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Sample records for lanthanide shift reagents

  1. Enantiomeric differentiation of bornyl acetate by 13C-NMR using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent.

    PubMed

    Baldovini, Nicolas; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The enantiomeric differentiation of bornyl acetate was carried out by 13C-NMR spectroscopy using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent. The technique was successfully applied to the determination of the enantiomer of bornyl acetate present in the essential oil of Inula graveolens. PMID:12892421

  2. Enantiomeric differentiation of acyclic terpenes by 13C NMR spectroscopy using a chiral lanthanide shift reagent.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Marie-Cécile; Bradesi, Pascale; Casanova, Joseph

    2005-02-01

    The 13C NMR behaviour of ten acyclic terpene alcohols was examined in the presence of a chiral lanthanide shift reagent (CLSR). For each alcohol, we measured the lanthanide-induced shift (LIS) on the signals of the carbons and the splitting of some signals, which allowed the enantiomeric differentiation. As expected, the LIS decreased with the number of bonds between the binding function and the considered carbon. The enantiomeric splitting is observed for several signals in the spectrum of each compound. The influence of the hindrance of the binding function (primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol) and that of the stereochemistry of the double bonds is discussed. PMID:15593244

  3. NMR Spectroscopy Using a Chiral Lanthanide Shift Reagent to Assess the Optical Purity of 1-Phenylethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Tito; Toland, Alan

    1995-10-01

    Enantiomeric forms of 1-phenylethylamine cannot be distinguished by 1H or 13C-NMR because the groups attached to the stereocenter are in an enantiopic environment. However, the chemical shifts of the protons in the groups attached to the stereocenter can be differentially altered to appear as distinct peaks in the NMR spectrum. This is accomplished by the use of a commercially available chiral lanthanide shift reagent, Yb(tfC)3. The NMR spectrum after the addition of a chiral shift reagent allows one to assess the optical purity of the sample.

  4. Lanthanide complexes of aminophosphonates as shift reagents for 7Li and 23Na NMR studies in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, R; Castro, M M; de Freitas, D M; Geraldes, C F

    1992-01-01

    A systematic NMR characterization of various Dy(III) complexes of linear and macrocyclic aminophosphonates as 7Li and 23Na NMR shift reagents for biological systems was undertaken. Their efficacy as shift reagents (SR) was tested under constant aqueous solution ionic strength conditions at pH 7.5 as a function of rho = [SR]/[M+]. Further characterization of the two best SRs, Dy(PcPcP)2(7-) and Dy(DOTP)5-, led to the conclusion that, although quite sensitive to solution pH and the presence of alkali metal ions and Mg2+ and Ca2+, these complexes were stable towards hydrolysis by phosphatases. The lack of precipitation of its solutions in the presence of Ca2+, allowed the choice of Dy(DOTP)5- as the best overall SR for biological studies. Other SRs, like Dy(TTHA)3-, although less sensitive to pH and to divalent ions, require significantly higher concentrations to yield the same shifts, leading to large bulk susceptibility artifacts in perfused tissues and organs. PMID:1467337

  5. Organic-soluble lanthanide nuclear magnetic resonance shift reagents for sulfonium and isothiouronium salts. [Eu(fod)/sub 3/; fod = 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedione

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.J.; Zaia, J.

    1987-02-15

    Lanthanide complexes of the formula (Ln(fod)/sub 4/)/sup -/ (FOD, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedione) are effective organic-soluble nuclear magnetic resonance shift reagents for sulfonium and isothiouronium salts. The shift reagent is formed in solution from Ln(fod)/sub 3/ and Ag(fod) or K(fod). The selection of Ag(fod) or K(fod) in forming the shift reagent is dependent on the anion of the organic salt. Ag(fod) is more effective with halide salts, whereas K(fod) is preferred with tetrafluoroborate salts. Resolution of diastereotopic hydrogen atoms was observed in the shifted spectra of certain substrates. Enantiomeric resolution was obtained in the spectrum of sec-butylisothiouronium chloride with a chiral shift reagent. The reagents can be employed in solvents such as chloroform and benzene.

  6. Selectivity enhancement of Arsenazo(III) reagent towards heavier lanthanides using polyaminocarboxylic acids: A spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Komal; Mittal, Susheel K.; Ashok Kumar, S. K.; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2015-06-01

    A new study has been conducted to quantify lanthanide(III) ions using Arsenazo III-polyaminocarboxylic acid (PACA) system. The study disclosed two different analytically important information: (i) λmax of lanthanide-Arsenazo III complexes for lighter lanthanides like Ce(III) and Nd(III) did not shift from its original position on addition of PACA and (ii) for heavier lanthanides like Dy(III), Tm(III) and Lu(III) a new λmax at 538 nm was observed, while wavelengths at 610 nm and 654 nm were disappeared in presence of ethylenediaminetertracetic acid (EDTA) and trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (DCTA), further the intensity of peak decreased with increase in lanthanide(III) ion concentration. Effect of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine-N,N‧,N‧-triacetic acid (EDTA-OH) on Arsenzo(III)-Ln(III) complex is very weak and there is no analytically importance of such interaction. Moreover, this work confirms that Nd(III) and heavy lanthanides can be successfully determined with high accuracy in the working range of concentration of these metal ions.

  7. Lanthanide Ion-Induced Isotropic Shifts and Broadening for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structural Analysis of Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, S. Brian; Faller, J. W.; Gilliam, James M.; Barrnett, Russell J.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of a series of aquated lanthanide ions on the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of phospholipid bilayer suspensions are reported. The ability of these ions to provide a spectral distinction between morphologically exterior resonances and their interior counterparts was confirmed. Measurements of the relative shifting and broadening capabilities of these ions are reported, and their correlation with solid-state magnetic susceptibility anisotropies is shown to implicate a dipolar (pseudocontact) mechanism as the source of this effect. The potential for the use of dipolar shifts as structural probes is discussed and an alternative method using dipolar shifting and broadening reagents simultaneously is presented. PMID:4515942

  8. Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures.

    PubMed

    Beeren, Sophie R; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-02-21

    We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal separation. Here we use this approach for the quantitative analysis of a complex homooligomeric glycan mixture. PMID:25604578

  9. Ready to use dry-reagent PCR assays for the four common bacterial pathogens using switchable lanthanide luminescence probe system.

    PubMed

    Lehmusvuori, A; Soikkeli, M; Tuunainen, E; Seppä, T; Spangar, A; Rantakokko-Jalava, K; von Lode, P; Karhunen, U; Soukka, T; Wittfooth, S

    2015-11-01

    Ready to use dry-reagent PCR assays for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and for broad-range bacteria detection were developed. The assays were based on novel switchable lanthanide probes that provide sensitive target DNA detection with exceptionally high signal-to-background ratio, thus enabling clear discrimination between positive and negative results. For example, sensitivity of three S. aureus and two S. pneumonia bacteria (colony forming units) per PCR assay was measured with fluorescence signal more than 30 times over the background signal level. The rapid and easy-to-use assays are suitable for routine clinical diagnostics without molecular biology expertise and facilities. PMID:26342433

  10. Highly emitting near-infrared lanthanide "encapsulated sandwich" metallacrown complexes with excitation shifted toward lower energy.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Evan R; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Jankolovits, Joseph; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Petoud, Stéphane; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2014-01-29

    Near-infrared (NIR) luminescent lanthanide complexes hold great promise for practical applications, as their optical properties have several complementary advantages over organic fluorophores and semiconductor nanoparticles. The fundamental challenge for lanthanide luminescence is their sensitization through suitable chromophores. The use of the metallacrown (MC) motif is an innovative strategy to arrange several organic sensitizers at a well-controlled distance from a lanthanide cation. Herein we report a series of lanthanide “encapsulated sandwich” MC complexes of the form Ln3+ [12-MC(Zn(II),quinHA)-4]2[24-MC(Zn(II),quinHA)-8] (Ln3+ [Zn(II)MC(quinHA)]) in which the MC framework is formed by the self-assembly of Zn2+ ions and tetradentate chromophoric ligands based on quinaldichydroxamic acid (quinHA). A first-generation of luminescent MCs was presented previously but was limited due to excitation wavelengths in the UV. We report here that through the design of the chromophore of the MC assembly, we have significantly shifted the absorption wavelength toward lower energy (450 nm). In addition to this near-visible inter- and/or intraligand charge transfer absorption, Ln3+ [Zn(II)MC(quinHA)] exhibits remarkably high quantum yields, long luminescence lifetimes (CD3OD; Yb3+, QLn(L) = 2.88(2)%, τobs = 150.7(2) μs; Nd3+, QLn(L) = 1.35(1)%, τobs = 4.11(3) μs; Er3+, QLn(L) = 3.60(6)·10–2%, τobs = 11.40(3) μs), and excellent photostability. Quantum yields of Nd3+ and Er3+ MCs in the solid state and in deuterated solvents, upon excitation at low energy, are the highest values among NIR-emitting lanthanide complexes containing C–H bonds. The versatility of the MC strategy allows modifications in the excitation wavelength and absorptivity through the appropriate design of the ligand sensitizer, providing a highly efficient platform with tunable properties. PMID:24432702

  11. Imaging of intracellular sodium with shift reagent aided (23)Na CSI in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Weidensteiner, Claudia; Horn, Michael; Fekete, Elsbeth; Neubauer, Stefan; von Kienlin, Markus

    2002-07-01

    23Na chemical shift imaging (CSI) in conjunction with shift reagents was used to obtain images of intracellular (Na(i)) and extracellular sodium (Na(e)) in isolated rat hearts. It was demonstrated that the increase of Na(i) concentration in ischemic myocardium can be detected with this technique. 3D acquisition-weighted (23)Na CSI datasets with a nominal spatial resolution of 1.7 x 1.7 x 2.9 mm were acquired in 30 min in normoxic hearts and in globally or locally ischemic hearts. The shift reagent Tm(DOTP)(5-) was used to discriminate Na(i) and Na(e) signals. Na(i) maps could be generated in ischemic hearts, but not in normoxic hearts as the signal-to-noise ratio is too low. The Na(i) signal increased by more than 100% and the Na(e) signal decreased by more than 50% in myocardium of globally ischemic hearts (n = 3) compared to normoxic hearts (n = 3). In hearts with an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (n = 3), there was a local Na(i) signal increase in the anterior wall in the range of 60-110% compared to remote, normoxic tissue. PMID:12111935

  12. 23Na NMR shift reagents enhance cardiac staircase effect in isolated perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Simor, T; Lóránd, T; Szöllösy, A; Gaszner, B; Digerness, S B; Elgavish, G A

    1999-08-01

    The effects of the currently used (23)Na NMR shift reagents, dysprosium bis-triphosphate [Dy(PPP)(2)], dysprosium triethylenetriamine hexaacetate [Dy(TTHA)] and thulium 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetra(methylenephosphonate) [Tm(DOTP)] were studied in the rat heart cardiac staircase model. Rat hearts were perfused with low or normal extracellular free calcium ([Ca(o)](f)). At low [Ca(o)](f) (0.34 +/- 0.05 mM), hearts were perfused with Dy(PPP)(2) (group I), Dy(TTHA) (group II) or no shift reagent (group III), while at normal [Ca(o)](f) (1.25 +/- 0.15 mM), hearts were perfused with Tm(DOTP) (group IV), Dy(TTHA) (group V) or no shift reagent (group VI). Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) values in group I were significantly higher than in groups II and III (p < 0.01), while no significant differences were found between groups II and III. LVDP values in group IV were significantly higher than in groups V and VI (p < 0.05), while the LVDP values in groups V and VI were almost identical. Also, a positive correlation between pacing rate and intracellular sodium ([Na(i)]) was evident. The [Na(i)] values at high [Ca(o)](f) were significantly lower than at low [Ca(o)](f) at each pacing level (p <0.01), indicating a negative correlation between [Na(i)] and [Ca(o)](f). No statistical differences were found in [Na(i)] between groups I vs II and IV vs V, showing that determination of [Na(i)] is not affected by any of these shift reagents. Thus the different LVDP responses in groups I vs II and IV vs V were not mirrored in [Na(i)] changes. We hypothesize that a direct, sarcolemmal Ca-Dy(PPP)(2)-, or Ca-Tm(DOTP)-induced positive inotropic effect could be responsible for these Na(i)-independent LVDP increases in groups I and IV. PMID:10484815

  13. Pulse EPR-enabled interpretation of scarce pseudocontact shifts induced by lanthanide binding tags.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Elwy H; Yao, Xuejun; Feintuch, Akiva; Adams, Luke A; Aurelio, Luigi; Graham, Bim; Goldfarb, Daniella; Otting, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocontact shifts (PCS) induced by tags loaded with paramagnetic lanthanide ions provide powerful long-range structure information, provided the location of the metal ion relative to the target protein is known. Usually, the metal position is determined by fitting the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (Δχ) tensor to the 3D structure of the protein in an 8-parameter fit, which requires a large set of PCSs to be reliable. In an alternative approach, we used multiple Gd(3+)-Gd(3+) distances measured by double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiments to define the metal position, allowing Δχ-tensor determinations from more robust 5-parameter fits that can be performed with a relatively sparse set of PCSs. Using this approach with the 32 kDa E. coli aspartate/glutamate binding protein (DEBP), we demonstrate a structural transition between substrate-bound and substrate-free DEBP, supported by PCSs generated by C3-Tm(3+) and C3-Tb(3+) tags attached to a genetically encoded p-azidophenylalanine residue. The significance of small PCSs was magnified by considering the difference between the chemical shifts measured with Tb(3+) and Tm(3+) rather than involving a diamagnetic reference. The integrative sparse data approach developed in this work makes poorly soluble proteins of limited stability amenable to structural studies in solution, without having to rely on cysteine mutations for tag attachment. PMID:26597990

  14. Suppression of sodium nuclear magnetic resonance double-quantum coherence by chemical shift and relaxation reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Robert B.; Huntley, James J. A.; Jin, Haoran; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    1992-12-01

    An investigation into the signal suppression behavior of the paramagnetic shift and relaxation reagents, Dy(P3O10)27- and Gd(P3O10)27-, with regard to their use in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of sodium has been performed. Measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time constants of sodium in normal saline, Krebs-Henseleit buffer, and human blood serum, as a function of concentration of these reagents showed that, although closely coupled in the saline and K-H buffer environments, in plasma T1 and T2 become decoupled, transverse relaxation dominating in comparison to longitudinal relaxation. Linewidth measurements further suggest that relaxation in the plasma milieu is controlled primarily by inherent T2 relaxation, rather than by field inhomogeneity or diffusion effects. Quantitative single-quantum (1Q) and double-quantum (2Q) intensity measurements, biexponential T2 relaxation measurements, and parametric studies of the preparation time of the 2Q pulse sequence, were obtained in suspensions of bovine serum albumin and human erythrocytes. The observed suppression of sodium 2Q coherence by paramagnetic shift and relaxation reagents was found to exhibit a complex behavior in albumin solutions, involving the biexponential T2 decay to be expected during the preparation time of the 2Q filter pulse sequence, as well as the optimum preparation time for production of the double-quantum coherence itself. The controlling factor for both of these effects is the biexponential amplitude function in the expression for the transverse magnetization observed following application of the 2Q pulse sequence. This in turn is determined entirely by the values for the slow and fast components of biexponential relaxation in sodium, which themselves depend upon the concentration of the macromolecular binding sites for quadrupolar interaction. A similar behavior has been observed in suspensions of human erythrocytes.

