exploitation

  2. Classroom Tandem--Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Katri; Pörn, Michaela; Rusk, Fredrik; Björkskog, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues…

  3. English Language and Learning Policy Category: Teaching and Learning

    E-print Network

    .6.1 Faculty areas may set English language entry requirements at a higher level in order to meet professionalEnglish Language and Learning Policy Category: Teaching and Learning 1. PURPOSE To provide for the development of enrolled students' English language and learning in accordance with the University's strategic

  4. Learning to Learn an Additional Language: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the New Zealand experience of second language acquisition as it applies to learning the Maori language and also to new immigrants learning English. The article describes the te kohanga reo movement and also outlines the government policy as it relates to the learning of English as an additional language

  5. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  6. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  7. Micro Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Agency in Local Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    This paper overviews some of the domains of application of micro-level language planning approaches to foster multilingual education. It examines the language planning of local agents and the contexts in which their work contributes to multilingual education, either to expand or limit educational possibilities. It identifies four broad contexts of…

  8. "To Improve Language, You Have to Mix": Teachers' Perceptions of Language Learning in an Overseas Immersion Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon; Corder, Deborah; Stacey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The overseas immersion environment has long been considered a superior context for language learning, supposedly providing unlimited exposure to target language (TL) input and countless opportunities for authentic interaction with expert users. This article focuses on immersion programmes (IPs) for in-service language teachers--a relatively…

  9. Context and learner modelling for the mobile foreign language learner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanchun Cui; Susan Bull

    2005-01-01

    Given the growing use of mobile devices, there is now increasing interest in the potential for supporting the mobile learner. However, there remains much research to be undertaken, to find effective ways of facilitating learning with mobile devices. This paper considers how to support the mobile language learner using a handheld computer. It introduces TenseITS, a language learning environment that

  10. SPECIFICATION OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN LANGUAGES DEDICATED TO LEARNING MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Laforcade, Pierre

    SPECIFICATION OF VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN LANGUAGES DEDICATED TO LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS a learning situation is still a complex task. Visual Instructional Design Languages (VIDL: Educational Modeling Languages (EML) facilitating the specification of learning situations as formal learning

  11. Year 8 Attitudes to Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Carr (2002), in her investigation of boys' alienation from languages and language learning, addressed the question of an "appropriate curriculum" for boys and boys' understanding of masculinity. Boys reported in that research that they preferred physical activities so found the written text orientation of language learning to be "hard" and…

  12. LANGUAGE LEARNING, THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PROCESS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NAJAM, EDWARD W.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIANA-PURDUE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES AND INTRODUCED BY DIEKHOFF'S SPEECH ADVOCATING TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN THE REVISION OF PROGRAM POLICY TO MEET CONTINUOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. IN THE FIRST SECTION, THE INTERRELATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING, ARE…

  13. Web-Based English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarica, Gulcin Nagehan; Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of another language is an advantage and it gives people to look at the world and in particular to the world's cultures with a broader perspective. Learning English as a second language is the process by which students learn it in addition to their native language. Today, internet is an important part of our lives as English. For this…

  14. Online Mind Maps for Language Learning : Assisted Risk-Taking Josphine Rmon1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Online Mind Maps for Language Learning : Assisted Risk-Taking Joséphine Rémon1 Université Lumičre learning, going towards a better understanding of this combination for enhanced teaching and learning. The context is digital literacy and English as a Foreign Language teaching at university. The students

  15. Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence?

    PubMed

    Berens, Melody S; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2013-04-01

    Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed 2(nd) and 3(rd) grade children in two-way dual-language learning contexts: (i) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (ii) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other). They were compared to matched monolingual English-only children in single-language English schools. Bilinguals (home language was Spanish only, English-only, or Spanish and English in dual-language schools), were tested in both languages, and monolingual children were tested in English using standardized reading and language tasks. Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses. By contrast, bilinguals in 90:10 programs performed better than bilinguals in the 50:50 programs on English Phonological Awareness and Reading Decoding tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for surface phonological regularity analysis. Notably, children from English-only homes in dual-language learning contexts performed equally well, or better than, children from monolingual English-only homes in single-language learning contexts. Overall, the findings provide tantalizing evidence that dual-language learning during the same developmental period may provide bilingual reading advantages. PMID:23794952

  16. A Teacher's Perspective: Learning a Second Language

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ana Vaisenstein, Sumner Elementary School, Boston Public Schools

    2008-01-01

    In "Learning a Second Language," page 107, Ellen Bialystok explains the ways in which reading a science text in a second language makes learning more challenging. She explains that language is the core of science learning because it "is the primary medium through which scientific concepts are understood, constructed, and expressed." She talks about some of the challenges of learning through spoken language but focuses primarily on the obstacles students face when they are expected to learn science through texts. Ana Vaisenstein, a former first-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual school, shares her perspective.

  17. Physics Learning through a Telecommunications Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Physics Phones Home unit which is context-led and developed by the Supported Learning in Physics Projects. Teaches introductory magnetism; electric, magnetic and gravitational fields; and electricity and circular motion. (YDS)

  18. Language Acquisition as Rational Contingency Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers how fluent language users are rational in their language processing, their unconscious language representation systems optimally prepared for comprehension and production, how language learners are intuitive statisticians, and how acquisition can be understood as contingency learning. But there are important aspects of second…

  19. Co-Operative Language Learning: What's News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Ted

    This discussion of cooperative second language learning describes the approach in terms of response to three questions: WHO? WHAT? and WHY? The first section "WHO: Major Directors and Actors," chronicles the evolution of cooperative learning in general and cooperative language learning in particular, citing some specific methods and the…

  20. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  1. Weblogs for English Language Learning: Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Juida; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in…

  2. Glossary: The Language of Teaching and Learning

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Specific, measurable learning goals. Metacognition The process through which students monitor and assessGlossary: The Language of Teaching and Learning Active Learning Techniques that actively engage students in learning. These may include inquiry and problem-based learning activities. Examples

  3. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn

  4. Context in the Study of Human Languages and Computer Programming Languages: A Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Connolly

    2001-01-01

    Human languages and computer programming languages are very different from one another. Nevertheless, in spite of this, is\\u000a it possible to accommodate both of them within a single overarching framework? In addressing this question, the various aspects\\u000a of context are surveyed, in order to facilitate a comparison between context in relation to natural language and context in\\u000a relation to programming

  5. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  6. The Roles of "Second Life" in a College Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Course in Taiwan, ROC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Various language learning projects using "Second Life" (SL) have been documented; still, their specific learning potentials, particularly in English as a foreign language (EFL) context, remain to be explored. The current study aims to add one piece of empirical evidence on how SL can be infused into a computer-assisted language learning (CALL)…

  7. Issues in Contemporary Spain: A Multimedia Approach to Teaching Language and Culture in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Rosa Alicia

    A method of combining second language learning and cultural education at the advanced level is described. In a third-year college Spanish course, the subject of post-Franco Spain is used as the context for developing reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills and also serves as content area in itself. In addition to instructional texts,…

  8. Questioning the Stability of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Motivation across Different Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Yeon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether foreign language learner anxiety and motivational goal orientations remained stable across two different classroom contexts: a reading course and a conversation course. The researcher measured anxiety and four types of motivational goal orientations by surveying 59 Korean college students learning English in both…

  9. Correlation of Anxiety and Motivation in English Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Bin; Ji Lixia

    2009-01-01

    Correlation of anxiety and motivation was studied by means of questionnaire. The results show that inner interest motivation and effort intensity are significantly and negatively correlated with anxiety while achievement motivation. Learning context motivation is significantly and positively correlated with anxiety. Pedagogic implications are given according to the findings of study, like developing students' interest in English language and its

  10. Deep Language and Persistent Culture: Learning to Speak the \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Wirtz

    My concern in this paper is to explore how religious practitioners' approaches to learning, using, and interpreting Santería's esoteric ritual language, Lucumí, impact Lucumí's ritual efficacy as the sacred speech of the deities and ancestors. In particular, I wish to argue that distinct interpretive practices, situated in different contexts or deployed by differently situated actors, provide alternate visions of Lucumí's

  11. Addressing Pedagogical Dilemmas in a Constructivist Language Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Educational constructivism has long been associated with advanced pedagogy on the basis that, it champions a learner-centered approach to teaching, advocates learning in meaningful contexts and promotes problem-based activities where learners construct their knowledge through interaction with their peers. Involving language learners in video…

  12. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  13. Second-Language Learning Experiments and Mathematical Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinker, Larry

    1972-01-01

    Critique of Crothers and Suppes' Experiments in Second Language Learning,'' New York: Academic Press, 1967. Revised version of lecture presented to the Applied Linguistics section of the Modern Language Association, New York, New York, December 1970. (RS)

  14. Context and Deep Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Tom; Ravenscroft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual clarification is essential if we are to establish a stable and deep discipline of technology enhanced learning. The technology is alluring; this can distract from deep design in a surface rush to exploit the affordances of the new technology. We need a basis for design, and a conceptual unit of organization, that are applicable across…

  15. Empowering the Language Learner: Language Learning Strategy Training and Self-Regulation in an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how an understanding of the Good Language Learner models described in the SLA literature can be used to tailor and implement a program of learning strategy training and self-regulatory practices in the classroom to empower L2 learners in an EFL context. The paper begins by reviewing the various…

  16. The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2011-01-01

    This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

  17. Hot context for organizational learning Charlotte FILLOL, Phd Student

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Hot context for organizational learning Charlotte FILLOL, Phd Student CREPA, Research center. This contribution aims at fixing and explaining hot organizational learning context dimensions. This approach. Second, this analysis suggests a framework for hot context that emphasized managerial leverages

  18. Exploring Content Teachers' Knowledge of Language Pedagogy: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project in a Dutch CLIL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Skeet, Jason; de Graaff, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between language pedagogy and the content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classroom is a key issue for research into CLIL. In the Netherlands, as in other European contexts, non-native speakers of a target language with a non-language teaching background teach CLIL content lessons. Whilst CLIL teachers teaching their…

  19. Teaching Strategies and Student Attitudes toward Learning Korean as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Dara

    This study sought to determine how students value learning Korean as a second language in the context of six instructor-selected strategies for teaching. Twenty-three students enrolled in introductory Korean participated. This study utilized mastery learning, cooperative learning, non-directed learning, and three different direct teaching…

  20. User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ed.; Zacharia, Giorgos, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of computer aided language learning (CALL), there is a need for emphasizing the importance of the user. "User-Centered Computer Aided Language Learning" presents methodologies, strategies, and design approaches for building interfaces for a user-centered CALL environment, creating a deeper understanding of the opportunities and…

  1. The Neurolinguistics of Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D., Ed.

    These proceedings are a collection of papers by researchers in neurology, bilingualism, linguistics, and the neurolinguistics of bilingualism. Topics are addressed using neurolinguistic data for second language learning, learning models for second language acquisition, and implications for teaching and research. Summaries of the following papers…

  2. Narrative Research in Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhuizen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Narrative research in language teaching and learning (LTL) is concerned with the stories teachers and learners tell about their lived and imagined experiences. Teachers typically tell about their professional development and their practices, and learners about their experiences of learning and using languages. What stories are, and indeed what…

  3. Situated Language Learning: Concept, Significance and Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdallah, Mahmoud M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a shift in language learning from the "acquisition" metaphor to the "participation" metaphor. This involves viewing learners as active constructors of knowledge who can collaborate together to create meaningful language learning situations and contextualised practices. Thus, this worksheet aims at exploring…

  4. Early Gesture "Selectively" Predicts Later Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The gestures children produce predict the early stages of spoken language development. Here we ask whether gesture is a global predictor of language learning, or whether particular gestures predict particular language outcomes. We observed 52 children interacting with their caregivers at home, and found that gesture use at 18 months selectively…

  5. Identifying Language Learning Strategies: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineda, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…

  6. Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…

  7. Learning procedures from interactive natural language instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, Scott B.; Laird, John E.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its ubiquity in human learning, very little work has been done in artificial intelligence on agents that learn from interactive natural language instructions. In this paper, the problem of learning procedures from interactive, situated instruction is examined in which the student is attempting to perform tasks within the instructional domain, and asks for instruction when it is needed. Presented is Instructo-Soar, a system that behaves and learns in response to interactive natural language instructions. Instructo-Soar learns completely new procedures from sequences of instruction, and also learns how to extend its knowledge of previously known procedures to new situations. These learning tasks require both inductive and analytic learning. Instructo-Soar exhibits a multiple execution learning process in which initial learning has a rote, episodic flavor, and later executions allow the initially learned knowledge to be generalized properly.

  8. Language Learning Strategies, Course Grades, and Age in EFL Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Victori, Mia

    2012-01-01

    In studies dealing with language learning strategies in the school context, the variables of proficiency and age are often difficult to isolate since students accumulate more hours of foreign language instruction as they move up from grade to grade. This study aimed to deal with these two variables independently by analysing learning strategy use…

  9. "It Depends on the Students Themselves": Independent Language Learning at an Indonesian State School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There is continuing interest in the notion of learner autonomy, both as an effective means and valid goal of a language learning curriculum. However, the concept is recognised as emanating from Western tertiary educational contexts and as open to question in different sociocultural settings. This paper reports on a study of language learning

  10. A Probe into Three Chinese Boys' Self-Efficacy Beliefs Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuang; Pape, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, we investigate three Chinese boys' self-efficacy beliefs learning English as a second language across English language learning tasks and home-based and school-based contexts. Participants reported higher self-efficacy to complete listening and speaking activities than during reading and writing activities. All participants…

  11. Individual Differences in Sequence Learning Ability and Second Language Acquisition in Early Childhood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Language aptitude has been hypothesized as a factor that can compensate for postcritical period effects in language learning capacity. However, previous research has primarily focused on instructed contexts and rarely on acquisition-rich learning environments where there is a potential for massive amounts of input. In addition, the studies…

  12. The Use of Blogs in Learning English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of English as a foreign language (EFL), using blogs has emerged as a language learning tool. However, how teachers effectively incorporate blogs within the confines of an instructional framework and what the current research shows about using blogs as a learning tool remain unsolved issues. Thus, the current paper presents a…

  13. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. PMID:24211437

  14. Assessing English Language Learners' Opportunity to Learn Mathematics: Issues and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Herman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: English language learner (ELL) students are lagging behind because of the extra challenges they face relative to their peers in acquiring academic English language proficiency, and the added burden of learning content in a language in which they are not proficient. The mandated inclusion of ELL students in the nation's…

  15. ModernLanguages Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making

    E-print Network

    ModernLanguages Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making language learning an essential ingredient to give you a real-world, competitive edge. www skill set. 1) Modern Languages · Modern Languages (German, Italian or Spanish) · Second Language

  16. GESTURE'S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2010-09-22

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate--they gesture--and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form--they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form--they are part of language. PMID:23526836

  17. Imagined Communities, Identity, and English Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta Pavlenko; Bonny Norton

    This chapter introduces the notion of imagined communities as a way to better understand the relationship between second language learning and identity. It is argued that language\\u000a learners’ actual and desired memberships in imagined communities affect their learning trajectories, influencing their agency,\\u000a motivation, investment, and resistance in the learning of English. These influences are exemplified with regard to five identity

  18. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  19. The relationship between language learning strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Mokuedi Magogwe; Rhonda Oliver

