Science.gov

Sample records for language system models

  1. Modeling distributed systems with logic programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Lenders, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis proposes new concepts for an ideal integrated specification and simulation workstation. The transition model approach to distributed systems specification is improved by the introduction of communicating finite state automata (CFSA), and a Prolog implementation of CFSA. Liveness and safety properties are proved with Prolog. Bidirectional input-output (bi-io), a new input-output mechanism is introduced, which eases distributed systems programming. It generalizes regular input-output mechanisms, replacing two concepts with one single concept. Moreover, it is concise and powerful, and for some applications suppresses deadlock problems. Bi-io is proposed as an extension of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). An axiomatic semantics of the extended CSP language is given, which follows the weakest precondition approach. The similarities between CFSA and CSP (with its weakest precondition semantics) suggest that the two descriptive methods should be used together with the ideal specification and simulation workstation.

  2. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack of a conventional language model, this child developed his own gestural system. In this system, features known to mark phrase and utterance boundaries in established sign languages were used to consistently mark the ends of utterances, but not to mark phrase or utterance internal boundaries. A single child can thus develop the seeds of a prosodic system, but full elaboration may require more time, more users, or even more generations to blossom. PMID:25574153

  3. Object-oriented biomedical system modelling--the language.

    PubMed

    Hakman, M; Groth, T

    1999-11-01

    The paper describes a new object-oriented biomedical continuous system modelling language (OOBSML). It is fully object-oriented and supports model inheritance, encapsulation, and model component instantiation and behaviour polymorphism. Besides the traditional differential and algebraic equation expressions the language includes also formal expressions for documenting models and defining model quantity types and quantity units. It supports explicit definition of model input-, output- and state quantities, model components and component connections. The OOBSML model compiler produces self-contained, independent, executable model components that can be instantiated and used within other OOBSML models and/or stored within model and model component libraries. In this way complex models can be structured as multilevel, multi-component model hierarchies. Technically the model components produced by the OOBSML compiler are executable computer code objects based on distributed object and object request broker technology. This paper includes both the language tutorial and the formal language syntax and semantic description. PMID:10579511

  4. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages. PMID:26723228

  5. Conceptual Modeling for the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Charles E.; Komorowski, Henryk Jan; Pattison-Gordon, Edward; Greenes, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System was proposed by the National Library of Medicine to facilitate the exchange and utilization of information from multiple sources. We are using semantic networks as the knowledge representation scheme in a prototype system to explore how to accomplish these goals. Conceptual modeling helps define a complete and consistent set of objects and relationships to include in the semantic net. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches were found useful in the seven step process of building the semantic network. Theoretical and practical issues are discussed as well as future extensions to the current prototype.

  6. RSMM: a network language for modeling pollutants in river systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.B.; Standridge, C.R.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of pollutants in rivers is important for water quality managers. A new simulation language, the River System Modeling Methodology (RSMM), helps users construct simulation models for analyzing river pollution. In RSMM, a network of nodes and branches represents a river system. Nodes represent elements such as junctions, dams, withdrawals, and pollutant sources; branches represent homogeneous river segments, or reaches. The RSMM processor is a GASP V program. Models can employ either the embedded Streeter-Phelps equations or user supplied equations. The user describes the network diagram with GASP-like input cards. RSMM outputs may be printed or stored in an SDL database. An interface between SDL and DISSPLA provides high quality graphical output.

  7. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  8. Visual unified modeling language for the composition of scenarios in modeling and simulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbert, Michael L.; Swayne, Daniel E.

    2006-05-01

    The Department of Defense uses modeling and simulation systems in many various roles, from research and training to modeling likely outcomes of command decisions. Simulation systems have been increasing in complexity with the increased capability of low-cost computer systems to support these DOD requirements. The demand for scenarios is also increasing, but the complexity of the simulation systems has caused a bottleneck in scenario development due to the limited number of individuals with knowledge of the arcane simulator languages in which these scenarios are written. This research combines the results of previous efforts from the Air Force Institute of Technology in visual modeling languages to create a language that unifies description of entities within a scenario with its behavior using a visual tool that was developed in the course of this research. The resulting language has a grammar and syntax that can be parsed from the visual representation of the scenario. The language is designed so that scenarios can be described in a generic manner, not tied to a specific simulation system, allowing the future development of modules to translate the generic scenario into simulation system specific scenarios.

  9. Using Unified Modeling Language for Conceptual Modelling of Knowledge-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Syazwan; Benest, Ian; Paige, Richard; Kimble, Chris

    This paper discusses extending the Unified Modelling Language by means of a profile for modelling knowledge-based system in the context of Model Driven Architecture (MDA) framework. The profile is implemented using the eXecutable Modelling Framework (XMF) Mosaic tool. A case study from the health care domain demonstrates the practical use of this profile; with the prototype implemented in Java Expert System Shell (Jess). The paper also discusses the possible mapping of the profile elements to the platform specific model (PSM) of Jess and provides some discussion on the Production Rule Representation (PRR) standardisation work.

  10. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the core framework used to implement a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) based systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language. It defines a set of principles built upon by the theoretical approach described in the InfoTech 2013 ISHM paper titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson. Using the SysML language, the principles in this paper describe the expansion of the SysML language as a baseline in order to: hierarchically describe a system, describe that system functionally within success space, and allocate detection mechanisms to success functions for system protection.

  11. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  12. Avionics Architecture Modelling Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alana, Elena; Naranjo, Hector; Valencia, Raul; Medina, Alberto; Honvault, Christophe; Rugina, Ana; Panunzia, Marco; Dellandrea, Brice; Garcia, Gerald

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the ESA AAML (Avionics Architecture Modelling Language) study, which aimed at advancing the avionics engineering practices towards a model-based approach by (i) identifying and prioritising the avionics-relevant analyses, (ii) specifying the modelling language features necessary to support the identified analyses, and (iii) recommending/prototyping software tooling to demonstrate the automation of the selected analyses based on a modelling language and compliant with the defined specification.

  13. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  14. Language Sound Systems and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaer, Peter M.

    A language typology based on common errors made in pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages is presented and discussed. The classification system was developed from the concept of interlanguage, the intermediate step between a language learner's native and target languages, and the notion that interference in learning a new language…

  15. Modeling a Nursing Guideline with Standard Terminology and Unified Modeling Language for a Nursing Decision Support System: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeeyae; Jansen, Kay; Coenen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed and used to achieve “meaningful use”. One approach to developing DSSs is to translate clinical guidelines into a computer-interpretable format. However, there is no specific guideline modeling approach to translate nursing guidelines to computer-interpretable guidelines. This results in limited use of DSSs in nursing. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language known to accurately represent the end-users’ perspective, due to its expressive characteristics. Furthermore, standard terminology enabled DSSs have been shown to smoothly integrate into existing health information systems. In order to facilitate development of nursing DSSs, the UML was used to represent a guideline for medication management for older adults encode with the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®). The UML was found to be a useful and sufficient tool to model a nursing guideline for a DSS. PMID:26958174

  16. Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J

    2016-08-19

    The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime. PMID:26912276

  17. Implementation of a Goal-Based Systems Engineering Process Using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, Jonathan T.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Building upon the purpose, theoretical approach, and use of a Goal-Function Tree (GFT) being presented by Dr. Stephen B. Johnson, described in a related Infotech 2013 ISHM abstract titled "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management", this paper will describe the core framework used to implement the GFTbased systems engineering process using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML). These two papers are ideally accepted and presented together in the same Infotech session. Statement of problem: SysML, as a tool, is currently not capable of implementing the theoretical approach described within the "Goal-Function Tree Modeling for Systems Engineering and Fault Management" paper cited above. More generally, SysML's current capabilities to model functional decompositions in the rigorous manner required in the GFT approach are limited. The GFT is a new Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) approach to the development of goals and requirements, functions, and its linkage to design. As a growing standard for systems engineering, it is important to develop methods to implement GFT in SysML. Proposed Method of Solution: Many of the central concepts of the SysML language are needed to implement a GFT for large complex systems. In the implementation of those central concepts, the following will be described in detail: changes to the nominal SysML process, model view definitions and examples, diagram definitions and examples, and detailed SysML construct and stereotype definitions.

  18. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org. PMID:26528569

  19. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    LeBozec, C.; Jaulent, M. C.; Zapletal, E.; Degoulet, P.

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9929346

  20. Unified modeling language and design of a case-based retrieval system in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    LeBozec, C; Jaulent, M C; Zapletal, E; Degoulet, P

    1998-01-01

    One goal of artificial intelligence research into case-based reasoning (CBR) systems is to develop approaches for designing useful and practical interactive case-based environments. Explaining each step of the design of the case-base and of the retrieval process is critical for the application of case-based systems to the real world. We describe herein our approach to the design of IDEM--Images and Diagnosis from Examples in Medicine--a medical image case-based retrieval system for pathologists. Our approach is based on the expressiveness of an object-oriented modeling language standard: the Unified Modeling Language (UML). We created a set of diagrams in UML notation illustrating the steps of the CBR methodology we used. The key aspect of this approach was selecting the relevant objects of the system according to user requirements and making visualization of cases and of the components of the case retrieval process. Further evaluation of the expressiveness of the design document is required but UML seems to be a promising formalism, improving the communication between the developers and users. PMID:9929346

  1. L-Py: An L-System Simulation Framework for Modeling Plant Architecture Development Based on a Dynamic Language

    PubMed Central

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom. PMID:22670147

  2. L-py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language.

    PubMed

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom. PMID:22670147

  3. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  4. Student Modeling and Ab Initio Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Provides examples of student modeling techniques that have been employed in computer-assisted language learning over the past decade. Describes two systems for learning German: "German Tutor" and "Geroline." Shows how a student model can support computerized adaptive language testing for diagnostic purposes in a Web-based language learning…

  5. Architecting the Human Space Flight Program with Systems Modeling Language (SysML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Maddalena M.; Fernandez, Michela Munoz; McVittie, Thomas I.; Sindiy, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of missions in NASA's Human Space Flight program focuses on the development and deployment of highly complex systems (e.g., Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Space Launch System, 21st Century Ground System) that will enable astronauts to venture beyond low Earth orbit and explore the moon, near-Earth asteroids, and beyond. Architecting these highly complex system-of-systems requires formal systems engineering techniques for managing the evolution of the technical features in the information exchange domain (e.g., data exchanges, communication networks, ground software) and also, formal correlation of the technical architecture to stakeholders' programmatic concerns (e.g., budget, schedule, risk) and design development (e.g., assumptions, constraints, trades, tracking of unknowns). This paper will describe how the authors have applied System Modeling Language (SysML) to implement model-based systems engineering for managing the description of the End-to-End Information System (EEIS) architecture and associated development activities and ultimately enables stakeholders to understand, reason, and answer questions about the EEIS under design for proposed lunar Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2).

  6. Modeling the Organization as a System of Communication Activity: A Dialogue about the Language/Action Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Every, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces, through a conversation with computer-system designers from the Netherlands, the Language/Action Perspective on modeling business workflow and communication processes. Describes their attempts to develop system models that go beyond data flow to incorporate the communicative actions or transactions that result in the creation of a…

  7. Computational models of natural language processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bara, B.G.; Guida, G.

    1984-01-01

    The main concern in this work is the illustration of models for natural language processing, and the discussion of their role in the development of computational studies of language. Topics covered include the following: competence and performance in the design of natural language systems; planning and understanding speech acts by interpersonal games; a framework for integrating syntax and semantics; knowledge representation and natural language: extending the expressive power of proposition nodes; viewing parsing as word sense discrimination: a connectionist approach; a propositional language for text representation; from topic and focus of a sentence to linking in a text; language generation by computer; understanding the Chinese language; semantic primitives or meaning postulates: mental models of propositional representations; narrative complexity based on summarization algorithms; using focus to constrain language generation; and towards an integral model of language competence.

  8. Language as an evolutionary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brighton, Henry; Smith, Kenny; Kirby, Simon

    2005-09-01

    John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry argued that human language signified the eighth major transition in evolution: human language marked a new form of information transmission from one generation to another [Maynard Smith J, Szathmáry E. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press; 1995]. According to this view language codes cultural information and as such forms the basis for the evolution of complexity in human culture. In this article we develop the theory that language also codes information in another sense: languages code information on their own structure. As a result, languages themselves provide information that influences their own survival. To understand the consequences of this theory we discuss recent computational models of linguistic evolution. Linguistic evolution is the process by which languages themselves evolve. This article draws together this recent work on linguistic evolution and highlights the significance of this process in understanding the evolution of linguistic complexity. Our conclusions are that: (1) the process of linguistic transmission constitutes the basis for an evolutionary system, and (2), that this evolutionary system is only superficially comparable to the process of biological evolution.