  15. Measurement of intravascular Na(+) during increased CBF using (23)Na NMR with a shift reagent.

    PubMed

    Ronen, I; Kim, S G

    2001-01-01

    Sodium ions are intimately involved with neural activity. Thus, it is highly desirable to devise a way of mapping brain activity via sodium imaging. Sodium ions exist in the extravascular and intravascular spaces. To separate the two components, the shift reagent Tm(DOTP)(5-) was intravenously introduced into rats. Intravascular sodium changes in the rat brain were measured during increased blood flow induced by hypercapnia using volume-localized (23)Na-NMR. The intravascular sodium changes, equivalent to cerebral blood volume changes, are significant during hypercapnia conditions and correlate well with the increase in arterial pCO(2). This suggests that the intravascular sodium change is dominant in total (23)Na spectroscopy or imaging of the brain during blood flow increase induced by external perturbation. PMID:11746937

  16. The effects of the NMR shift-reagents Dy(PPP)2, Dy(TTHA) and Tm(DOTP) on developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts. The role of shift-reagent calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Gaszner, B; Simor, T; Hild, G; Elgavish, G A

    2001-11-01

    The 23Na NMR shift-reagent complexes (Dy(PPP)2, Dy(TTHA), and Tm(DOTP)) bind stoichiometric amounts of Ca2+. Thus, in perfused rat heart systems, a supplementation of Ca2+ is required to maintain the requisite extracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(o)]f) and to approximate a physiological level of contractile function. The amount of reagent-bound Ca2+ in a heart perfusate that contains a shift-reagent depends on: (1) Ca2+ binding by excess ligand used during the preparation of the shift-reagent; and (2) the Ca2+ binding affinity of the shift-reagent. To address point 1), we introduced a 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopic titration method to quantify directly the concentration of the excess ligand. We also used this method to minimize the amount of excess ligand (L) and thus the amount of Ca*L complex. To address point (2), we determined the stepwise Kd (microm) values of the Ca complexes of the three shift-reagents.: Dy(PPP)2, Kd=0.09, Kd2=7.9; Dy(TTHA), Kd1=10.66, Kd2=10.12; and Tm(DOTP), K(d1)=0.502, Kd2=4.98. The Kd values of the Ca complexes of the phosphonate and triphosphate based shift-reagents, Tm(DOTP) and Dy(PPP)2, respectively, are lower than those of the polyaminocarboxylate-based Dy(TTHA), indicating stronger Ca binding affinities for the former two types of complexes. We have also shown a positive correlation between [Ca(o)]f and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) in perfused rat hearts. Dy(TTHA) has shown no effect on LVDP v[Ca(o)]f. The LVDP values in the presence of the phosphonate and triphosphate based shift-reagents, however, were significantly higher than expected from the [Ca(o)]f levels alone. Thus a positive inotropic effect, independent of [Ca(o)]f, is evident in the presence of Tm(DOTP) or Dy(PPP)2. PMID:11708840

  17. The solution structure of Ln (DOTP) 5- complexxes. A comparison of lanthanide-induced paramagnetic shifts with the MMX energy-minimized structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kiefer, Garry E.

    Complexes between the trivalent lanthanide ions and the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- N,N',N″,N‴-tetra(methylene phosphonate) (DOTP) have been examined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The proton spectra of the diamagnetic La(DOTP) 5- and Lu(DOTP) 5- complexes provide evidence for very rigid chelate structures with the ethylenediamine-containing chelate rings essentially locked into a single conformation at room temperature. The activation energy for ethylenediamine chelate ring interconversions in these complexes is approximately 100 kJ mol -1, considerably higher than that reported previously for the corresponding Ln(DOTA) - complexes (DOTA is the tetraacetate analog of DOTP). Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for all 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclei in 11 Ln(DOTP) 5- complexes. The proton spectra of these complexes display unusually large lanthanide-induced shifts, one showing a spectrum in which the 1H resonances span 900 ppm. The contact and pseudocontact contributions to these shifts were separated using Reilley's temperature-independent method and the resulting pseudocontact lanthanide-induced NMR shifts were in excellent agreement with those calculated for a structure derived using MMX molecular modeling methods. The pseudocontact shifts provide evidence for Ln (DOTP) 5- chelates which have virtually identical structures along the lanthanide series, with the possible exception of Tm(DOTP) 5-.

  18. Peptide-lanthanide cation equilibria in aqueous phase. I. Bound shifts for L-carnosine-praseodymium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoyan, J.; Asso, M.; Benlian, D.

    L-Carnosine complexes of Pr 3+ were characterized in aqueous solution by 1H NMR and potentiometric titration. A rigorous treatment of chemical shifts and pH variation data with lanthanide concentration is presented. Two different forms of the peptide ligand, forming simultaneously two complexes, were taken into account. At low pH values the cation is only coordinated at the carboxylate site of the ligand in a weak complex ( β2 = 6) whereas in neutral solution a stronger complex ( β1 = 37) is present as a consequence of the deprotonation of the imidazole ring. The computation of induced bound shifts † 2 and Δ1 for resonating nuclei of the peptide in both forms yields consistent figures. These provide the experimental basis for a conformational model which is usually not obtainable for labile complexes with low stability constants.

  19. Control of the IR-spectral shift via modification of the surface relief between the liquid crystal matrixes doped with the lanthanide nanoparticles and the solid substrate.

    PubMed

    Kamanina, N V; Zubtcova, Yu A; Kukharchik, A A; Lazar, C; Rau, I

    2016-01-25

    The influence of the surface nanostructured relief on the near IR-spectral shift and on the structural properties of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) materials doped with nanoparticles from lanthanide group has been considered. The relief mentioned above has been made on the interface between glass substrate with ITO-coatings and the LC mesophase. The specific feature of this relief is based on the applying of the contactless laser deposition technique and on the its modification by using surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) treated with SEW. The modified relief permits to orient LC molecules without direct polymer orienting layers and can be used as conducting layer too. The features mentioned above lead to decrease drastically the resistivity and the bias voltage as well as that permits to increase the transparency and reveal the near IR-shift in the spectral characteristics of the lanthanide-doped LC mesophase. PMID:26832580

  20. 23Na NMR study of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: comparison of three chemical shift reagents and calculation of sodium concentration using ionophores.

    PubMed

    Delort, Anne-Marie; Gaudet, Geneviève; Forano, Evelyne

    2002-07-15

    In order to measure intracellular sodium concentrations in resting cells of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 by (23)Na NMR spectrometry, two methodological aspects were studied. First, three different shift reagents (Dy(PPP(i))(7-)(2), Tm(DOTP)(5-), and Dy(TTHA)(3-)) were tested for their ability to separate internal and external (23)Na NMR resonances. Their toxicity toward F. succinogenes cells was evaluated by in vivo(13)C NMR experiments. Tm(DOTP)(5-) was found to be the most efficient shift reagent while being nontoxic. Second, a new methodology was developed to calculate intracellular sodium concentration in F. succinogenes by using ionophores. This approach avoided the problem of intracellular volume measurement and that of sodium visibility determination. PMID:12123653

  1. Aqueous shift reagents for high-resolution cation NMR. V. Thermodynamics of interaction of DyTTHA 3- with Na +, K +, Mg 2+ , and Ca 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Simon C.-K.; Qiu, Howard Z.-H.; Springer, Charles S.; Wishnia, Arnold

    Triethylenetetraminehexaacetate complexes of Dy(II) or Tm(III) (DyTTHA 3- and TmTTHA 3-, introduced as NMR shift reagents for alkali metal cations, Chu et al., J. Magn. Reson.56, 33 (1984) bind to the four major biological inorganic cations: Na +, K +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+. New 23Na and 39K NMR shift displacement data, obtained over wide and different ranges of concentration, were combined with the previous results (including some 25Mg data) for computer analysis. With a proper treatment of the relevant activity coefficients using Pitzer's formulas, it is established that only mono complexes of the shift reagent and a cation need be considered. The cations bind competitively, with nearly identical limiting shifts of 159 and 155 ppm for Na + and K +; the shift for 25Mg is {3}/{5} as large. The thermodynamic formation constants for M-LnTTHA are 11 and 18 M-1 with Na + and K + (enthalpy of binding, -54 kJ) , and 130 and 3100 M-1 with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ at 3°C. The results suggest that all the cations bind at the same site, with Mg 2+ probably forming a solvent-separated complex. The formation constants expected at 37°C indicate that, at useful shift reagent concentrations, and at physiological cation concentrations, DyTTHA 3- can be used not only to distinguish among cation pools but also for quantitative studies of cation relationships. In particular, 23Na signals might be used to report free extracellular Ca 2+ concentrations in vivo.

  2. Secret lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Sturza, C M

    2014-09-15

    Lanthanides are a group of 15 chemical elements which, together with their salts, have come to be used in the last decade as homoeopathic remedies. The effective introduction of lanthanides and their salts into the clinical use, as homoeopathic remedies was based on the idea of Jan Scholten, MD to relate their physicochemical properties shown in the periodic table of elements to their homoeopathic potential. The lanthanides and their salts were prepared as homoeopathic remedies by Pharmacist Robert Münz. PMID:25408760

  3. Secret Lanthanides

    PubMed Central

    Sturza, CM

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lanthanides are a group of 15 chemical elements which, together with their salts, have come to be used in the last decade as homoeopathic remedies. The effective introduction of lanthanides and their salts into the clinical use, as homoeopathic remedies was based on the idea of Jan Scholten, MD to relate their physicochemical properties shown in the periodic table of elements to their homoeopathic potential. The lanthanides and their salts were prepared as homoeopathic remedies by Pharmacist Robert Münz. PMID:25408760

  4. Characterization of a lanthanide complex encapsulated with MRI contrast agents into liposomes for biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS)

    PubMed Central

    Maritim, Samuel; Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Purposely-designed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes encapsulated in liposomes, which alter contrast by their paramagnetic effect on longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of tissue water, hold promise for molecular imaging. However a challenge with liposomal MRI probes that are solely dependent on enhancement of water relaxation is lack of specific molecular readouts, especially in strong paramagnetic environments, thereby reducing the potential for monitoring disease treatment (e.g., cancer) beyond the generated MRI contrast. Previously it has been shown that molecular imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting the signal of non-exchangeable protons emanating from paramagnetic lanthanide complexes themselves (e.g., TmDOTP5−, which is a Tm3+-containing biosensor based on a macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(methylene phosphonate), DOTP5−) with a method called Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS). Here we show that BIRDS is useful for molecular imaging with probes like TmDOTP5− even when they are encapsulated inside liposomes with ultra-strong T1 and T2 contrast agents (e.g., Magnevist and Molday ION, respectively). We demonstrate that molecular readouts like pH and temperature determined from probes like TmDOTP5− are resilient, because sensitivity of the chemical shifts to the probe’s environment is not compromised by presence of other paramagnetic agents contained within the same nanocarrier milieu. Because high liposomal encapsulation efficiency allows for robust MRI contrast and signal amplification for BIRDS, nanoengineered liposomal probes containing both monomers like TmDOTP5− and paramagnetic contrast agents could allow high spatial resolution imaging of disease diagnosis (with MRI) and status monitoring (with BIRDS). PMID:25304046

  5. Characterization of a lanthanide complex encapsulated with MRI contrast agents into liposomes for biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS).

    PubMed

    Maritim, Samuel; Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-12-01

    Purposely designed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes encapsulated in liposomes, which alter contrast by their paramagnetic effect on longitudinal (T₁) and transverse (T₂) relaxation times of tissue water, hold promise for molecular imaging. However, a challenge with liposomal MRI probes that are solely dependent on enhancement of water relaxation is lack of specific molecular readouts, especially in strong paramagnetic environments, thereby reducing the potential for monitoring disease treatment (e.g., cancer) beyond the generated MRI contrast. Previously, it has been shown that molecular imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting the signal of non-exchangeable protons emanating from paramagnetic lanthanide complexes themselves [e.g., TmDOTP⁵⁻, which is a Tm³⁺ -containing biosensor based on a macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(methylene phosphonate), DOTP⁵⁻] with a method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS). Here, we show that BIRDS is useful for molecular imaging with probes like TmDOTP⁵⁻ even when they are encapsulated inside liposomes with ultrastrong T₁and T₂contrast agents (e.g., Magnevist and Molday ION, respectively). We demonstrate that molecular readouts such as pH and temperature determined from probes like TmDOTP⁵⁻ are resilient, because the sensitivity of the chemical shifts to the probe's environment is not compromised by the presence of other paramagnetic agents contained within the same nanocarrier milieu. Because high liposomal encapsulation efficiency allows for robust MRI contrast and signal amplification for BIRDS, nanoengineered liposomal probes containing both monomers, TmDOTP⁵⁻ and paramagnetic contrast agents, could allow high spatial resolution imaging of disease diagnosis (with MRI) and status monitoring (with BIRDS). PMID:25304046

  6. The simultaneous binding of lanthanide and N-acetylglucosamine inhibitors to hen egg-white lysozyme in solution by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, S J; Johnson, L N; Phillips, D C; Dwek, R A

    1981-01-01

    Lanthanide ions and the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) sugars are able to bind simultaneously to hen egg-white lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17). The present study characterizes the properties of the ternary complexes with lysozyme, which involve up to seven paramagnetic lanthanides and two diamagnetic lanthanides, together with alpha GlcNAc, beta GlcNAc, alpha MeGlcNAc and beta MeGlcNAc. pH titrations and binding titrations of the GlcNAc sugars with lysozyme-La(III) complexes show that the GlcNAc sugars bind to at least two independent sites and that one of them competes with La(III) for binding to lysozyme. Given the known binding site of lanthanides at Asp-52 and Glu-35, the competitive binding site of GlcNAc is identified as subsite E. A simple analysis of the paramagnetic-lanthanide-induced shifts shows that the GlcNAc sugar binds in subsite C, in accordance with crystallographic results [Perkins, Johnson, Machin & Phillips (1979) Biochem. J. 181, 21-36]. This finding was refined by several computer analyses of the lanthanide-induced shifts of 17 proton and carbon resonances of beta MeGlcNAc. Good fits were obtained for all the signals, except for two that were affected by exchange broadening phenomena. No distinction could be made between a fit for a two-position model of Ln(III) binding with axial symmetry to lysozyme, according to the crystallographic result, or a one-position model with axial symmetry where the Ln(III) is positioned mid-way between Asp-52 and Glu-35. Although this work establishes the feasibility of lanthanide shift reagents for study of protein-ligand complexes, further work is required to establish the manner in which lanthanides bind to lysozyme in solution. PMID:7305947

  7. Ion-Pairing Interactions between Co(en)(3)(3+) and the (23)Na NMR Frequency Shift Reagent TmDOTP(5)(-).

    PubMed

    Ren, Jimin; Springer, Charles S.; Sherry, A. Dean

    1997-07-30

    Three new formulations of TmDOTP(5)(-) (DOTP(8)(-) = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,11-tetrakis(methylenephosphonate)) have been prepared in an effort to develop a low-osmolality form of the (23)Na frequency shift reagent (SR). Equally concentrated (0.32 M) solutions of (MegH)(4)HTmDOTP (Meg = N-methylglucamine or meglumine), Na(4)HTmDOTP, and [Co(en)(3)](4/3)HTmDOTP have solution osmolalities of 1245, 1040, and 707 mOsm/kg, respectively, comparable to the ionic and non-ionic gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent preparations in clinical use. An analysis of (23)Na and (59)Co frequency shifts induced by TmDOTP(5)(-) indicated that Co(en)(3)(3+) can form both 1:1 and 2:1 adducts with TmDOTP(5)(-) with (log) binding constants of 3.1 +/- 0.4 and 2.5 +/- 0.4, respectively. These values were comparable with those obtained by analysis of the (1)H frequency shifts observed for Co(en)(3)(3+) upon binding to HoDOTP(5)(-). The (1)H shifts of Co(en)(3)(3+) signals induced by YbDOTP(5)(-) at pH 7.4 were fitted best by a 1:1 binding model with a conditional binding constant of 3.1 +/- 0.2. The (59)Co and (1)H limiting frequency shifts of Co(en)(3)(3+) could be fitted with a dipolar shift model in which the Co atom of the Co(en)(3)(3+) cation is located 5.0 +/- 0.3 Å from the Ln atom of the LnDOTP(5)(-) chelate, and with an angle of 40 +/- 0.2 degrees between the Co-Ln vector and the 4-fold symmetry axis of the LnDOTP(5)(-) complex. Ion pairing of Co(en)(3)(3+) and TmDOTP(5)(-) was significant enough in both saline and human blood plasma to reduce the effectiveness of the (23)Na frequency SR. Comparisons between all formulations suggested that Na(4)HTmDOTP represents the best compromise of lower osmolality with minimal reduction of SR shift potency. PMID:11670028

  8. An encodable lanthanide binding tag with reduced size and flexibility for measuring residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts in large proteins.