    2007-01-01

    This research seeks to extend our current knowledge by exploring the relationship between preferred language strategies, age, proficiency, and self-efficacy beliefs. Responding to the call for more replication of strategy research and for research in different cultural contexts, this research was undertaken in Botswana between 2002 and 2005. The adapted versions of the Oxford [Oxford, R., 1990. Language learning strategies:

  20. Visualisation in Applied Learning Contexts: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twissell, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    This literature review explores visualisation within the context of learning in design, engineering and technology education. The investigation first defines visualisation, providing examples of activities that utilise visualisation skills within an applied field. Then exploration of the mental mechanisms of visualisation used to engage with those…

  1. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  2. Context-Free Languages A context-free grammar is a 4-tuple (V,,P,S), where

    E-print Network

    Waterloo, University of

    Context-Free Languages A context-free grammar is a 4-tuple (V,,P,S), where · V is a nite set of non;Context-Free Languages recall the non-regular language {anban | n 0} · V = {S} · = {a,b} · productionSaaa aaabaaa 2 #12;Context-Free Languages We use to mean that can be obtained from using one application

  3. Learning for Deep Language Understanding Smaranda Muresan

    E-print Network

    Muresan, Smaranda

    Learning for Deep Language Understanding Smaranda Muresan School of Communication and Information. Building large treebanks annotated with complex representations needed to learn deep grammars is a very for deep linguistic formalisms. Propos- ing tractable learning algorithms for a deep linguistic formal- ism

  4. Literature Review in Languages, Technology and Learning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and practical advice to support the design and use of innovative learning tools · communicates the latest and other technologies, we are developing innovative learning resources and practices that support new and learning languages with ICT 3 a basis for communication between the educational research community

  5. Implementing Cooperative Learning at a Language School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-im

    This chapter describes a program evaluation of cooperative learning in a private language school devoted to teaching English to Japanese students. Student resistance to cooperative learning was due to a lack of training of students, a lack of understanding of basic cooperative learning principles by administrators, and a lack of cooperative…

  6. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  7. Context-Aware Ubiquitous English Learning in a Campus Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-chun Hsieh; Chih-ming Chen; Chin-ming Hong

    2007-01-01

    Many researches have indicated that the wireless technology can enhance the learning performance of teaching, learning and self-study. Therefore, the web-based learning has been evolved into mobile learning and even ubiquitous learning in recent years. Certainly, performing language teaching and learning actions by handheld devices in cooperating with advanced wireless technology has been a novel trend. Therefore, the research proposes

  8. Language Learning: A Worldwide Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Donna; Pufahl, Ingrid U.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous reports and articles have decried the mediocrity of U.S. students' foreign language skills and have called for improved language education. One study that looked at foreign language education in 19 countries suggests several characteristics of successful foreign language programs: starting early, providing an articulated framework,…

  9. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  10. Songs and singing in foreign language learning 

    E-print Network

    Ludke, Karen M.

    2010-11-26

    Educators have claimed that listening to music in a second or foreign language (L2) can provide fun and motivating educational material and that singing can enhance the L2 learning process by improving listening and ...

  11. Learning and the language of thought

    E-print Network

    Piantadosi, Steven Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis develops the hypothesis that key aspects of learning and development can be understood as rational statistical inferences over a compositionally structured representation system, a language of thought (LOT) ...

  12. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN A CHINESE LANGUAGE LEARNING GAME

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN A CHINESE LANGUAGE LEARNING GAME to learn as a second language. Not only is the vocabulary considerably different from that of English the difficulty of learning this language. These sentences will then be used in a game that will aid the learning

  13. Personalized Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effectively English Vocabulary Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-ming Chen; Yi-lun Li; Ming-chuan Chen

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of wireless techniques, the mobile learning by the handheld devices has been gradually considered as a novel learning form. Developing context-aware ubiquitous learning environment can bring the most desired learning services for learners. Accordingly, this study proposed a personalized context-aware ubiquitous english vocabulary learning system which can exploit appropriate context based on learner's location, leisure learning

  14. Language technologies in speech-enabled second language learning games : from reading to dialogue

    E-print Network

    Xu, Yushi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Second language learning has become an important societal need over the past decades. Given that the number of language teachers is far below demand, computer-aided language learning software is becoming a promising ...

  15. Forgetting Exceptions is Harmful in Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Daelemans; Antal Van Den Bosch; Jakub Zavrel

    1999-01-01

    We show that in language learning, contrary to received wisdom, keeping exceptional training instances in memory can be beneficial for generalization accuracy. We investigate this phenomenon empirically on a selection of benchmark natural language processing tasks: grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, part-of-speech tagging, prepositional-phrase attachment, and base noun phrase chunking. In a first series of experiments we combine memory-based learning with training set

  16. Tweet2Learn: Language learning via social media

    E-print Network

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    Tweet2Learn: Language learning via social media Kevin Scannell Saint Louis University May 30, 2013 #12;Social Media: Advantages Solves the "critical mass" problem Connects learners with native-study or formal pedagogy #12;Social Media: Disadvantages Still only a complement to "real" learning No oral

  17. Language Evolution by Iterated Learning with Bayesian Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Kalish, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Languages are transmitted from person to person and generation to generation via a process of iterated learning: people learn a language from other people who once learned that language themselves. We analyze the consequences of iterated learning for learning algorithms based on the principles of Bayesian inference, assuming that learners compute…

  18. Language comprehension dependent on emotional context: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Matani, Ayumu; Fujimaki, Norio; Yagura, Haruko; Nogai, Takeshi; Umehara, Hiroaki; Murata, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    In communication, language can be interpreted differently depending upon the emotional context. To clarify the effect of emotional context on language processing, we performed experiments using a cross-modal priming paradigm with an auditorily presented prime and a visually presented target. The primes were the names of people that were spoken with a happy, sad, or neutral intonation; the targets were interrogative one-word sentences with emotionally neutral content. Using magnetoencephalography, we measured neural activities during silent reading of the targets presented in a happy, sad, or neutral context. We identified two conditional differences: the happy and sad conditions produced less activity than the neutral condition in the right posterior inferior and middle frontal cortices in the latency window from 300 to 400 ms; the happy and neutral conditions produced greater activity than the sad condition in the left posterior inferior frontal cortex in the latency window from 400 to 500 ms. These results suggest that the use of emotional context stored in the right frontal cortex starts at ?300 ms, that integration of linguistic information with emotional context starts at ?400 ms in the left frontal cortex, and that language comprehension dependent on emotional context is achieved by ?500 ms. PMID:22001763

  19. Cognitive basis of language learning in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John MacNamara

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the theory that infants learn their language by 1st determining, independent of language, the meaning which a speaker intends to convey to them, and by then working out the relationship between the meaning and the expression they heard. The assumptions on which the thesis rests are discussed, especially the assumption that a speaker's linguistic system and his intentions are

  20. Light in the Tunnel: Language Learning Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Discusses why there has been a decline in the political and educational pressure to learn languages other than English in Australia. Recent political, economic, and educational changes are outlined that encourage the study of European and Asian languages. (Author/CB)

  1. Gesture in Modern Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2007-01-01

    For decades there have been linguists who proclaimed the significant role of kinesic expression in carrying the meaning of spoken language (e.g. Efron, 1941; Birdwhistell, 1952; Kendon, 1972). Drawing on such studies, there have also been pioneer studies of gesture in second language learning and use (McNeill, 1992; Gullberg, 1998, 2006), and…

  2. Non-Verbal Channels in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, Miluse; Soudek, Lev I.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of non-verbal communication in learning a foreign language and culture. Discusses and gives examples of cultural specificity in interpretations of various forms of non-verbal behavior and its implications for language study. Makes specific suggestions of how to teach non-verbal communication to students of English as a second…

  3. Learner Perspectives on Fully Online Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Susan Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on this author's 2011 article in which the author reflects on the pedagogical challenges and resultant changes made while teaching two fully online foreign language papers over a four-year period (Y. H. S. Sun (2011). Online language teaching: The pedagogical challenges. "Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An…

  4. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  5. Learning to Neighbor? Service-learning in Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary-Ellen Boyle

    2007-01-01

    Service-learning has received a great deal of attention in the management education literature over the past decade, as a\\u000a method by which students can acquire moral and civic values as well as gain academic knowledge and practice real-world skills.\\u000a Scholars focus on student and community impact, curricular design, and rationale. However, the educational environment (“context”)\\u000a in which service-learning occurs has

  6. 2001, N. Finkelstein Context in the Context of Physics and Learning

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    student learning. This paper articulates what is meant by context, and begins to develop a theory of how classrooms in the United States. It has long been criticized.[3] Most current theories of student learning© 2001, N. Finkelstein Context in the Context of Physics and Learning Noah D. Finkelstein

  7. Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments for Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. H. Yang

    2006-01-01

    A ubiquitous learning environment provides an interoperable, pervasive, and seamless learning architecture to connect, integrate, and share three major dimensions of learning resources: learning collaborators, learning contents, and learning services. Ubiquitous learning is characterized by providing intuitive ways for identifying right learning collaborators, right learning contents and right learning services in the right place at the right time. Our context

  8. Cognitive Development in Context: Learning to Pay Attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Bjorne; Christian Balkenius

    A developing system must be able to learn new things without forgetting what it has learned before. It should be capable of reacting in different way to the same stimuli in different contexts. Context sensitive reinforcement lear ning, which parallels some of the functions of the basal ganglia, is a learning algorithm that fulfills this requirement when the context is

  9. Online Learning of Humanoid Robot Kinematics Under Switching Tools Contexts

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Online Learning of Humanoid Robot Kinematics Under Switching Tools Contexts Lorenzo Jamone1, Bruno different hidden contexts. To do that, we employ IMLE, a recent online learning algorithm that fits, a performance comparable to state-of-the-art online learning algorithms. The context varying forward kinematics

  10. Learning Grasp Context Distinctions that Generalize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert; Grupen, Roderic A.; Fagg, Andrew H.

    2006-01-01

    Control-based approaches to grasp synthesis create grasping behavior by sequencing and combining control primitives. In the absence of any other structure, these approaches must evaluate a large number of feasible control sequences as a function of object shape, object pose, and task. This work explores a new approach to grasp synthesis that limits consideration to variations on a generalized localize-reach-grasp control policy. A new learning algorithm, known as schema structured learning, is used to learn which instantiations of the generalized policy are most likely to lead to a successful grasp in different problem contexts. Two experiments are described where Dexter, a bimanual upper torso, learns to select an appropriate grasp strategy as a function of object eccentricity and orientation. In addition, it is shown that grasp skills learned in this way can generalize to new objects. Results are presented showing that after learning how to grasp a small, representative set of objects, the robot's performance quantitatively improves for similar objects that it has not experienced before.

  11. Language: The Heart of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Barbara, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the OMLTA Journal includes the following papers: "Helping Teacher Teach: A Foreign Language Collaborative in Southeast Ohio" (Barry G. Thomas); "Bilingual and Group Poetry in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Evelyn F. Brod); "So You Want To Be in Pictures: Videotaping in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Connie L. Bowman); "Theatre as…

  12. Integrated Sequences in Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cynthia J.

    1990-01-01

    An example of an integrated sequence is provided that demonstrates how language learners are autonomous in their language use and are responsible for the pace, direction, and outcome of their work. It is suggested that establishing a principled connection between tasks modelled on natural sequences of language use is a key element in providing for…

  13. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  14. How Ubiquitous Computing can Support Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Ogata; Yoneo Yano

    This paper describes a computer supported ubiquitous learning (CSUL), called CLUE, the learners provide their own knowledge about the language learning in their everyday life, share them in the community and discuss about them. This paper focuses on knowledge awareness map and its design, implementation and evaluation. The map visualizes the relationship between the shared knowledge and the current and

  15. The Psychological Bases of Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobovits, Leon A.

    1971-01-01

    Asserts that the attainment of bilingualism is not the only valid objective for second language learning, and suggests that factors such as student attitude, needs and aptitude may be more important for learning success than the teacher's skill or the methods he employs. (FB)

  16. Towards a Pattern Language for Networked Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Goodyear; Rune Baggetun; Sonia Bartoluzzi; Simeon Retalis; Frans Ronteltap; Ellen Rusman

    2004-01-01

    The work of designing a useful, convivial networked learning environment is complex and demanding. People new to designing for networked learning face a number of major challenges when they try to draw on the experience of others – whether that experience is shared informally, in the everyday language of educational practice, or through published research and evaluation studies, or through

  17. Crosslinguistic Differences in Implicit Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.

    2014-01-01

    We report three experiments that explore the effect of prior linguistic knowledge on implicit language learning. Native speakers of English from the United Kingdom and native speakers of Cantonese from Hong Kong participated in experiments that involved different learning materials. In Experiment 1, both participant groups showed evidence of…

  18. Language Disorders Are Learning Disabilities: Challenges on the Divergent and Diverse Paths to Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lei; Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2014-01-01

    This article takes readers along the pathway of language learning and disorders across childhood and adolescence, highlighting the complex relationship between early (preschool) language disorders and later (school age) learning disabilities. The discussion starts with a review of diagnostic labels widely used in schools and other professional…

  19. Creating an Authentic Learning Environment in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitina, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    Theatrical activities are widely used by language educators to promote and facilitate language learning. Involving students in production of their own video or a short movie in the target language allows a seamless fusion of language learning, art, and popular culture. The activity is also conducive for creating an authentic learning situation…

  20. Towards a Bio-computational Model of Natural Language Learning

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Towards a Bio-computational Model of Natural Language Learning Leonor Becerra-Bonache Laboratoire in natural language learning. 1 Introduction Children, independently of their culture and the language motivated research in formal models of language learning [14,13]. Such mod- els can allow us to address

  1. Analyse de English Language Learning and Carol A. Chapelle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analyse de English Language Learning and Technology Carol A. Chapelle English Language Learning English Language Learning and ... #12;qu'ŕ celui des pratiques ou des publications professionnelles. La and Technology: Lectures on Applied Linguistics in the Age of Information and Communication Technology Language

  2. EventCJ: a context-oriented programming language with declarative event-based context transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuo Kamina; Tomoyuki Aotani; Hidehiko Masuhara

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes EventCJ, a context-oriented programming (COP) language that can modularly control layer activation based on user-defined events. In addition to defining context-specific behaviors by using existing COP constructs, the EventCJ programmer declares events to specify when and on which instance layer switching should happen, and layer transition rules to specify which layers should be activated\\/deactivated upon events. These

  3. Using Language Learning Conditions in Mathematics. PEN 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoessiger, Rex

    This pamphlet reports on a project in Tasmania exploring whether the "natural learning conditions" approach to language learning could be adapted for mathematics. The connections between language and mathematics, as well as the natural learning processes of language learning are described in the pamphlet. The project itself is described--small…

  4. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning

  5. Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333 Language Is a Complex Adaptive System

    E-print Network

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    Language Learning ISSN 0023-8333 Language Is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper The "Five to invited participants before a conference celebrating the 60th Anniversary of Language Learning, held and in their articles in this special issue of Language Learning. The evolution of this piece was made possible

  6. Learning Languages from Interactive Television: Language Learners reflect on Techniques and Technologies

    E-print Network

    Masthoff, Judith

    learners undertaken as part of a project to develop iTV services for language learning. New technologies and language learning Many new media technologies have seemed, at their first appearance, to have potential for assisting in language learning. From the earliest examples of paper-based language technologies