  9. PyMCT: A Very High Level Language Coupling Tool For Climate System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobis, M.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Steder, M.; Jacob, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Climate Systems Center of the University of Chicago, we have been examining strategies for applying agile programming techniques to complex high-performance modeling experiments. While the "agile" development methodology differs from a conventional requirements process and its associated milestones, the process remain a formal one. It is distinguished by continuous improvement in functionality, large numbers of small releases, extensive and ongoing testing strategies, and a strong reliance on very high level languages (VHLL). Here we report on PyMCT, which we intend as a core element in a model ensemble control superstructure. PyMCT is a set of Python bindings for MCT, the Fortran-90 based Model Coupling Toolkit, which forms the infrastructure for the inter-component communication in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). MCT provides a scalable model communication infrastructure. In order to take maximum advantage of agile software development methodologies, we exposed MCT functionality to Python, a prominent VHLL. We describe how the scalable architecture of MCT allows us to overcome the relatively weak runtime performance of Python, so that the performance of the combined system is not severely impacted. To demonstrate these advantages, we reimplemented the CCSM coupler in Python. While this alone offers no new functionality, it does provide a rigorous test of PyMCT functionality and performance. We reimplemented the CPL6 library, presenting an interesting case study of the comparison between conventional Fortran-90 programming and the higher abstraction level provided by a VHLL. The powerful abstractions provided by Python will allow much more complex experimental paradigms. In particular, we hope to build on the scriptability of our coupling strategy to enable systematic sensitivity tests. Our most ambitious objective is to combine our efforts with Bayesian inverse modeling techniques toward objective tuning at the highest level, across model

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Computer Assisted Language Learning Success: A Complex Dynamic Systems Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Michael W.; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual, interdisciplinary inquiry explores Complex Dynamic Systems as the concept relates to the internal and external environmental factors affecting computer assisted language learning (CALL). Based on the results obtained by de Rosnay ["World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution", 67(4/5), 304-315 (2011)], who observed…

  11. Plenary Speech: Researching Complex Dynamic Systems--"Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling" in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather…

  12. Language as a System of Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, J. W. F.; Hervey, S. G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Based on Mulder's previous classification of all semiotic systems designed to describe the system of discrete features in human languages, this article explores a further subclassification of the genus language into species. (CLK)

  13. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  14. A Natural Language Graphics System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David, C.; Kwasny, Stan C.

    This report describes an experimental system for drawing simple pictures on a computer graphics terminal using natural language input. The system is capable of drawing lines, points, and circles on command from the user, as well as answering questions about system capabilities and objects on the screen. Erasures are permitted and language input…

  15. Design Language for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is convenient hardware description language for developing and testing digital designs and for inputting design details into design automation system. Describes digital systems at gate, register transfer, and combinational block levels. DDL-based programs written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  16. Robust language-independent OCR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhidong A.; Bazzi, Issam; Kornai, Andras; Makhoul, John; Natarajan, Premkumar S.; Schwartz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    We present a language-independent optical character recognition system that is capable, in principle, of recognizing printed text from most of the world's languages. For each new language or script the system requires sample training data along with ground truth at the text-line level; there is no need to specify the location of either the lines or the words and characters. The system uses hidden Markov modeling technology to model each character. In addition to language independence, the technology enhances performance for degraded data, such as fax, by using unsupervised adaptation techniques. Thus far, we have demonstrated the language-independence of this approach for Arabic, English, and Chinese. Recognition results are presented in this paper, including results on faxed data.

  17. SAINT: A combined simulation language for modeling man-machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    SAINT (Systems Analysis of Integrated Networks of Tasks) is a network modeling and simulation technique for design and analysis of complex man machine systems. SAINT provides the conceptual framework for representing systems that consist of discrete task elements, continuous state variables, and interactions between them. It also provides a mechanism for combining human performance models and dynamic system behaviors in a single modeling structure. The SAINT technique is described and applications of the SAINT are discussed.

  18. Interactive Language Simulation Systems: Technology for a National Language Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, A. Allen

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center to make interactive video an integral part of foreign language instruction. Interactive video is seen as a method which could profoundly alter the old classroom model of language instruction. (Author/SED)

  19. Natural language modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  20. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  1. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  2. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  3. A graphical language for reliability model generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Sandra V.; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Haley, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    A graphical interface capability of the hybrid automated reliability predictor (HARP) is described. The graphics-oriented (GO) module provides the user with a graphical language for modeling system failure modes through the selection of various fault tree gates, including sequence dependency gates, or by a Markov chain. With this graphical input language, a fault tree becomes a convenient notation for describing a system. In accounting for any sequence dependencies, HARP converts the fault-tree notation to a complex stochastic process that is reduced to a Markov chain which it can then solve for system reliability. The graphics capability is available for use on an IBM-compatible PC, a Sun, and a VAX workstation. The GO module is written in the C programming language and uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) standard for graphics implementation. The PC, VAX, and Sun versions of the HARP GO module are currently in beta-testing.

  4. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  5. Enhancement of Integrated Power System Analysis Package Capability by Integration of Object-Oriented Physical System Modeling Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongesombut, Komsan; Takazawa, Tsuyoshi; Tada, Yasuyuki; Mitani, Yasunori

    There are many commercial power system analysis packages available on the market. Although most of these tools are typically computationally efficient, they do not provide the flexibility and ability to simulate generic models of generators or networks. This is cumbersome for research and development purposes. The development of power system models of appropriate fidelity is a key aspect of power system simulation processes. The models must allow all relevant multi-disciplinary modeling criteria, e.g. model structure and data handling, to be computed efficiently, easily, and with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents how the adoption of recent technology on object-oriented physical systems modeling can be implemented with an integrated power system analysis package MidFielder. Used in combination with MidFielder, this can provide the completeness of power system analysis package for industrial, educational and research purposes. In order to realize the proposed interface system, this paper also discusses about methods to manage a large set of power system data by using database technology and means of graphical user interface (GUI).

  6. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  7. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  8. Linguistics: Modelling the dynamics of language death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2003-08-01

    Thousands of the world's languages are vanishing at an alarming rate, with 90% of them being expected to disappear with the current generation. Here we develop a simple model of language competition that explains historical data on the decline of Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Quechua (the most common surviving indigenous language in the Americas) and other endangered languages. A linguistic parameter that quantifies the threat of language extinction can be derived from the model and may be useful in the design and evaluation of language-preservation programmes.

  9. A Language Variation Model for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Harold E.; Burgess, Carol

    This paper focuses on a language variation model that incorporates a number of concepts from linguistic and rhetorical studies. The model views language variation as a product of two correlating causes: one, the user and his or her personal, regional, and social dialect; and the other, the user's use of the language in terms of such discourse…

  10. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  11. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    PubMed

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach. PMID:26528568

  12. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  13. Real-Time Multispectral Imaging System for Online Poultry Fecal Inspection using Unified Modeling Language.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prototype real-time multispectral imaging system for fecal detection on broiler carcasses has been developed. The prototype system included a common aperture camera with three optical trim filters (517, 565 and 802-nm wavelength), which were selected by visible/NIR spectroscopy and validated by a...

  14. The PLATO System and Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Robert S., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This issue presents an overview of research in computer-based language instruction using the PLATO IV computer system. The following articles are presented: (1) "Language Study and the PLATO system," by R. Hart; (2) "Reflections on the Use of Computers in Second-Language Acquisition," by F. Marty; (3) "Computer-Based Instruction in Elementary…

  15. A study of systems implementation languages for the POCCNET system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Franklin, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of systems implementation languages for the Payload Operations Control Center Network (POCCNET). Criteria are developed for evaluating the languages, and fifteen existing languages are evaluated on the basis of these criteria.

  16. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  17. Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Menghan

    2014-06-01

    We survey recent computer modelling research of language evolution, focusing on a rule-based model simulating the lexicon-syntax coevolution and an equation-based model quantifying the language competition dynamics. We discuss four predictions of these models: (a) correlation between domain-general abilities (e.g. sequential learning) and language-specific mechanisms (e.g. word order processing); (b) coevolution of language and relevant competences (e.g. joint attention); (c) effects of cultural transmission and social structure on linguistic understandability; and (d) commonalities between linguistic, biological, and physical phenomena. All these contribute significantly to our understanding of the evolutions of language structures, individual learning mechanisms, and relevant biological and socio-cultural factors. We conclude the survey by highlighting three future directions of modelling studies of language evolution: (a) adopting experimental approaches for model evaluation; (b) consolidating empirical foundations of models; and (c) multi-disciplinary collaboration among modelling, linguistics, and other relevant disciplines. PMID:24286718

  18. Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Menghan

    2014-06-01

    We survey recent computer modelling research of language evolution, focusing on a rule-based model simulating the lexicon-syntax coevolution and an equation-based model quantifying the language competition dynamics. We discuss four predictions of these models: (a) correlation between domain-general abilities (e.g. sequential learning) and language-specific mechanisms (e.g. word order processing); (b) coevolution of language and relevant competences (e.g. joint attention); (c) effects of cultural transmission and social structure on linguistic understandability; and (d) commonalities between linguistic, biological, and physical phenomena. All these contribute significantly to our understanding of the evolutions of language structures, individual learning mechanisms, and relevant biological and socio-cultural factors. We conclude the survey by highlighting three future directions of modelling studies of language evolution: (a) adopting experimental approaches for model evaluation; (b) consolidating empirical foundations of models; and (c) multi-disciplinary collaboration among modelling, linguistics, and other relevant disciplines.

  19. Language system organization in a quadrilingual with a brain tumor: Implications for understanding of the language network.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Benjamin, Christopher F A; Japardi, Kevin; Frew, Andrew; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2016-06-01

    In pre-neurosurgery language mapping it is critical to identify language-specific regions in multilingual speakers. We conducted pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative language mapping in the unique case of a highly proficient quadrilingual with a left frontal brain tumor who acquired her second language at age 5, and her third and fourth languages at 15. We found a predominantly different organization in each language with only a few areas shared by all 4 languages. Contrary to existing evidence, impairment across languages was not related to age of acquisition, amount of exposure, or language similarity. This case suggests that the functional structure of the language system may be highly idiosyncratic in multilingual individuals and supports detailed study in this group to inform neurocognitive models of language. PMID:27143224

  20. An abstract specification language for Markov reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Markov models can be used to compute the reliability of virtually any fault tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in a model of complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. An approach to this problem is presented utilizing an abstract model definition language. This high level language is described in a nonformal manner and illustrated by example.

  1. A Model for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Instruction (MICALI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghaly, Ali

    1989-01-01

    States that Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI) software should be developed as an interactive natural language processing system. Describes artificial intelligence and proposes a model for intelligent CALI software (MICALI). Discusses MICALI's potential and current limitations due to the present state of the art. (Author/LS)

  2. SysML: A Language for Space System Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, S.; Strangapede, A.

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an ESA/ESTEC internal study, performed with the support of INTECS, about modeling languages to support Space System Engineering activities and processes, with special emphasis on system requirements identification and analysis. The study was focused on the assessment of dedicated UML profiles, their positioning alongside the system and software life cycles and associated methodologies. Requirements for a Space System Requirements Language were identified considering the ECSS-E-10 and ECSS-E_40 processes. The study has identified SysML as a very promising language, having as theoretical background the reference system processes defined by the ISO15288, as well as industrial practices.

  3. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain–computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  4. Attacks on lexical natural language steganography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskiran, Cuneyt M.; Topkara, Umut; Topkara, Mercan; Delp, Edward J.

    2006-02-01

    Text data forms the largest bulk of digital data that people encounter and exchange daily. For this reason the potential usage of text data as a covert channel for secret communication is an imminent concern. Even though information hiding into natural language text has started to attract great interest, there has been no study on attacks against these applications. In this paper we examine the robustness of lexical steganography systems.In this paper we used a universal steganalysis method based on language models and support vector machines to differentiate sentences modified by a lexical steganography algorithm from unmodified sentences. The experimental accuracy of our method on classification of steganographically modified sentences was 84.9%. On classification of isolated sentences we obtained a high recall rate whereas the precision was low.

  5. Adaptive Modeling Language and Its Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chemaly, Adel

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) is the underlying language of an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, knowledge-based engineering framework. AML offers an advanced modeling paradigm with an open architecture, enabling the automation of the entire product development cycle, integrating product configuration, design, analysis, visualization, production planning, inspection, and cost estimation.