    PubMed

    Barb, Adam W; Subedi, Ganesh P

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions serve important roles in structural biology applications from long-range perturbations seen in magnetic resonance experiments to electron-dense signatures in X-ray crystallography data; however, the metal ion must be secured in a molecular framework to achieve the maximum benefit. Polypeptide-based lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) represent one option that can be directly encoded within a recombinant protein expression construct. However, LBTs often exhibit significant mobility relative to the target molecule. Here we report the characterization of improved LBTs sequences for insertion into a protein loop. These LBTs were inserted to connect two parallel alpha helices of an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding Z domain platform. Variants A and B bound Tb(3+) with high affinity (0.70 and 0.13?M, respectively) and displayed restricted LBT motion. Compared to the parent construct, the metal-bound A experienced a 2.5-fold reduction in tag motion as measured by magnetic field-induced residual dipolar couplings and was further studied in a 72.2kDa complex with the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) glycoprotein. The appearance of both pseudo-contact shifts (-0.221 to 0.081ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (-7.6 to 14.3Hz) of IgG1 Fc resonances in the IgG1 Fc:(variant A:Tb(3+))2 complex indicated structural restriction of the LBT with respect to the Fc. These studies highlight the applicability of improved LBT sequences with reduced mobility to probe the structure of macromolecular systems. PMID:26728077

  9. Method bacterial endospore quantification using lanthanide dipicolinate luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian (Inventor); Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor); Kirby, James Patrick (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A lanthanide is combined with a medium to be tested for endospores. The dipicolinic acid released from the endospores binds the lanthanides, which have distinctive emission (i.e., luminescence) spectra, and are detected using photoluminescence. The concentration of spores is determined by preparing a calibration curve generated from photoluminescence spectra of lanthanide complex mixed with spores of a known concentration. A lanthanide complex is used as the analysis reagent, and is comprised of lanthanide ions bound to multidentate ligands that increase the dipicolinic acid binding constant through a cooperative binding effect with respect to lanthanide chloride. The resulting combined effect of increasing the binding constant and eliminating coordinated water and multiple equilibria increase the sensitivity of the endospore assay by an estimated three to four orders of magnitude over prior art of endospore detection based on lanthanide luminescence.

  10. Zwitterionic sulfonates as m/z shift reagents for 5-methylcytosine detection in deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) using flow injection analysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Podjava, Anton; Kistkin, Svjatoslav; Ausekle, Elina; Mekss, Peteris; Zicmanis, Andris

    2015-01-01

    5-Methylcytosine (5-MC) is an important epigenetic modification of DNA. Abnormally high concentrations of this substance appear because of the hypermethylation of cytosine. Therefore, the measurement of the quantity of this compound in mammals is of great importance. Recently, we reported that several imidazolium-based zwitterionic sulfonates form complexes with 5-MC in solution, which can be studied by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It is shown in this paper that such an association can be utilised for the detection of 5-MC in a DNA sample using high-throughput a flow injection analysis ESI-MS method. A variety of the sulfonate zwitterions have been tested as m/z shift reagents to increase the selectivity of the analysis. It is shown that either of the zwitterions can be used without the loss of sensitivity. The performance of the method was tested in terms of linearity range, sensitivity, intra- and between-day precision and accuracy, matrix effect and carryover. The method described is characterised by simplicity, a good limit of quantitation (1 pg injected) and low run times (at least 50 injections per hour). In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry are not required. The possibility exists to widen the scope of the method to other amidine-containing compounds present in more complicated matrices. PMID:26353988

  11. Luminescent lanthanide chelates and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Selvin, Paul R.; Hearst, John

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides lanthanide chelates capable of intense luminescence. The celates comprise a lanthanide chelator covalently joined to a coumarin-like or quinolone-like sensitizer. Exemplary sensitzers include 2- or 4-quinolones, 2- or 4-coumarins, or derivatives thereof e.g. carbostyril 124 (7-amino-4-methyl-2-quinolone), coumarin 120 (7-amino-4-methyl-2-coumarin), coumarin 124 (7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-coumarin), aminomethyltrimethylpsoralen, etc. The chelates form high affinity complexes with lanthanides, such as terbium or europium, through chelator groups, such as DTPA. The chelates may be coupled to a wide variety of compounds to create specific labels, probes, diagnostic and/or therapeutic reagents, etc. The chelates find particular use in resonance energy transfer between chelate-lanthanide complexes and another luminescent agent, often a fluorescent non-metal based resonance energy acceptor. The methods provide useful information about the structure, conformation, relative location and/or interactions of macromolecules.

  12. Fracture-resistant lanthanide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2011-01-04

    Lanthanide halide alloys have recently enabled scintillating gamma ray spectrometers comparable to room temperature semiconductors (<3% FWHM energy resolutions at 662 keV). However brittle fracture of these materials upon cooling hinders the growth of large volume crystals. Efforts to improve the strength through non-lanthanide alloy substitution, while preserving scintillation, have been demonstrated. Isovalent alloys having nominal compositions of comprising Al, Ga, Sc, Y, and In dopants as well as aliovalent alloys comprising Ca, Sr, Zr, Hf, Zn, and Pb dopants were prepared. All of these alloys exhibit bright fluorescence under UV excitation, with varying shifts in the spectral peaks and intensities relative to pure CeBr.sub.3. Further, these alloys scintillate when coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and exposed to .sup.137Cs gamma rays.

  13. Optical purity determination and 1H NMR spectral simplification with lanthanide shift reagents—VI. Methohexital, α- dl-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-2-pentynyl) barbituric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothchild, Robert; Simons, Paul

    The 60 MHz 1H NMR spectra of racemic methohexital, 1, have been studied with the achiral shift reagent, tris(6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2,-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato) europium( III), 2, and the chiral tris[3-(trifluoromethylhydroxymethylene)- d-camphorato] europium( III), 3. Appreciable values of the enantiomeric shift differences, ΔΔδ, were observed at low molar ratios of 3:1 for the NHC 3 and CH3CH in CDCl 3 at 28°C for samples about 0.3 molal in 1. Optical purity determinations should easily be carried out using the CH3CH resonance at 3:1 ratios as low as 0.067 (ΔΔδ = 0.103 ppm) or within a range of 3:1 ratios from about 0.3 to 0.55. Enantiomeric shift differences of 0.43 and 0.25 ppm were found for the NCH 3 and CH3CH, respectively, with a 3:1 ratio of 0.575. The latter absorption is preferable for quantitative assays because of freedom from overlap with other protons. Parallel studies with 2 as well as coupling constants support proton assignments.

  14. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    DOEpatents

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  15. Lanthanide porphyrin complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The review summarizes literature data and results of the author's research on the synthesis, properties and possible fields of practical application of lanthanide porphyrin complexes. Emphasis is given to the application of luminescence properties of lanthanide derivatives in medicine. The bibliography includes 108 references

  16. Ionization Energies of Lanthanides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Peter F.; Smith, Barry C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how data are used to analyze the pattern of ionization energies of the lanthanide elements. Different observed pathways of ionization between different ground states are discussed, and the effects of pairing, exchange, and orbital interactions on ionization energies of the lanthanides are evaluated. When all the above…

  17. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  18. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  19. Thermolysis of lanthanide dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Boncher, William L.; Regulacio, Michelle D.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2010-01-15

    Polycrystalline lanthanide sulfide materials were formed at low temperatures using a single-source precursor based on the lanthanide dithiocarbamate complex. The synthesis temperatures are generally lower than standard solid state preparations, avoid toxic sulfurizing gases and provide a convenient route to prepare lanthanide chalcogenide nanoparticles. Depending on the reaction conditions and oxophilicity of the lanthanide, the sulfide material was formed with oxidized products including oxysulfides, oxysulfates and the oxide. - Graphical abstract: Polycrystalline lanthanide sulfide materials were formed at low temperatures using a single-source precursor based on the lanthanide dithiocarbamate complex.

  20. Thermolysis of lanthanide dithiocarbamate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncher, William L.; Regulacio, Michelle D.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline lanthanide sulfide materials were formed at low temperatures using a single-source precursor based on the lanthanide dithiocarbamate complex. The synthesis temperatures are generally lower than standard solid state preparations, avoid toxic sulfurizing gases and provide a convenient route to prepare lanthanide chalcogenide nanoparticles. Depending on the reaction conditions and oxophilicity of the lanthanide, the sulfide material was formed with oxidized products including oxysulfides, oxysulfates and the oxide.

  1. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  2. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Corneillie, Todd M.; Xu, Jide

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  3. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  4. Evaluation of Multiple-Quantum-Filtered 23Na NMR in Monitoring Intracellular Na Content in the Isolated Perfused Rat Heart in the Absence of a Chemical-Shift Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauskela, Joseph S.; Dizon, Jos M.; Whang, John; Katz, Jos

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of employing triple-quantum-filtered (TQF) or double-quantum-filtered (DQF)23Na NMR spectra to monitor intracellular Na (Nain) content in isolated rat hearts perfused in the absence of a chemical-shift reagent (SR) was investigated. This necessitated characterization of the following: first, the pool of Nainrepresented by the intracellular TQF (TQFin) spectrum; second, the maximum extent to which altered transverse relaxation times affect TQFinspectral amplitudes; and finally, the situations for which the SR-free method can reliably be applied. The rates of increase in peak amplitudes of both intracellular TQF spectra, adjusted for changes in both fast (T2f) and slow (T2s) transverse relaxation times, and intracellular single-quantum (SQin) spectra were identical during no-flow ischemia, indicating that TQFinand SQinspectra represent the same Nainpopulation. Addition of an Na/K ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (?500 ?M), and no-flow ischemia induced similar rates of increase of Naincontent. However, the Nainlevel for which theT2values started to increase was lower for ischemic (<140% of preischemic values) than for ouabain-exposed (>165%) hearts, which is consistent with the known earlier onset of intracellular swelling in ischemic hearts. Exposure of hearts to hyperosmotic perfusate (200 mMsucrose) increased [Nain], due to a decreased cell volume and an unchanged Naincontent, but caused a decrease inT2values, a trend opposite to that observed with exposure of hearts to ouabain or ischemia.T2values therefore consistently correlated only with cell volume, not with Naincontent or concentration, indicating an important role for intracellular macromolecule concentration in modulating transverse relaxation behavior. The combined effect of ischemia-induced increases inT2values and their inhomogeneous broadened forms was an ?6% overestimation of Naincontent from amplitudes of SR-aided TQFinspectra, indicating negligible effect of transverse relaxation-dependent alterations on TQFinspectral amplitudes. Thus, Naincontent may be reliably determined from SR-free TQF spectra when the contribution from extracellular Na does not appreciably vary, such as during constant pressure perfusion. Following complete reduction in perfusion pressure, both SR-free TQF and DQF spectra respond to increases in Naincontent. However, SR-free DQF NMR provides an estimate of Naincontent much closer to that provided by the SR-aided method, due to the appreciable decrease of the extracellular DQF signal resulting from destructive interference between second- and third-rank tensors.

  5. Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1 M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 44 references, 4 tables.

  6. Bifunctional organophosphorus liquid-liquid extraction reagents: development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, W.W.; Navratil, J.D.

    1984-03-13

    American and Russian workers have evidenced great interest in the last decade in the potential application of certain neutral and acidic bifunctional organophosphorus compounds in solvent extraction processes. Triggering this interest is the ability of some carbamoylmethylenephosphorus (CMP) and carbamoylmethylenephosphine oxide (CMPO) compounds to extract trivalent actinides and lanthanides from strong HNO/sub 3/ (>1M) solutions, a property which distinguishes them from monofunctional organophosphorus reagents. Investigators at several US Department of Energy laboratories have concentrated on synthesis of novel CMP and CMPO reagents and on reactions and mechanisms involved in extraction of metal ions from aqueous nitrate media; application of selected CMP and CMPO reagents in solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane recovery of metal values from nuclear waste solutions have been proposed. This paper, based upon a book now in preparation, provides a brief overview of the current status of the development and application of bifunctional organophosphorus extractants. 42 references, 4 tables.