  7. Blogs in English language teaching and learning 1 Blogs in English language teaching

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Blogs in English language teaching and learning 1 Blogs in English language teaching and learning in language learning communities A university English language class is a community of learners. However, any University of Agriculture and Technology Naeko Naganuma Akita International University ABSTRACT This paper

  8. How Will Alberta's Second Language Students Ever Achieve Proficiency? ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, the CEFR and the "10,000-Hour Rule" in Relation to the Alberta K-12 Language-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Students of second and international languages in Alberta do not receive sufficient hours of instruction through formal classroom time alone to achieve distinguished levels of proficiency (Archibald, J., Roy, S., Harmel, S., Jesney, K., Dewey, E., Moisik, S., et al., 2006). This research study uses a constructivist approach (Guba & Lincoln, 1994;…

  9. Emergentism, Connectionism, and Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a range of theoretical approaches to language acquisition. Argues that language representations emerge from interactions at all levels from brain to society. Connectionism, which provides a set of computational tools for exploring the conditions under which emergent properties arise, is discussed, and simulations of emergence of…

  10. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  11. Language learning interests at university

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Madeleine Kenning

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of three investigations into the interests of actual and potential foreign language learners at a British university: a university-wide audit of First Years' interest in taking up a language course; an analysis of the topics of web documents selected by students on a post-A level course; and an examination of relevant entries in Residence Abroad

  12. The influence of context on language perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    de Silva, W P; Hemsley, D R

    1977-11-01

    The present experiment employed the 'Cloze' procedure to investigate language perception in schizophrenia. The stimulus immediacy hypothesis of Salzinger, Portnoy & Feldman (1966) predicts that with increasing context, schizophrenic performance, unlike that of normals, will fail to improve. A comparison of groups of schizophrenics and normals on such a task, with varying levels of context, not only showed that schizophrenics failed to improve with greater context but that their performance deteriorated. A comparison of acute and chronic schizophrenics indicated that deterioration was most prominent in acute patients, the performance of chronics remaining relatively stable. An interpretation of the data in terms of narrowed the performance of chronics remaining relatively stable. An interpretation of the data in terms of narrowed attention in chronic schizophrenia appears plausible, and consistent with Broen's (1968) theory. Such an interpretation may be 'tested by an extension of the range of context conditions. PMID:588889

  13. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  14. Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

  15. Why Virtual, Why Environments? Implementing Virtual Reality Concepts in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwienhorst, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on the benefits of virtual reality environments, particularly for foreign language contexts. Topics include three approaches to learner autonomy; supporting reflection, including self-awareness; supporting interaction, including collaboration; and supporting experimentation, including…

  16. The Inclusion Problem for Some Subclasses of Context-Free Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. J. Asveld; Anton Nijholt

    2000-01-01

    By a reduction to Post's Correspondence Problem we provide a direct proof of the known fact that the inclusion problem for unambiguous context-free grammars is undecidable. The argu- ment or some straightforward modication also applies to some other subclasses of context-free languages such as linear languages, sequential languages, and DSC-languages (i.e., languages generated by context-free grammars with disjunct syntactic categories).

  17. The Context-Dependent Meaning of Learning. No. 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart

    Although both the general public and research scientists intuitively understand the word learning, the meanings they assign to it vary. Nevertheless, there is too much concern about generalizing the meaning, and too little concern about learning context. Learning context is the internal, changing relation between individual and situation; it is…

  18. The Influence of Integrating Technology in Language Learning Courses

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yulin

    2011-04-26

    learning and personal engagement that benefits motivation, course satisfaction and enhances social experiences. Theories guiding this investigation included Gardner's Integrative theory of language learning involving social construction, cooperative...

  19. Pragmatics and Language Learning April 24-27, 2014

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Pragmatics and Language Learning April 24-27, 2014 Indiana University, Bloomington Call for papers to pll2014@indiana.edu or visit the Pragmatics & Language Learning website at: www.indiana.edu/~pll #12;

  20. The role of the output in language learning

    E-print Network

    Simoes, Antonio Roberto Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    This study uses linguistic output to identify cognitive processes of language learning, i.e. the internalization of specific language components and metalinguistic or metacognitive learning mechanisms. Given that these processes are present...

  1. Introduction Learning Learning MSCs Classes of learnable regular MSC languages Tool Presentation Learning Communication Protocols from Scenarios

    E-print Network

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Introduction Learning Learning MSCs Classes of learnable regular MSC languages Tool Presentation languages Tool Presentation Outline 1 Introduction 2 Learning 3 Learning MSCs 4 Classes of learnable regular MSC languages 5 Tool Presentation #12;Introduction Learning Learning MSCs Classes of learnable regular

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Belief and Action in Self-Directed Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Diego; Thornton, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Employing the principles of a contextual approach to learner belief research and applying it to a self-directed learning context at a Japanese university, this longitudinal study investigates the complex interplay between beliefs and actions and its contribution to the development of language learning skills. Through the triangulation of various…

  3. Second Life as a Foreign Language Learning Environment: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of research on Second Life (SL) as a learning environment within English as a foreign language (EFL) context, as research on its use within EFL learning is relatively new. The study is categorized into four main sections. Introduction section introduces the rationale of the paper and SL. Next…

  4. Adaptation of the Students' Motivation towards Science Learning (SMTSL) Questionnaire in the Greek Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Vavougios, Denis; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at adapting in the Greek language the Students' Motivation Towards Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire developed by Tuan, Chin, and Shieh ("INT J SCI EDUC" 27(6): 639-654, 2005a) into a different cultural context, a different age group, that is, in university students and with a focus on physics learning.…

  5. PARLING: e-literature for supporting children learning english as a second language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ornella Mich; Elena Betta; Diego Giuliani

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we describe Parling, a multimedia system for supporting learning of English as a second language (L2). It is devoted to 8-11 year-old primary school children. The idea behind the system is that famous children's literature offers the right motivating and low-anxiety context where users can improve their vocabulary and learn new language structures. The technological core of

  6. Language context modulates reading route: an electrical neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    Buetler, Karin A.; de León Rodríguez, Diego; Laganaro, Marina; Müri, René; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The orthographic depth hypothesis (Katz and Feldman, 1983) posits that different reading routes are engaged depending on the type of grapheme/phoneme correspondence of the language being read. Shallow orthographies with consistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor encoding via non-lexical pathways, where each grapheme is sequentially mapped to its corresponding phoneme. In contrast, deep orthographies with inconsistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor lexical pathways, where phonemes are retrieved from specialized memory structures. This hypothesis, however, lacks compelling empirical support. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of orthographic depth on reading route selection using a within-subject design. Method: We presented the same pseudowords (PWs) to highly proficient bilinguals and manipulated the orthographic depth of PW reading by embedding them among two separated German or French language contexts, implicating respectively, shallow or deep orthography. High density electroencephalography was recorded during the task. Results: The topography of the ERPs to identical PWs differed 300–360 ms post-stimulus onset when the PWs were read in different orthographic depth context, indicating distinct brain networks engaged in reading during this time window. The brain sources underlying these topographic effects were located within left inferior frontal (German > French), parietal (French > German) and cingular areas (German > French). Conclusion: Reading in a shallow context favors non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of frontal phonological areas in the shallow versus the deep orthographic context. In contrast, reading PW in a deep orthographic context recruits less routine non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of visuo-attentional parietal areas in the deep versus shallow orthographic context. These collective results support a modulation of reading route by orthographic depth. PMID:24600377

  7. College students' learning styles in the computer and network-integrated foreign language learning environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Jingbi; Lu Xiuhong

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate Chinese college students' foreign language learning styles in the computer and network-integrated language learning environment. The survey data revealed the general trend of their learning styles and the effect of learning styles on learning achievements. The results indicated that a) college students do not have significant major learning style preferences, b) learning style preferences

  8. Learning Strategy Instructions as a Key to Success in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how second language learners become more autonomous in the language learning process, how the cooperative learning strategy helps improve the learning outcome, and how second language learners apply learning strategies to learning tasks both in the classroom and outside of the classroom. Three activities were offered:…

  9. The Role of Teacher Communication in Online Collaborative Language Learning between a Chinese and an Australian School: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed rapid growth in language learning within online collaborative learning projects constructed between educational institutions in different cultural and pedagogic contexts. This qualitative case study investigated the role of teacher communication in a short online project between language classes in secondary schools in…

  10. The Interplay of the Global and the Local in English Language Learning and Electronic Communication Discourses and Practices in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bessie Mitsikopoulou

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes dominant discourses and practices which permeate English language learning and information and communication technologies (ICT). Through the adoption of a critical discourse analytic perspective, and drawing on New Literacy Studies research, it discusses how English language learning and ICT practices have come to take variable forms in the Greek context. The paper argues that, in the light

  11. Learning Regular Languages from Positive Evidence Laura Firoiuy 1

    E-print Network

    Learning Regular Languages from Positive Evidence Laura Firoiuy 1 (lfiroiu@cs.umass.edu) Tim Oatesy task in learning their na- tive language. It is widely believed that they do not receive or make little less pow- erful than natural languages cannot be learned in the absence of negative evidence (Gold

  12. Kernel Methods for Learning Languages Leonid (Aryeh) Kontorovich a

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Kernel Methods for Learning Languages Leonid (Aryeh) Kontorovich a and Corinna Cortes b and Mehryar Street, New York, NY 10012. Abstract This paper studies a novel paradigm for learning formal languages. The paradigm inspected can thus be viewed as that of using kernel methods for learning languages. We initiate

  13. Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning Thierry Chanier1, Michael) "Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning". Cognitive Modelling and Interactive Environment in Language Learning, Engel F.L., Bouwhuis D.G., Bösser T., d'Ydewalle G. (dir

  14. Enhancing Tandem Language Learning Using an Interactive Tabletop

    E-print Network

    Enhancing Tandem Language Learning Using an Interactive Tabletop by Erik Paluka A thesis submitted, then my peer, but most importantly, he turned into my friend. i #12;Abstract Language learning takes a lot of time, patience, and effort. Despite this, there exists many language learning models that help learners

  15. A Bayesian Language for Cumulative Learning Harvard University

    E-print Network

    Pfeffer, Avi

    A Bayesian Language for Cumulative Learning Avi Pfe#11;er Harvard University Abstract A cumulative an agent may encounter. In this paper, I present a new Bayesian language for cumulative learning, called to presenting a language, this paper also presents an EM based learning algo- rithm called functional EM

  16. Second Language Learning: A Review of Related Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, Suzanne

    The fact that some people learn a second language more easily than others has prompted numerous studies designed to link one factor or another with successful language learning. This work examines a large number of these studies to assess the importance of various factors involved in language learning. The influencing factors suggested are grouped…

  17. Towards an Understanding of the Virtual Context in Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sarah; Marston, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Much of the literature theorising mobile learning emphasises the importance of context with physical and social contexts identified to date. Our work to design and implement authentic mobile simulation activities using SMS text messaging suggests that a third context may also be important. This is a virtual context, the learner-created cognitive…

  18. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  19. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  20. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  1. Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

  2. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  3. PROGRAMMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, HARLAN

    THE PROCESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARE EXAMINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, WHICH IS THE BASIS OF PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. DISCUSSION OF FORMAL REPERTOIRES COVERS THE USE OF SUCH CONDITIONING METHODS AS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER, STIMULUS GENERALIZATION, RESPONSE GENERALIZATION, AND…

  4. Language Learning--An Intellectual Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Looks at the debate over whether foreign language study is intellectually challenging. Examines four points in the debate: the contrast between content and skill; the nature of the learning and teaching material; the nature of classroom interaction; and the idea of osmosis. (SED)

  5. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  6. Beyond Babel: Language Learning Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi

    The book and accompanying CD-ROM is designed to assist teachers who want to develop their own materials on the World Wide Web, are interested in integrating interesting Web sites and ideas into their curriculum, or are interested in students' perspectives of the Web. It is also for anyone who wishes to refresh a language or get a feel for a new…

  7. Blending Language Learning with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 10% of American students are identified as "Limited English Proficient" (NCELA 2011). To serve this diverse population of English Language Learners (ELLs), teachers need proven instructional strategies. One prevalent approach is sheltered instruction, defined as "teaching content to English learners in strategic ways that…

  8. Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

  9. Journal of Machine Learning Research 8 (2007) 1725-1745 Submitted 3/07; Revised 5/07; Published 8/07 Polynomial Identification in the Limit of Substitutable Context-free

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2007-01-01

    /07 Polynomial Identification in the Limit of Substitutable Context-free Languages Alexander Clark ALEXC for a learning algorithm from positive data only for a subclass of context-free languages. We show inference. It transpires that it is not necessary to identify constituents in order to learn a context-free

  10. Is Native-Language Decoding Skill Related to Second-Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschyan, Gayane; Hernandez, Arturo

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the mechanisms through which native-language (English) word decoding ability predicted individual differences in native- and second-language (Spanish) learning. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that second-language learning is founded on native-language phonological-orthographic ability among college-age adults, especially…

  11. Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Learning English as a Second Language: Four Case Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUANG WANG; STEPHEN J. PAPE

    2004-01-01

    n These case studies provide a description of 4 fifth-graders' self- efficacy beliefs and use of self-regulated learning strategies related to studying English as a second language. Structured interviews with the children and their parents were conducted to investigate the family context of learning English and to elicit children's self- reported self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies. In addition,

  12. Emotional Mood as a Context for Learning and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Gordon H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In experiments where hypnotized subjects learned one word list while happy or sad, retention proved to be surprisingly independent of the congruence of learning and testing moods. Learning mood provided a helpful retrieval cue and differentiating context only where subjects learned two word lists, one while happy, one while sad. (EJS)

  13. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  14. Pitch enhancement facilitates word learning across visual contexts

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Piera; Gingras, Bruno; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates word-learning using a new experimental paradigm that integrates three processes: (a) extracting a word out of a continuous sound sequence, (b) inferring its referential meanings in context, (c) mapping the segmented word onto its broader intended referent, such as other objects of the same semantic category, and to novel utterances. Previous work has examined the role of statistical learning and/or of prosody in each of these processes separately. Here, we combine these strands of investigation into a single experimental approach, in which participants viewed a photograph belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing a complex, five-word utterance containing a target word. Six between-subjects conditions were tested with 20 adult participants each. In condition 1, the only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of word and referents. This statistical cue was present in all conditions. In condition 2, the target word was sounded at a higher pitch. In condition 3, random words were sounded at a higher pitch, creating an inconsistent cue. In condition 4, the duration of the target word was lengthened. In conditions 5 and 6, an extraneous acoustic cue and a visual cue were associated with the target word, respectively. Performance in this word-learning task was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence only when pitch prominence consistently marked the target word. We discuss implications for the pragmatic value of pitch marking as well as the relevance of our findings to language acquisition and language evolution. PMID:25566144

  15. Should All Deaf Children Learn Sign Language?

    PubMed

    Mellon, Nancy K; Niparko, John K; Rathmann, Christian; Mathur, Gaurav; Humphries, Tom; Napoli, Donna Jo; Handley, Theresa; Scambler, Sasha; Lantos, John D