  6. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    SciTech Connect

    VERSPOOR, KARIN; LIN, SHOU-DE

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  7. C Language Integrated Production System, Ada Version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.; Melebeck, Clovis J.; White, Wesley A.; Mcgregor, Terry L.; Ferguson, Melisa; Razavipour, Reza

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS/Ada provides capabilities of CLIPS v4.3 but uses Ada as source language for CLIPS executable code. Implements forward-chaining rule-based language. Program contains inference engine and language syntax providing framework for construction of expert-system program. Also includes features for debugging application program. Based on Rete algorithm which provides efficient method for performing repeated matching of patterns. Written in Ada.

  8. Natural language modeling for phoneme-to-text transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Derouault, A.M.; Merialdo, B.

    1986-11-01

    This paper relates different kinds of language modeling methods that can be applied to the linguistic decoding part of a speech recognition system with a very large vocabulary. These models are studied experimentally on a pseudophonetic input arising from French stenotypy. The authors propose a model which combines the advantages of a statistical modeling with information theoretic tools, and those of a grammatical approach.

  9. Modeling language evolution: Aromanian, an endangered language in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Galani, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Time evolution of the relative density of speakers of an endangered language, Aromanian, which is spoken by a bilingual community in North-Western Greece, is approached theoretically by means of a two-state model and a three-state model. The same prestige and volatility parameters are used in these two models. Furthermore, a culture parameter and a second exponent are introduced in the three-state model. The parameters of each model are fitted to the current status of Aromanian, on the basis of field evidence collected by us, and the first findings about the risk of the language’s extinction are presented.

  10. Language Model Applications to Spelling with Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Cortes, Anderson; Manyakov, Nikolay V.; Chumerin, Nikolay; Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) community, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have raised great hopes as they provide alternative communication means for persons with disabilities bypassing the need for speech and other motor activities. Although significant advancements have been realized in the last decade, applications of language models (e.g., word prediction, completion) have only recently started to appear in BCI systems. The main goal of this article is to review the language model applications that supplement non-invasive BCI-based communication systems by discussing their potential and limitations, and to discern future trends. First, a brief overview of the most prominent BCI spelling systems is given, followed by an in-depth discussion of the language models applied to them. These language models are classified according to their functionality in the context of BCI-based spelling: the static/dynamic nature of the user interface, the use of error correction and predictive spelling, and the potential to improve their classification performance by using language models. To conclude, the review offers an overview of the advantages and challenges when implementing language models in BCI-based communication systems when implemented in conjunction with other AAL technologies. PMID:24675760

  11. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  12. The Motor System Contributes to Comprehension of Abstract Language

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Connie Qun; Meng, Wanjin; Yao, Ru; Glenberg, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    If language comprehension requires a sensorimotor simulation, how can abstract language be comprehended? We show that preparation to respond in an upward or downward direction affects comprehension of the abstract quantifiers “more and more” and “less and less” as indexed by an N400-like component. Conversely, the semantic content of the sentence affects the motor potential measured immediately before the upward or downward action is initiated. We propose that this bidirectional link between motor system and language arises because the motor system implements forward models that predict the sensory consequences of actions. Because the same movement (e.g., raising the arm) can have multiple forward models for different contexts, the models can make different predictions depending on whether the arm is raised, for example, to place an object or raised as a threat. Thus, different linguistic contexts invoke different forward models, and the predictions constitute different understandings of the language. PMID:24086463

  13. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  14. Language Teacher Cognitions: Complex Dynamic Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Language teacher cognition research is a growing field. In recent years several features of language teacher cognitions have been noted: they can be complex, ranging over a number of different subjects; they can be dynamic, changing over time and under different influences; and they can be systems, forming unified and cohesive personal or…

  15. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  16. A Specialized Language System in Working Memory: Evidence from American Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losiewicz, Beth L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether users of a visual spatial language, American Sign Language, also have a separate working memory subsystem for their visual spatial language, or whether their language working memory is part of their general visual-spatial memory. Results suggest prelingually deaf signers of ASL have a sign language working memory system that…

  17. Aspects of a Natural Language Based Artificial Intelligence System Report Number Seven: Language and the Structure of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, George A.

    ARIS is an artificial intelligence system which uses the English language to learn, understand, and communicate. The system attempts to simulate the psychoneurological processes which enable man to communicate verbally. It uses a modified stratificational grammar model and is being programed in PL/1 (a programing language) for an IBM 360/67…

  18. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function. PMID:26696234

  19. Extending the Compensatory Model of Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…

  20. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  1. Modeling the emergence of contact languages.

    PubMed

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D P; Mufwene, Salikoko S; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena. PMID:25875371

  2. Modeling the Emergence of Contact Languages

    PubMed Central

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D.P.; Mufwene, Salikoko S.; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena. PMID:25875371

  3. One Country, Two Systems, Three Languages: A Survey of Changing Language Use in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.; Kelly-Holmes, Helen, Ed.

    The book presents the following papers and transcriptions of debates: "One Country, Two Systems, Three Languages" (Sue Wright); "The Background to Language Change in Hong Kong" (Godfrey Harrison, Lydia K. H. So); "Aspects of the Two Languages System and Three Language Problem in the Changing Society of Hong Kong" (Benjamin K. Tsou); "The…

  4. Language Beliefs and the Polynomic Model for Corsican

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As part of the attempts to revitalise Corsican, a regional language of France, and to reverse the language shift to French, language activists and academics have sought to apply the model of a polynomic language to what is considered as one language, but what is, in fact, a number of different Corsicans, each with varying levels of mutual…

  5. A neurocognitive perspective on language: the declarative/procedural model.

    PubMed

    Ullman, M T

    2001-10-01

    What are the psychological, computational and neural underpinnings of language? Are these neurocognitive correlates dedicated to language? Do different parts of language depend on distinct neurocognitive systems? Here I address these and other issues that are crucial for our understanding of two fundamental language capacities: the memorization of words in the mental lexicon, and the rule-governed combination of words by the mental grammar. According to the declarative/procedural model, the mental lexicon depends on declarative memory and is rooted in the temporal lobe, whereas the mental grammar involves procedural memory and is rooted in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. I argue that the declarative/procedural model provides a new framework for the study of lexicon and grammar. PMID:11584309

  6. DDL:Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shival, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware description languages are valuable tools in such applications as hardware design, system documentation, and logic design training. DDL is convenient medium for inputting design details into hardware-design automation system. It is suitable for describing digital systems at gate, register transfer, and major combinational block level.

  7. Melody Track Selection Using Discriminative Language Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao; Li, Ming; Suo, Hongbin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this letter we focus on the task of selecting the melody track from a polyphonic MIDI file. Based on the intuition that music and language are similar in many aspects, we solve the selection problem by introducing an n-gram language model to learn the melody co-occurrence patterns in a statistical manner and determine the melodic degree of a given MIDI track. Furthermore, we propose the idea of using background model and posterior probability criteria to make modeling more discriminative. In the evaluation, the achieved 81.6% correct rate indicates the feasibility of our approach.

  8. A Model for Perception and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dones, Jose Enrique

    The model in this study illustrates a theory of the language user's performance based on an analysis of the fundamental speech episode, the dialogue. The model presents an outline of conditions for the description of strategic aspects of communication within a dynamic framework, which are dependent on the orientation of the communicator toward a…

  9. A High-Level Language for Rule-Based Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  10. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  11. Modeling Socioeconomic Status Effects on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…

  12. Properties of language networks and language systems. Comment on "Approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan

    2014-12-01

    Language is generally considered a defining feature of human beings, a key medium for interpersonal communication, a fundamental tool for human thinking and an important vehicle for culture transmission. For the anthropoids to evolve into human being, the emergence of linguistic system is a vital step. Then, how can language serve functions so complicated and so important? To answer this question, it is necessary to probe into a central topic in linguistics: the structure of language, which has been inevitably involved in various fields of linguistic research-the functions of languages, the evolution of languages, the typology of languages, etc.

  13. Implementing the PM Programming Language using MPI and OpenMP - a New Tool for Programming Geophysical Models on Parallel Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2015-04-01

    PM (Parallel Models) is a new parallel programming language specifically designed for writing environmental and geophysical models. The language is intended to enable implementers to concentrate on the science behind the model rather than the details of running on parallel hardware. At the same time PM leaves the programmer in control - all parallelisation is explicit and the parallel structure of any given program may be deduced directly from the code. This paper describes a PM implementation based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) standards, looking at issues involved with translating the PM parallelisation model to MPI/OpenMP protocols and considering performance in terms of the competing factors of finer-grained parallelisation and increased communication overhead. In order to maximise portability, the implementation stays within the MPI 1.3 standard as much as possible, with MPI-2 MPI-IO file handling the only significant exception. Moreover, it does not assume a thread-safe implementation of MPI. PM adopts a two-tier abstract representation of parallel hardware. A PM processor is a conceptual unit capable of efficiently executing a set of language tasks, with a complete parallel system consisting of an abstract N-dimensional array of such processors. PM processors may map to single cores executing tasks using cooperative multi-tasking, to multiple cores or even to separate processing nodes, efficiently sharing tasks using algorithms such as work stealing. While tasks may move between hardware elements within a PM processor, they may not move between processors without specific programmer intervention. Tasks are assigned to processors using a nested parallelism approach, building on ideas from Reyes et al. (2009). The main program owns all available processors. When the program enters a parallel statement then either processors are divided out among the newly generated tasks (number of new tasks < number of processors

  14. Network simulation using the simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, S.; Morris, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    The simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2) is a general purpose language that combines network, discrete event, and continuous modeling capabilities in a single language system. The efficacy of the system's network modeling is examined and discussed. Examples are given of the symbolism that is used, and an example problem and model are derived. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of programming, special features, and system limitations. The system offers many features which allow rapid model development and provides an informative standardized output. The system also has limitations which may cause undetected errors and misleading reports unless the user is aware of these programming characteristics.

  15. Language Networks as Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Max Kueiming; Ou, Sheue-Jen

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the late eighties, with a growing discontent with analytical methods in science and the growing power of computers, researchers began to study complex systems such as living organisms, evolution of genes, biological systems, brain neural networks, epidemics, ecology, economy, social networks, etc. In the early nineties, the research…

  16. A model of the mechanisms of language extinction and revitalization strategies to save endangered languages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Valijärvi, Riitta-Liisa; Goldstein, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Why and how have languages died out? We have devised a mathematical model to help us understand how languages go extinct. We use the model to ask whether language extinction can be prevented in the future and why it may have occurred in the past. A growing number of mathematical models of language dynamics have been developed to study the conditions for language coexistence and death, yet their phenomenological approach compromises their ability to influence language revitalization policy. In contrast, here we model the mechanisms underlying language competition and look at how these mechanisms are influenced by specific language revitalization interventions, namely, private interventions to raise the status of the language and thus promote language learning at home, public interventions to increase the use of the minority language, and explicit teaching of the minority language in schools. Our model reveals that it is possible to preserve a minority language but that continued long-term interventions will likely be necessary. We identify the parameters that determine which interventions work best under certain linguistic and societal circumstances. In this way the efficacy of interventions of various types can be identified and predicted. Although there are qualitative arguments for these parameter values (e.g., the responsiveness of children to learning a language as a function of the proportion of conversations heard in that language, the relative importance of conversations heard in the family and elsewhere, and the amplification of spoken to heard conversations of the high-status language because of the media), extensive quantitative data are lacking in this field. We propose a way to measure these parameters, allowing our model, as well as others models in the field, to be validated. PMID:20504171

  17. Terminological Creation and Language Shift in Malaysia's Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Terminology is a central theme of debate about language shift in Malaysia's judicial system--sometimes seen as the last bastion of the colonial language. Advocates of more Malay in courtroom argument and professional practice often point to the Institute of Language and Literature's creation of thousands of terms to equip the national language for…

  18. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh Bebe; Ortiz, Chris

    1995-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) computer programs are specifically intended to model human expertise or other knowledge. CLIPS is designed to enable research on, and development and delivery of, artificial intelligence on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming: representation of knowledge as heuristics - essentially, rules of thumb that specify set of actions performed in given situation. Object-oriented programming: modeling of complex systems comprised of modular components easily reused to model other systems or create new components. Procedural-programming: representation of knowledge in ways similar to those of such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC-compatible computers requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later.

  19. LCS: a natural language comprehension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigano, Philippe; Talon, Benedicte; Baltazart, Didier; Demko, Christophe; Newstead, Emma

    1991-03-01

    LCS (Language Comprehension System) is a software package designed to improve man-machine communication with computer programs. Different simple structures and functions are available to build man-machine interfaces in natural language. A user may write a sentence in good English or in telegraphical style. The system used pattern matching techniques to detect misspelled words (or badly typed words) and to correct them. Several methods of analysis are available at any level (lexical, syntactic, semantic...). A special knowledge acquisition system is used to introduce new works by giving a description in natural language. A semantic network is extended to a representation close to a connexionist graph, for a better understanding of polysemic words and ambiguities. An application is currently used for a man-machine interface of an expert system in computer-aided education, for a better dialogue with the user during the explanation of reasoning phase. The object of this paper is to present the LCS system, especially at the lexical level, the knowledge representation and acquisition level, and the semantic level (for pronoun references and ambiguity).