  7. Advancing the scientific basis of trivalent actinide-lanthanide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    2013-07-01

    For advanced fuel cycles designed to support transmutation of transplutonium actinides, several options have been demonstrated for process-scale aqueous separations for U, Np, Pu management and for partitioning of trivalent actinides and fission product lanthanides away from other fission products. The more difficult mutual separation of Am/Cm from La-Tb remains the subject of considerable fundamental and applied research. The chemical separations literature teaches that the most productive alternatives to pursue are those based on ligand donor atoms less electronegative than O, specifically N- and S-containing complexants and chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). These 'soft-donor' atoms have exhibited usable selectivity in their bonding interactions with trivalent actinides relative to lanthanides. In this report, selected features of soft donor reagent design, characterization and application development will be discussed. The roles of thiocyanate, aminopoly-carboxylic acids and lactate in separation processes are detailed. (authors)

  8. Aromatic triamide-lanthanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  9. Citrate based ``TALSPEAK`` lanthanide-actinide separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Bond, W.D.; Toth, L.M.; Davis, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The potential hazard posed to future generations by long-lived radionuclides such as the transuranic elements (TRU) is perceived as a major problem associated with the use of nuclear power. TRU wastes have to remain isolated from the environment for ``geological`` periods of time. The costs of building, maintaining, and operating a ``geological TRU repository`` can be very high. Therefore, there are significant economical advantages in segregating the relatively low volume of TRU wastes from other nuclear wastes. The chemical behavior of lanthanides and actinides, 4f and 5f elements respectively, is rather similar. As a consequence, the separation of these two groups is difficult. The ``TALSPEAK`` process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. The method is based on the preferential complexation of the trivalent actinides by an aminopolyacetic acid. Cold experiments showed that by using citric acid the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium are greatly reduced.

  10. Use of Protein Folding Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    The reagents and methods for purification of the most commonly used denaturants guanidine hydrochloride (guanidine-HCl) and urea are described. Other protein denaturants and reagents used to fold proteins are briefly mentioned. Sulfhydryl reagents (reducing agents) and “oxido-shuffling” (or oxidative regeneration) systems are also described. PMID:18429069

  11. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  12. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays.

    SciTech Connect

    Anstey, Mitchell; Fruetel, Julia A.; Foster, Michael E.; Hayden, Carl C.; Buckley, Heather L.; Arnold, John

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves %22Click%22 chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  13. The Lanthanide Contraction beyond Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ferru, Geoffroy; Reinhart, Benjamin; Bera, Mrinal K; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Qiao, Baofu; Ellis, Ross J

    2016-05-10

    The lanthanide contraction is conceptualized traditionally through coordination chemistry. Here we break this mold in a structural study of lanthanide ions dissolved in an amphiphilic liquid. The lanthanide contraction perturbs the weak interactions between molecular aggregates that drive mesoscale assembly and emergent behavior. The weak interactions correlate with lanthanide ion transport properties, suggesting new strategies for rare-earth separation that exploit forces outside of the coordination sphere. PMID:27060294

  14. Magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for a lanthanide ion series in a fixed protein matrix.

    PubMed

    Bertini, I; Janik, M B; Lee, Y M; Luchinat, C; Rosato, A

    2001-05-01

    The full series of lanthanide ions (except the radioactive promethium and the S-state gadolinium) has been incorporated into the C-terminal calcium binding site of the dicalcium protein calbindin D(9k). A fairly constant coordination environment is maintained throughout the series. At variance with several lanthanide complexes with small chelating ligands investigated in the past, the large protein moiety provides a large number of NMR signals whose hyperfine shifts can be exclusively ascribed to pseudocontact shifts (PCS). The chemical shifts of 1H and 15N backbone and side chain amide NH groups were accurately measured through HSQC experiments. 1097 PCS were estimated from these by subtracting the diamagnetic contributions measured on HSQC spectra of either the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) or the 4f(14) lutetium(III) derivatives and used to define a quality factor for the structure. The differences in diamagnetic chemical shifts between the two diamagnetic blanks were relatively small, although some were not negligible especially for the nuclei closest to the metal center. These differences were used as a tolerance for the PCS. The magnetic susceptibility tensor anisotropies for each paramagnetic lanthanide ion were obtained as the result of the solution structure determination performed by using the NOEs of the cerium(III) derivative and the PCS of all lanthanides simultaneously. This set of reliable magnetic data permits an experimental assessment of Bleaney's theory relative to the magnetic properties for an extended series of lanthanide complexes in solution. All of the obtained tensors show some rhombicity, as could be expected from the lack of symmetry of the protein environment. The directions of the largest magnetic susceptibility component for Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, and Ho and of the smallest magnetic susceptibility component for Eu, Er, Tm, and Yb were found to be all within 15 degrees from their average (within 20 degrees for Sm), confirming the essential similarity of the coordination environment for all lanthanides. Bleaney's theory is in excellent qualitative agreement with the observed pattern of axial anisotropies. Its quantitative agreement is substantially better than that suggested by previous analyses performed on more limited sets of PCS data for small lanthanide complexes, the so-called crystal field parameter varying only within +/-30% from one lanthanide to another. These variations are even smaller (+/-15%) if a reasonable T(-3) correction is taken into consideration. A knowledge of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy properties of lanthanides is essential in determining the self-orienting properties of lanthanide complexes in solution when immersed in magnetic fields. PMID:11457182

  15. Volatile chemical reagent detector

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan; Wang, Rong; Whitten, David

    2004-08-24

    A device for detecting volatile chemical reagents based on fluorescence quenching analysis that is capable of detecting neutral electron acceptor molecules. The device includes a fluorescent material, a contact region, a light source, and an optical detector. The fluorescent material includes at least one polymer-surfactant complex. The polymer-surfactant complex is formed by combining a fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer with an oppositely charged surfactant. The polymer-surfactant complex may be formed in a polar solvent and included in the fluorescent material as a solution. Alternatively, the complex may be included in the fluorescent material as a thin film. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex in the fluorescent material allows the device to detect both neutral and ionic acceptor molecules. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex film allows the device and the fluorescent material to be reusable after exposing the fluorescent material to a vacuum for limited time.

  16. Perturbation of the racemic equilibrium between D{sub 3} lanthanide complexes through the addition of sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Huskowska, E.; Riehl, J.P.

    1995-10-25

    The enantiomeric excess of a lanthanide (III) 2,6-pyridinecarboxylate complex in the presence of chiral sugars was monitored using luminescence spectroscopy. While no structural change was observed for the RE complexes, correlation between sugar concentration and enantiomeric excess was found to be linear. A model based on equilibrium association between the complexes and sugar molecules in the outer sphere is used to explain the shift in the enantiomeric excess for the lanthanide complexes.

  17. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species". Sets of reagents, i.e., monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies, that can identify the major leukocy...

  18. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine, and aquaculture species. Sets of reagents, i.e. monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (Ab), that can identify the major leu...

  19. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    PubMed

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  20. Strategy for photostable proximity bioassays using lanthanides

    PubMed Central

    Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    We report initial findings for research aimed at creating photostable lanthanide chelate reporters for proximity assays. These reporters take advantage of the nanometer scale distance dependence of fluorescence enhancement for molecules in the vicinity of noble metal nanoparticles and also capitalize on some unique properties of lanthanide chelates. This approach promises to lead to proximity assays that do not suffer from photobleaching and offer very high on/off enhancement ratios. Results for lanthanide chelates on silver island films and in colloidal suspensions are reported. Enhancement factors range from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, with larger enhancements for strongly quenched lanthanides. PMID:17356638

  1. Retention studies on uranium, thorium and lanthanides with amide modified reverse phase support and its applications.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ch Siva Kesava; Subramanian, M S; Sivaraman, N; Srinivasan, T G; Vasudeva Rao, P R

    2007-07-13

    The retention behaviour of uranium and thorium was investigated on modified reverse phase supports using 3-oxo-pentanedioicacid bis-[bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-amide (OPAEHA), 3-oxo-pentanedioicacid bis diisobutyl amide (OPAIBA) and bis-2-ethylhexyl succinamic acid (BEHSA). alpha-Hydroxy isobutyric acid (alpha-HIBA) was employed as the complexing reagent for elution. Elution profiles of uranium and thorium were studied as a function of the modifier concentration, mobile phase composition and its pH. Based on these investigations, a novel high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based separation technique was developed using BEHSA modified support for the isolation and quantitative determination of lanthanides as a group in uranium matrix. Hundreds of samples obtained from pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salts containing lanthanides in uranium matrix (e.g. 1:20,000) were separated and determined within 7 min using the coated support. The advantage of the present HPLC technique lies in the simultaneous separation and assay of total lanthanides and uranium whereas other analytical methods necessitate the separation of uranium matrix prior to lanthanide assay. PMID:17240383

  2. Lanthanide mixed ligand chelates for DNA profiling and latent fingerprint detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, E. R.; Allred, Clay

    1997-02-01

    It is our aim to develop a universally applicable latent fingerprint detection method using lanthanide (rare-earth) complexes as a source of luminescence. Use of these lanthanide complexes offers advantages on several fronts, including benefits from large Stokes shifts, long luminescence lifetimes, narrow emissions, ability of sequential assembly of complexes, and chemical variability of the ligands. Proper exploitation of these advantages would lead to a latent fingerprint detection method superior to any currently available. These same characteristics also lend themselves to many of the problems associated with DNA processing in the forensic science context.

  3. ITP of lanthanides in microfluidic PMMA chip.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yongzheng; Bottenus, Danny; Liu, Bingwen; Clark, Sue B; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2014-03-01

    An ITP separation of eight lanthanides on a serpentine PMMA microchip with a tee junction and a 230-mm-long serpentine channel is described. The cover of the PMMA chip is 175 μm thick so that a C(4) D in microchip mode can be used to detect the lanthanides as they migrate through the microchannel. Acetate and α-hydroxyisobutyric acid are used as complexing agents to increase the electrophoretic mobility difference between the lanthanides. Eight lanthanides are concentrated within ∼ 6 min by ITP in the microchip using 10 mM ammonium acetate at pH 4.5 as the leading electrolyte and 10 mM acetic acid at ∼ pH 3.0 as the terminating electrolyte. In addition, a 2D numerical simulation of the lanthanides undergoing ITP in the microchip is compared with experimental results using COMSOL Multiphysics v4.3a. PMID:24258617

  4. New reagents for coal desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Kalembasa, S.; Olson, D.; Wang, Shan; Warfel, L. )

    1991-01-01

    In this project, possible new reagents and reactions to remove organic sulfur from coal are being evaluated. Reagent screening and development reactions utilize substitute thiophenes plus aryl and alkyl sulfides as the initial models for organic sulfur compounds in coal. The organosulfur compounds in solvent extracts of Illinois coals will serve as second generation models for the organic sulfur found in coal. The reagent formed by sodium borohydride reduction of nickel chloride in ethanol nickel boride'' was shown to convert several organic sulfur compounds to the corresponding hydrocarbon at 50--78{degree}C, 1 atmosphere pressure within 2 hours. To date the best conversion is a 31% conversion of dibezothiophene (DBT) to biphenyl. Benzothiophene, benzyl sulfide, and octyl sulfide are all desulfurized to lesser extents although reactions have not been optimized in terms of temperature or reagents. Possible soluble reagents based on this system and other nickel salts are under investigation. The partial reduction product form DBT, 2-phenylthiophenol, is formed in addition to biphenyl when DBT is reduced with Ni/Al alloy and NaOH or with K/THF and electron transfer agents. An authentic sample of this thiol was synthesized for identification and use in future desulfurization reactions. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Toxicological and cytophysiological aspects of lanthanides action.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, A; Czekaj, P

    2000-01-01

    Lanthanides, also called rare-earth elements, are an interesting group of 15 chemically active, mainly trivalent, f-electronic, silvery-white metals. In fact, lanthanides are not as rare as the name implies, except for promethium, a radioactive artificial element not found in nature. The mean concentrations of lanthanides in the earth's crust are comparable to those of life-important elements like iodine, cobalt and selenium. Many lanthanide compounds show particular magnetic, catalytic and optic properties, and that is why their technical applications are so extensive. Numerous industrial sources enable lanthanides to penetrate into the human body and therefore detailed toxicological studies of these metals are necessary. In the liver, gadolinium selectively inhibits secretion by Kupffer cells and it decreases cytochrome P450 activity in hepatocytes, thereby protecting liver cells against toxic products of xenobiotic biotransformation. Praseodymium ion (Pr3+) produces the same protective effect in liver tissue cultures. Cytophysiological effects of lanthanides appear to result from the similarity of their cationic radii to the size of Ca2+ ions. Trivalent lanthanide ions, especially La3+ and Gd3+, block different calcium channels in human and animal cells. Lanthanides can affect numerous enzymes: Dy3+ and La3+ block Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase, while Eu3+ and Tb3+ inhibit calcineurin. In neurons, lanthanide ions regulate the transport and release of synaptic transmitters and block some membrane receptors, e.g. GABA and glutamate receptors. It is likely that lanthanides significantly and uniquely affect biochemical pathways, thus altering physiological processes in the tissues of humans and animals. PMID:11996100

  6. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  7. Separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1988-03-31

    An organic extracting solution and an extraction method useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form is described. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4- dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  8. Chemical Amplification with Encapsulated Reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Koemer, Steffi; Craig, Stephen; Lin, Shirley; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Autocatalysis and chemical amplification are characteristic properties of living systems, and they give rise to behaviors such as increased sensitivity, responsiveness, and self-replication. Here we report a synthetic system in which a unique form of compartmentalization leads to nonlinear, autocatalytic behavior. The compartment is a reversibly formed capsule in which a reagent is sequestered. Reaction products displace the reagent from the capsule into solution and the reaction rate is accelerated. The resulting self-regulation is sensitive to the highly selective molecular recognition properties of the capsule.

  9. The role of lanthanides in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    A survey is presented of the use of the lanthanides as chemical components in transmitting optical materials and as activators in materials for luminescent, electro-optic, magneto-optic, and various photosensitive applications.

  10. US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network: Prioritization & Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network represents a broad community plan to begin to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle), swine, poultry (primarily chickens)...

  11. New phosphonate reagents for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to unbranched- or methyl-branched unsaturated aldehydes. The phosphonate reagents, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone and diethyl ethylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone, contained a protected...

  12. Octupole effects in the lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Phillips, W. R.; Durell, J. L.; Leddy, M. J.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Schulz, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L. R.

    1999-10-22

    Arrays of Anti-Compton Spectrometer enabled systematic investigations of octupole correlations in the neutron-rich lanthanides. The studies mostly confirm the theoretical expectations of moderate octupole deformation at medium spins in nuclei from this region but in some cases predictions deviate from the experiment. In cesium isotopes strong octupole effects are predicted but not observed and new measurements for {sup 139}Xe suggest octupole effects stronger than expected. Systematics of excitation energy of the 31 states excitations, updated in the present work for Xe isotopes, indicates the N=85 and Z=54 lines as borders for strong octupole correlations. Systematic of electric dipole moment, upgraded in the present work for Ca and Ce isotopes confirms the Z=54 limit and adds new information about local canceling of electric dipole moment at the N=90 neutron number.

  13. Rapid Separation of Beryllium and Lanthanide Derivatives by Capillary Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Lucke, Richard B.; Douglas, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies describe derivatization of metal ions followed by analysis using gas chromatography, usually on packed columns. In many of these studies, stable and volatile derivatives were formed using fluorinated -diketonate reagents. This paper extends previous work by investigating separations of the derivatives on small-diameter capillary gas chromatography columns and exploring on-fiber, solid-phase microextraction derivatization techniques for beryllium. The -diketonate used for these studies was 1,1,1,2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione. Derivatization of lanthanides also required addition of a neutral donor, dibutyl sulfoxide, in addition to 1,1,1,2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione. Un-optimized separations on a 100-µm i.d. capillary column proved capable of rapid separations (within 15 min) of lanthanide derivatives that are adjacent to one another in the periodic table. Full-scan mass spectra were obtained from derivatives containing 5 ng of each lanthanide. Studies also developed a simple on-fiber solid-phase microextraction derivatization of beryllium. Beryllium could be analyzed in the presence of other alkali earth elements [Ba(II) and Sr(II)] without interference. Extension of the general approach was demonstrated for several additional elements [i.e., Cu(II), Cr(III), and Ga(III)].