    2015-07-01

    Every year, 10?000 infants are born in the United States with sensorineural deafness. Deaf children of hearing (and nonsigning) parents are unique among all children in the world in that they cannot easily or naturally learn the language that their parents speak. These parents face tough choices. Should they seek a cochlear implant for their child? If so, should they also learn to sign? As pediatricians, we need to help parents understand the risks and benefits of different approaches to parent-child communication when the child is deaf. The benefits of learning sign language clearly outweigh the risks. For parents and families who are willing and able, this approach seems clearly preferable to an approach that focuses solely on oral communication. PMID:26077481

  16. A Review of Integrating Mobile Phones for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmi, Ramiza; Albion, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is gradually being introduced in language classrooms. All forms of mobile technology represent portability with smarter features. Studies have proven the concomitant role of technology beneficial for language learning. Various features in the technology have been exploited and researched for acquiring and learning

  17. Learning through an Aboriginal Language: The Impact on Students' English and Aboriginal Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usborne, Esther; Peck, Josephine; Smith, Donna-Lee; Taylor, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal communities across Canada are implementing Aboriginal language programs in their schools. In the present research, we explore the impact of learning through an Aboriginal language on students' English and Aboriginal language skills by contrasting a Mi'kmaq language immersion program with a Mi'kmaq as a second language program. The…

  18. A Research in the Influences of Vague Language on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Hongyun; Zhu, Yue

    2005-01-01

    Vague language is widely used in both spoken and written English and it is also a very important language variable. The process of language use is active, during which speakers and hearers constantly have to make choices out of variables. This paper mainly studies the influences of vagueness in language on second language learning and attaches…

  19. On the Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noormohamadi, Rezvan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research studies have shown language anxiety to be related with broad-based indices of language achievement, like course grade. However, to date, the potential link between foreign language anxiety and language learning strategies has not been empirically investigated. This study is an attempt to identify the relationship between language

  20. Language Diversity & Practice in Higher Education: Can Discipline-Specific Language Instruction Improve Economics Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Trien; Trimarchi, Angela; Williams, Julia

    2012-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition, discipline-specific language instruction is becoming widely known as Content and Language Integrated Learning. This method includes any activity that involves teaching a subject in a second language for the purpose of teaching both the subject content and the language. Research has shown that this two…

  1. Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory

    E-print Network

    Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded' native and non-native phonetic perception skills predict later language ability, but in opposite better non-native language skill predicts slower advancement. We suggest that native language phonetic

  2. Grammatical Gender Effects on Cognition: Implications for Language Learning and Language Use

    E-print Network

    Vigliocco, Gabriella

    in their language and less attention to those dimensions that are optional (Lucy, 1992). A wide body of evidenceGrammatical Gender Effects on Cognition: Implications for Language Learning and Language Use to nouns referring to sexuated entities. Across languages, such effects are found when the language allows

  3. Learning the Languages of Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In his work with schools and other workplaces, psychologist Paul White has learned that many programs designed to appreciate employees fall flat because the appreciation is too generic or involves something the employees don't want (such as getting up in front of a group). Effective appreciation is (1) offered regularly, (2) valued by the…

  4. A Brief Overview of Individual Differences in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Madeline E.; Leaver, Betty Lou; Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2003-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of the field of individual differences in language learning, especially as they are reflected in learning styles, learning strategies, and affective variables. Touches on areas for further research. (Author/VWL)

  5. School Cultures as Contexts for Informal Teacher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurasaite-Harbison, Elena; Rex, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    This study profiles and compares international social contexts for teacher workplace informal learning from the teachers' perspectives. Set in elementary schools in the U.S. and Lithuania, the study illustrates how teachers make sense of and engage in professional learning within their historical, political and administrative contexts. A…

  6. `Ideal learning' of natural language: Positive results about learning from positive

    E-print Network

    Chater, Nick

    1 `Ideal learning' of natural language: Positive results about learning from positive evidence Nick knowledge of language, often termed "universal grammar," that the child brings to bear on the learning. If it were possible to show that this ideal learner is unable to learn language from the specific linguistic

  7. Some Papers and Books with Insights into Language Learning from Computational Learning Theory

    E-print Network

    Case, John

    Some Papers and Books with Insights into Language Learning from Computational Learning Theory and Control, 45:117--135, 1980. [BCJ95] G. Baliga, J. Case, and S. Jain. Language learning with some negative and A. Marras, editors, Language Learning and Concept Acquisition. Ablex Publishing Company, 1986. [Cas

  8. LEARNING AND THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE: THE ROLE OF CULTURAL VARIATION AND LEARNING COSTS IN

    E-print Network

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    LEARNING AND THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE: THE ROLE OF CULTURAL VARIATION AND LEARNING COSTS of compositional languages [11]. It specifically addresses the role of cultural variation and of learning costs with language learning, agents gradually assimilate in their genome some explicit features (e.g. lexical

  9. Theoretical Perspectives on Mobile Language Learning Diaries and Noticing for Learners, Teachers and

    E-print Network

    Bull, Susan

    Theoretical Perspectives on Mobile Language Learning Diaries and Noticing for Learners, Teachers for language learning. We consider: theoretical perspectives drawn from the second language acquisition literature, relating these to the practice of writing language learning diaries; and the potential

  10. Learning Autonomously: Contextualising Out-of-class English Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona Hyland

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the out-of-class English language learning activities of student teachers in Hong Kong, using questionnaires, interviews and learner diaries. The study found that while many of the students devoted considerable time to studying and prac- tising English outside the classroom, much of this time was spent on more receptive activities such as listening and reading, rather than speaking.

  11. On the Relationship between Gender and Perceptual Language Learning Styles: The Case of Iranian Academic EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Tazik, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, research on gender and language learning styles (LLSs) across various EFL/ESL contexts has received remarkable attention. From these studies, a multitude of contradictory and heterogeneous findings has been observed which justify additional research in SLA contexts in general and EFL contexts like Iran in particular.…

  12. Personalised Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning System for Supporting Effective English Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…

  13. Using the Learners-as-Ethnographers Approach to Enhance Intercultural Learning among American College Students Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Minhui

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how the learners-as-ethnographers (LAE) approach facilitated intercultural learning among American students learning Chinese as a foreign language. Two research questions addressed the effectiveness of the LAE approach and students' learning experiences in a non-immersion context. I designed six ethnographic tasks for the…

  14. Learning of context-aware single image super-resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Chun Yang; Ting-Yao Hu; Chang-Heng Wang; Yu-Chiang Frank Wang

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel learning-based method for single image super-resolution (SR). Given a low-resolution input image and its image pyramid, we advance a context-constrained image segmentation to construct a super-pixel database with different context categories for learning purposes. By utilizing context-specific image sparse representation, our method aims at modeling the relationship between the interpolated image patches and their ground truth

  15. The Development of Social Learning in Interactive and Observational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheson, Heath; Moore, Chris; Akhtar, Nameera

    2013-01-01

    From the first year of life, imitative learning readily occurs in contexts where a demonstrator directly interacts with infants (i.e., "interactive contexts"), and at least by 18 months, imitation will also occur in third-party or observational contexts where infants witness a demonstration by another person that is not directed at them. However,…

  16. Learning to read words in a new language shapes the neural organization of the prior languages.

    PubMed

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Learning a new language entails interactions with one?s prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with an fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects? second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects? proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375

  17. Mobile Enhanced Learning in a South African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantjies, Mmaki; Joy, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Multilingual classrooms in developing countries are often challenged by a lack of digital resources and technology which supports their multilingual learning process. "Code-switching" is a phenomenon common to multilingual schools where learners are taught in a language which is not their first language. In these environments,…

  18. Constructing Identities in a Linguistically Diverse Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoe, Pinky

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between language, hegemony and identity in a desegregated school in suburban Johannesburg, South Africa. Drawing on post-structuralist theories of language learning and identity that evaluate cultural models of literacy, ideologies and institutional discourses, this article examines how multilingual…

  19. Learning in Cultural Context: Developing Destinies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal from…

  20. Learning OneVariable Pattern Languages in Linear Average Time

    E-print Network

    Reischuk, Rüdiger

    Learning One­Variable Pattern Languages in Linear Average Time R¨ udiger Reischuk \\Lambda Institut­81 Japan thomas@i.kyushu­u.ac.jp Abstract A new algorithm for learning one­variable pattern languages is replaced by a string to generate random samples of the target pattern language this algorithm converges

  1. From Pedagogically Relevant Corpora to Authentic Language Learning Contents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    The potential of corpora for language learning and teaching has been widely acknowledged and their ready availability on the Web has facilitated access for a broad range of users, including language teachers and learners. However, the integration of corpora into general language learning and teaching practice has so far been disappointing. In this…

  2. Identifying Our Approaches to Language Learning Technologies: Improving Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Gina Mikel; Avery, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The mid- to late 1990s was an exciting time for those concerned with incorporating new technology into their teaching of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). Commonly referred to as Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), or sometimes with the broader term Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL), the field took huge leaps…

  3. The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Goretti B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the possible existence of causal links between anxiety and language learning difficulties by using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) to examine anxiety and the Foreign Language Screening Instrument for Colleges (FLSI-C) (Ganschow & Sparks, 1991) to explore learning

  4. A Spoken Translation Game for Second Language Learning 1

    E-print Network

    . Computer aided language learning, human language technology, machine translation, educational games, humanA Spoken Translation Game for Second Language Learning 1 Chao WANG 2 and Stephanie SENEFF MIT flight domain sentences from English to Chinese. The system presents En- glish sentences as stimuli

  5. The Role of Expectations in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Bailey, Phillip

    Expectations of performance in a foreign language are important predictors of future achievement. Two types of bias occur in foreign language learning: self-enhancement bias, which pertains to students who are unrealistically optimistic about their ability to learn a foreign language; and self-derogation bias, which pertains to those students who…

  6. Towards a Model of Language Shifts in Mathematics Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Chapman

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the relationship between language and learning in school mathematics. In an empirical investigation of the spoken language of teacher and learners in a Year 9 mathematics class, discourse analysis of transcripts provides a descriptive account of language practices characteristic of school mathematics. Itis argued that learning mathematics requires transformational shifts between \\

  7. Implicit learning of natural language syntax

    E-print Network

    Rebuschat, Patrick

    2009-10-13

    , 2003; Lewicki, Hill, & Czyzewska, 1992; Perruchet & Pacton, 2006; Reber, 1993). Everyday life offers many examples of implicit learning. Language acquisition (Berry & Dienes, 1993; Winter & Reber, 1994), socialization (Lewicki, 1986), music... , planning and producing complex utterances in less than a second – but nonetheless remain largely unaware of how the system actually works. For example, every native speaker of English will know intuitively that sentence (1) “John has a cup of coffee...

  8. Why Are We Using Action Learning and in What Contexts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sunyoung; Kang, Ingu; Valencic, Taryn R.; Cho, Yonjoo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contexts in which action learning has been used and provide implications for the design of action learning programmes. We performed a content analysis of 127 articles (case studies and case reports included) published in "Action Learning: Research and Practice" between 2004 and 2012. In this study, we…

  9. Analyzing and Monitoring Learning Communities in a Serious Games Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Prasolova-Frland; Leif Martin Hokstad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the analysis framework for learning communities in an organizational context. The purpose of such communities is to foster and maintain a fruitful environment for learning and development for the organizations the community is a part of. Introducing new technologies such as serious games for learning in organizations imposes new challenges on supporting the development

  10. Students' Views regarding the Use of the First Language: An Exploratory Study in a Tertiary Context Maximizing Target Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolin-Ianziti, Jeanne; Varshney, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the functions that language learners attribute to the first language (L1) within a teaching context that maximizes the target language (TL). Beginners of French in an Australian university (N = 52) completed a questionnaire consisting of 21 closed questions on their views on L1/TL use and two open questions on the…

  11. Three Fundamental Concepts in Second Language Acquisition and Their Relevance in Multilingual Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire; Whiteside, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This article considers how 3 fundamental concepts of second language acquisition (SLA), the native speaker, interlanguage, and the language learner have fared since Firth and Wagner (1997). We review the ascendancy of these concepts and their relationship to the traditional dichotomies of language learning versus language use and individual mind…

  12. Foreign Language Learning and SAT Verbal Scores Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas C.; Yanosky, Daniel J., II; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.; Jahner, David; Webb, Elizabeth; Wilbur, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language learning and verbal ability in English as measured by the verbal section of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Reasoning Test. Comparing foreign language students to nonforeign language students in this study, the effect of taking a foreign language on SAT verbal…

  13. Towards proteophilic competence? Intercultural learning and language education in Latvia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mara Dirba

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm of language education envisages that teachers become intercultural mediators. However, there is no agreement about implementing the new paradigm in school practice and language teacher education. The author believes that the intercultural dimension of language education is strongly linked to integrating intercultural learning in language education. It implies cooperation with teachers from other subject areas and attitude

  14. Patterns for Experiential Learning Submission to the PPP pattern language

    E-print Network

    Wallingford, Eugene

    Patterns for Experiential Learning Submission to the PPP pattern language project on experiential, perhaps creating a personal pattern language or finding new patterns to add to this pattern language. This pattern language, which is work in progress, collects proven techniques for teaching effectively

  15. Applying a multimedia storytelling website in foreign language learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenli Tsou; Weichung Wang; Yenjun Tzeng

    2006-01-01

    Storytelling is a practical and powerful teaching tool, especially for language learning. Teachers in lan- guage classrooms, however, may hesitate to incorporate storytelling into language instruction because of an already overloaded curriculum. English foreign language (EFL) teachers in Taiwan report additional prob- lems such as having little prior experience with integrating storytelling into language teaching, locating appropriate stories, and lacking

  16. Technology and Second Language Learning: Expanding Methods and Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes connections between the research reported in this issue the broader area of second language studies focusing on learner language, interaction, individual differences, linguistic analysis, and language learning and teaching. Theoretical, empirical and ethical challenges posed by technology-based second language studies are…

  17. "Deja Vu"? A Decade of Research on Language Laboratories, Television and Video in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderplank, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The developments in the last ten years in the form of DVD, streaming video, video on demand, interactive television and digital language laboratories call for an assessment of the research into language teaching and learning making use of these technologies and the learning paradigms underpinning them. This paper surveys research on language

  18. Foreign Languages: Early Language Learning, Standards for Teacher Preparation, National Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Anne Rogers, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers makes the case for early and sustained foreign language education as part of the core K-12 curriculum, and for training teachers prepared to create such an education for their students. "Early Language Learning: A National Necessity" (Christine L. Brown), discusses the importance of early language learning, resources for…

  19. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities. PMID:24155959

  20. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  1. Machine Learning in Natural Language Georgios P. Petasis

    E-print Network

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Machine Learning in Natural Language Processing Georgios P. Petasis Software and Knowledge@iit.demokritos.gr Abstract. This thesis examines the use of machine learning techniques in various tasks of natural language-entity recog- nition, and b) the creation of a new machine learning algorithm and its assessment on synthetic