  20. Spoken Language Processing Model: Bridging Auditory and Language Processing to Guide Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwetsky, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article outlines the author's conceptualization of the key mechanisms that are engaged in the processing of spoken language, referred to as the spoken language processing model. The act of processing what is heard is very complex and involves the successful intertwining of auditory, cognitive, and language mechanisms. Spoken language…

  1. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender,…

  2. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton SignWriting, are described. PMID:22477294

  3. Scaling laws and model of words organization in spoken and written language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Chunhua; Lin, Ruokuang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of complex physical and biological systems exhibits scaling laws. The human language is a complex system of words organization. Studies of written texts have revealed intriguing scaling laws that characterize the frequency of words occurrence, rank of words, and growth in the number of distinct words with text length. While studies have predominantly focused on the language system in its written form, such as books, little attention is given to the structure of spoken language. Here we investigate a database of spoken language transcripts and written texts, and we uncover that words organization in both spoken language and written texts exhibits scaling laws, although with different crossover regimes and scaling exponents. We propose a model that provides insight into words organization in spoken language and written texts, and successfully accounts for all scaling laws empirically observed in both language forms.

  4. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  5. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  6. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  7. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  8. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  9. An overview of the Opus language and runtime system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Haines, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    We have recently introduced a new language, called Opus, which provides a set of Fortran language extensions that allow for integrated support of task and data parallelism. lt also provides shared data abstractions (SDA's) as a method for communication and synchronization among these tasks. In this paper, we first provide a brief description of the language features and then focus on both the language-dependent and language-independent parts of the runtime system that support the language. The language-independent portion of the runtime system supports lightweight threads across multiple address spaces, and is built upon existing lightweight thread and communication systems. The language-dependent portion of the runtime system supports conditional invocation of SDA methods and distributed SDA argument handling.

  10. Authentic Language Opportunities: An Alternative Dual Language Model (ADLM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winstead, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses an important topic--the isolation and or lack of inclusion of immigrant children in U.S. schools. Immigrant children constantly pour into U.S. schools and, especially as newcomers, their opportunities for authentic interaction with mainstream peers are limited. How can schools provide authentic language opportunities for…

  11. One Language, Two Number-Word Systems and Many Problems: Numerical Cognition in the Czech Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pixner, S.; Zuber, J.; Hermanova, V.; Kaufmann, L.; Nuerk, H.-C.; Moeller, K.

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within…

  12. Bilingual Parents' Modeling of Pragmatic Language Use in Multiparty Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the…

  13. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  14. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  15. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  16. A human mirror neuron system for language: Perspectives from signed languages of the deaf.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 105-167; Arbib M.A. (2008). From grasp to language: Embodied concepts and the challenge of abstraction. Journal de Physiologie Paris 102, 4-20]. Signed languages of the deaf are fully-expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. We suggest that if a unitary mirror neuron system mediates the observation and production of both language and non-linguistic action, three prediction can be made: (1) damage to the human mirror neuron system should non-selectively disrupt both sign language and non-linguistic action processing; (2) within the domain of sign language, a given mirror neuron locus should mediate both perception and production; and (3) the action-based tuning curves of individual mirror neurons should support the highly circumscribed set of motions that form the "vocabulary of action" for signed languages. In this review we evaluate data from the sign language and mirror neuron literatures and find that these predictions are only partially upheld. PMID:19576628

  17. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  18. A Terminology Server for medical language and medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Rector, A L; Solomon, W D; Nowlan, W A; Rush, T W; Zanstra, P E; Claassen, W M

    1995-03-01

    GALEN is developing a Terminology Server to support the development and integration of clinical systems through a range of key terminological services, built around a language-independent, re-usable, shared system of concepts--the CORE model. The focus is on supporting applications for medical records, clinical user interfaces and clinical information systems, but also includes systems for natural language understanding, clinical decision support, management of coding and classification schemes, and bibliographic retrieval. The Terminology Server integrates three modules: the Concept Module which implements the GRAIL formalism and manages the internal representation of concept entities, the Multilingual Module which manages the mapping of concept entities to natural language, and the Code Conversion Module which manages the mapping of concept entities to and from existing coding and classification schemes. The Terminology Server also provides external referencing to concept entities, coercion between data types, and makes its services available through a uniform applications programming interface. Taken together these services represent a new approach to the development of clinical systems and the sharing of medical knowledge. PMID:9082124

  19. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  20. Multicriteria framework for selecting a process modelling language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanavachi Moreira Campos, Ana Carolina; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2016-01-01

    The choice of process modelling language can affect business process management (BPM) since each modelling language shows different features of a given process and may limit the ways in which a process can be described and analysed. However, choosing the appropriate modelling language for process modelling has become a difficult task because of the availability of a large number modelling languages and also due to the lack of guidelines on evaluating, and comparing languages so as to assist in selecting the most appropriate one. This paper proposes a framework for selecting a modelling language in accordance with the purposes of modelling. This framework is based on the semiotic quality framework (SEQUAL) for evaluating process modelling languages and a multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach in order to select the most appropriate language for BPM. This study does not attempt to set out new forms of assessment and evaluation criteria, but does attempt to demonstrate how two existing approaches can be combined so as to solve the problem of selection of modelling language. The framework is described in this paper and then demonstrated by means of an example. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using SEQUAL and MCDA in an integrated manner are discussed.

  1. Interaction between lexical and grammatical language systems in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2012-06-01

    This review concentrates on two different language dimensions: lexical/semantic and grammatical. This distinction between a lexical/semantic system and a grammatical system is well known in linguistics, but in cognitive neurosciences it has been obscured by the assumption that there are several forms of language disturbances associated with focal brain damage and hence language includes a diversity of functions (phoneme discrimination, lexical memory, grammar, repetition, language initiation ability, etc.), each one associated with the activity of a specific brain area. The clinical observation of patients with cerebral pathology shows that there are indeed only two different forms of language disturbances (disturbances in the lexical/semantic system and disturbances in the grammatical system); these two language dimensions are supported by different brain areas (temporal and frontal) in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, these two aspects of the language are developed at different ages during child's language acquisition, and they probably appeared at different historical moments during human evolution. Mechanisms of learning are different for both language systems: whereas the lexical/semantic knowledge is based in a declarative memory, grammatical knowledge corresponds to a procedural type of memory. Recognizing these two language dimensions can be crucial in understanding language evolution and human cognition.

  2. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML): Language Specification for Level 3 Version 1 Core.

    PubMed

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 1 of SBML Level 3 Core. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528564

  3. CLIPS: The C language integrated production system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are computer programs which emulate human expertise in well defined problem domains. The potential payoff from expert systems is high: valuable expertise can be captured and preserved, repetitive and/or mundane tasks requiring human expertise can be automated, and uniformity can be applied in decision making processes. The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) is an expert system building tool, developed at the Johnson Space Center, which provides a complete environment for the development and delivery of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS was specifically designed to provide a low cost option for developing and deploying expert system applications across a wide range of hardware platforms. The commercial potential of CLIPS is vast. Currently, CLIPS is being used by over 5,000 individuals throughout the public and private sector. Because the CLIPS source code is readily available, numerous groups have used CLIPS as the basis for their own expert system tools. To date, three commercially available tools have been derived from CLIPS. In general, the development of CLIPS has helped to improve the ability to deliver expert system technology throughout the public and private sectors for a wide range of applications and diverse computing environments.

  4. Bilingual parents’ modeling of pragmatic language use in multiparty interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Parental input represents an important source of language socialization. Particularly in bilingual contexts, parents may model pragmatic language use and metalinguistic strategies to highlight language differences. The present study examines multiparty interactions involving 28 bilingual English- and Marathi-speaking parent-child pairs in the presence of monolingual bystanders (children’s mean ages: 3;2 and 4;6). Their language use was analyzed during three sessions: parent and child alone, parent and child with the English speaker, and parent and child with the Marathi speaker. Parents demonstrated pragmatic differentiation by using relatively more of the bystander’s language; however, children did not show this sensitivity. Further, parents used a variety of strategies to discuss language differences, such as providing and requesting translations; children translated most often in response to explicit requests. The results indicate that parents model pragmatic language differentiation as well as metalinguistic talk that may contribute to children’s metalinguistic awareness. PMID:24086092

  5. [Common German language nomenclature for systemic sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Aringer, M; Müller-Ladner, U; Burkhardt, H; Distler, J H W; Distler, O; Graninger, W B; Günther, C; Hunzelmann, N; Kiener, H; Sticherling, M; Sunderkötter, C; Walker, U A; Riemekasten, G

    2015-03-01

    Large data bases and the projects arising from them have led to a much improved understanding of systemic sclerosis over the last decade. Serology has developed further so that more autoantibodies are available for routine testing. Capillary microscopy has become standard and relevant progress has also been made in therapy. Many diagnostic terms found in medical documentation do not adequately reflect this progress. The nomenclature is inconsistent and, therefore, confusing. The international classification of diseases (ICD) nomenclature is, from our point of view, also in need of improvement. This article aims to reestablish a common German language standard for systemic sclerosis, which reflects current knowledge and is suitable for implementation in the clinical routine. PMID:25805510

  6. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  7. Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences. PMID:23544858

  8. Aspen: A Domain Specific Language for Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Kyle L; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to analytical performance modeling using Aspen, a domain specific language. Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) fills an important gap in existing performance modeling techniques and is designed to enable rapid exploration of new algorithms and architectures. It includes a formal specification of an application's performance behavior and an abstract machine model. We provide an overview of Aspen's features and demonstrate how it can be used to express a performance model for a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. We then demonstrate the composability and modularity of Aspen by importing and reusing the FFT model in a molecular dynamics model. We have also created a number of tools that allow scientists to balance application and system factors quickly and accurately.

  9. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 5.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh VU; Culbert, Chris; Savely, Robert T.; Mccoy, Daniel J.; Giarratano, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    CLIPS 5.1 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming provides representation of knowledge by use of heuristics. Object-oriented programming enables modeling of complex systems as modular components. Procedural programming enables CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Working with CLIPS 5.1, one can develop expert-system software by use of rule-based programming only, object-oriented programming only, procedural programming only, or combinations of the three.

  10. Modeling limit languages via limit adjacency matrix and Yusof-Goode approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li, Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    Limit language was introduced by Goode and Pixton in 2004 under the framework of formal language theory. It is a subset of splicing languages which is restricted to the molecules that will be presented in the splicing system after the reaction of biochemical has run to its completion. In this paper, limit adjacency matrix will be introduced to model the existence of limit languages from splicing languages. Besides, it can be used to characterize the splicing language in terms of active persistent, adult/inert and transient properties based on Yusof-Goode splicing system. In this paper, some examples and theorems that have been formulated via limit adjacency matrix approach will be presented too.

  11. How a Language Gender System Creeps into Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of language gender systems on perception. Spanish-speaking (with a gender system) and English-speaking (with a limited gender system) participants from three age groups assigned typical male or female names and attributes to objects. Language gender tags influenced Spanish adults' and early adolescents' choice of gender…

  12. [Use of the ACSL simulation language for physiologic toxicokinetic models].