  14. Flow injection analysis with immobilized reagents.

    PubMed

    Hall, E A

    1991-02-01

    Immobilized reagent phase flow injection analysis can be configured as discrete reagent cells upstream of the sensor element or as an integral reagent/transduction system (flow injection analysis-biosensor). The former approach has attracted greater attention because several assays can be assembled with greater versatility in reagent column units employing a single sensor, than can be co-immobilized on the surface of a transducer. PMID:1367714

  15. Cine Substitution with Arylzinc Reagents: Scope and Mechanistic Studies.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Santiago; Lemaire, Sébastien; Farina, Vittorio; Steib, Andreas K; Blanc, Romain; Knochel, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The unexpected ability of arylzinc reagents bearing electron-donating substituents to react in a Friedel-Crafts fashion (cine) with electrophiles like perpivaloylated glucoside bromide and benzhydryl bromides in competition with organometallic coupling (ipso) is shown. The stereoelectronic factors required to promote the cine reactivity versus the classical ipso, and the mechanism of this alternative pathway, have been investigated. The Wheland intermediate is deprotonated intramolecularly in a 1,2-shift but also in a longer-range shift, leaving in this case the C-Zn untouched. In the latter case, it is possible to take advantage of this result for further functionalization. PMID:26914598

  16. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  17. LANTHANIDE ENHANCE LUMINESCENCE (LEL) WITH ONE AND TWO PHOTON EXCITATION OF QUANTUM DYES LANTHANIDE (III) - MACROCYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Lanthanide Enhance Luminescence (LEL) with one and two photon excitation of Quantum Dyes? Lanthanide(III)-Macrocycles
    Principal Author:
    Robert C. Leif, Newport Instruments
    Secondary Authors:
    Margie C. Becker, Phoenix Flow Systems
    Al Bromm, Virginia Commonw...

  18. Multicolor tuning of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles by single wavelength excitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Xiaogang

    2014-04-15

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles exhibit unique luminescent properties, including large Stokes shift, sharp emission bandwidth, high resistance to optical blinking, and photobleaching, as well as the unique ability to convert long-wavelength stimulation into short-wavelength emission. These attributes are particularly needed for developing luminescent labels as alternatives to organic fluorophores and quantum dots. In recent years, the well-recognized advantages of upconversion nanocrystals as biomarkers have been manifested in many important applications, such as highly sensitive molecular detection and autofluorescence-free cell imaging. However, their potential in multiplexed detection and multicolor imaging is rarely exploited, largely owing to the research lagging on multicolor tuning of these particles. Lanthanide doping typically involves an insulating host matrix and a trace amount of lanthanide dopants embedded in the host lattice. The luminescence observed from these doped crystalline materials primarily originates from electronic transitions within the [Xe]4f(n) configuration of the lanthanide dopants. Thus a straightforward approach to tuning the emission is to dope different lanthanide activators in the host lattice. Meanwhile, the host lattice can exert a crystal field around the lanthanide dopants and sometimes may even exchange energy with the dopants. Therefore, the emission can also be modulated by varying the host materials. Recently, the advance in synthetic methods toward high quality core-shell nanocrystals has led to the emergence of new strategies for emission modulation. These strategies rely on precise control over either energy exchange interactions between the dopants or energy transfer involving other optical entities. To provide a set of criteria for future work in this field, we attempt to review general and emerging strategies for tuning emission spectra through lanthanide doping. With significant progress made over the past several years, we now are able to design and fabricate nanoparticles displaying tailorable optical properties. In particular, we show that, by rational control of different combinations of dopants and dopant concentration, a wealth of color output can be generated under single-wavelength excitation. Strikingly, unprecedented single-band emissions can be obtained by careful selection of host matrices. By incorporating a set of lanthanide ions at defined concentrations into different layers of a core-shell structure, the emission spectra of the particles are largely expanded to cover almost the entire visible region, which is hardly accessible by conventional bulk phosphors. Importantly, we demonstrate that an inert-shell coating provides the particles with stable emission against perturbation in surrounding environments, paving the way for their applications in the context of biological networks. PMID:24611606

  19. Nonaqueous method for dissolving lanthanide and actinide metals

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Lanthanide and actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a lanthanide or actinide element in the elemental metallic state in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol.

  20. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth L. Nash

    2009-09-22

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, 2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their academic experience. New information has been developed to qualify the extraction potential of a class of pyridine-functionalized tetraaza complexants indicating potential single contact Am-Nd separation factors of about 40. The methodology developed for characterization will find further application in our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize new reagents for this separation. Significant new insights into the performance envelope and supporting information on the TALSPEAK process has also been developed.

  1. Extraction of actinide and lanthanide complexonates in potassium carbonate-poly(ethylene glycol)-water two-phase aqueous system

    SciTech Connect

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Spivakov, B.Ya.; Zolotov, Yu.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1988-09-01

    An extraction system based on poly(ethylene glycol) for preconcentrating, isolating and separating actinides, is proposed. The extraction of actinides and lanthanides in a potassium carbonate-poly(ethylene glycol)-water two-phase aqueous system in the presence of various complexones was studied. Trivalent actinides are quantitatively extracted by poly(ethylene glycol) from potassium carbonate solutions in a system with Xylenol Orange and alizarin complexone. Under these conditions, uranium (VI) and plutonium (IV) are extracted inappreciably into a phase enriched with poly(ethylene glycol), so that they can be separated from trivalent actinides with a separation factor of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 3/. To separate actinides and lanthanides, two complexones were introduced into the system, one of which served as an extractant, and the other as a masking reagent. The best results were obtained for a mixture of Xylenol Orange and hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid. The separation coefficients of americium and europium are 4.5-5.6.

  2. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  3. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  4. Precise Determination of Enantiomeric Excess by a Sensitivity Enhanced Two-Dimensional Band-Selective Pure-Shift NMR.

    PubMed

    Rachineni, Kavitha; Kakita, Veera Mohana Rao; Dayaka, Satyanarayana; Vemulapalli, Sahithya Phani Babu; Bharatam, Jagadeesh

    2015-07-21

    Unambiguous identification and precise quantification of enantiomers in chiral mixtures is crucial for enantiomer specific synthesis as well as chemical analysis. The task is often challenging for mixtures with high enantiomeric excess and for complex molecules with strong (1)H-(1)H scalar (J) coupling network. The recent advancements in (1)H-(1)H decoupling strategies to suppress the J-interactions offered new possibilities for NMR based unambiguous discrimination and quantification enantiomers. Herein, we discuss a high resolution two-dimensional pure-shift zCOSY NMR method with homonuclear band-selective decoupling in both the F1 and F2 dimensions (F1F2-HOBS-zCOSY). This advanced method shows a sharp improvement in resolution over the other COSY methods and also eliminates the problems associated with the overlapping decoupling sidebands. The efficacy of this method has been exploited for precise quantification of enantiomeric excess (ee) ratio (R/S) up to 99:1 in the presence of very low concentrations of chiral lanthanide shift reagents (CLSR) or chiral solvating agents (CSA). The F1F2-HOBS-zCOSY is simple and can be easily implemented on any modern NMR spectrometers, as a routine analytical tool. PMID:26091767

  5. Switchable sensitizers stepwise lighting up lanthanide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Xu, Hai-Bing; Tang, Ming-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Shaoming; Deng, Jian-Guo

    2015-03-01

    Analagous to a long-ranged rocket equipped with multi-stage engines, a luminescent compound with consistent emission signals across a large range of concentrations from two stages of sensitizers can be designed. In this approach, ACQ, aggregation-caused quenching effect of sensitizers, would stimulate lanthanide emission below 10-4 M, and then at concentrations higher than 10-3 M, the ``aggregation-induced emission'' (AIE) effect of luminophores would be activated with the next set of sensitizers for lanthanide emission. Simultaneously, the concentration of the molecules could be monitored digitally by the maximal excitation wavelengths, due to the good linear relationship between the maximal excitation wavelengths and the concentrations {lg(M)}. This model, wherein molecules are assembled with two stages (both AIE and ACQ effect) of sensitizers, may provide a practicable strategy for design and construction of smart lanthanide bioprobes, which are suitable in complicated bioassay systems in which concentration is variable.

  6. Separations of actinides, lanthanides and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ensor, Dale D.

    1995-01-01

    An organic extracting solution comprised of a bis(acylpyrazolone or a substituted bis(acylpyrazolone) and an extraction method useful for separating certain elements of the actinide series of the periodic table having a valence of four from one other, and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also useful for separating hexavalent actinides from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals.

  7. Curvature of the Lanthanide Contraction: An Explanation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth; Wellman, Daniel; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Hill, Aru

    2009-12-21

    A number of studies have shown that for isostructural series of the lanthanides (elements La through Lu), a plot of equivalent metal-ligand bond lengths versus atomic number differs significantly from linearity and can be better fit as a quadratic equation. However, for hydrogen type wave functions, it is the inverse of the average distance of the electron from the nucleus (an estimate of size) that varies linearly with effective nuclear charge. This generates an apparent quadratic dependence of radius with atomic number. Plotting the inverse of lanthanide ion radii (the observed distance minus the ligand size) as a function of effective nuclear charge gives very good linear fits for a variety of lanthanide complexes and materials. Parameters obtained from this fit are in excellent agreement with the calculated Slater shielding constant, k.

  8. Switchable sensitizers stepwise lighting up lanthanide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Xu, Hai-Bing; Tang, Ming-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Shaoming; Deng, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Analagous to a long-ranged rocket equipped with multi-stage engines, a luminescent compound with consistent emission signals across a large range of concentrations from two stages of sensitizers can be designed. In this approach, ACQ, aggregation-caused quenching effect of sensitizers, would stimulate lanthanide emission below 10(-4) M, and then at concentrations higher than 10(-3) M, the "aggregation-induced emission" (AIE) effect of luminophores would be activated with the next set of sensitizers for lanthanide emission. Simultaneously, the concentration of the molecules could be monitored digitally by the maximal excitation wavelengths, due to the good linear relationship between the maximal excitation wavelengths and the concentrations {lg(M)}. This model, wherein molecules are assembled with two stages (both AIE and ACQ effect) of sensitizers, may provide a practicable strategy for design and construction of smart lanthanide bioprobes, which are suitable in complicated bioassay systems in which concentration is variable. PMID:25791467

  9. Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process – ALSEP

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2014-01-29

    Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

  10. Pyridine-based lanthanide complexes combining MRI and NIR luminescence activities.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Buron, Frédéric; Caillé, Fabien; Shade, Chad M; Drahoš, Bohuslav; Pellegatti, Laurent; Zhang, Jian; Villette, Sandrine; Helm, Lothar; Pichon, Chantal; Suzenet, Franck; Petoud, Stéphane; Tóth, Éva

    2012-01-27

    A series of novel triazole derivative pyridine-based polyamino-polycarboxylate ligands has been synthesized for lanthanide complexation. This versatile platform of chelating agents combines advantageous properties for both magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging applications of the corresponding Gd(3+) and near-infrared luminescent lanthanide complexes. The thermodynamic stability constants of the Ln(3+) complexes, as assessed by pH potentiometric measurements, are in the range log K(LnL)=17-19, with a high selectivity for lanthanides over Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). The complexes are bishydrated, an important advantage to obtain high relaxivities for the Gd(3+) chelates. The water exchange of the Gd(3+) complexes (k(ex)(298)=7.7-9.3×10(6) s(-1)) is faster than that of clinically used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and proceeds through a dissociatively activated mechanism, as evidenced by the positive activation volumes (ΔV(≠)=7.2-8.8 cm(3) mol(-1)). The new triazole ligands allow a considerable shift towards lower excitation energies of the luminescent lanthanide complexes as compared to the parent pyridinic complex, which is a significant advantage in the perspective of biological applications. In addition, they provide increased epsilon values resulting in a larger number of emitted photons and better detection sensitivity. The most conjugated system PheTPy, bearing a phenyl-triazole pendant on the pyridine ring, is particularly promising as it displays the lowest excitation and triplet-state energies associated with good quantum yields for both Nd(3+) and Yb(3+) complexes. Cellular and in vivo toxicity studies in mice evidenced the non-toxicity and the safe use of such bishydrated complexes in animal experiments. Overall, these pyridinic ligands constitute a highly versatile platform for the simultaneous optimization of both MRI and optical properties of the Gd(3+) and the luminescent lanthanide complexes, respectively. PMID:22213187

  11. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  12. Electromagnetic susceptibility anisotropy and its importance for paramagnetic NMR and optical spectroscopy in lanthanide coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Octavia A; Edkins, Robert M; Faulkner, Stephen; Kenwright, Alan M; Parker, David; Rogers, Nicola J; Shuvaev, Sergey

    2016-04-19

    The importance of the directional dependence of magnetic susceptibility in magnetic resonance and of electric susceptibility in the optical spectroscopy of lanthanide coordination complexes is assessed. A body of more reliable shift, relaxation and optical emission data is emerging for well-defined isostructural series of complexes, allowing detailed comparative analyses to be undertaken. Such work is highlighting the limitations of the current NMR shift and relaxation theories, as well as emphasising the absence of a compelling theoretical framework to explain optical emission phenomena. PMID:26898996

  13. Radiometallacarboranes as tumor imaging reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.; Varadarajan, A.; Knobler, C.B.; Chakrabarti, S. ); Paxton, R.J.; Beatty, B.G.; Curtis, F.L. )

    1990-06-20

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab), when conjugated with bifunctional chelation reagents containing a radiometal, have provided sensitive and accurate imaging agents for the detection of cancer and other diseases. The bifunctional chelates presently in use are generally of the aminocarboxylate family and subject to catabolism with release of metal ion in vivo. The authors have now designed, synthesized, and evaluated a functionalized cluster containing a radiotransition metal (venus flytrap cluster, VFC) which makes use of an inorganic ligand set, incorporates exceedingly strong cluster bonding based upon a bridged commo-bis(dicarbollide) structure, and can be prepared in the aqueous media commonly used to supply radiometal salts. The species reported here presages the existence of a large family of functionalized metallacarborane clusters which may serve as biologically inviolable radio-transition-metal carriers for the antibody-mediated {gamma}-imaging or {beta}-therapy of tumors.