  2. Modeling Clinical Context: Rediscovering the Social History and Evaluating Language from the Clinic to the Wards

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Colin; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    Social, behavioral, and cultural factors are clearly linked to health and disease outcomes. The medical social history is a critical evaluation of these factors performed by healthcare providers with patients in both inpatient and outpatient care settings. Physicians learn the topics covered in the social history through education and practice, but the topics discussed and documented in real-world clinical narrative have not been described at scale. This study applies large-scale automated topic modeling techniques to discover common topics discussed in social histories, to compare those topics to the medical textbook representation of those histories, and to compare topics between clinical settings to illustrate differences of clinical context on narrative content. Language modeling techniques are used to consider the extent to which inpatient and outpatient social histories share in their language use. Our findings highlight the fact that clinical context and setting are distinguishing factors for social history documentation, as the language of the hospital wards is not the same as that of the ambulatory clinic. Moreover, providers receive little feedback on the quality of their documentation beyond that needed for billing processes. The findings in this study demonstrate a number of topics described in textbooks – schooling, religion, alternative health practices, stressors, for example - do not appear in social histories in either clinical setting. PMID:25717417

  3. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  4. The oral presentation as a context for learning and assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chutamas Sundrarajun; Richard Kiely

    2010-01-01

    Tests are said to be an important determiner of what actually happens in classrooms. There are claims for both positive and negative washback. However, there is still very little evidence of how washback from the test format affects learning and teaching activities in foreign language learning. There has been even less attention to the nature of the changes in classroom

  5. Challenges for Language Learning: A Response to Ellis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshur, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Responds to a previous article on emergentism, connectionism, and language learning. Suggests that connectionist models of emergent language knowledge will continue to be important in the years to come. (Author/JL)

  6. Simulations and Games as Chaordic Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Elyssebeth; Spindler, Laraine

    2004-01-01

    Effective facilitation of experiential learning involves an array of knowledge and skills. Educators who facilitate open simulations--one form of experiential learning--benefit from having relevant theoretical frameworks to sustain an appropriate balance between being directive and supportive of their participants' freedom to learn. This ongoing…

  7. Global Language Identities and Ideologies in an Indonesian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentz, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study of language use and English language learners in Central Java, Indonesia examines globalization processes within and beyond language; processes of language shift and change in language ecologies; and critical and comprehensive approaches to the teaching of English around the world. From my position as teacher-researcher and…

  8. Primary or "Specific" Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of…

  9. Learning a Language with Web 2.0: Exploring the Use of Social Networking Features of Foreign Language Learning Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Megan P.; Liu, Min

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an online survey and a usability test performed on three foreign language learning websites that use Web 2.0 technology. The online survey was conducted to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websites use them for learning and social purposes. The usability test was conducted to gain…

  10. Language Learning and Its Impact on the Brain: Connecting Language Learning with the Mind through Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Teresa J.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive sciences are discovering many things that educators have always intuitively known about language learning. However, the important point is actively using this new information to improve both students learning and current teaching practices. The implications of neuroscience for educational reform regarding second language (L2) learning

  11. Learning Decision Trees over Erasing Pattern Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukouchi, Yasuhito; Sato, Masako

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a learning problem of decision trees over erasing patterns from positive examples in the framework of identification in the limit due to Gold and Angluin. An erasing pattern is a string pattern with constant symbols and erasable variables. A decision tree over erasing patterns can be applied to identify or express transmembrane domains of amino acid sequences, and gives intuitive knowledge expressions. We first show that the ordinary decision trees with height 1 over erasing regular patterns are learnable but those with height at most 2 are not learnable from positive examples. Then we introduce a co-pattern pc for an erasing pattern p, and we redefine the language of a decision tree over erasing patterns as a language obtainable by finitely many applications of union operations and intersection operations to the languages of erasing patterns and co-patterns. Under the new definition of decision trees, we show that these decision trees with height at most n are learnable from positive examples. Moreover, we investigate efficient learning algorithms for decision trees with height 1. Terada et al. discussed the same problem for decision trees over nonerasing patterns, and the results obtained in the present work are natural extensions of Terada's results.

  12. Personalised context-aware ubiquitous learning system for supporting effective English vocabulary learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Ming Chen; Yi-Lun Li

    2010-01-01

    Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English sentences. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to increase the efficiency and performance of learning English vocabulary. ‘The

  13. A TASK-CYCLING PEDAGOGY USING STIMULATED REFLECTION AND AUDIOCONFERENCING IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Levy; Claire Kennedy

    ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to describe a task-cycling pedagogy for language learning using a technique we have called Stimulated Reflection.This pedagogical approach has been developed in the light of the new technology options available, especially those that facilitate audiovisual forms of interaction among language learners and teachers. In this instance, the pedagogy is implemented,in the context of

  14. Context in Mathematics Learning: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-Eun

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an instructional idea that facilitates the students' active participation in the problem analysis process using insufficient or contradictory problem contexts. (Contains 1 figure.)

  15. A Heuristic Algorithm for Planning Personalized Learning Paths for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chuang, Kuo-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    In a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, learning systems can detect students' learning behaviors in the real-world with the help of context-aware (sensor) technology; that is, students can be guided to observe or operate real-world objects with personalized support from the digital world. In this study, an optimization problem that…

  16. The Language-Learning Self, Self-Enhancement Activities, and Self Perceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of action research conducted in an EFL university context, regarding primarily the relationship between individual possible self-images, socially constructed possible self-images, and language-learning motivation. The study used three cycles of action research over the course of one 15-week university semester,…

  17. Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in New Zealand (2006-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, Alastair; Adams, Rebecca; Skyrme, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    This survey gives an overview of research into language teaching and learning in New Zealand over a five-year period, including the context of that research. The majority of New Zealanders are monolingual English speakers, yet the country faces complex linguistic challenges arising from its bicultural foundations and the multicultural society it…

  18. Enhancing Student Learning: Setting the Campus Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stage, Frances K., Ed.; Watson, Lemuel W., Ed.; Terrell, Melvin, Ed.

    This book offers eight papers intended for student affairs professionals, college administrators, and faculty which discuss wholistic approaches to college student learning, focusing on the entire campus learning environment. Following an introduction by Frances K. Stage and Lemuel W. Watson, the papers are: (1) "A Framework to Enhance Student…

  19. PROGRAMMED LEARNING IN CENTRAL AFRICAN CONTEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAWKRIDGE, D.G.

    SINCE 1964, THE PROGRAMMED LEARNING CENTRE AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF RHODESIA HAS BEEN INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIALITIES OF PROGRAMED LEARNING FOR CENTRAL AFRICA THROUGH A SERIES OF CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTS USING LOCALLY-WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED PROGRAMS. ASSESSMENT OF THE DESIRABILITY AND USEFULNESS OF PROGRAMS IN TEACHING, AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR…

  20. The Relative Efficacy of Explicit and Implicit Feedback in the Learning of a Less-Commonly-Taught Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to test the generalizability of the role and contributions of interactional feedback in second language acquisition, this study examines the issue in the context of learning Korean as a less-commonly-taught foreign language at the post-secondary level. Further, it looks into the explicitness of feedback as a factor in foreign…

  1. Deep Belief Networks Learn Context Dependent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Zilli, Eric A.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of understanding behavioral mechanisms of generalization, we analyzed the ability of neural networks to generalize across context. We modeled a behavioral task where the correct responses to a set of specific sensory stimuli varied systematically across different contexts. The correct response depended on the stimulus (A,B,C,D) and context quadrant (1,2,3,4). The possible 16 stimulus-context combinations were associated with one of two responses (X,Y), one of which was correct for half of the combinations. The correct responses varied symmetrically across contexts. This allowed responses to previously unseen stimuli (probe stimuli) to be generalized from stimuli that had been presented previously. By testing the simulation on two or more stimuli that the network had never seen in a particular context, we could test whether the correct response on the novel stimuli could be generated based on knowledge of the correct responses in other contexts. We tested this generalization capability with a Deep Belief Network (DBN), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network, and the combination of a DBN with a linear perceptron (LP). Overall, the combination of the DBN and LP had the highest success rate for generalization. PMID:24671178

  2. Computer Assisted Language Learning Vol. 23, No. 2, April 2010, 111127

    E-print Network

    Bull, Susan

    Computer Assisted Language Learning Vol. 23, No. 2, April 2010, 111 learner model can facilitate noticing and #12;awareness-raising in language learning, and noticed elements­127 ________________________________ Encouraging Advanced Second Language Speakers to Recognise their Language Difficulties: A Personalised

  3. Developmental Differences in Children's Context-Dependent Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 2.5-, 3-, and 4-year-olds (N=108) participated in a novel noun generalization task in which background context was manipulated. During the learning phase of each trial, children were presented with exemplars in one or multiple background contexts. At the test, children were asked to generalize to a novel exemplar in either the same…

  4. Making Connections: Learning and Teaching Chemistry in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Even though several studies have reported positive attitudinal outcomes from context-based chemistry programs, methodological obstacles have prevented researchers from comparing satisfactorily the chemistry-learning outcomes between students who experience a context-based program with those who experience a content-driven program. In this…

  5. Entrepreneurial learning in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jari Huovinen; Sanna Tihula

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Previous research has predominantly focused on the meaning of prior entrepreneurial experience in the context of habitual entrepreneurship. To date, however, little is known about how previous experience affects the way in which several firms can be managed simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to examine entrepreneurial learning in the context of portfolio entrepreneurship and clarify how

  6. Learning Context Cues for Synapse Segmentation in EM Volumes

    E-print Network

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Learning Context Cues for Synapse Segmentation in EM Volumes Carlos Becker , Karim Ali, Graham spatial context into account and train a classifier that can effectively utilize cues such as the presence entirely in 3D. However, it does not exploit the contextual clues that allow human experts to distinguish

  7. Peer Relationships and Collaborative Learning as Contexts for Academic Enablers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Watkins, Deborah E.

    2002-01-01

    In this article it is argued that peers have the potential to provide contexts for learning that can have a profound impact on the development of students' academic enablers. Describes ways in which peer collaborative contexts can promote academic engagement as well as provide a supportive structure for the development of specific problem-solving…

  8. Integrating casebased learning and cognitive biases for machine learning of natural language

    E-print Network

    Cardie, Claire

    Integrating case­based learning and cognitive biases for machine learning of natural language@cs.cornell.edu Running head: Integrating CBL and cognitive biases August 9, 1999 1 #12; Integrating case­based learning and cognitive biases for machine learning of natural language Abstract This paper shows that psychological

  9. Visual Design of coherent Technology-Enhanced Learning Systems: a few lessons learned from CPM language

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Visual Design of coherent Technology-Enhanced Learning Systems: a few lessons learned from CPM Systems: a few lessons learned from CPM language Abstract. Visual instructional design languages currently Botturi ; Todd Stubbs (Ed.) (2007) 254-280" #12;-1- Visual Design of coherent Technology-Enhanced Learning

  10. Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language

  11. Teachers' Beliefs about Developing Language Proficiency within the Context of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Linda Quinn

    2013-01-01

    The study described here is grounded in naturalistic inquiry, a research methodology that seeks to understand phenomena in context-specific settings. The goal of the study was to identify the beliefs about developing language proficiency of a group of North American French-as-a-foreign language teachers in the specific context of a three-week,…

  12. Knowledge management and learning in the organizational context

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    63 Knowledge management and learning in the organizational context Albena Antonova, Elissaveta_antonova@fmi.uni-sofia.bg elis@fmi.uni-sofia.bg roumen@fmi.uni-sofia.bg ABSTRACT In the last decades, learning and knowledge have of knowledge management (KM) practices and initiatives has provided companies with new opportunities

  13. Conceptual Modelling in Error Analysis in Computer-Assisted Language Learning Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Conceptual Modelling in Error Analysis in Computer- Assisted Language Learning Systems Thierry : "Conceptual Modelling in Error Analysis in Computer Assisted Language Learning Systems". The Bridge to International Communication: Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Foreign Language Learning, Swartz M et Yazdani M

  14. Learning Physics in Context: A Study of Student Learning about Electricity and Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2005-01-01

    This paper re-centres the discussion of student learning in physics to focus on context. In order to do so, a theoretically motivated understanding of context is developed. Given a well-defined notion of context, data from a novel university class in electricity and magnetism are analysed to demonstrate the central and inextricable role of context

  15. CYBERL@B: TECHNOLOGY ENRICHED ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING IN COSTA RICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen G. Quesada; Ronald J. Aust

    This paper covers design, development and evaluation of a site of technology resources called CyberL@b and the affiliated English language learning instruction for 7-9th grades at six high schools in diverse urban and rural settings in Costa Rica. CyberL@b uses interactive media resources designed to engage student learning within authentic contexts. The project is designed to create an environment that

  16. Sign Languages: An Introduction to Their Social Context and Their Structure. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Frank

    Research into the sign languages of the deaf is reviewed, particularly as it relates to the study and use of sign language in the Irish context. The first section offers an overview of deafness, the deaf experience, acquisition of linguistic and social identity, the sociology of the deaf community, and the role of sign language. Subsequent…

  17. Testing-Context Analysis: Assessment Is Just Another Part of Language Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the theme of the International Language Testing Association/Language Testing Research Colloquium Conference in 2008, "Focusing on the Core: Justifying the Use of Language Assessments to Stakeholders," I define "stakeholder-friendly tests," "defensible testing," and "testing-context analysis." I then go on to discuss the rational…

  18. Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning

  19. Magda and Albana: Learning to Read with Dual Language Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which dual language books are used in England to support bilingual pupils in school. While pupils in many schools speak a wide range of languages at home, these hardly feature in the curriculum. In the context of a project in which an education authority provided dual language books to primary schools, the paper…

  20. Semantic generalization in implicit language learning.

    PubMed

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N

    2015-07-01

    Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether they collocate with abstract or concrete nouns. After reading sentences containing the verbs, participants were required to judge the familiarity of pairs of novel verbs and nouns and to indicate their confidence or the basis of their judgment (i.e., guess, intuition, memory). Although all of the words had occurred in the texts, none of the critical items had actually occurred together. However, endorsement rates were significantly higher for pairs that respected the semantic preference rules than those that did not. Through analysis of subjective measures and verbal report, we argue that, for the majority of participants, this effect was based on unconscious knowledge. We argue that implicit learning of the kind of generalizations underlying semantic preferences is possible even after limited exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25581225

  1. Power within Blended Language Learning Programs in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Don; Gruba, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within…

  2. Measuring Language Learning Environments in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Beverley J.; Hazari, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a new learning environment instrument which could be used by teaching practitioners and other educators to measure the language learning environment in the secondary science classroom. The science teacher is central in creating science classrooms conductive to the language needs of students and should be…

  3. Language bootstrapping: Learning word meanings from perception-action association

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    1 Language bootstrapping: Learning word meanings from perception-action association Giampiero Salvi--We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word- to-meaning associations

  4. Individualization of Foreign Language Learning in America, III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougher, Ronald L., Ed.; Bockman, John F., Ed.