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, P; Jałowiecki, P

    2000-01-01

    For the description of the processes of absorption, excretion or elimination of chemicals, the open one- or two-compartment models have been used thus far. The latter consist mainly of the fast (central) and slow (peripheral) compartments. The toxicological studies were based on an assumption that the organic processes develop according to is the first order kinetic reaction. However, the absorption, elimination or excretion of toxic chemicals are in fact much more complicated processes that should be explained using, e.g. the physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models, covering physiological, biochemical and metabolic parameters, as well as the allometric calibration of selected parameters for interspecies extrapolations, and in vitro/in vivo extrapolations of metabolic parameters. Simulation languages, e.g. ACSL (Advanced Continuous Simulation Language) are indispensable application tools to be operated with PBTK models. They have been developed for modelling systems described by time-dependent non-linear differential equations and/or transfer functions. ACSL with its interfaces (ACSL Builder, ACSL Graphic Modeller, ACSL Math) ensures data input and communication inside the model by the control, transfer and computed parameters. The physiologically-based toxicokinetic models employ a large number of different parameters, which enables, e.g. forecasting the dose/effect or dose/response relationship absorption rate, metabolic pathways, excretion or elimination according to the absorbed dose of xenobiotic; evaluation of risk assessment; extrapolation from high to low doses characteristic of environmental exposure or setting biological exposure limits. PMID:11199174

  13. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  14. If Language Is a Complex Adaptive System, What Is Language Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Yin, Chengbin

    2009-01-01

    Individuals' use of language in contexts emerges from second-to-second processes of activating and integrating traces of past experiences--an interactionist view compatible with the study of language as a complex adaptive system but quite different from the trait-based framework through which measurement specialists investigate validity, establish…

  15. Reading Authentic Texts in a Foreign Language: A Cognitive Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaffar, Janet K.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests there is a need for a new teaching model which will enable second-language students to integrate the formal, cultural, and informational features of the language on which competency is based. This model should be based on the use of authentic texts which reflect the values of the foreign population. (SED)

  16. Null Objects in Second Language Acquisition: Grammatical vs. Performance Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Null direct objects provide a favourable testing ground for grammatical and performance models of argument omission. This article examines both types of models in order to determine which gives a more plausible account of the second language data. The data were collected from second language (L2) learners of Spanish by means of four oral…

  17. Foreign Language Methods and an Information Processing Model of Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willebrand, Julia

    The major approaches to language teaching (audiolingual method, generative grammar, Community Language Learning and Silent Way) are investigated to discover whether or not they are compatible in structure with an information-processing model of memory (IPM). The model of memory used was described by Roberta Klatzky in "Human Memory: Structures and…

  18. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka–Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data. PMID:23716678

  19. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-06-11

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data. PMID:23716678

  20. Syllable language models for Mandarin speech recognition: exploiting character language models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xunying; Hieronymus, James L; Gales, Mark J F; Woodland, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese is based on characters which are syllabic in nature and morphological in meaning. All spoken languages have syllabiotactic rules which govern the construction of syllables and their allowed sequences. These constraints are not as restrictive as those learned from word sequences, but they can provide additional useful linguistic information. Hence, it is possible to improve speech recognition performance by appropriately combining these two types of constraints. For the Chinese language considered in this paper, character level language models (LMs) can be used as a first level approximation to allowed syllable sequences. To test this idea, word and character level n-gram LMs were trained on 2.8 billion words (equivalent to 4.3 billion characters) of texts from a wide collection of text sources. Both hypothesis and model based combination techniques were investigated to combine word and character level LMs. Significant character error rate reductions up to 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art Mandarin Chinese broadcast audio recognition task using an adapted history dependent multi-level LM that performs a log-linearly combination of character and word level LMs. This supports the hypothesis that character or syllable sequence models are useful for improving Mandarin speech recognition performance. PMID:23297923

  1. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  2. Experience-Dependent Brain Development as a Key to Understanding the Language System.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Gert

    2016-04-01

    An influential view of the nature of the language system is that of an evolved biological system in which a set of rules is combined with a lexicon that contains the words of the language together with a representation of their context. Alternative views, usually based on connectionist modeling, attempt to explain the structure of language on the basis of complex associative processes. Here, I put forward a third view that stresses experience-dependent structural development of the brain circuits supporting language as a core principle of the organization of the language system. In this view, embodied in a recent neuroconstructivist neural network of past tense development and processing, initial domain-general predispositions enable the development of functionally specialized brain structures through interactions between experience-dependent brain development and statistical learning in a structured environment. Together, these processes shape a biological adult language system that appears to separate into distinct mechanism for processing rules and exceptions, whereas in reality those subsystems co-develop and interact closely. This view puts experience-dependent brain development in response to a specific language environment at the heart of understanding not only language development but adult language processing as well. PMID:26936770

  3. English as a Forgotten Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porte, Graeme

    1999-01-01

    Examined how living outside native-language environments, and subsequent language attrition, affected the language model provided by native speakers teaching English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) in Spain. Surveys indicated that the first language was a changeable system susceptible to the pervasive influence of the second language and to the…

  4. Standardized nursing language for healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Delaney, C; Mehmert, P A; Prophet, C; Bellinger, S L; Huber, D G; Ellerbe, S

    1992-08-01

    Since a substantial component of health care delivery is reflected in nursing's work, it is imperative that nursing expedites implementation of a standardized language that reflects nursing's work and ultimately allows outcome evaluation. This paper will summarize the state of development and related issues of standardized language in nursing, including: Nursing Minimum Data Set, Taxonomies of Nursing Diagnoses, Nursing Interventions, Outcomes, and the Nursing Management Minimum Data Set. The Nursing Minimum Data Set, including nursing care, patient or client demographic, and service elements, reflects a standardized collection of essential nursing data used by multiple data users in the health care delivery system across all types of settings. The nursing care elements include nursing diagnosis, nursing intervention, nursing outcome, and intensity of nursing care. Currently, more than 100 nursing diagnoses have been accepted for clinical testing by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) and have been incorporated into a taxonomy of nursing diagnoses that reflects patient responses to actual or potential health problems that nursing can address. A current formulation of a taxonomy of nursing interventions for the treatment of the nursing diagnoses yielded 336 nursing intervention labels organized at three or four levels of abstraction. Concomitant with these endeavors is the necessity for identifying outcomes associated with each diagnosis and its treatment. Concepts and a classification for indicators of these outcomes are being reviewed. Last, to address the contextual covariates of patient outcomes, a collection of core variables needed by nurse managers to make management decisions and compare nursing effectiveness across institutions and geographic regions is under development. In summary, standardized measures to determine cost effective, high quality, appropriate outcomes of nursing care delivered across settings and sites are being

  5. The Iterated Classification Game: A New Model of the Cultural Transmission of Language

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Samarth; Gasser, Les

    2010-01-01

    The Iterated Classification Game (ICG) combines the Classification Game with the Iterated Learning Model (ILM) to create a more realistic model of the cultural transmission of language through generations. It includes both learning from parents and learning from peers. Further, it eliminates some of the chief criticisms of the ILM: that it does not study grounded languages, that it does not include peer learning, and that it builds in a bias for compositional languages. We show that, over the span of a few generations, a stable linguistic system emerges that can be acquired very quickly by each generation, is compositional, and helps the agents to solve the classification problem with which they are faced. The ICG also leads to a different interpretation of the language acquisition process. It suggests that the role of parents is to initialize the linguistic system of the child in such a way that subsequent interaction with peers results in rapid convergence to the correct language. PMID:20190877

  6. A Prototype Greek Text to Greek Sign Language Conversion System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouremenos, Dimitris; Fotinea, Stavroula-Evita; Efthimiou, Eleni; Ntalianis, Klimis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a prototype Greek text to Greek Sign Language (GSL) conversion system is presented. The system is integrated into an educational platform that addresses the needs of teaching GSL grammar and was developed within the SYNENNOESE project (Efthimiou "et al." 2004a. Developing an e-learning platform for the Greek sign language. "In":…

  7. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H2 (15)O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of

  8. How sensory-motor systems impact the neural organization for language: direct contrasts between spoken and signed language

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of sensory-motor systems on the neural organization for language, we conducted an H215O-PET study of sign and spoken word production (picture-naming) and an fMRI study of sign and audio-visual spoken language comprehension (detection of a semantically anomalous sentence) with hearing bilinguals who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Directly contrasting speech and sign production revealed greater activation in bilateral parietal cortex for signing, while speaking resulted in greater activation in bilateral superior temporal cortex (STC) and right frontal cortex, likely reflecting auditory feedback control. Surprisingly, the language production contrast revealed a relative increase in activation in bilateral occipital cortex for speaking. We speculate that greater activation in visual cortex for speaking may actually reflect cortical attenuation when signing, which functions to distinguish self-produced from externally generated visual input. Directly contrasting speech and sign comprehension revealed greater activation in bilateral STC for speech and greater activation in bilateral occipital-temporal cortex for sign. Sign comprehension, like sign production, engaged bilateral parietal cortex to a greater extent than spoken language. We hypothesize that posterior parietal activation in part reflects processing related to spatial classifier constructions in ASL and that anterior parietal activation may reflect covert imitation that functions as a predictive model during sign comprehension. The conjunction analysis for comprehension revealed that both speech and sign bilaterally engaged the inferior frontal gyrus (with more extensive activation on the left) and the superior temporal sulcus, suggesting an invariant bilateral perisylvian language system. We conclude that surface level differences between sign and spoken languages should not be dismissed and are critical for understanding the neurobiology of language

  9. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  10. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  11. Usable, real-time, interactive spoken language systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhoul, J.; Bates, M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this project was to make the next significant advance in human-machine interaction by developing a spoken language system (SLS) that operates in real-time while maintaining high accuracy on cost-effective COTS (commercial, off-the-shelf) hardware. The system has a highly interactive user interface, is largely user independent and to be easily portable to new applications. The BBN HARC spoken language system consists of Byblos speech recognition system and the Delphi or HUM language understanding system.

  12. Towards Measurable Types for Dynamical Process Modeling Languages

    PubMed Central

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as “Dynamical Grammars” are highly expressive in the processes they model using stochastic and deterministic dynamical systems, and can be given formal semantics in terms of an operator algebra. However such process languages may be more limited in the types of objects whose dynamics is easily expressible. For many applications in biology, the dynamics of spatial objects in particular (including combinations of discrete and continuous spatial structures) should be formalizable at a high level of abstraction. We suggest that this may be achieved by formalizing such objects within a type system endowed with type constructors suitable for complex dynamical objects. To this end we review and illustrate the operator algebraic formulation of heterogeneous process modeling and semantics, extending it to encompass partial differential equations and intrinsic graph grammar dynamics. We show that in the operator approach to heterogeneous dynamics, types require integration measures. From this starting point, “measurable” object types can be enriched with generalized metrics under which approximation can be defined. The resulting measurable and “metricated” types can be built up systematically by type constructors such as vectors, products, and labelled graphs. We find conditions under which functions and quotients can be added as constructors of measurable and metricated types. PMID:21572536

  13. Systems Development in Adult Language Learning: A European Unit/Credit System for Modern Language Learning by Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    The study prepares the ground for the introduction of a language learning system for adults. Part 1 presents a draft outline of such a system, in which the language material to be learned is organized into units and credits awarded on the completion of each unit. The content is defined with reference to the nature of the learners and their…

  14. Language Arts Curriculum Framework: Sample Curriculum Model, Grade 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Language Arts Framework, this sample curriculum model for grade one language arts is divided into sections focusing on writing; listening, speaking, and viewing; and reading. Each section lists standards; benchmarks; assessments; and strategies/activities. The reading section itself is divided into print awareness;…

  15. Language Arts Curriculum Framework: Sample Curriculum Model, Grade K.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Language Arts Framework, this sample curriculum model for kindergarten language arts is divided into sections focusing on writing; listening, speaking, and viewing; and reading. Each section lists standards; benchmarks; assessments; and strategies/activities. The reading section itself is divided into print…

  16. Guiding Principles for Language Assessment Reform: A Model for Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Brent A.; Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, practitioners interested in language test reform have focused on the qualities within an examination which result in either positive or negative impacts on participants, institutions, and society. Recent views suggest a multifaceted interaction among factors affecting language test reform. We introduce a model for test reform that…

  17. Modeling Educational Content: The Cognitive Approach of the PALO Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Artacho, Miguel; Verdejo Maillo, M. Felisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a reference framework to describe educational material. It introduces the PALO Language as a cognitive based approach to Educational Modeling Languages (EML). In accordance with recent trends for reusability and interoperability in Learning Technologies, EML constitutes an evolution of the current content-centered…

  18. The Illinois State Interdisciplinary Model for Teaching Languages for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Carson H., Jr.; Whitcomb, Richard O.

    This model combines in a team-taught course the study of business and a foreign language. The objective is to give business students a foreign language experience in a relatively brief time and also to offer them a business-oriented introduction to a culture other than their own. Students in business courses are preparing for a career in…

  19. A Diagrammatic Formalisation of MOF-Based Modelling Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutle, Adrian; Rossini, Alessandro; Lamo, Yngve; Wolter, Uwe

    In Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) models are the primary artefacts of the software development process. The usage of these models have resulted in the introduction of a variety of modelling languages and frameworks. Many of these languages and frameworks are based on the Object Management Group’s (OMG) Meta-Object Facility (MOF). In addition to their diagrammatic syntax, these languages use the Object Constraint Language to specify constraints that are difficult to specify diagrammatically. In this paper, we argue for a completely diagrammatic specification framework for MDE, where by diagrammatic we mean specification techniques which are targeting graph-based structures. We introduce the Diagram Predicate Framework, which provides a formal diagrammatic approach to modelling based on category theory - the mathematics of graph-based structures. The development of a generic and flexible formalisation of metamodelling is the main contribution of the paper. We illustrate our approach through the formalisation of the kernel of the Eclipse Modeling Framework.