  14. Physical characteristics of lanthanide complexes that act as magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanrong; Sherry, A. Dean

    2003-02-01

    Rapid water exchange is normally considered a prerequisite for efficient Gd 3+-based MRI contrast agents. Yet recent measures of exchange rates in some Gd 3+ complexes have shown that water exchange can become limiting when such complexes are attached to larger macromolecular structures. A new class of lanthanide complexes that display unusually slow water exchange (bound water lifetimes ( τM298) > 10 μs) has recently been reported. This apparent disadvantage may be taken advantage of by switching the metal ion from gadolinium(III) to a lanthanide that shifts the bound water resonance substantially away from bulk water. Given appropriate water exchange kinetics, one can then alter the intensity of the bulk water signal by selective presaturation of this highly shifted, Ln3+-bound water resonance. This provides the basis of a new method to alter MR image contrast in tissue. We have synthesized a variety of DOTA-tetra(amide) ligands to evaluate as potential magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents and found that the bound water lifetimes in these complexes are sensitive to both ligand structure (a series of Eu 3+ complexes have τM298 values that range from 1 to 1300 μs) and the identity of the paramagnetic Ln3+ cation (from 3 to 800 μs for a single ligand). This demonstrates that it may be possible either to fine-tune the ligand structure or to select proper lanthanide cation to create an optimal MT agent for any clinical imaging field.

  15. Magnetic Anisotropies in Rhombic Lanthanide(III) Complexes Do Not Conform to Bleaney's Theory.

    PubMed

    Castro, Goretti; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; Pérez-Lourido, Paulo; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Valencia, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We report a complete set of magnetic susceptibilities of lanthanide complexes with a macrocyclic ligand based on a 3,6,10,13-tetraaza-1,8(2,6)-dipyridinacyclotetradecaphane platform containing four hydroxyethyl pendant arms (L(1)). The [LnL(1)](3+) complexes are isostructural along the lanthanide series from Ce(3+) to Yb(3+), with the only structural change observed along the series being the monotonous shortening of the Ln-donor distances due to lanthanide contraction. The (1)H NMR spectra point to a D2 symmetry of the [LnL(1)](3+) complexes in aqueous solution, which provides a unique opportunity for analysis of the rhombic magnetic anisotropies with an unequivocal location of the magnetic axes. The contact contributions for the observed paramagnetic shifts have been estimated with density functional theory calculations on the [GdL(1)](3+) complex. Subsequently, the pseudocontact shifts could be factored out, thereby giving access to the axial and rhombic contributions of the magnetic susceptibility tensor. Our results show that the calculated magnetic anisotropies do not follow the trends predicted by Bleaney's theory, particularly in the case of Ho(3+) and Er(3+) complexes. PMID:26977907

  16. Structural biology of the lanthanides-mining rare earths in the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Carugo, Oliviero

    2015-02-01

    With its about 100,000 three-dimensional structures, the Protein Data Bank is a copious source of information: it contains also some hundreds of structures of macromolecules complexed with lanthanide cations, which are examined here. These cations, which are found in a wide variety of protein types, were introduced to determine the structures, by exploiting their anomalous dispersion (in crystallographic studies, where they are also used as crystallization additives) or the paramagnetic pseudocontact shifts (in NMR analyses). The coordination numbers in the first coordination sphere are very variable, though they tend to be close to those that are observed in small molecules or in water solution. The coordination polyhedra are also quite variable as it can be expected for large cations. Interestingly, lanthanide cations are frequently observed in packing bridges between symmetry equivalent molecules in crystals, where they tend to form polynuclear complexes, with up to seven cations bridged by water/hydroxide ligands. PMID:25528480

  17. U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagents Network: Progress with poultry immune reagents development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease research is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for veterinary animal species. In 2006, U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (VIRN) Consortium (www.vetimm.org) was developed to develop immune reagents against ma...

  18. DOTA-M8: An extremely rigid, high-affinity lanthanide chelating tag for PCS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Häussinger, Daniel; Huang, Jie-rong; Grzesiek, Stephan

    2009-10-21

    A new lanthanide chelating tag (M8) for paramagnetic labeling of biomolecules is presented, which is based on an eight-fold, stereoselectively methyl-substituted DOTA that can be covalently linked to the host molecule by a single disulfide bond. The steric overcrowding of the DOTA scaffold leads to an extremely rigid, kinetically and chemically inert lanthanide chelator. Its steric bulk restricts the motion of the tag relative to the host molecule. These properties result in very large pseudocontact shifts (>5 ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (>20 Hz) for Dy-M8 linked to ubiquitin, which are unprecedented for a small, single-point-attachment tag. Such large pseudocontact shifts should be well detectable even for larger proteins and distances beyond approximately 50 A. Due to its exceptionally high stability and lanthanide affinity M8 can be used under extreme chemical or physical conditions, such as those applied for protein denaturation, or when it is undesirable that buffer or protein react with excess lanthanide ions. PMID:19785413

  19. LANTHANIDE-BASED IMAGING OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIVE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Megha; Yapici, Engin; Miller, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to deduce the molecular mechanisms of biological function, it is necessary to monitor changes in the sub-cellular location, activation and interaction of proteins within living cells in real time. Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors that incorporate genetically encoded, fluorescent proteins permit high spatial resolution imaging of proteinprotein interactions or protein conformational dynamics. However, non-specific fluorescence background often obscures small FRET signal changes, and intensity-based biosensor measurements require careful interpretation and several control experiments. These problems can be overcome by using lanthanide (Tb(III) or Eu(III)) complexes as donors and green fluorescent protein (GFP) or other conventional fluorophores as acceptors. Essential features of this approach are the long-lifetime (~ms) luminescence of Tb(III) complexes and time-gated luminescence microscopy. This allows pulsed excitation followed by a brief delay that eliminates nonspecific fluorescence before detection of Tb(III)-to-GFP emission. The challenges of intracellular delivery, selective protein labeling, and time-gated imaging of lanthanide luminescence are presented, and recent efforts to investigate the cellular uptake of lanthanide probes are reviewed. Data is presented showing that conjugation to arginine-rich, cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) can be used as a general strategy for cellular delivery of membrane impermeable lanthanide complexes. A heterodimer of a luminescent Tb(III) complex, Lumi4, linked to trimethoprim (TMP) and conjugated to nonaarginine via a reducible disulfide linker rapidly (~10 min) translocates into the cytoplasm of Maden Darby canine kidney cells from culture medium. With this reagent, the intracellular interaction between GFP fused to FK506 binding protein 12 (GFP-FKBP12) and the rapamycin binding domain of mTOR fused to Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (FRB-eDHFR) was imaged at high signal-to-noise ratio with fast (13 s) image acquisition using a time-gated luminescence microscope. The data reviewed and presented here show that lanthanide biosensors enable fast, sensitive and technically simple imaging of protein-protein interactions in live cells. PMID:24144069

  20. Thioamination of Alkenes with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Mizar, Pushpak; Niebuhr, Rebecca; Hutchings, Matthew; Farooq, Umar; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An efficient thioamination of alkenes mediated by iodine(III) reagents is described. The use of different sulfur nucleophiles allows the flexible synthesis of 1,2-aminothiols from alkenes. By employing chiral iodine(III) reagents, a stereoselective version of the thioamination protocol has also been developed. PMID:26660291

  1. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  6. Shifting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.P.; Welch, W.R.

    1984-03-13

    An improved shifting tool connectable in a well tool string and useful to engage and position a slidable sleeve in a sliding sleeve device in a well flow conductor. The selectively profiled shifting tool keys provide better fit with and more contact area between keys and slidable sleeves. When the engaged slidable sleeve cannot be moved up and the shifting tool is not automatically disengaged, emergency disengagement means may be utilized by applying upward force to the shifting tool sufficient to shear pins and cause all keys to be cammed inwardly at both ends to completely disengage for removal of the shifting tool from the sliding sleeve device.

  7. Shelf-stable electrophilic reagents for trifluoromethylthiolation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xinxin; Xu, Chunfa; Lu, Long; Shen, Qilong

    2015-05-19

    Fluorine, which is the most electronegative element and has a small atomic radius, plays a key role in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials sciences. One of the fluoroalkyl groups, the trifluoromethylthio group (CF3S-), has been well-recognized as an important structural motif in the design of lead compounds for new drug discovery because of its high lipophilicity (Hansch lipophilicity parameter π = 1.44) and strong electron-withdrawing properties, which could improve the drug molecule's cell-membrane permeability and enhance its chemical and metabolic stability. While classic methods for the preparation of trifluoromethylthiolated compounds typically involve halogen-fluorine exchange reactions of polyhalogenomethyl thioethers or trifluoromethylation of sulfur-containing compounds under harsh reaction conditions, an alternative but more attractive strategy is direct trifluoromethylthiolation of the substrate at a late stage by employing an electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagent. Although several electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents have been reported previously, these reagents either require a strong Lewis acid/Brønsted acid as an activator or suffer from a toxic nature or limited substrate scope. To address these problems, in late 2011 we initiated a project with the aim to develop new, shelf-stable, and highly reactive electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents that could easily install the trifluoromethylthio group at the desired positions of the drug molecule at a late stage of drug development. Inspired by the broad reactivity of the hypervalent iodine reagent, we initially discovered a highly reactive trifluoromethylthiolating reagent, trifluoromethanesulfenate 1a. Structure-reactivity studies disclosed that the iodine atom of reagent 1a does not play an important role in this reagent's reactivity. Consequently, a simplified second-generation electrophilic reagent, trifluoromethanesulfenate 1b, was developed. In parallel, we developed another shelf-stable, highly reactive electrophilic reagent with a broad substrate scope, N-trifluoromethylthiosaccharin (2). In this Account, we mainly describe our discovery of these two different types of electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents, trifluoromethanesulfenates 1a and 1b and N-trifluoromethylthiosaccharin 2. Systematic studies showed that both types of reagents are highly reactive toward a wide range of nucleophiles, yet the substrate scopes of these two different types of reagents are complementary. In particular, reagents 1a and 1b are more reliable in transition-metal-catalyzed reactions such as copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl/vinyl/alkylboronic acids and silver-catalyzed decarboxylative trifluoromethylthiolation of aliphatic carboxylic acids as well as in the organocatalytic asymmetric trifluoromethylthiolation of β-keto esters and oxindoles. Reagent 2 is more electrophilic than reagents 1a and 1b and is more efficient for direct trifluoromethylthiolation with nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines, thiols, and electron-rich arenes. The ease in preparation, broad scope, and mild reaction conditions make reagents 1a, 1b, and 2 very attractive as general reagents that allow rapid installation of the trifluoromethylthio group into small molecules. PMID:25947041

  8. Critical Reagent Analytical Characterization Program at Genentech

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C.; Meier, A.; Lu, C.; Motchnik, P.; Chamberlain, S.

    2011-01-01

    At Genentech, Critical Reagents are internally prepared, recombinantly produced proteins used in GLP/GMP assays in support of regulatory filings. These proteins are typically extracellular domain constructions, growth factors, antibodies and novel hybrid constructions produced in CHO transient or stable cell lines, E. coli or Baculovirus. Genentech's Critical Reagent System (CritRS) is used to document the process of ordering, manufacturing, characterization, and delivering a critical reagent. The CritRS was put in place in 2004 at Genentech to ensure quality, consistency, and traceability of critical reagent preparations. Critical reagent analytical characterization is performed using four platform assays to assess the molecule's identity and purity/heterogeneity. Identity is confirmed using Edman N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprinting. Purity/heterogeneity is assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and SDS-PAGE. The four platform assays provide sufficient identity and purity information for most critical reagents. However, in some cases additional characterization methods have to be used due to unexpected results, such as observed N-terminal sequence is different from expected sequence, more than one N-terminal sequences are present, SDS PAGE shows unexpected band pattern, and SEC can not separate the high and low molecular species of the reagent. In this poster we'll present typical analytical characterization results as well as some unusual findings.

  9. Extraction separation of tervalent americium and lanthanides in the presence of some soft and hard donors and dicarbollide

    SciTech Connect

    Rais, J.; Tachimori, S. )

    1994-06-01

    Some combinations of extractants involving dicarbollide as one component for the separation of Am/Ln were studied. Extraction by TOPO is not influenced to a great extent by the presence of dicarbollide, and TPTZ in the presence of dicarbollide is ineffective for the extraction from 0.1 M HNO[sub 3]. General aspects of the selectivity of lanthanides and of Am/Ln separation in the presence of various reagents are discussed with emphasis on the difficulties of the separation of Am from light lanthanides. A new extraction procedure by dicarbollide in the presence of an excess of o-phenanthroline over the mineral acid is proposed. This led to the highest separation factors D[sub Am]/D[sub Eu] (20-34) from 0.1 M HNO[sub 3]. The behavior of other lanthanides is similar to that of Eu, with a maximum distribution ratio for Nd (D[sub Nd]/D[sub Eu] = 2). 27 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Extraction equilibria of rare earths by a new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Rao, T P; Narayanan, C S; Damodaran, A D

    1994-03-01

    A new reagent (2-ethylhexyl-3-pentadecylphenyl) phosphoric acid (EPPA = HR) was synthesized from cardanol (I, 37300-39-5) and was used to investigate the extraction behaviour of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. The species extracted were found to be Ln(HR(2))(3) (where Ln = La(III) or Eu(III) or Lu(III)). The extraction behaviour of the above lanthanides has also been compared with yttrium and other rare earths. It was observed that the extraction increases with increase in atomic number of rare earths. In addition, the extraction efficiency of EPPA has also been compared with well known acidic organophosphorus extractants like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA), 2-ethylhexyl-mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (EHEHPA). PMID:18965945

  11. Structure formation in a nickel superalloy complexly alloyed with lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabina, E. B.; Filonova, E. V.; Lomberg, B. S.; Zaitsev, D. V.

    2014-11-01

    The structure-phase state of a deformable Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Ti-W-Mo-Nb nickel superalloy containing microalloying rare-earth additional (lanthanides La, Pr, Nd) in various combinations is studied by physical metallurgy methods. It is found that additional lanthanide-containing intermetallic phases form predominantly along and phase boundaries in the material. The individual influence of the lanthanides on the phase content and the thermophysical properties of the alloy is different.

  12. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-11-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  13. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  14. Lanthanide-Catalyzed Oxyfunctionalization of 1,3-Diketones, Acetoacetic Esters, And Malonates by Oxidative C-O Coupling with Malonyl Peroxides.