    This compilation of articles on the individualization of foreign language learning examines the teacher's role as the "facilitator of learning" in a student centered curriculum, the nature and direction of present trends in individualized instruction determined at the Stanford Conference on Individualization of Instruction in Foreign Language

  5. Language Learning Strategy Use: Perceptions of Female Arab English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, Abdolmehdi

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of language learning strategy use among 120 female Arabic-speaking students majoring in English at a university in Qatar. Perceptions of strategy use were measured by the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, ESL/EFL Student Version). The study found that (1) this group of EFL learners featured medium…

  6. Whole Language Learning for Elementary School Teachers, Children, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, William G., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this booklet is to disseminate theoretical ideas and practical strategies concerning whole language so that learning for children and practice for teaching may be enlightened and improved. Chapters include: "Whole Language Learning" (William McCarthy and Alicia Sutton); "Planning the Program and Organizing the Classroom" (Marilyn…

  7. Gender and Language Learning Strategies: Looking beyond the Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanage, Indika; Bartlett, Brendan John

    2012-01-01

    Research on language learning strategies (LLS) has pointed to a significant association at a general level between learners' gender and their choice of LLS. To explore this generality further, we conducted a study on gender and strategy use with Sri Lankan learners (N = 886) of English as a second language (ESL) in five different learning

  8. Language Learning through Social Networks: Perceptions and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chin-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of people study languages online, and little is known about their attitudes toward this new learning approach, what practices they engage in, or what kinds of interaction they are involved in. This dissertation investigates users' attitudes, practices, and interactions on the largest language-learning social network site,…

  9. Iranian Undergraduates Non-English Majors' Language Learning Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azam Noora

    For effective language learning and teaching , both learner skills and assumptions should be given due attention. In promoting this idea, students should be provided with the opportunity to clarify and assess their preferences. Moved with the conviction that learners and learners' preferences are of crucial importance in the development of language learning, we asked 192 non-English major undergraduates to

  10. Topic Centred Subject/Language Learning Materials and Their Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rado, Marta

    Social bilinguals (second language learners in a linguistic minority) and cultural bilinguals (foreign language learners) often learn side by side in the same classroom, making syllabus planning and choice of teaching methodology difficult. Adopting a bilingual approach and exploring the semantic and discourse aspects of language can overcome the…

  11. Towards Proteophilic Competence? Intercultural Learning and Language Education in Latvia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirba, Mara

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm of language education envisages that teachers become intercultural mediators. However, there is no agreement about implementing the new paradigm in school practice and language teacher education. The author believes that the intercultural dimension of language education is strongly linked to integrating intercultural learning in…

  12. Metaphor and Second Language Learning: The State of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…

  13. Exceptional Children Conference Papers: Learning and Language Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    The ten conference papers on learning and language disabilities begin with discussions of staff development procedures for teachers of language handicapped children, methods of instructional intervention for such children, and the comparative utility of the limited, intensive, and comprehensive methods of identification and evaluation of language

  14. Scaffolding Oral Language Development Through Poetry for Students Learning English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadaway, Nancy L.; Vardell, Sylvia M.; Young, Terrell A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing opportunities for ongoing oral language development for all students, the particular needs of children learning English as a second language, and the unique appropriateness of poetry as a vehicle for providing practice and pleasure in oral language skill development. Notes that poetry provides a relaxed and…

  15. The Spread of Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I…

  16. Teaching and Learning Chinese: Heritage Language Classroom Discourse in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores issues of teaching and learning Chinese as a heritage language in a Chinese heritage language school, the Zhonguo Saturday School, in Montreal, Quebec. With a student population of more than 1000, this school is the largest of the eight Chinese Heritage Language schools in Montreal. Students participating in this study were…

  17. Internet Technologies for Authentic Language Learning Experiences. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLoup, Jean; Ponterio, Robert

    With the focus on language, culture, and communication in the national standards for foreign language learning, foreign language teachers are continually searching for better ways of accessing authentic materials and providing experiences that will improve their students knowledge and skills in these target areas. This digest highlights a number…

  18. Cooperative Learning Activities for the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leloup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The World Wide Web makes available language learning activities that are ready-made by language teachers, are freely available, and can immediately serve educators as instructional, enrichment, and/or review tools. Describes one site that was created by a foreign language educator in Canada that includes a myriad of activities for use in high…

  19. Teaching Languages to Students with Specific Learning Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Smith, Anne Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended to help language teachers to work effectively and successfully with students who have specific learning differences (SpLD) such as dyslexia. The book takes an inclusive and practical approach to language teaching and encourages teachers to consider the effects that an SpLD could have on a language learner. It suggests…

  20. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  1. Language Rights versus Speakers' Rights: On the Applicability of Western Language Rights Approaches in Eastern European Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to contexts where two conceptions of linguistic rights--the rights of languages and the rights of speakers--come into conflict. To illustrate such conflict, I will examine justifications of language laws adopted in two post-Soviet countries, Latvia and Ukraine. I will begin with an…

  2. Language learning beyond words 51 Reflections on English Language Teaching, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 51-64

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    -64 Language learning beyond words: Incorporating body language into classroom activities Tammy S. Gregersen process. It considers the interplay of body language, particularly gesture, facial expression and gazeLanguage learning beyond words 51 Reflections on English Language Teaching, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 51

  3. Storytelling, behavior planning, and language evolution in context

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Glen

    2014-01-01

    An attempt is made to specify the structure of the hominin bands that began steps to language. Storytelling could evolve without need for language yet be strongly subject to natural selection and could provide a major feedback process in evolving language. A storytelling model is examined, including its effects on the evolution of consciousness and the possible timing of language evolution. Behavior planning is presented as a model of language evolution from storytelling. The behavior programming mechanism in both directions provide a model of creating and understanding behavior and language. Culture began with societies, then family evolution, family life in troops, but storytelling created a culture of experiences, a final step in the long process of achieving experienced adults by natural selection. Most language evolution occurred in conversations where evolving non-verbal feedback ensured mutual agreements on understanding. Natural language evolved in conversations with feedback providing understanding of changes. PMID:25360123

  4. Education for All. Contexts of Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    This collection assembles some of the most important works from the writings of Robert E. Slavin and presents them in individual chapters with introductions and commentary to set them in context. The works cited give educators and educational researchers a single source for the most important work of Slavin and his colleagues. The first section,…

  5. Oral and Written Language in the Educational Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer

    It is useful to stress the similarity of the linguistic system that underlies oral and written language, but the whole language approach fails to take into account the real and significant differences that exist between oral and written language and the different purposes for which they are used. Children need explicit guidance and support in…

  6. Innovation in learning and development in multilingual and multicultural contexts: Principles learned from a higher educational study programme in Luxembourg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Gudrun

    2011-12-01

    Multilingualism in education is a conceptual as well as a pedagogical challenge of the 21st century. Luxembourg, with its three statutory official languages (Luxembourgish, French and German), is an especially complex setting. The gap between traditional principles of language education on the one hand and the challenging impacts of today's multilingualisms on the other led the University of Luxembourg (founded in 2003) to set up a developmentally-driven Master's programme in 2007, entitled "Learning and Development in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts". After a presentation of the general multilingual settings in Luxembourg, this paper discusses the constellation of the multilingual University's staff and students and provides an analysis of the concept of the course by outlining its innovative approach, its principles and lessons learned with regard to running a trilingual higher education programme.

  7. Application of Game-based Learning (GBL) on Chinese Language Learning in Elementary School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun-Hsien Li; Shi-Jer Lou; Tsai-Feng Cheng; Huei-Yin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of applying game-based learning (GBL) in Chinese language learning for elementary school students in Taiwan. This study used the â??Millionaire Language Gameâ?ť was the research tool in the team competitions in Chinese language instruction. It then conducted survey on the students' attitudes and feedback regarding their usage experience, and interviews

  8. Literacy and the Second Language Learner. Research in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, JoAnn Hammadou, Ed.

    This collection of papers is the first in a series that will highlight cutting-edge research in the area of second language learning and teaching. After an introduction, "The Second Language Educator's Challenge: Learning about Literacy" (JoAnn Hammadou Sullivan), 12 papers include the following: (1) "Theoretical Developments in Reading Chinese…

  9. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  10. Lifelong Learning in Nepal: Contexts and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Learning is a lifelong process. Many countries in the world, basically the European and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, have adopted it as an important vehicle for human development. They have also made it a policy agenda for meeting the human capital need for twenty first century for economic prosperity.…

  11. Reading and Language Learning: Crosslinguistic Constraints on Second Language Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koda, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate goal of reading is to construct text meaning based on visually encoded information. Essentially, it entails converting print into language and then to the message intended by the author. It is hardly accidental, therefore, that, in all languages, reading builds on oral language competence and that learning to read uniformly requires…

  12. Language Learning Down Under: Community Language Programs in the Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsetti, Maria

    1993-01-01

    Describes the second-language and native language maintenance programs of Brunswick North Primary School (Australia), a school that offers its students opportunities to learn Turkish, Italian, Greek, or Arabic. An integrated curriculum ensures that students acquire or maintain a language other than English. (SLD)

  13. Attitudes toward Task-Based Language Learning: A Study of College Korean Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study explores second/foreign language (L2) learners' attitudes toward task-based language learning (TBLL) and how these attitudes relate to selected learner variables, namely anxiety, integrated motivation, instrumental motivation, and self-efficacy. Ninety-one college students of Korean as a foreign language, who received task-based…

  14. Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

  15. Primary or “Specific” Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language

    PubMed Central

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or “specific” language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of growth and skill distribution in L1 and L2 which complicate the identification of PLI in linguistically diverse learners. We then introduce our research program, designed to map out common ground and potential fault lines between typically developing children learning one or two languages, as compared to children with PLI. PMID:18313136

  16. Primary or "specific" language impairment and children learning a second language.

    PubMed

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of growth and skill distribution in L1 and L2 which complicate the identification of PLI in linguistically diverse learners. We then introduce our research program, designed to map out common ground and potential fault lines between typically developing children learning one or two languages, as compared to children with PLI. PMID:18313136

  17. GESTURE’S ROLE IN CREATING AND LEARNING LANGUAGE

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a child who has never seen or heard language. Would such a child be able to invent a language? Despite what one might guess, the answer is "yes". This chapter describes children who are congenitally deaf and cannot learn the spoken language that surrounds them. In addition, the children have not been exposed to sign language, either by their hearing parents or their oral schools. Nevertheless, the children use their hands to communicate––they gesture––and those gestures take on many of the forms and functions of language (Goldin-Meadow 2003a). The properties of language that we find in these gestures are just those properties that do not need to be handed down from generation to generation, but can be reinvented by a child de novo. They are the resilient properties of language, properties that all children, deaf or hearing, come to language-learning ready to develop. In contrast to these deaf children who are inventing language with their hands, hearing children are learning language from a linguistic model. But they too produce gestures, as do all hearing speakers (Feyereisen and de Lannoy 1991; Goldin-Meadow 2003b; Kendon 1980; McNeill 1992). Indeed, young hearing children often use gesture to communicate before they use words. Interestingly, changes in a child's gestures not only predate but also predict changes in the child's early language, suggesting that gesture may be playing a role in the language-learning process. This chapter begins with a description of the gestures the deaf child produces without speech. These gestures assume the full burden of communication and take on a language-like form––they are language. This phenomenon stands in contrast to the gestures hearing speakers produce with speech. These gestures share the burden of communication with speech and do not take on a language-like form––they are part of language. PMID:23526836

  18. Looking Inside the Box: Context-Sensitive Translation for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    contextual clues. This has led to a small cottage industry of what we might refer to as "context recoveryLooking Inside the Box: Context-Sensitive Translation for Cross-Language Information Retrieval dic- tionaries. Yet, state-of-the-art statistical translation models (e.g., using Synchronous Context

  19. The role of context specificity in learning: the effects of training context on explosives detection in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irit Gazit; Allen Goldblatt; Joseph Terkel

    2005-01-01

    Various experiments revealed that if an animal learns a stimulus–response–reinforcer relationship in one context and is then tested in another context there is usually a lessening of stimulus control, and the same discriminative stimuli that reliably controlled the behavior in the first context will have less effect in the new context. This reduction in performance is known as the “context

  20. Implementing E-Learning components with adult English language learners: Vital factors and lessons learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joellen E. Coryell; Dominique T. Chlup

    2007-01-01

    The growing use of both computers and the Internet in adult English language classrooms has widespread implications for English language programs. As computer access increases, so do new learning technologies in adult literacy education. Specifically, this paper is interested in the case of adult English language instruction, also commonly referred to as English as a Second Language (ESL) or English

  1. ItalianLanguageandCulture Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making language

    E-print Network

    ItalianLanguageandCulture Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around with a concentration in Italian Language and Culture. Language is studied both experientially (through the classroom-Media Language Learning Lab and departmental mini-lab provide enhancement and support. Understanding of Italian

  2. Language learning beyond words: Incorporating body language into classroom activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tammy S. Gregersen

    Research suggests that nonverbal communication plays an important role in second language communicative competence, yet little attention has been given to practical teaching techniques that will help English language teachers incorporate this essential element into their classrooms. This article begins by examining the indispensable role of nonverbal communication in the overall communicative process. It considers the interplay of body language,

  3. Foreign Languages and Foreign Language Learning in Virginia Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warriner, Helen P.; And Others

    Foreign language instruction guidelines designed to improve and extend current programs at all levels are offered to teachers, principals, guidance counselors, general supervisors, foreign language coordinators, and superintendents. Major emphasis on teaching a language is developed, particularly through remarks on the spoken and the written word.…

  4. Metaphoric Competence, Second Language Learning, and Communicative Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Low, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in cognitive linguistics have highlighted the importance as well as the ubiquity of metaphor in language. Despite this, the ability of second language learners to use metaphors is often still not seen as a core ability. In this paper, we take a model of communicative competence that has been widely influential in both language

  5. Children’s Learning in the Diverse Socio-Cultural Context of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Makusha, Tawanda; Muzvidziwa, Irene; Richter, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Children develop in several interlocking systems–in the context of their family, and within the interaction of settings such as home, school, and church (Russell, 2011). In South Africa, children’s diverse backgrounds within families, neighborhoods and socio-cultural environments provide them with varied experiences and opportunities to learn. Whether growing up in urban or rural communities, belonging to a specific race and ethnic group, or being poor or rich, all imply exposure to cultures, lifestyles, amenities, and living conditions that differ in marked ways (Makoe, 2006). With 79% of the total population being Blacks, the racial and ethnic heterogeneity translates into a complex mix of languages: English, Afrikaans, nine indigenous languages and five Indian languages are spoken (Reagan, 2001). PMID:23864734

  6. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors. PMID:11928691

  7. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    De Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Couette, Marylin; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Dürr, Alexandra; Youssov, Katia; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behavior. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington’s disease (HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients HD (18 stages II, 2 stage III and 1 stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage HD patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the twenty age- and education- matched controls. HD patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly correlated with the bicaudate ratio. The overall results support striatal involvement in rule extraction from speech and suggest that language acquisition requires several aspects of memory and executive functions for word and rule learning. PMID:18842608

  8. Nutrition and Language-Learning Development in Preschool Programs for Children with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Sol

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional program used at the Pediatric Language Laboratory--a day care center for preschool children with language-learning disabilities is discussed. Some "do's" and "don'ts" regarding appropriate nutrition are presented. (Author)

  9. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  10. Making Connections: Learning and Teaching Chemistry in Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna King; Alberto Bellocchi; Stephen M. Ritchie

    2008-01-01

    Even though several studies have reported positive attitudinal outcomes from context-based chemistry programs, methodological\\u000a obstacles have prevented researchers from comparing satisfactorily the chemistry-learning outcomes between students who experience\\u000a a context-based program with those who experience a content-driven program. In this narrative inquiry we are able to address\\u000a the question: how do the recalled experiences of a student and her teacher