  20. Marketing and Languages: An Integrative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Ian

    1988-01-01

    A framework is proposed for an integrated course in which knowledge of a language is consciously related to the processes of interpersonal communication and the cultural aspects of marketing and negotiation. (Editor)

  1. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that the system can extract spatial relations from visual scenes, select items based on relational spatial descriptions, and perform reference object selection in a single unified architecture. We further show that the performance of the system is consistent with behavioral data in humans by simulating results from 2 independent empirical studies, 1 spatial term rating task and 1 study of reference object selection behavior. The architecture we present thereby achieves a high degree of task flexibility under realistic stimulus conditions. At the same time, it also provides a detailed neural grounding for complex behavioral and cognitive processes. PMID:21517224

  2. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  3. Modeling Web-Based Educational Systems: Process Design Teaching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokou, Franca Pantano; Rokou, Elena; Rokos, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Using modeling languages is essential to the construction of educational systems based on software engineering principles and methods. Furthermore, the instructional design is undoubtedly the cornerstone of the design and development of educational systems. Although several methodologies and languages have been proposed for the specification of…

  4. Language constructs and runtime systems for compositional parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.

    1995-03-01

    In task-parallel programs, diverse activities can take place concurrently, and communication and synchronization patterns are complex and not easily predictable. Previous work has identified compositionality as an important design principle for task-parallel programs. In this paper, we discuss alternative approaches to the realization of this principle. We first provide a review and critical analysis of Strand, an early compositional programming language. We examine the strengths of the Strand approach and also its weaknesses, which we attribute primarily to the use of a specialized language. Then, we present an alternative programming language framework that overcomes these weaknesses. This framework uses simple extensions to existing sequential languages (C++ and Fortran) and a common runtime system to provide a basis for the construction of large, task-parallel programs. We also discuss the runtime system techniques required to support these languages on parallel and distributed computer systems.

  5. The Verbal System of Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Lopez, Esperanza; Boldu-Menasanch, Rosa Maria; Alonso-Rodriguez, Jesus Amador; Gras-Ferrer, Victoria; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the predicative verbal system of Catalan Sign Language (LSC) as it is used by Deaf people in the province of Barcelona. We also present a historical perspective of the research on this topic, which provides insight into the changes that have taken place over the last few decades in sign language linguistics. The principal…

  6. Task Related Modulation of the Motor System during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Marc; Mengarelli, Marisa; Riggio, Lucia; Gallese, Vittorio; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent neurophysiological and brain imaging studies have shown that the motor system is involved in language processing. However, it is an open question whether this involvement is a necessary requisite to understand language or rather a side effect of distinct cognitive processes underlying it. In order to clarify this issue we carried out three…

  7. Child Language Data Exchange System Tools for Clinical Analysis.

    PubMed

    MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida

    2016-05-01

    The Child Language Data Exchange System Project has developed methods for analyzing many aspects of child language development, including grammar, lexicon, discourse, gesture, phonology, and fluency. This article will describe the methods available for each of these six fields, and how they can be used for assessment in the clinical setting. PMID:27111267

  8. ALTE Handbook of European Language Examinations and Examination Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Language Testers in Europe, Cambridge (England).

    The handbook describes language examinations offered and examination systems administered by members of the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE). An introductory section describes the rationale behind the founding of the organization, lists its 22 current members, and states its aims and objectives. Subsequent sections detail the…

  9. Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems: Lessons Learned and Steps to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Reese, Jon Damon

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we defined a blackbox formal system modeling language called RSML (Requirements State Machine Language). The language was developed over several years while specifying the system requirements for a collision avoidance system for commercial passenger aircraft. During the language development, we received continual feedback and evaluation by FAA employees and industry representatives, which helped us to produce a specification language that is easily learned and used by application experts. Since the completion of the PSML project, we have continued our research on specification languages. This research is part of a larger effort to investigate the more general problem of providing tools to assist in developing embedded systems. Our latest experimental toolset is called SpecTRM (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology), and the formal specification language is SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language). This paper describes what we have learned from our use of RSML and how those lessons were applied to the design of SpecTRM-RL. We discuss our goals for SpecTRM-RL and the design features that support each of these goals.

  10. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  11. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  12. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    PubMed

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  13. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  14. Evaluation of English Language Development Programs in the Santa Ana Unified School District. A Report on Data System Reliability and Statistical Modeling of Program Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Destino, Tom; Karam, Rita

    In response to concern about the effectiveness of programs for English-as-a-Second-Language students in California's schools, the Santa Ana Unified School District, in which over 80 percent of students are limited-English-proficient (LEP) conducted a study of both the operations and effectiveness of the district's language development program,…

  15. Contributions of memory circuits to language: the declarative/procedural model.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory, which underlies the storage and use of knowledge of facts and events. The mental grammar, which subserves the rule-governed combination of lexical items into complex representations, depends on a distinct neural system. This system, which is composed of a network of specific frontal, basal-ganglia, parietal and cerebellar structures, underlies procedural memory, which supports the learning and execution of motor and cognitive skills, especially those involving sequences. The functions of the two brain systems, together with their anatomical, physiological and biochemical substrates, lead to specific claims and predictions regarding their roles in language. These predictions are compared with those of other neurocognitive models of language. Empirical evidence is presented from neuroimaging studies of normal language processing, and from developmental and adult-onset disorders. It is argued that this evidence supports the DP model. It is additionally proposed that "language" disorders, such as specific language impairment and non-fluent and fluent aphasia, may be profitably viewed as impairments primarily affecting one or the other brain system. Overall, the data suggest a new neurocognitive framework for the study of lexicon and grammar. PMID:15037131

  16. The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Rijntjes, Michel; Weiller, Cornelius; Bormann, Tobias; Musso, Mariacristina

    2012-01-01

    The current neurobiological consensus of a general dual loop system scaffolding human and primate brains gives evidence that the dorsal and ventral connections subserve similar functions, independent of the modality and species. However, most current commentators agree that although bees dance and chimpanzees grunt, these systems of communication differ qualitatively from human language. So why is language unique to humans? We discuss anatomical differences between humans and other animals, the meaning of lesion studies in patients, the role of inner speech, and compare functional imaging studies in language with other modalities in respect to the dual loop model. These aspects might be helpful for understanding what kind of biological system the language faculty is, and how it relates to other systems in our own species and others. PMID:22783188

  17. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  18. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M.; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of “local” theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled. PMID:26124724

  19. Adopting a Cultural Portfolio Project in Teaching German as a Foreign Language: Language Teacher Cognition as a Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne; Oranje, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Intercultural language teaching and learning has increasingly been adopted in state school systems, yet studies have shown that language teachers struggle to include it in their practice. The aim of this study is to use dynamic systems theory to examine how a German as a foreign language teacher in a New Zealand secondary school adopted a project…

  20. Modeling mechanisms of persisting and resolving delay in language development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Knowland, V C P

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. METHOD The authors used a population modeling approach to study individual rates of development in 1,000 simulated individuals acquiring a notional language domain (in this study, represented by English past tense). Variation was caused by differences in internal neurocomputational learning parameters as well as the richness of the language environment. An early language delay group was diagnosed, and individual trajectories were then traced. RESULTS Quantitative variations in learning mechanisms were sufficient to produce persisting delay and resolving delay subgroups in similar proportions to empirical observations. In the model, persisting language delay was caused by limitations in processing capacity, whereas resolving delay was caused by low plasticity. Richness of the language environment did not predict the emergence of persisting delay but did predict the final ability levels of individuals with resolving delay. CONCLUSION Mechanistically, it is viable that persisting delay and resolving delay are only quantitatively different. There may be an interaction between environmental factors and outcome groups, with individuals who have resolving delay being influenced more by the richness of the language environment. PMID:24129016

  1. Language in the Cognitive Preschool Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Charles; And Others

    This report concentrates on languages and is part of a working copy being revised for inclusion into a curriculum manual for preschool teachers. In encouraging children to speak, some Do's and Don't's are presented, such as not correcting the grammar or pronunciation of a young child, and not relying on non-verbal gestures in giving instructions.…

  2. UML as a cell and biochemistry modeling language.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ken; White, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The systems biology community is building increasingly complex models and simulations of cells and other biological entities, and are beginning to look at alternatives to traditional representations such as those provided by ordinary differential equations (ODE). The lessons learned over the years by the software development community in designing and building increasingly complex telecommunication and other commercial real-time reactive systems, can be advantageously applied to the problems of modeling in the biology domain. Making use of the object-oriented (OO) paradigm, the unified modeling language (UML) and Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) visual formalisms, and the Rational Rose RealTime (RRT) visual modeling tool, we describe a multi-step process we have used to construct top-down models of cells and cell aggregates. The simple example model described in this paper includes membranes with lipid bilayers, multiple compartments including a variable number of mitochondria, substrate molecules, enzymes with reaction rules, and metabolic pathways. We demonstrate the relevance of abstraction, reuse, objects, classes, component and inheritance hierarchies, multiplicity, visual modeling, and other current software development best practices. We show how it is possible to start with a direct diagrammatic representation of a biological structure such as a cell, using terminology familiar to biologists, and by following a process of gradually adding more and more detail, arrive at a system with structure and behavior of arbitrary complexity that can run and be observed on a computer. We discuss our CellAK (Cell Assembly Kit) approach in terms of features found in SBML, CellML, E-CELL, Gepasi, Jarnac, StochSim, Virtual Cell, and membrane computing systems. PMID:15888343

  3. Modelling of internal architecture of kinesin nanomotor as a machine language.

    PubMed

    Khataee, H R; Ibrahim, M Y

    2012-09-01

    Kinesin is a protein-based natural nanomotor that transports molecular cargoes within cells by walking along microtubules. Kinesin nanomotor is considered as a bio-nanoagent which is able to sense the cell through its sensors (i.e. its heads and tail), make the decision internally and perform actions on the cell through its actuator (i.e. its motor domain). The study maps the agent-based architectural model of internal decision-making process of kinesin nanomotor to a machine language using an automata algorithm. The applied automata algorithm receives the internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor as a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) model and generates a regular machine language. The generated regular machine language was acceptable by the architectural DFA model of the nanomotor and also in good agreement with its natural behaviour. The internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor indicates the degree of autonomy and intelligence of the nanomotor interactions with its cell. Thus, our developed regular machine language can model the degree of autonomy and intelligence of kinesin nanomotor interactions with its cell as a language. Modelling of internal architectures of autonomous and intelligent bio-nanosystems as machine languages can lay the foundation towards the concept of bio-nanoswarms and next phases of the bio-nanorobotic systems development. PMID:22894532

  4. An amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alastair C.; Monaghan, Padraic; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    Language-mediated visual attention describes the interaction of two fundamental components of the human cognitive system, language and vision. Within this paper we present an amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention that offers a description of the information and processes involved in this complex multimodal behavior and a potential explanation for how this ability is acquired. We demonstrate that the model is not only sufficient to account for the experimental effects of Visual World Paradigm studies but also that these effects are emergent properties of the architecture of the model itself, rather than requiring separate information processing channels or modular processing systems. The model provides an explicit description of the connection between the modality-specific input from language and vision and the distribution of eye gaze in language-mediated visual attention. The paper concludes by discussing future applications for the model, specifically its potential for investigating the factors driving observed individual differences in language-mediated eye gaze. PMID:23966967

  5. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  6. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  7. Why the Language of Work Is Not Our Best Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    As Danny G. Langdon wrote in September 2010, for human performance technology to be a science, it needs commonly understood and applied models. He proposed his language of work (LOW) model. This article presents arguments for a very different model, one that cuts the cord to our profession's beginnings in the design of programmed instruction,…

  8. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    PubMed

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain. PMID:26666896

  9. Distributed problem solving and natural language understanding models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of organization and control for a meaning-based language understanding system is mapped out. In this theory, words, rather than rules, are the units of knowledge, and assume the form of procedural entities which execute as generator-like coroutines. Parsing a sentence in context demands a control environment in wich experts can ask questions of each other, forward hints and suggestions to each other, and suspend. The theory is a cognitive theory of both language representation and parser control.

  10. A Model and Questionnaire of Language Identity in Iran: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study consisted of three main phases including the development of a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran, developing and validating a questionnaire based on this model and finally testing the model based on the questionnaire data. In the first phase of this research, a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran was developed…

  11. Natural language watermarking: Challenges in building a practical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkara, Mercan; Riccardi, Giuseppe; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek; Atallah, Mikhail J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research and implementation challenges we encountered in building an end-to-end natural language processing based watermarking system. With natural language watermarking, we mean embedding the watermark into a text document, using the natural language components as the carrier, in such a way that the modifications are imperceptible to the readers and the embedded information is robust against possible attacks. Of particular interest is using the structure of the sentences in natural language text in order to insert the watermark. We evaluated the quality of the watermarked text using an objective evaluation metric, the BLEU score. BLEU scoring is commonly used in the statistical machine translation community. Our current system prototype achieves 0.45 BLEU score on a scale [0,1].