    PubMed

    Terent'ev, Alexander O; Vil', Vera A; Gorlov, Evgenii S; Nikishin, Gennady I; Pivnitsky, Kasimir K; Adam, Waldemar

    2016-02-01

    The lanthanide-catalyzed oxidative C-O coupling of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with diacyl peroxides, specifically the cyclic malonyl peroxides, has been developed. An important feature of this new reaction concerns the advantageous role of the peroxide acting both as oxidant and reagent for C-O coupling. It is shown that lanthanide salts may be used in combination with peroxides for selective oxidative transformations. The vast range of lanthanide salts (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Y) catalyzes oxidative C-O coupling much more efficiently than other used Lewis and Bronsted acids. This oxidative cross-coupling protocol furnishes mono and double C-O coupling products chemo-selectively in high yields with a broad substrate scope. The double C-O coupling products may be hydrolyzed to vicinal tricarbonyl compounds, which are otherwise cumbersome to prepare. Based on the present experimental results, a nucleophilic substitution mechanism is proposed for the C-O coupling process in which the lanthanide metal ion serves as Lewis acid to activate the enol of the 1,3-dicarbonyl substrate. The side reactions-chlorination and hydroxylation of the 1,3-dicarbonyl partners-may be minimized under proper conditions. PMID:26745010

  15. Lanthanide-doped luminescent nanoprobes: controlled synthesis, optical spectroscopy, and bioapplications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Tu, Datao; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-08-21

    Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles possess superior physicochemical features such as long-lived luminescence, large antenna-generated Stokes or anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands, high resistance to photobleaching and low toxicity, and thus are regarded as a new generation of luminescent bioprobes as compared to conventional molecular probes like organic dyes and lanthanide chelates. These functional nanoparticles, although most of their bulk counterparts were well studied previously, have attracted renewed interest for their biomedical applications in areas as diverse as biodetection, bioimaging, and disease diagnosis and therapeutics. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of the latest advances made in developing lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles as potential luminescent bioprobes, which covers areas from their fundamental chemical and physical features to bioapplications including controlled synthesis methodology, surface modification chemistry, optical spectroscopy, and their promising applications in diverse fields, with an emphasis on heterogeneous and homogeneous in vitro biodetection of tumor markers and multimodal bioimaging of various tumor tissues. Some future prospects and challenges in this rapidly growing field are also summarized. PMID:23775339

  16. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F

    2016-01-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction. PMID:27087470

  17. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-04-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction.

  18. The Actinide-Lanthanide Separation Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-02-21

    The Actinide-Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) process is described. The process uses an extractant phase consisting of either N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]). The neutral TODGA or T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid media. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus resulting in separation of these two groups of elements.

  19. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides

    PubMed Central

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-01-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction. PMID:27087470

  20. Lanthanide acylpyrazolonates: synthesis, properties and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Yu A.; Drozdov, Andrey A.

    2012-12-01

    Data concerning synthesis and structural features of lanthanide acylpyrazolonates including tris-complexes, heteroligand complexes with aromatic N-heterocycles and phosphorus-containing ligands and anionic tetrakis-complexes are summarized. The effect of substituents in the acyl moiety on the structural and luminescence properties of the compounds is considered. The key features of acylpyrazolonate coordination polymers and bis(acylpyrazolonates) of rare earth elements are discussed. The bibliography includes 71 references.

  1. Lanthanide single molecule magnets: progress and perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-03-01

    The last few years have seen a huge renaissance in the study of single molecule magnets (SMMs) thanks to the extensive applications of lanthanide ions with large inherent anisotropy in molecular magnetism. Particularly, the recent theoretical developments and the experimental expansion into the organometallic avenue have led to an eye-catching boost in this field. Here we highlight the recent progress in this fascinating and challenging field, with emphasis on several combined experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:25641200

  2. Coordination of lanthanides by two polyamino polycarboxylic macrocycles: formation of highly stable lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Loncin, M.F.; Desreux, J.F.; Merciny, E.

    1986-07-16

    The formation constants of a few lanthanide complexes with DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid) and TETA (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid) have been measured by potentiometric and competition methods. The ligand DOTA forms the most stable lanthanide chelates known so far (log K/sub ML/ = 28.2-29.2) while the stability of the TETA compounds at 80 /sup 0/C (log K/sub ML/ = 14.5-16.5) is comparable to the stability of the EDTA complexes. A competition method with the oxalate anion as a probe had to be used for determining the formation constants of the DOTA lanthanide chelates because of the high stability of these compounds. The relative stability of the DOTA and TETA complexes in accounted for by steric factors with reference to known solution- and solid-state structures. 20 references, 2 tables.

  3. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  4. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    DOEpatents

    Guelis, Artem V.

    2013-01-15

    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  5. Switchable sensitizers stepwise lighting up lanthanide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Xu, Hai-Bing; Tang, Ming-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Shaoming; Deng, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Analagous to a long-ranged rocket equipped with multi-stage engines, a luminescent compound with consistent emission signals across a large range of concentrations from two stages of sensitizers can be designed. In this approach, ACQ, aggregation-caused quenching effect of sensitizers, would stimulate lanthanide emission below 10−4 M, and then at concentrations higher than 10−3 M, the “aggregation-induced emission” (AIE) effect of luminophores would be activated with the next set of sensitizers for lanthanide emission. Simultaneously, the concentration of the molecules could be monitored digitally by the maximal excitation wavelengths, due to the good linear relationship between the maximal excitation wavelengths and the concentrations {lg(M)}. This model, wherein molecules are assembled with two stages (both AIE and ACQ effect) of sensitizers, may provide a practicable strategy for design and construction of smart lanthanide bioprobes, which are suitable in complicated bioassay systems in which concentration is variable. PMID:25791467

  6. Trichloromethanesulfonyl Chloride: A Chlorinating Reagent for Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Jimeno, Ciril; Cao, Lidong; Renaud, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Trichloromethanesulfonyl chloride (CCl3SO2Cl), a commercially available reagent, has been found to perform efficiently in the α-chlorination of aldehydes, including its catalytic asymmetric version, under very mild reaction conditions. Under our reaction conditions, this compound outperforms typical chlorinating reagents for organic synthesis, facilitates workup and purification of the product, and minimizes the formation of toxic, chlorinated organic waste. PMID:26745640

  7. Advances in tandem reactions with organozinc reagents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Ko, Young Ok; Bouffard, Jean; Lee, Sang-gi

    2015-04-21

    The design and implementation of tandem reactions provides organic chemists with numerous challenges, in particular that of undesired cross-reactivity between substrates. Among organometallics, the use of organozinc reagents in tandem reactions provides several advantages as a result of their broad functional group tolerance and compatibility with transition metals. This review highlights prominent examples of recent advances in tandem reactions with organozinc reagents that illustrate their potential in organic synthesis. PMID:25708795

  8. The first quaternary lanthanide(III) nitride iodides: Na M4N 2I 7 ( M=La-Nd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurz, Christian M.; Schleid, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    In attempts to synthesize lanthanide(III) nitride iodides with the formula M2NI 3 ( M=La-Nd), moisture-sensitive single crystals of the first quaternary sodium lanthanide(III) nitride iodides Na M4N 2I 7 (orthorhombic, Pna2 1; Z=4; a=1391-1401, b=1086-1094, c=1186-1211 pm) could be obtained. The dominating structural features are {[}∞1 chains of trans-edge linked [N M4] 9+ tetrahedra, which run parallel to the polar 2 1-axis [001]. Between the chains, direct bonding via special iodide anions generates cages, in which isolated [NaI 6] 5- octahedra are embedded. The IR spectrum of NaLa 4N 2I 7 recorded from 100 to 1000 cm -1 shows main bands at υ=337, 373 and 489 cm -1. With decreasing radii of the lanthanide trications these bands, which can be assigned as an influence of the vibrations of the condensed [N M4] 9+ tetrahedra, are shifted toward higher frequencies for the Na M4N 2I 7 series ( M=La-Nd), following the lanthanide contraction.

  9. Lanthanide-cyclodextrin complexes as probes for elucidating optical purity by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.J.; Bogyo, M.S.; Lebeau, E.L. )

    1994-06-01

    A multidentate ligand is bonded to cyclodextrins by the reaction of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride with 6-mono- and 2-mono(ethylenediamine) derivatives of cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives enhances the enantiomeric resolution in the [sup 1]H NMR spectra of carbionoxamine maleate, doxylamine succinate, pheniramine maleate, propranolol hydrochloride, and tryptophan. The enhancement is more pronounced with the secondary derivative. The Dy(III)-induced shifts can be used to elucidate the geometry of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shifts are reported for complexes of aspartame, tryptophan, propranolol, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate with cyclodextrins, and the relative magnitudes of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. 37 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Luminescent lanthanide reporters: new concepts for use in bioanalytical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuojola, Johanna; Soukka, Tero

    2014-03-01

    Lanthanides represent the chemical elements from lanthanum to lutetium. They intrinsically exhibit some very exciting photophysical properties, which can be further enhanced by incorporating the lanthanide ion into organic or inorganic sensitizing structures. A very popular approach is to conjugate the lanthanide ion to an organic chromophore structure forming lanthanide chelates. Another approach, which has quickly gained interest, is to incorporate the lanthanide ions into nanoparticle structures, thus attaining improved specific activity and a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. Lanthanide-based reporters, when properly shielded from the quenching effects of water, usually express strong luminescence emission, multiple narrow emission lines covering a wide wavelength range, and exceptionally long excited state lifetimes enabling time-gated luminescence detection. Because of these properties, lanthanide-based reporters have found widespread applications in various fields of life. This review focuses on the field of bioanalytical applications. Luminescent lanthanide reporters and assay formats utilizing these reporters pave the way for increasingly sensitive, simple, and easily automated bioanalytical applications.

  11. Salicylamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth; Xu, Jide

    2006-03-28

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one salicylamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the salicylamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  12. Salicylamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth; Xu, Jide

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one salicylamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the salicylamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  13. Phthalamide lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth M.; Xu, Jide

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  14. Phthalamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth M.; Xu, Jide

    2005-03-08

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  15. Phthalamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth; Xu, Jide

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  16. Salicylamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth; Xu, Jide

    2008-07-29

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one salicylamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the salicylamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  17. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  18. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  19. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Adenovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  20. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be Reagent...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  4. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  5. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  6. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  7. Modern affinity reagents: Recombinant antibodies and aptamers.

    PubMed

    Groff, Katherine; Brown, Jeffrey; Clippinger, Amy J

    2015-12-01

    Affinity reagents are essential tools in both basic and applied research; however, there is a growing concern about the reproducibility of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. The need for higher quality affinity reagents has prompted the development of methods that provide scientific, economic, and time-saving advantages and do not require the use of animals. This review describes two types of affinity reagents, recombinant antibodies and aptamers, which are non-animal technologies that can replace the use of animal-derived monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies are protein-based reagents, while aptamers are nucleic-acid-based. In light of the scientific advantages of these technologies, this review also discusses ways to gain momentum in the use of modern affinity reagents, including an update to the 1999 National Academy of Sciences monoclonal antibody production report and federal incentives for recombinant antibody and aptamer efforts. In the long-term, these efforts have the potential to improve the overall quality and decrease the cost of scientific research. PMID:26482034

  8. Unnatural Isotopic Composition of Lithium Reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, H.P.; Coplen, T.B.; Wang, Q. Zh; Wang, Y.-H.

    1997-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of 39 lithium reagents from several manufacturers indicates that seven were artificially depleted in 6Li significantly in excess of the variation found in terrestrial materials. The atomic weight of lithium in analyzed reagents ranged from 6.939 to 6.996, and ??7-Li, reported relative to L-SVEC lithium carbonate, ranged from -11 to +3013???. This investigation indicates that 6Li-depleted reagents are now found on chemists' shelves, and the labels of these 6Li-depleted reagents do not accurately reflect the atomic and (or) molecular weights of these reagents. In 1993, IUPAC issued the following statement: "Commercially available Li materials have atomic weights that range between 6.94 and 6.99; if a more accurate value is required, it must be determined for the specific material." This statement has been found to be incorrect In two of the 39 samples analyzed, the atomic weight of Li was in excess of 6.99.

  9. U.S. VETERINARY IMMUNE REAGENTS NETWORK: PROGRESS WITH POULTRY IMMUNE REAGENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species. Sets of reagents, i.e., monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies, that can identify the major leukocyt...

  10. Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanocrystals as luminescent biolabels.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tu, Datao; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) doped inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have currently attracted reviving interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics owing to their potential applications in diverse fields such as luminescent biodetection and bioimaging. As an alternative to conventional biolabels, Ln(3+)-doped NCs show superior features including large stokes shift, multicolor fine-tuning, narrow emission band widths, high photostability, and low toxicity. Particularly, the long-lived luminescence and distinct upconversion (UC) of Ln(3+)-doped NCs are desirable for various bioapplications. The long-lived luminescence of Ln(3+) combined with time-resolved technique can efficiently suppress the interference from short-lived background, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and background-free measurements. Near-infrared excited UC emissions of Ln(3+) can bring no autofluorescence and no photodamage to cells or tissues, and thus UC NCs have been regarded as one of the most useful in vivo optical contrast agents. In this review, we outline the most recent development of Ln(3+)-doped NCs as biolabels from the controlled synthesis and surface functionalization of NCs to their bioapplications in heterogeneous and homogeneous biodetection as well as in vitro and in vivo bioimaging. PMID:22480240

  11. Engineering of Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles for Optical Encoding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Idris, Niagara Muhammad; Zhang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are an emerging class of luminescent materials that emit UV or visible light under near infra-red (NIR) excitations, thereby possessing a large anti-Stokes shift property. Due to their sharp excitation and emission bands, excellent photo- and chemical stability, low autofluorescence, and high tissue penetration depth of the NIR light used for excitation, UCNPs have surpassed conventional fluorophores in many bioapplications. A better understanding of the mechanism of upconversion, as well as the development of better approaches to preparing UCNPs, have provided more opportunities to explore their use for optical encoding, which has the potential for applications in multiplex detection and imaging. With the current ability to precisely control the microstructure and properties of UCNPs to produce particles of tunable emission, excitation, luminescence lifetime, and size, various strategies for optical encoding based on UCNPs can now be developed. These optical properties of UCNPs (such as emission and excitation wavelengths, ratiometric intensity, luminescence lifetime, and multicolor patterns), and the strategies employed to engineer these properties for optical encoding of UCNPs through homogeneous ion doping, heterogeneous structure fabrication and microbead encapsulation are reviewed. The challenges and potential solutions faced by UCNP optical encoding are also discussed. PMID:26681103

  12. Complexes of Lapachol and Lawsone with Lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Salvatore; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones are well known to form readily stable complexes with transition metals. In this short communication we describe for the first time the synthesis and preliminary data about structural characterization of complexes between two naturally widespread 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones, namely lapachol (1) and lawsone (2), with selected lanthanides like lanthanum, gadolinium, and ytterbium. When tested as cytotoxic compounds, such complexes exhibited an activity that was either higher or equal to that of the parent naphthoquinone. PMID:26749803

  13. Conductimetric and spectrophotometric investigation of lanthanide cyclohexaphosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Nasr, Chérif

    2000-06-01

    The preparation and properties of some lanthanide cyclohexaphosphates Ln 2P 6O 18· nH 2O (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Er and Yb) are described. Conductivity measurements and IR spectra are presented. The comparison with properties of some other salts, Nd (BrO 3) 3·9H 2O, NdP 3O 9·3H 2O and Nd 4 (P 4O 12) 3·13H 2O, suggests that the coordination number of Nd 3+ in the cyclohexaphosphate is nine.

  14. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maertens, Gaetan; L'homme, Chloe; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  15. Total synthesis of natural products using hypervalent iodine reagents

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Gaëtan; L'Homme, Chloé; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last 5 years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products. PMID:25601909

  16. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described, including novel hardware and countermeasures.

  17. New reagents, new reactions: Computers in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dessy, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    There is a new reagent in chemical reaction vessels-the computer. From data collection, through information processing, to knowledge creation the computer is an integral partner of today`s chemist. Despite its ability to be a Sorcerer`s Apprentice, it has become a leading weapon in overcoming some of the fiscal and technical demands placed upon research and development teams by global competition. In the process it is forcing changes in our work habits that arc, stressing both the Corporation and the individual, this article explores the uses, abuses, and possible future of the new reagent, and explores the meta-physics of the electronic web. 42 refs.