  11. Integration of Andragogy in Adult Second Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Middaugh

    Abstract Current adult learning theory roots from andragogy. Andrag ogy, a method of adult learning based on six assumptions about adult learners, can be applied to adult second language acquisition with adults. Section 1 details the history of adult learning, the foundations of andragogy, and the debates regarding the method. Section 2 will search for similarities between the foundations of

  12. Language Learning Edutainment: Mixing Motives in Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in digital video have lead to a convergence of mainstream entertainment (e.g., movies) and language learning tools. An example is a software system/media player called L1, which provides interactive subtitling and learning support for DVD entertainment products. Convergence of entertainment and learning resources raises challenging…

  13. The Bounds of Adult Language Acquisition: Blocking and Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigates the limited attainment of adult language acquisition in terms of an associative learning phenomenon whereby earlier learned cues attentionally block those that are experienced later. Short- and long-term blocking are demonstrated in experimental investigations of learned attention in the acquisition of temporal…

  14. Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

  15. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  16. Metacognition in Foreign/Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    Metacognition, an awareness of one's own thought processes, plays a central role in explaining and describing the learning process. As it shapes learners' beliefs about and attitudes toward learning which in turn affect their behaviours, it directly relates to language learning and teaching as well. Thus, cautious teachers should understand and…

  17. Doomed to Read in a Second Language: Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Peleg, Ora

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether and how reliance on a second language impacts the learning of new information under very basic learning conditions. The paradigm used to investigate this issue required individuals to learn a series of associations between numerals and particular letter strings. Participants were two groups of…

  18. Context Learning and the Effect of Context on Memory Retrieval in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Haney, James; Lukowiak, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea was operantly conditioned so that the animals perform aerial respiration significantly less often. Using the standard training procedure (pond water made hypoxic by bubbling N2 through it) both food-deprived and fed animals learned and exhibited long-term memory (LTM). However, food-deprived animals exhibited neither learning nor memory when trained under a condition in which the hypoxic pond water also contained a food odorant (carrot, the food-odorant procedure). Fed animals, however, learned and exhibited LTM with the food-odorant procedure. Thus, the presence of the food odorant per se did not prevent learning or the establishment of LTM. Further experimentation, however, revealed that the ability of the snails to have recall (i.e., memory) for the learned behavior was dependent on the context in which memory was tested. That is, if animals were trained with the food-odorant procedure they could only exhibit recall if tested in the food-odorant context and vice versa with the standard training procedure. Thus, although fed animals could learn and show LTM with either training and testing procedure, LTM could only be seen when they were tested in the context in which they were trained. PMID:11160762

  19. Musical Experience Influences Statistical Learning of a Novel Language

    PubMed Central

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Musical experience may benefit learning a new language by enhancing the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes sound. In the current study, participants with varying degrees of musical experience were exposed to two statistically-defined languages consisting of auditory Morse-code sequences which varied in difficulty. We found an advantage for highly-skilled musicians, relative to less-skilled musicians, in learning novel Morse-code based words. Furthermore, in the more difficult learning condition, performance of lower-skilled musicians was mediated by their general cognitive abilities. We suggest that musical experience may lead to enhanced processing of statistical information and that musicians’ enhanced ability to learn statistical probabilities in a novel Morse-code language may extend to natural language learning. PMID:23505962

  20. Musical experience influences statistical learning of a novel language.

    PubMed

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Schroeder, Scott R

    2013-01-01

    Musical experience may benefit learning of a new language by increasing the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes sound. In the current study, participants with varying degrees of musical experience were exposed to two statistically defined languages consisting of auditory Morse code sequences that varied in difficulty. We found an advantage for highly skilled musicians, relative to lower-skilled musicians, in learning novel Morse code-based words. Furthermore, in the more difficult learning condition, performance of lower-skilled musicians was mediated by their general cognitive abilities. We suggest that musical experience may improve processing of statistical information and that musicians' enhanced ability to learn statistical probabilities in a novel Morse code language may extend to natural language learning. PMID:23505962

  1. Personalized e-Learning Environments: Considering Students' Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Eyharabide; Isabela Gasparini; Silvia N. Schiaffino; Marcelo Soares Pimenta; Analía Amandi

    2009-01-01

    Personalization in e-learning systems is vital since they are used by a wide variety of students with different characteristics. There are several approaches that aim at personalizing e-learning environments. However, they focus mainly on technological and\\/or networking aspects without caring of contextual aspects. They consider only a limited version of context while providing personalization. In our work, the objective is

  2. In-context language control with production tasks in bilinguals: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huang, Peiyu; Song, Zhe; Fang, Liang; Shen, Tong; Li, Yan; Gong, Qiyong; Xie, Peng

    2014-10-17

    Bilinguals exhibit a feat to control their two languages in conversation. The neural substrates of bilingual language control have been well investigated with language switching paradigm. Yet, most of those studies have taken single lexical items (i.e., words outside a context) as the investigative tool. In the present study, we examined the neural substrates of in-context language control in unbalanced bilinguals with a sentence-end switching paradigm. Our results showed that in-context language control in bilinguals recruited the neural mechanisms that were similar in kind to those responsible for cognitive control in general. When the direction of switching was considered, we found that backward switching called for more cognitive/language control relative to forward switching. Behaviorally, symmetric switching costs were found regardless of the switching factor (switching vs. non-switching) and the language factor (L1 vs. L2). We interpreted our imaging and behavioral results as the effects of context when unbalanced bilinguals controlled their two languages in a context. PMID:25148704

  3. Context Transfer in Reinforcement Learning Using Action-Value Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457

  4. Learning by Designing Instruction in the Context of Simulation-Based Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Ton; Gijlers, Hannie

    2013-01-01

    This study compares learning from designing instruction in the context of simulation-based inquiry learning with learning from expository teaching. The domain of instruction was the electricity domain of high-pass and low-pass filters. Participants were students from a technical vocational school. In the experimental condition ("N" =…

  5. Analysis of the learning context, perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning accounting: a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverley Jackling

    2005-01-01

    AbstractThis study investigates student approaches to learning over the 3?years of an undergraduate degree course in accounting. The objective of the study was, first, to identify changes in learning approaches over the course duration. Second, the study examined whether any changes in learning approaches were consistent with changes in the context of learning as well as students' perceptions of the

  6. Multiple Use of Content in a WebBased Language Learning System Judith Knapp

    E-print Network

    Gamper, Johann

    illustrative content in a Webbased language learning system for the German and Italian languages. Our an innovative Webbased language learning system for the German and Italian languages, called ELDITMultiple Use of Content in a WebBased Language Learning System Judith Knapp European Academy

  7. Mobile-Assisted Second Language Learning: Developing a Learner-Centered Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Choy Khim; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    The Mobile Assisted Language Learning concept has offered infinite language learning opportunities since its inception 20 years ago. Second Language Acquisition however embraces a considerably different body of knowledge from first language learning. While technological advances have optimized the psycholinguistic environment for language

  8. A Three-Dimensional Context-Awareness Model for Peer Recommendation in the E-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanlin; Li, Luyi

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that peer interaction is valuable for improving learning and achievement. This article proposes a three-dimensional context-awareness (CA) model to help learners in distributed e-learning settings to find suitable peers for potential collaboration. Based on the recognition of the e-learning context that involves the…

  9. The Language of Instruction Dilemma in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Nehir

    2008-01-01

    This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic…

  10. The language of instruction dilemma in the Turkish context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nehir Sert

    2008-01-01

    This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic content is provided through the medium

  11. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context.

    PubMed

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  12. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    PubMed Central

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  13. Exemplar variability facilitates rapid learning of an otherwise unlearnable grammar by individuals with language-based learning disability

    PubMed Central

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Dailey, Natalie S.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; Gómez, Rebecca; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even without explicit instruction, learners are able to extract information about the form of a language simply by attending to input that reflects the underlying grammar. Here we explore the role of variability in this learning by asking whether varying the number of unique exemplars heard by the learner affects learning of an artificial syntactic form. Method Learners with normal language (n=16) and language-based learning disability (LLD) (n=16) were exposed to strings of nonwords that represented an underlying grammar. Half heard 3 exemplars sixteen times each (low variability group) and half heard 24 exemplars twice each (high variability group). Learners were then tested for recognition of items heard and generalization of the grammar with new nonword strings. Results Only those learners with LLD who were in the high variability group were able to demonstrate generalization of the underlying grammar. For learners with normal language, both those in the high and the low variability groups showed generalization of the grammar, but relative effect sizes suggested a larger learning effect in the high variability group. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the structure of the learning context can determine the ability to generalize from specific training items to novel cases. PMID:22988285

  14. Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.

    PubMed

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. PMID:24980741

  15. Foreign Language Learning, Today and Tomorrow: Essays in Honor of Emma M. Birkmaier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Jermaine D., Ed.; And Others

    The following essays are included: (1) "Futurism in Foreign Language Learning" by Frank M. Grittner and Percy B. Fearing; (2) "Humanism in Learning Foreign Languages" by Samuel L. Lieberman; (3) "Objectives for New Programs: A Thematic Approach in Second Language Learning" by Helen L. Jorstad; (4) "Individualization of Foreign Language Learning"…

  16. Language bootstrapping: learning word meanings from perception-action association.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Giampiero; Montesano, Luis; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, José

    2012-06-01

    We address the problem of bootstrapping language acquisition for an artificial system similarly to what is observed in experiments with human infants. Our method works by associating meanings to words in manipulation tasks, as a robot interacts with objects and listens to verbal descriptions of the interactions. The model is based on an affordance network, i.e., a mapping between robot actions, robot perceptions, and the perceived effects of these actions upon objects. We extend the affordance model to incorporate spoken words, which allows us to ground the verbal symbols to the execution of actions and the perception of the environment. The model takes verbal descriptions of a task as the input and uses temporal co-occurrence to create links between speech utterances and the involved objects, actions, and effects. We show that the robot is able form useful word-to-meaning associations, even without considering grammatical structure in the learning process and in the presence of recognition errors. These word-to-meaning associations are embedded in the robot's own understanding of its actions. Thus, they can be directly used to instruct the robot to perform tasks and also allow to incorporate context in the speech recognition task. We believe that the encouraging results with our approach may afford robots with a capacity to acquire language descriptors in their operation's environment as well as to shed some light as to how this challenging process develops with human infants. PMID:22106152

  17. Language Brokering Contexts and Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment among Latino Parents and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Charles R.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual phenomenon. Multiple agents were used to assess language brokering and parent and youth adjustment. Results indicated that high language brokering contexts had negative associations with family stress, parenting effectiveness, and adolescent adjustment in terms of academic functioning, socioemotional health, and substance use. The findings are particularly important given the limited and mixed findings from formative research on language brokering, particularly in areas within the United States with emerging immigrant populations. Findings suggest the need for advancing practices that increase language and cultural supports for immigrant families and support parents’ efforts to foster positive youth and family adjustment. PMID:19898605

  18. Learning in Authentic Contexts: Projects Integrating Spatial Technologies and Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kuo-Hung

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, professional practice has been an issue of concern in higher education. The purpose of this study is to design students' projects to facilitate collaborative learning in authentic contexts. Ten students majoring in Management Information Systems conducted fieldwork with spatial technologies to collect data and provided information…

  19. How Visual and Semantic Information Influence Learning in Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goujon, Annabelle; Brockmole, James R.; Ehinger, Krista A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the contextual cuing paradigm has revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences in learning depending on whether repeated contexts are defined by letter arrays or real-world scenes. To clarify the relative contributions of visual features and semantic information likely to account for such differences, the typical…

  20. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  1. Satisfaction in E-Learning: The Context of Supplementary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siritongthaworn, Sawai; Krairit, Donyaprueth

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how to measure student satisfaction and how its elements influence on its overall perspective earned in e-learning (EL). This study focuses on the context where EL is used as a supplementary tool to enhance instruction. Design/methodology/approach: This study focuses on undergraduate courses…

  2. Learning Words from Context and Dictionaries: An Experimental Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ute

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the independent and interactive effects of contextual and definitional information on vocabulary learning. German students of English received either a text with unfamiliar English words or their monolingual English dictionary entries. A third group received both. Information about word context is crucial to understanding meaning. (44…

  3. Epistemic Metacognition in Context: Evaluating and Learning Online Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Boldrin, Angela; Ariasi, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This study examined epistemic metacognition as a reflective activity about knowledge and knowing in the context of online information searching on the Web, and whether it was related to prior knowledge on the topic, study approach, and domain-specific beliefs about science. In addition, we investigated whether Internet-based learning was…

  4. Cognitive Context and Arguments from Ontologies for Learning

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Brandon

    or conflicting knowledge. We define the notion of cognitive learning context which describes the cognitive incomplete and conflicting ontologies respectively. Con- flicts between ontologies can be identified through the derivation of conflicting ar- guments about a particular point of view. Arguments can be used to detect

  5. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  6. Language Learner Investment and Identity Negotiation in the Korean EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilopoulos, Gene

    2015-01-01

    Most research on language and identity has been conducted in contexts in which English is an official language. As a result, the Western-derived framework guiding identity research may not be representative for L2 learners/speakers in localized settings. To address this potential disparity, this qualitative study examines L2 identity construction…

  7. Examining Relations among Mothers', Fathers', and Children's Language Use in a Dyadic and Triadic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Gary E.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated mothers' and fathers' language use in dyadic and triadic contexts. Specific attention was paid to factors associated with the quantity and quality of mother and father language use in triadic settings. Sixty-three predominantly middle-class, two-parent families with toddlers (age 16 to 37 months) participated. Mother-child…

  8. Looking across Contexts in Foreign Language Student Teacher Supervision: A Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Jason

    2012-01-01

    In the following self-study, I consider how my involvement in a teacher preparation program that features looking across multiple contexts of second language teaching influenced my supervisory practice with a particular student teacher during her secondary foreign language student teaching placement. I conduct this inquiry by identifying and…

  9. The Familial Context of Adolescent Language Brokering Within Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine M. HuaCatherine; Catherine L. Costigan

    Language brokering, whereby children of immigrants provide informal translation and interpretation for others, is considered\\u000a commonplace. However, the research evidence remains inconsistent concerning how language brokering relates to the psychological\\u000a health of child language brokers and their relationships with their parents. Furthermore, few studies have examined the familial\\u000a context as an explanation source. This study evaluated the moderating effects of

  10. Language/Learning Skills Content Based Course: Tutor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Fay

    This guide is designed for use by instructors and tutors at the M. L. Sultan Technikon (South Africa) for teaching students of English as a Second Language or students from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. It provides assistance in teaching academic language and study skills in the context of course content. The underlying philosophy is…

  11. THEORY-BASED SUPPORT FOR MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING: NOTICING AND RECORDING Theory-based Support for Mobile Language

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THEORY-BASED SUPPORT FOR MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING: NOTICING AND RECORDING Theory-based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording doi:10.3991/ijim.v3i2.740 A. Kukulska-Hulme1 and S. Bull into educational applications for language learning. We consider: theoretical perspectives drawn from the second

  12. One Child, Two Languages: A Guide for Preschool Educators of Children Learning English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabors, Patton O.