  12. Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. PMID:23624180

  13. Artificial intelligence, expert systems, computer vision, and natural language processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of artificial intelligence (AI), its core ingredients, and its applications is presented. The knowledge representation, logic, problem solving approaches, languages, and computers pertaining to AI are examined, and the state of the art in AI is reviewed. The use of AI in expert systems, computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition and understanding, speech synthesis, problem solving, and planning is examined. Basic AI topics, including automation, search-oriented problem solving, knowledge representation, and computational logic, are discussed.

  14. SALT (System Analysis Language Translater): A steady state and dynamic systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.; Geyer, H.

    1983-01-01

    SALT (System Analysis Language Translater) is a lumped parameter approach to system analysis which is totally modular. The modules are all precompiled and only the main program, which is generated by SALT, needs to be compiled for each unique system configuration. This is a departure from other lumped parameter codes where all models are written by MACROS and then compiled for each unique configuration, usually after all of the models are lumped together and sorted to eliminate undetermined variables. The SALT code contains a robust and sophisticated steady-sate finder (non-linear equation solver), optimization capability and enhanced GEAR integration scheme which makes use of sparsity and algebraic constraints. The SALT systems code has been used for various technologies. The code was originally developed for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. It was easily extended to liquid metal MHD systems by simply adding the appropriate models and property libraries. Similarly, the model and property libraries were expanded to handle fuel cell systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, combined cycle gasification systems, fluidized bed combustion systems, ocean thermal energy conversion systems, geothermal systems, nuclear systems, and conventional coal-fired power plants. Obviously, the SALT systems code is extremely flexible to be able to handle all of these diverse systems. At present, the dynamic option has only been used for LMFBR nuclear power plants and geothermal power plants. However, it can easily be extended to other systems and can be used for analyzing control problems. 12 refs.

  15. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  16. One language, two number-word systems and many problems: numerical cognition in the Czech language.

    PubMed

    Pixner, S; Zuber, J; Heřmanová, V; Kaufmann, L; Nuerk, H-C; Moeller, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparing numerical performance between different languages does not only mean comparing different number-word systems, but also implies a comparison of differences regarding culture or educational systems. The Czech language provides the remarkable opportunity to disentangle this confound as there exist two different number-word systems within the same language: for instance, "25" can be either coded in non-inverted order "dvadsetpät" [twenty-five] or in inverted order "pätadvadset" [five-and-twenty]. To investigate the influence of the number-word system on basic numerical processing within one culture, 7-year-old Czech-speaking children had to perform a transcoding task (i.e., writing Arabic numbers to dictation) in both number-word systems. The observed error pattern clearly indicated that the structure of the number-word system determined transcoding performance reliably: In the inverted number-word system about half of all errors were inversion-related. In contrast, hardly any inversion-related errors occurred in the non-inverted number-word system. We conclude that the development of numerical cognition does not only depend on cultural or educational differences, but is indeed related to the structure and transparency of a given number-word system. PMID:21763104

  17. The Languages of the Valencian Educational System: The Results of Two Decades of Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Jose Luis Blas

    2002-01-01

    The compulsory education system in the autonomous Spanish region known as the Comunidad Valenciano has offered a varied program of bilingual education. Spanish and Valenciano, an autochthonous variety of Catalan, alternate according to various curricular programs as the main teaching languages. Examines the objectives of each of these programs, as…

  18. When Technology Speaks Language: An Evaluation of Course Management Systems Used in a Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Sun, Yu-Chih; Chang, Yu-Jung

    2010-01-01

    In light of the growing popularity of the use of computer management systems (CMSs) in higher education today, this study critically evaluates CMS adoption through a content-specific lens. By employing a mixed-method approach, the study examines college teachers' and students' experiences and perceptions of CMS adoption for language learning and…

  19. Modeling Mechanisms of Persisting and Resolving Delay in Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Knowland, V. C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. Method: The authors used a population modeling approach to study…

  20. A Neurobehavioral Model of Flexible Spatial Language Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipinski, John; Schneegans, Sebastian; Sandamirskaya, Yulia; Spencer, John P.; Schoner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    We propose a neural dynamic model that specifies how low-level visual processes can be integrated with higher level cognition to achieve flexible spatial language behaviors. This model uses real-word visual input that is linked to relational spatial descriptions through a neural mechanism for reference frame transformations. We demonstrate that…

  1. The Dartmouth/Rassias Model of Teaching Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles; Hornor, Jeanne

    An historical, philosophical, and methodological overview of the Dartmouth/Rassias model of foreign language instruction is presented. The model, first developed by John Rassias at Dartmouth College, is an intensive adaptation of the traditional audiolingual approach. Great use is made of dramatic techniques to motivate students and help them…

  2. Research on the Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of second language acquisition based on the social-psychology of acculturation, including factors in social, affective, personality, cognitive, biological, aptitude, personal, input, and instructional areas. Studies which test this model are reviewed and evaluated. (Author/CB)

  3. [Language gene].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    The human capacity for acquiring speech and language must derive, at least in part, from the genome. Recent advance in the field of molecular genetics finally discovered 'Language Gene'. Disruption of FOXP2 gene, the firstly identified 'language gene' causes severe speech and language disorder. To elucidate the anatomical basis of language processing in the brain, we examined the expression pattern of FOXP2/Foxp2 genes in the monkey and rat brains through development. We found the preferential expression of FOXP2/Foxp2 in the striosomal compartment of the developing striatum. Thus, we suggest the striatum, particularly striosomal system may participate in neural information processing for language and speech. Our suggestion is consistent with the declarative/ procedural model of language proposed by Ullman (1997, 2001), which the procedural memory-dependent mental grammar is rooted in the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, and the declarative memory-dependent mental lexicon is rooted in the temporal lobe. PMID:17432197

  4. Simulating Language-specific and Language-general Effects in a Statistical Learning Model of Chinese Reading

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianfeng; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Many theoretical models of reading assume that different writing systems require different processing assumptions. For example, it is often claimed that print-to-sound mappings in Chinese are not represented or processed sub-lexically. We present a connectionist model that learns the print to sound mappings of Chinese characters using the same functional architecture and learning rules that have been applied to English. The model predicts an interaction between item frequency and print-to-sound consistency analogous to what has been found for English, as well as a language-specific regularity effect particular to Chinese. Behavioral naming experiments using the same test items as the model confirmed these predictions. Corpus properties and the analyses of internal representations that evolved over training revealed that the model was able to capitalize on information in “phonetic components” – sub-lexical structures of variable size that convey probabilistic information about pronunciation. The results suggest that adult reading performance across very different writing systems may be explained as the result of applying the same learning mechanisms to the particular input statistics of writing systems shaped by both culture and the exigencies of communicating spoken language in a visual medium. PMID:20161189

  5. Language extinction and linguistic fronts.

    PubMed

    Isern, Neus; Fort, Joaquim

    2014-05-01

    Language diversity has become greatly endangered in the past centuries owing to processes of language shift from indigenous languages to other languages that are seen as socially and economically more advantageous, resulting in the death or doom of minority languages. In this paper, we define a new language competition model that can describe the historical decline of minority languages in competition with more advantageous languages. We then implement this non-spatial model as an interaction term in a reaction-diffusion system to model the evolution of the two competing languages. We use the results to estimate the speed at which the more advantageous language spreads geographically, resulting in the shrinkage of the area of dominance of the minority language. We compare the results from our model with the observed retreat in the area of influence of the Welsh language in the UK, obtaining a good agreement between the model and the observed data. PMID:24598207

  6. Programmers manual for IOSYM: an input-oriented simulation language for continuous systems. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.

    1981-06-01

    IOSYM is an extension of the GASP IV simulation language. It permits systems which are sequences of continuous processes to be modeled graphically. Normally the system can be described by data input only. The language permits stochastic sequencing and termination criteria for processes and allows crossing conditions for ending operations that are more general than GASP IV. Extensive capability exists for conditional branching and logical modification of the network. IOSYM has been used to model the cost of geothermal drilling where the various costly processes of drilling are represented by IOSYM operations. The language is much more general, however, since it retains more of GASP IV's discrete event capabilities and permits easy modeling of continuous processes.

  7. User manual for IOSYM: an input-oriented simulation language for continuous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, J.

    1981-03-01

    IOSYM is an extension of the GASP IV simulation language. It permits systems which are sequences of continuous processes to be modeled graphically. Normally the system can be described by data input only. The language permits stochastic sequencing and termination criteria for processes and allows crossing conditions for ending operations that are more general than GASP IV. Extensive capability exists for conditional branching and logical modification of the network. IOSYM has been used to model the cost of geothermal drilling where the various costly processes of drilling are represented by IOSYM operations. The language is much more general, however, since it retains most of GASP IV's discrete event capabilities and permits easy modeling of continuous processes.

  8. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward F; Raygor, Kunal P; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-02-01

    Classic models of language organization posited that separate motor and sensory language foci existed in the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) and superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), respectively, and that connections between these sites (arcuate fasciculus) allowed for auditory-motor interaction. These theories have predominated for more than a century, but advances in neuroimaging and stimulation mapping have provided a more detailed description of the functional neuroanatomy of language. New insights have shaped modern network-based models of speech processing composed of parallel and interconnected streams involving both cortical and subcortical areas. Recent models emphasize processing in "dorsal" and "ventral" pathways, mediating phonological and semantic processing, respectively. Phonological processing occurs along a dorsal pathway, from the posterosuperior temporal to the inferior frontal cortices. On the other hand, semantic information is carried in a ventral pathway that runs from the temporal pole to the basal occipitotemporal cortex, with anterior connections. Functional MRI has poor positive predictive value in determining critical language sites and should only be used as an adjunct for preoperative planning. Cortical and subcortical mapping should be used to define functional resection boundaries in eloquent areas and remains the clinical gold standard. In tracing the historical advancements in our understanding of speech processing, the authors hope to not only provide practicing neurosurgeons with additional information that will aid in surgical planning and prevent postoperative morbidity, but also underscore the fact that neurosurgeons are in a unique position to further advance our understanding of the anatomy and functional organization of language. PMID:25423277

  9. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-11-22

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and 'ratchet' it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution. PMID:22977146

  10. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and ‘ratchet’ it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution. PMID:22977146

  11. Design Languages, Notation Systems, and Instructional Technology: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Sandie H.; Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Notational systems, used in mature fields of study, are closely related to design languages. The future of a technological field depends on the ability to communicate ideas and changes with others in the field. Instructional technology is one field that can benefit from a notation system enabling designers to duplicate, execute, and communicate…

  12. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall. PMID:24709122

  13. Applying Modeling Tools to Ground System Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pasquale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    As part of a long-term effort to revitalize the Ground Systems (GS) Engineering Section practices, Systems Modeling Language (SysML) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) have been used to model existing GS products and the procedures GS engineers use to produce them.

  14. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  15. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  16. Phase Transition in a Sexual Age-Structured Model of Learning Foreign Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwämmle, V.

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition of the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages with the mutation rate as control parameter.

  17. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  18. What's left in language? Beyond the classical model.

    PubMed

    Corballis, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Until recently it was widely held that language, and its left-hemispheric representation in the brain, were uniquely human, emerging abruptly after the emergence of Homo sapiens. Changing views of language suggest that it was not a recent and sudden development in human evolution, but was adapted from dual-stream circuity long predating hominins, including a system in nonhuman primates specialized for intentional grasping. This system was gradually tailored for skilled manual operations (praxis) and communication. As processing requirements grew more demanding, the neural circuits were increasingly lateralized, with the left hemisphere assuming dominance, at least in the majority of individuals. The trend toward complexity and lateralization was probably accelerated in hominins when bipedalism freed the hands for more complex manufacture and tool use, and more expressive communication. The incorporation of facial and vocal gestures led to the emergence of speech as the dominant mode of language, although gestural communication may have led to generative language before speech became dominant. This scenario provides a more Darwinian perspective on language and its lateralization than has been commonly assumed. PMID:25872456

  19. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    PubMed Central

    Speier, W; Arnold, CW; Deshpande, A; Knall, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The P300 speller is a common brain–computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main Result This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance. PMID:26061188

  20. Incorporating advanced language models into the P300 speller using particle filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Deshpande, A.; Knall, J.; Pouratian, N.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a common brain-computer interface (BCI) application designed to communicate language by detecting event related potentials in a subject’s electroencephalogram signal. Information about the structure of natural language can be valuable for BCI communication, but attempts to use this information have thus far been limited to rudimentary n-gram models. While more sophisticated language models are prevalent in natural language processing literature, current BCI analysis methods based on dynamic programming cannot handle their complexity. Approach. Sampling methods can overcome this complexity by estimating the posterior distribution without searching the entire state space of the model. In this study, we implement sequential importance resampling, a commonly used particle filtering (PF) algorithm, to integrate a probabilistic automaton language model. Main result. This method was first evaluated offline on a dataset of 15 healthy subjects, which showed significant increases in speed and accuracy when compared to standard classification methods as well as a recently published approach using a hidden Markov model (HMM). An online pilot study verified these results as the average speed and accuracy achieved using the PF method was significantly higher than that using the HMM method. Significance. These findings strongly support the integration of domain-specific knowledge into BCI classification to improve system performance.