    This book provides information to preschool teachers and administrators in developing effective programs for young linguistic backgrounds of second-language-learning children, the children. Information about the importance of the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of second-language learning children, the course that second-language learning is…

  13. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language

  14. Language Proficiency Tests in the Iranian Context: Do They Represent Communicative Language Testing Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2011-01-01

    The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize CLT. As…

  15. Reactivation of Lapsed Languages in the Context of Modern Foreign Languages Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn-Williams, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the problems encountered by trainee language teachers who strive to maintain their language skills at their optimum level in the classroom. Many trainees will admit that their language skills need refreshing and a significant number of mentors agree with them. This article explores language attrition and strategies that can be…

  16. TQuery: a context-sensitive temporal query language.

    PubMed

    Kahn, M G; Tu, S; Fagan, L M

    1991-10-01

    Users of electronic medical databases request pertinent information by recasting their clinical questions into a formal database query language. Because the query language is the user's only access to the data, the query language must be powerful enough to enable users to express their data requirements. However, a competing need is for the query language to be restrictive enough so that queries can have unambiguous semantics and the query processor can generate correct answers. We describe a query language, called TQuery , that was designed specifically to formulate database queries that are dependent on temporal and contextual relationships. TQuery specifications express contextual constraints without the need to explicitly reference calendar dates. TQuery is the database query language used to retrieve patient data from an object-oriented electronic patient medical-record system called the temporal network (TNET). TNET and TQuery were developed to support the real-time temporal reasoning and representation needs of a LISP workstation-based medical expert system. PMID:1743002

  17. Creating a Technology-Rich English Language Learning Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise E. Murray

    The use of computer technology in English language teaching and learning is accepted, often uncritically, in many settings,\\u000a even though in other settings, computers are not available, while in still other settings, teachers and learners often lack\\u000a the necessary computer literacy skills to exploit the technology effectively for language teaching and learning. While many\\u000a articles and books discuss tips for

  18. Case-Based Representation and Learning of Pattern Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus P. Jantke; Steffen Lange

    1993-01-01

    Pattern languages seem to suit case-based reasoning particularly well. Therefore,the problem of inductively learning pattern languages is paraphrased in a case-basedmanner. A careful investigation requires a formal semantics for case bases togetherwith similarity measures in terms of formal languages. Two basic semantics areintroduced and investigated. It turns out that representability problems are majorobstacles for case-based learnability. Restricting the attention to

  19. Language and Culture in an Online Context: What Can Learner Diaries Tell Us about Intercultural Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Telecollaboration is an approach to intercultural learning that uses Internet technology as a tool to facilitate intercultural communication between classes of learners in different countries. The question of what language learners can gain from telecollaboration is fundamental in putting the case forward for its place in a language course. This…

  20. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  1. Welcome to HELL : Humor in English Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncay, Hidayet

    2007-01-01

    Humor means understanding not only the language and words but their use, meaning, subtle nuances, the underlying culture, implications and unwritten messages. Humor does not often travel well from one culture to another, as each society has a somewhat different concept of what is funny (Dobson, 1987). In Foreign Language Learning (FLL), the…

  2. Language learning and the technology of international communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batley, Edward

    1991-03-01

    The author posits a reciprocal relationship between the recent popularisation of computer-based technology and the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe. Brief reference is made to their common denominator, language and language change. The advent of the communicative approach to language learning and the new wave of language authenticity arising from it, both enhanced by the technological revolution, have made the defining of acceptability in the classroom and of communication in the process of testing more problematic than ever, although several advantages have also accrued. Advances in technology have generally outstripped our ability to apply their full or characteristic potential. While technology can personalise learning and in this way make learning more efficient, it can also impede motivation. Old methods, drills and routines are tending to be sustained by it. Lack of technology can also widen the gulf between developed, developing and underdeveloped countries of the world. The author proposes international partnerships as a means of preventing an imbalance which could threaten stability. Single language dominance is another threat to international understanding, given the growing awareness of our multilingual and multicultural environment. Enlightened language policies reaching from the individual to beyond the national community are needed, which adopt these aspects of language learning, explain decisions about the state's choice of languages and, at the same time, promote individual choice wherever practicable.

  3. Foreign Language Learning; A Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobovits, Leon A.

    The purpose of this volume is to bring together various materials dealing with the psychological aspects of foreign language learning and bilingualism. The materials have been arranged for the use of persons interested in foreign language "Compensatory Instruction," which involves the notion of adjusting the teaching activities to the needs of…

  4. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  5. New Trends in Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Paredes, Pascual, Ed.; Cantos-Gomez, Pascual, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Articles in this special issue include the following: "ICT and Modern Foreign Languages: Learning Opportunities and Training Needs" (Graham Davies); "Authoring, Pedagogy and the Web: Expectations Versus Reality" (Paul Bangs); "Web-based Instructional Environments: Tools and Techniques for Effective Second Language Acquisition" (Esperanza Roman);…

  6. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  7. Is Motivation a Predictor of Foreign Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Kazuyo

    2006-01-01

    This article reports an investigation into the factors that facilitate language learning. The first strand examines whether motivation is a predictor of as is widely accepted. In order to confirm this, Grade 10 students' motivation level was measured using two questions. Language gains were also measured and compared with the motivation level. The…

  8. Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies: Investigating Possible Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ramin; Hosseini, Kobra

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the existence of any possible relationship between the use of language learning strategies and multiple intelligences' scores of foreign language learners of English. Ninety subjects participated in the study. To measure the participants' multiple intelligence scores, MIDAS, a commercially designed…

  9. Integrating Intercultural Competence into Language Learning through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Culture has long been seen as a fundamental component of language learning. While its importance is universally recognized, there is no consensus on what the term encompasses, how culture should be integrated into language instruction, or on what role technology can and should play in that process. In this column, we will be looking at the latter…

  10. Digital Gaming and Language Learning: Autonomy and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between digital game play and second language (L2) learning is a particularly tricky issue in East Asia. Though there is an emerging presence of Chinese online games, many more young people are playing the English- or Japanese-language versions of the most popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) video games. In other words, most…

  11. The Influence of Email on Language Learning: A Positive Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabieh, Christine

    This study investigated the influence of e-mail on English language learning among college freshmen enrolled in a remedial English class. English was considered the first or second foreign language for all participants. Students were divided into two groups. One group was allowed face to face communication in class and during office hours with the…

  12. Procedural Visual Learning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Audrey; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Maillart, Christelle; Schmitz, Xavier; Meulemans, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: According to the "procedural deficit hypothesis" (PDH), difficulties in the procedural learning (PL) system may contribute to the language difficulties observed in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers were compared on visual PL tasks--specifically,…

  13. How Technology Has Affected the English Language Learning Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Bursztynsky

    2010-01-01

    English language learners are a growing percentage of students in today’s classrooms. These students’ educational needs will continue to grow, but so will technology. Multiple technologies today can be incorporated into the classroom, and teachers can be comforted in the fact that there will always be something to keep them one step ahead in the English language learning classroom.

  14. Learning English Language by Radio in Primary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odera, Florence Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radio is one of the most affordable educational technologies available for the use in education and development in developing countries. This article explores the use of school radio broadcast to assist teachers and pupils to learn and improve English language both written and spoken in Kenyan primary schools. English language occupies a central…

  15. Personalizing Foreign Language Instruction: Learning Styles and Teaching Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Renate A., Ed.

    This volume consists of the following papers selected from those presented at the 1977 Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages: (1) "Educational Cognitive Style: A Basis for Personalizing Foreign Language Instruction," by Derek N. Nunney; (2) "Discovering Student Learning Styles through Cognitive Style Mapping," by Helen S.…

  16. Experience with Serious Games for Learning Foreign Languages and Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lewis Johnson; Ning Wang; Shumin Wu

    The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) that is an interactive learning platform t hat helps people quickly acquire communication skills i n foreign languages and cultures. It integrates se rious game technology and intelligent tutoring system technolo gy. Learners alternate between working on interact ive lessons that teach communication skills and interactive games th at require learners to

  17. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  18. The Decision-Making Process in Language Program Placement: Test and Nontest Factors Interacting in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia; Burke, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The use of tests has been targeted as a critical point in validity, which suggests that contexts for test use warrant closer investigation. This article describes a study of decision making during test use in the context of a university intensive English language program. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, data were collected by audio-recording…

  19. SpanishLanguageandCulture Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making language

    E-print Network

    program. Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences #12;Spanish Language and Culture We look forwardSpanishLanguageandCulture Language learning matters. More than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe today, making language learning an essential ingredient to give you a real-world, competitive edge

  20. Influences of motor contexts on the semantic processing of action-related language.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    The contribution of the sensory-motor system to the semantic processing of language stimuli is still controversial. To address the issue, the present article focuses on the impact of motor contexts (i.e., comprehenders' motor behaviors, motor-training experiences, and motor expertise) on the semantic processing of action-related language and reviews the relevant behavioral and neuroimaging findings. The existing evidence shows that although motor contexts can influence the semantic processing of action-related concepts, the mechanism of the contextual influences is still far from clear. Future investigations will be needed to clarify (1) whether motor contexts only modulate activity in motor regions, (2) whether the contextual influences are specific to the semantic features of language stimuli, and (3) what factors can determine the facilitatory or inhibitory contextual influences on the semantic processing of action-related language. PMID:24492995

  1. Using Tasks to Assess Spanish Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Mosquera, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The methodology of Task-based teaching (TBT) has been positively regarded by many researchers and language teachers around the world. Yet, this language teaching methodology has been mainly implemented in English as a second language (ESL) classrooms and in English for specific purpose (ESP) courses; and more specifically with advanced-level…

  2. Language Learning, Social Identity, and Immigrant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Bonny Norton

    This paper argues, using a feminist poststructuralist perspective, that second language acquisition (SLA) theorists have struggled to explore the relationship between the language learner and the social world because they do not question how structures of power in the social world impact on individual language learners and the opportunities they…

  3. Collaborative Learning: Group Interaction in an Intelligent Mobile-Assisted Multiple Language Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troussas, Christos; Virvou, Maria; Alepis, Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a student-oriented approach tailored to effective collaboration between students using mobile phones for language learning within the life cycle of an intelligent tutoring system. For this reason, in this research, a prototype mobile application has been developed for multiple language learning that incorporates intelligence in…

  4. Let Me Learn with My Peers Online!: Foreign Language Learning through Reciprocal Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekhinet, Rayenne; Topping, Keith; Duran, David; Blanch, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Rayenne Dekhinet, Keith Topping, David Duran, and Silvia Blanch describe a pilot project on the use of Internet-assisted reciprocal peer tutoring in foreign-language learning. The eight-week project connected Spanish-speaking English-language learners at a primary school in Catalonia with English-speaking Spanish-language learners at a Scottish…

  5. Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "Common European Framework of Reference"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language professionals reflect…

  6. In Our Learners' Shoes. A Language Teacher's Reflections on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervi, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A language teacher's Japanese-language learning experiences in educational and immersion environments lead to assertions about the ineffectiveness of exclusive use of traditional instructional methodologies; exclusive dependence on osmosis for developing fluency; instructional materials that students perceive as beneath them; and assumptions that…

  7. From Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to Mobile Assisted Language Use (MALU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Achilleos, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by critiquing the long-established acronym CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning). We then go on to report on a small-scale study which examines how student non-native speakers of English use a range of digital devices beyond the classroom in both their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. We look also at the extent to…

  8. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  9. College Teachers' Perceptions of English Language Characteristics that Identify English-Language Learning Disabled Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.; Samar, Vincent J.; Parasnis, Ila

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-eight experienced English language professionals were surveyed regarding the degree of difficulty students with deafness with and without learning disabilities might have in dealing with 30 specific English language phenomena. Spelling knowledge and a variety of English discourse, lexical, syntactic, and morphological phenomena emerged as…

  10. Augmenting Traditional Books with Context-Aware Learning Supports from Online Learning Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwo-dong Chen; Po-yao Chao

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent advances,in ubiquitous computing,technologies have brought reality augmentation,of traditional objects to context-awareand social supports. Although a significantproportion of students prefer poring over traditional paper textbooks over electronic books, few studies have enhanced reading practice of traditional books with ubiquitous context-aware and collaborative learning supports that provide timely, contextual assistance. This study proposed,an innovative approach to develop a paper-based learning

  11. Culture as the Core: Perspectives on Culture in Second Language Learning. A Volume in Research in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Dale, Ed.; Paige, R. Michael, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 12 chapters in two parts. Part 1 "Culture as the Core: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture Teaching and Learning in the Second Language Curriculum," includes: (1) "Extending Communicative Concepts in the Second Language Curriculum: A Sociolinguistic Perspective" (Muriel Saville-Troike); (2) "Teaching along…

  12. Ensor, S. & Rodrigues, C. (2012, communication accepte). "Building bridges? Investigating perceptions of second language learning affordances in on-line exchanges". Eurocall (European Computer Assisted Language Learning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    perceptions of second language learning affordances in on-line exchanges". Eurocall (European Computer Assisted Language Learning Conference) 2012, 22-25 aoűt. Gothenburg : Sweden. `Building bridges?' Investigating perceptions of second language learning affordances in on-line exchanges. Ensor, S., Rodrigues, C

  13. Neural Correlates of High Performance in Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedonia, Manuela; Muller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Learning vocabulary in a foreign language is a laborious task which people perform with varying levels of success. Here, we investigated the neural underpinning of high performance on this task. In a within-subjects paradigm, participants learned 92 vocabulary items under two multimodal conditions: one condition paired novel words with iconic…

  14. Body in Mind: How Gestures Empower Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedonia, Manuela; Knosche, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that enactment (i.e., performing representative gestures during encoding) enhances memory for concrete words, in particular action words. Here, we investigate the impact of enactment on abstract word learning in a foreign language. We further ask if learning novel words with gestures facilitates sentence…

  15. Usability and Pedagogical Design: are Language Learning Websites Special?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Usability and Pedagogical Design: are Language Learning Websites Special? Agnes Kukulska L.E.Shield@open.ac.uk Abstract: This paper explores the usability of e-learning websites agenda that should be taken forward - pedagogical usability, intercultural usability and website

  16. "A Priori" Assessment of Language Learning Tasks by Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Gerard J.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' competence to estimate the effectiveness of learning materials is important and often neglected in programmes for teacher education. In this lecture I will try to explore the possibilities of designing scaffolding instruments for a "priori" assessment of language learning tasks, based on insights from SLA and cognitive psychology, more…

  17. Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

  18. Providing quality language training since 1992 Learn English

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Providing quality language training since 1992 Learn English at Dublin City University IrelandDCU Learn English at Dublin City University #12;Dublin City University is a great choice for international whiteboard technology · Free wifi and internet access Watch our school video - www.english.dcu.ie. Our

  19. Learning by building: A visual modelling language for psychology students

    E-print Network

    Holland, Simon

    Learning by building: A visual modelling language for psychology students Paul Mulholland building computational models of psychological theories in order to learn more about them, and is a major research area allied to psychology and artificial intelligence. The main problem is that few psychology

  20. A Model for Self-Regulated Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen S.; Bunker, Ellen L.

    2009-01-01

    The role of learner autonomy and self-regulated learning in distance education has received much attention. The application of these concepts impacts course design and, potentially, learner achievement. In the case of distance language learning, course designers must consider not only how to help learners gain communicative competence but also…