  1. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

  2. Motivation within the Information Processing Model of Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolopoulou-Sergi, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    The present article highlights the importance of the motivational construct for the foreign language learning (FLL) process. More specifically, in the present article it is argued that motivation is likely to play a significant role at all three stages of the FLL process as they are discussed within the information processing model of FLL, namely,…

  3. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  4. Relevance Data for Language Models Using Maximum Likelihood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodoff, David; Wu, Bin; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents a preliminary empirical test of a maximum likelihood approach to using relevance data for training information retrieval parameters. Discusses similarities to language models; the unification of document-oriented and query-oriented views; tests on data sets; algorithms and scalability; and the effectiveness of maximum likelihood…

  5. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  6. Time in Language, Situation Models, and Mental Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a view of language processing, and particularly the role of aspect therein, from a mental-simulation perspective. I argue that situation model theories can account for the flow between and interconnectedness of event representations but that mental simulation theories are needed to account for the internal…

  7. Environmental Influences on Children's Language: A Model and Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kaiser, Ann P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual model of the language learning environment of young children, incorporating child engagement with the physical environment, contributions of child and caregiver, and caregiver mediation of physical environment. A case study illustrates the impact of a relatively simple home environmental intervention on a…

  8. Propulsive Reaction Control System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Phan, Linh H.; Serricchio, Frederick; San Martin, Alejandro M.

    2011-01-01

    This software models a propulsive reaction control system (RCS) for guidance, navigation, and control simulation purposes. The model includes the drive electronics, the electromechanical valve dynamics, the combustion dynamics, and thrust. This innovation follows the Mars Science Laboratory entry reaction control system design, and has been created to meet the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry, descent, and landing simulation needs. It has been built to be plug-and-play on multiple MSL testbeds [analysis, Monte Carlo, flight software development, hardware-in-the-loop, and ATLO (assembly, test and launch operations) testbeds]. This RCS model is a C language program. It contains two main functions: the RCS electronics model function that models the RCS FPGA (field-programmable-gate-array) processing and commanding of the RCS valve, and the RCS dynamic model function that models the valve and combustion dynamics. In addition, this software provides support functions to initialize the model states, set parameters, access model telemetry, and access calculated thruster forces.

  9. Contributions of Memory Circuits to Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of the brain and the nature of evolution suggest that, despite its uniqueness, language likely depends on brain systems that also subserve other functions. The declarative/procedural (DP) model claims that the mental lexicon of memorized word-specific knowledge depends on the largely temporal-lobe substrates of declarative memory,…

  10. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  11. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kemmerer, David; MacWhinney, Brian; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Oztop, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding – separately or together – neurocomputational models and empirical data that serve systems and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24234916

  12. Action and language mechanisms in the brain: data, models and neuroinformatics.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Michael A; Bonaiuto, James J; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kemmerer, David; MacWhinney, Brian; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Oztop, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding – separately or together – neurocomputational models and empirical data that serve systems and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24234916

  13. FMS: A Format Manipulation System for Automatic Production of Natural Language Documents, Second Edition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Steven S.

    FMS/3 is a system for producing hard copy documentation at high speed from free format text and command input. The system was originally written in assembler language for a 12K IBM 360 model 20 using a high speed 1403 printer with the UCS-TN chain option (upper and lower case). Input was from an IBM 2560 Multi-function Card Machine. The model 20…

  14. Modeling the Development of Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard K.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Foorman, Barbara; Foster, Elizabeth; Wilson, Laura Gehron; Tschinkel, Erika; Kantor, Patricia Thatcher

    2011-01-01

    Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of written composition and handwriting fluency were tested using confirmatory factor analysis of writing samples provided by first- and fourth-grade students. For both groups, a five-factor model provided the best fit to the data. Four of the factors represented…

  15. Natural language processing in an intelligent writing strategy tutoring system.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Danielle S; Crossley, Scott A; Roscoe, Rod

    2013-06-01

    The Writing Pal is an intelligent tutoring system that provides writing strategy training. A large part of its artificial intelligence resides in the natural language processing algorithms to assess essay quality and guide feedback to students. Because writing is often highly nuanced and subjective, the development of these algorithms must consider a broad array of linguistic, rhetorical, and contextual features. This study assesses the potential for computational indices to predict human ratings of essay quality. Past studies have demonstrated that linguistic indices related to lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity are significant predictors of human judgments of essay quality but that indices of cohesion are not. The present study extends prior work by including a larger data sample and an expanded set of indices to assess new lexical, syntactic, cohesion, rhetorical, and reading ease indices. Three models were assessed. The model reported by McNamara, Crossley, and McCarthy (Written Communication 27:57-86, 2010) including three indices of lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity accounted for only 6% of the variance in the larger data set. A regression model including the full set of indices examined in prior studies of writing predicted 38% of the variance in human scores of essay quality with 91% adjacent accuracy (i.e., within 1 point). A regression model that also included new indices related to rhetoric and cohesion predicted 44% of the variance with 94% adjacent accuracy. The new indices increased accuracy but, more importantly, afford the means to provide more meaningful feedback in the context of a writing tutoring system. PMID:23055164

  16. A Customizable Language Learning Support System Using Ontology-Driven Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingyun; Mendori, Takahiko; Xiong, Juan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for web-based language learning support systems designed to provide customizable pedagogical procedures based on the analysis of characteristics of both learner and course. This framework employs a course-centered ontology and a teaching method ontology as the foundation for the student model, which includes learner…

  17. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  18. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  19. Access to Biomedical Information: The Unified Medical Language System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the development of a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) by the National Library of Medicine that will retrieve and integrate information from a variety of information resources. Highlights include the metathesaurus; the UMLS semantic network; semantic locality; information sources map; evaluation of the metathesaurus; future…

  20. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  1. Knowledge Innovation System: The Common Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Debra M. Amidon

    1993-01-01

    The Knowledge Innovation System is a management technique in which a networked enterprise uses knowledge flow as a collaborative advantage. Enterprise Management System-Architecture, which can be applied to collaborative activities, has five domains: economic, sociological, psychological, managerial, and technological. (SK)

  2. Word-level language modeling for P300 spellers based on discriminative graphical models

    PubMed Central

    Saa, Jaime F Delgado; de Pesters, Adriana; McFarland, Dennis; Çetin, Müjdat

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this work we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework that uses language priors at the level of words as a mechanism to increase the performance of P300-based spellers. Approach This paper is concerned with brain-computer interfaces based on P300 spellers. Motivated by P300 spelling scenarios involving communication based on a limited vocabulary, we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework and an associated classification algorithm that uses learned statistical models of language at the level of words. Exploiting such high-level contextual information helps reduce the error rate of the speller. Main results Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach offers several advantages over existing methods. Most importantly, it increases the classification accuracy while reducing the number of times the letters need to be flashed, increasing the communication rate of the system. Significance The proposed approach models all the variables in the P300 speller in a unified framework and has the capability to correct errors in previous letters in a word, given the data for the current one. The structure of the model we propose allows the use of efficient inference algorithms, which in turn makes it possible to use this approach in real-time applications. PMID:25686293

  3. Word-level language modeling for P300 spellers based on discriminative graphical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; McFarland, Dennis; Çetin, Müjdat

    2015-04-01

    Objective. In this work we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework that uses language priors at the level of words as a mechanism to increase the performance of P300-based spellers. Approach. This paper is concerned with brain-computer interfaces based on P300 spellers. Motivated by P300 spelling scenarios involving communication based on a limited vocabulary, we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework and an associated classification algorithm that uses learned statistical models of language at the level of words. Exploiting such high-level contextual information helps reduce the error rate of the speller. Main results. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach offers several advantages over existing methods. Most importantly, it increases the classification accuracy while reducing the number of times the letters need to be flashed, increasing the communication rate of the system. Significance. The proposed approach models all the variables in the P300 speller in a unified framework and has the capability to correct errors in previous letters in a word, given the data for the current one. The structure of the model we propose allows the use of efficient inference algorithms, which in turn makes it possible to use this approach in real-time applications.

  4. Knowledge Structure Measures of Reader's Situation Models across Languages: Translation Engenders Richer Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung; Clariana, Roy B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further validate and extend the application of recent knowledge structure (KS) measures to second language settings, this investigation explores how second language (L2, English) situation models are influenced by first language (L1, Korean) translation tasks. Fifty Korean low proficient English language learners were asked to read an…

  5. Gaining system design knowledge by systematic design space exploration with graph based design languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jens; Rudolph, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    The conceptual design phase in the design of complex systems such as satellite propulsion systems heavily relies on an exploration of the feasible design space. This exploration requires both: topological changes in the potential system architecture and consistent parametrical changes in the dimensioning of the existing system components. Since advanced engineering design techniques nowadays advocate a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach, graph-based design languages which embed a superset of MBSE-features are consequently used in this work to systematically explore the feasible design space. Design languages allow the design knowledge to be represented, modeled and executed using model-based transformations and combine this among other features with constraint processing techniques. The execution of the design language shown for the satellite propulsion systems in this work yields topologically varied designs (i.e. the selection of a monergol, a diergol or a coldgas system) with consistent parameters. Based on an a posteriori performance analysis of the automatically generated system designs, novel system knowledge (most notably in form of so-called "topology change points") can be gained and extracted from the original point cloud of numerical results.

  6. The Programming Language Python In Earth System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, L.; Imranullah, A.; Mora, P.; Saez, E.; Smillie, J.; Wang, C.

    2004-12-01

    Mathematical models in earth sciences base on the solution of systems of coupled, non-linear, time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). The spatial and time-scale vary from a planetary scale and million years for convection problems to 100km and 10 years for fault systems simulations. Various techniques are in use to deal with the time dependency (e.g. Crank-Nicholson), with the non-linearity (e.g. Newton-Raphson) and weakly coupled equations (e.g. non-linear Gauss-Seidel). Besides these high-level solution algorithms discretization methods (e.g. finite element method (FEM), boundary element method (BEM)) are used to deal with spatial derivatives. Typically, large-scale, three dimensional meshes are required to resolve geometrical complexity (e.g. in the case of fault systems) or features in the solution (e.g. in mantel convection simulations). The modelling environment escript allows the rapid implementation of new physics as required for the development of simulation codes in earth sciences. Its main object is to provide a programming language, where the user can define new models and rapidly develop high-level solution algorithms. The current implementation is linked with the finite element package finley as a PDE solver. However, the design is open and other discretization technologies such as finite differences and boundary element methods could be included. escript is implemented as an extension of the interactive programming environment python (see www.python.org). Key concepts introduced are Data objects, which are holding values on nodes or elements of the finite element mesh, and linearPDE objects, which are defining linear partial differential equations to be solved by the underlying discretization technology. In this paper we will show the basic concepts of escript and will show how escript is used to implement a simulation code for interacting fault systems. We will show some results of large-scale, parallel simulations on an SGI Altix

  7. Methodology for system description using the software design & documentation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) can be loosely characterized as a text processor with built-in knowledge of, and methods for handling the concepts of structure and abstraction which are essential for developing software and other information intensive systems. Several aspects of system descriptions to which SDDL has been applied are presented and specific SDDL methodologies developed for these applications are discussed.

  8. Second Language Learning of Complex Inflectional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored learning and generalization of parts of the Russian case-marking paradigm, an inflecting-fusional system in which affixes simultaneously mark several grammatical features (case, gender, number, animacy). In Experiment 1, adult English speakers (N = 43) were exposed to nouns with transparent gender marking in the nominative case…

  9. A Working Model for Assessing Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Language Proficiency through a Placement Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairclough, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Having a clear idea of the knowledge in the heritage language that a student brings to the classroom is essential for a successful language-learning experience; for that reason, research in heritage language education has been focusing increasingly on assessment issues, especially language placement exams. Professionals debate whether assessment…

  10. Language Proficiency Tests in the Iranian Context: Do They Represent Communicative Language Testing Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah

    2011-01-01

    The Communicative Ability in language testing originates from a theory of language as communication proposed by Hymes (1972) and known as "communicative competence". The literature on language testing suggests that the practicality of communicative language testing (CLT) varies depending on how the instructors and teachers conceptualize CLT. As…