  18. Lanthanide Complexes as a Test for Evidence of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeannette

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research is to advance the understanding of the interaction of lanthanide metals with biological organic molecules and to develop a technique to detect these compounds in the solid state and in situ in Mars and other planetary bodies. The detection of these complexes should provide evidence of life past or present. In addition, detection of the metals alone will provide important information about the geological history of a planetary body. Lanthanides were chosen as our focus of interest because they form very stable complexes with organic molecules in solution and they produce intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. The rare earth complexes available are mostly synthetic for diverse applications in medicine. There is not much work done on the complexes that form in nature. Lanthanides have many applications and they are mined aR over the world, however, since the interest has been only in the elements, the analytical techniques employed destroy any organic ligands that may be present. In order to determine if and which lanthanide complexes form in nature and their concentration, soil samples have been collected from areas rich in soluble lanthanide compounds like phosphates and also rich in vegetation. The soil samples will be analyzed and the lanthanide complexes if present will be isolated and characterized. A spectrometer to detect the lanthanide complexes in situ and in the solid state will be designed. In this workshop, the research approach and its implications will be discussed.

  19. Controlled release of reagents in capillary-driven microfluidics using reagent integrators.

    PubMed

    Hitzbleck, Martina; Gervais, Luc; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2011-08-21

    The integration and release of reagents in microfluidics as used for point-of-care testing is essential for an easy and accurate operation of these promising diagnostic devices. Here, we present microfluidic functional structures, which we call reagent integrators (RIs), for integrating and releasing small amounts of dried reagents (ng quantities and less) into microlitres of sample in a capillary-driven microfluidic chip. Typically, a RI is less than 1 mm(2) in area and has an inlet splitting into a central reagent channel, in which reagents can be loaded using an inkjet spotter, and two diluter channels. During filling of the microfluidic chip, spotted reagents reconstitute and exit the RI with a dilution factor that relates to the relative hydraulic resistance of the channels forming the RI. We exemplify the working principle of RIs by (i) distributing ∼100 pg of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in different volume fractions of a 1 μL solution containing a fluorogenic substrate for HRP and (ii) performing an immunoassay for C-reactive protein (CRP) using 450 pg of fluorescently labeled detection antibodies (dAbs) that reconstitute in ∼5 to 30% of a 1 μL sample of human serum. RIs preserve the conceptual simplicity of lateral flow assays while providing a great degree of control over the integration and release of reagents in a stream of sample. We believe RIs to be broadly applicable to microfluidic devices as used for biological assays. PMID:21674120

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome.

  1. Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xue-Qin Lei, Yao-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Run; Zhao, Meng-Meng; Peng, Yun-Qiao; Cheng, Guo-Quan

    2014-10-15

    The new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand incorporating furfurysalicylamide terminal groups, namely, 1,4-bis([(2′-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl)-2,5-bismethylbenzene (L) was synthesized and used as building blocks for constructing lanthanide coordination polymers with luminescent properties. The series of lanthanide nitrate complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The semirigid ligand L, as a bridging ligand, reacts with lanthanide nitrates forming three distinct structure types: chiral noninterpenetrated two-dimensional (2D) honeycomblike (6,3) (hcb, Schläfli symbol 6{sup 3}, vertex symbol 6 6 6) topological network as type I, 1D zigzag chain as type II and 1D trapezoid ladder-like chain as type III. The structural diversities indicate that lanthanide contraction effect played significant roles in the structural self-assembled process. The luminescent properties of Eu{sup III}, Tb{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes are discussed in detail. Due to the good match between the lowest triplet state of the ligand and the resonant energy level of the lanthanide ion, the lanthanide ions in Eu{sup III}, Tb{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes can be efficiently sensitized by the ligand. - Graphical abstract: We present herein six lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand which not only display diverse structures but also possess strong luminescence properties. - Highlights: • We present lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand. • The lanthanide coordination polymers exhibit diverse structures. • The luminescent properties of Tb{sup III}, Eu{sup III} and Dy{sup III} complexes are discussed in detail.

  2. The Crystal Structure of Lanthanide Zirconates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Richard; Kennedy, Brendan; Ling, Christopher; Stampfl, Anton P. J.

    2010-03-01

    The lanthanide zirconates of composition Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La-Gd) are of interest for use in inert matrix fuels and nuclear wasteforms. The series undergoes a pyrochlore to fluorite phase transition as a function of the Ln atomic radii. The phase transition has been attributed to disordering of both the cation and the anion [1]. We have undertaken a synthesis of the lanthanide zirconate series Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La-Gd), Ln0.2Zr0.8O1.9 (Ln = Tb-Yb) and NdxHo2-xZr2O7 (0

  3. Ion exchange in hydroxyapatite with lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Cawthray, Jacqueline F; Creagh, A Louise; Haynes, Charles A; Orvig, Chris

    2015-02-16

    Naturally occurring hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH) (HAP), is the main inorganic component of bone matrix, with synthetic analogues finding applications in bioceramics and catalysis. An interesting and valuable property of both natural and synthetic HAP is the ability to undergo cationic and anionic substitution. The lanthanides are well-suited for substitution for the Ca(2+) sites within HAP, because of their similarities in ionic radii, donor atom requirements, and coordination geometries. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to investigate the thermodynamics of ion exchange in HAP with a representative series of lanthanide ions, La(3+), Sm(3+), Gd(3+), Ho(3+), Yb(3+) and Lu(3+), reporting the association constant (Ka), ion-exchange thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG), and binding stoichiometry (n). We also probe the nature of the La(3+):HAP interaction by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in support of the ITC results. PMID:25594577

  4. Reactions of difluorocarbene with organozinc reagents.

    PubMed

    Levin, Vitalij V; Zemtsov, Artem A; Struchkova, Marina I; Dilman, Alexander D

    2013-02-15

    Reactions of difluorocarbene with benzyl and alkylzinc halides leading to fluorinated organozinc species have been described. The generated α-difluorinated organozinc reagents are reasonably stable in solution and can be quenched with external electrophiles (iodine, bromine, proton), affording compounds containing the CF(2) fragment. PMID:23368906

  5. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS DISINFECTING AGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was conducted as an EPA in-house research, assisted by the on-site contractor, US Infrastructure, Inc. (USI) located in Edison, NJ. The Fenton's reagent (e.g., H2O2, ferrous iron Fe(aq)+2) is an alternative method of chemical oxidation. Hydroxyl radicals (OH ), gen...

  6. AQUEOUS RELAXATION REAGENTS IN NITROGEN-15 NMR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron-nuclear relaxation times T(1)supe's for 15N and 13C in natural abundance are measured for a series of amines in aqueous solution using Gd(III) complexes of a series of polyaminocarboxylate ligands as paramagnetic relaxation reagents (PARRs). The PARRs are classified by t...

  7. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS A DISINFECTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment facility were disinfected by the Fenton's Reagent of several different compositions. The pre-settled samples contained both suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 28 and 290 mg/L,...

  8. DEGRADATION OF MTBE INTERMEDIATES USING FENTON'S REAGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a previous study, the chemical oxidation of MTBE at low concentrations in water using the Fenton's reagent (FR) was investigated. At certain reaction conditions the process achieved 99.99% degradation of MTBE but it did not result in complete MTBE mineralization. In the pres...

  9. Remarks on preparation of indandione detection reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepan, J.; Kral, V.

    1985-01-01

    A modified Claisen condensation with sliced sodium at a higher temperature was recommended for the production of ungranulated charcoal. A new ninhydrin production method by oxidation of benzaldiketohydrinden using available reagents was tried and was unsuccessful. Triketohydrinden was obtained by boiling ninhydrin in acetic acid anhydrides.

  10. Chemistry Students' Erroneous Conceptions of Limiting Reagent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of 32 University of Transkei (South Africa) freshmen's conceptualization of "limiting reagent," a basic concept in chemistry, based on student responses to two written test questions and clinical interviews. Results indicated that a high percentage of students had misconceptions and could not apply the concept successfully. Makes…

  11. Tritioacetylating reagents and processes for preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Saljoughian, Manoucher; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Than, Chit

    2000-01-01

    Novel acetylating and tritioacetylating reagents suitable for preparation of nonlabelled and radiolabelled organic compounds. N-acetoxynaphthalimide, N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide, N-tritioacetoxysuccinimide, N-tritioacetoxynaphthalimide and processes of their preparation. The invention also concerns synthesis of nonlabelled acetylated and tritioacetylated organic compounds from precursors containing a free --NH.sub.2, --SH or --OH group.

  12. Some aspects of the geochemistry of yttrium and the lanthanides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Michael

    1965-01-01

    Recent data on the relative abundances of the lanthanides and yttrium in meteorites, basaltic rocks, granitic rocks and sedimentary rocks are reviewed. It is shown that the data are inadequate to substantiate or to disprove Taylor's derivation from these data of a 1:1 abundance ratio of basaltic to granitic rocks in the continental crust. Graphs are given to illustrate the variation of lanthanides in minerals with paragenesis. Both the paragenesis and the crystal chemistry of minerals affect the composition of the lanthanides.

  13. Oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance kinetic study of water exchange on the lanthanide(III) aqua ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossy, C.; Helm, L.; Merbach, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    A variable-temperature /sup 17/O NMR study of aqueous lanthanide solutions is reported. Chemical shift measurements on 0.3 m Ln(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 3//2 m HClO/sub 4/ solutions of 12 paramagnetic lanthanide ions are consistent with a constant hydration number along the series. This observation is reinforced by spectrophotometric measurements in acidified Nd(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ solutions. A critical review of the previously published results on this topic suggests that the hydration number is nine for all lanthanide ions. The study was made on high-field NMR spectrometers, extending the accessible kinetic NMR window toward larger rate constants. By a combination of the chemical shifts and the longitudinal and the transverse relaxation rates, the water exchange activation parameters were obtained for six heavy lanthanide ions. The exchange rate constants calculated at 298.15 K are 5.0 /times/ 10/sup 8/ s/sup /minus/1/ for Tb/sup 3+/, 3.9 /times/ 10/sup 8/ s/sup /minus/1/ for Dy/sup 3+/, 1.9 /times/ 10/sup 8/ s/sup /minus/1/ for Ho/sup 3+/, 1.2 /times/ 10/sup 8/ s/sup /minus/1/ for Er/sup 3+/, 8.1 /times/ 10/sup 7/ s/sup /minus/1/ for Tm/sup 3+/, and 4.1 /times/ 10/sup 7/ s/sup /minus/1/ for Yb/sup 3+/. Unsuccessful attempts were made to study the water exchange on Nd/sup 3+/ and Eu/sup 3+/. The regular decrease of the k/sup 298/ value with ionic radius and the fairly constant negative activation entropies are interpreted as grounds for a similar exchange mechanism for the six ions successfully kinetically characterized. 45 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Data on final calcium concentration in native gel reagents determined accurately through inductively coupled plasma measurements.

    PubMed

    Viviano, Jeffrey; Wu, Hao; Krishnan, Anuradha; Ramanujachary, Kandalam; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS) proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM) over the blank. PMID:26937454

  15. Data on final calcium concentration in native gel reagents determined accurately through inductively coupled plasma measurements

    PubMed Central

    Viviano, Jeffrey; Wu, Hao; Krishnan, Anuradha; Ramanujachary, Kandalam; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS) proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM) over the blank. PMID:26937454

  16. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness, Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries, and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, and ICP calculated by MRI). On the ground, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas LBNP will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. This study has been selected for flight implementation and is one of the candidate investigations being considered for the one year mission.

  17. Lanthanide Chelates as a Tool in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Mukkala, Veli-Matti; Takalo, Harri; Liitti, Päivi; Kankare, Jouko; Kuusela, Satu

    1994-01-01

    The potentiality of lanthanide chelates as photoluminescent markers and cleaving agents of nucleic acids is discussed, the main emphasis being on the chelates derived from aromatic nitrogen bases. PMID:18476232

  18. Separation of actinides from lanthanides utilizing molten salt electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Gay, R.L.; Krueger, C.L.; Storvick, T.S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, T.; Takahashi, N.

    1996-10-01

    TRUMP-S (TRansUranic Management through Pyropartitioning Separation) is a pyrochemical process being developed to separate actinides form fission products in nuclear waste. A key process step involving molten salt electrorefining to separate actinides from lanthanides has been studied on a laboratory scale. Electrorefining of U, Np, Pu, Am, and lanthanide mixtures from molten cadmium at 450 C to a solid cathode utilizing a molten chloride electrolyte resulted in > 99% removal of actinides from the molten cadmium and salt phases. Removal of the last few percent of actinides is accompanied by lowered cathodic current efficiency and some lanthanide codeposition. Actinide/lanthanide separation ratios on the cathode are ordered U > Np > Pu > Am and are consistent with predictions based on equilibrium potentials.

  19. Ionic liquids as a novel solvent for lanthanide extraction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazunori; Kubota, Fukiko; Maruyama, Tatsuo; Goto, Masahiro

    2003-08-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in an ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate, greatly enhances extractability and selectivity of lanthanide cations compared to that dissolved in conventional organic solvents; further, the recovery of lanthanides extracted into ionic liquids can be accomplished using several stripping solutions containing complexing agents. The possibility of utilizing ionic liquids as novel separation media in an industrial liquid-liquid extraction process was demonstrated. PMID:12945658

  20. CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS HAVE BEEN USED EXTENSIVELY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS. THIS OVERVIEW DESCRIBES THE SALIENT STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CLAY MATERIALS AND EXTENDS THE DISCUSSION TO PILLARED CLAYS AND REAGENTS SUPPORTED ON CLAY MATERIALS. A VARIET...

  1. The Grignard Reagent: Preparation, Structure, and Some Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchin, Milton

    1989-01-01

    The Grignard reagent used in the laboratory synthesis of organic compounds is the product resulting from the reaction of an alkyl or aryl halide with elemental magnesium. Describes the structure, formation, and some reactions of the reagent. (YP)

  2. Upconversion from aqueous phase lanthanide chelates

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2006-01-01

    We have prepared and characterized several lanthanide ion complexes of multidentate ligands or chelates in an effort to develop new upconverting luminescent labels that can be immune to autofluorescence and photobleaching. This study has involved the characterization of various chelates of Nd, Er, and Tm with respect to relative luminescent efficiency and excited-state lifetimes and explored various two-photon stepwise excitation mechanisms. Using peak laser powers near 100 kW, the upconversion emissions of Nd in Nd(EDTA)2 5− at 386 nm, Er in Er(DPA)3 3− at 550 nm, and Tm in Tm(DPA)3 3− at 480 nm, at levels of ~10−12 moles can be detected. PMID:16075534

  3. Responsive lanthanide coordination polymer for hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoxia; Chen, Yang

    2013-11-19

    Metal organic coordination polymers have received great attention because of their flexible compositions and architecture. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a responsive lanthanide coordination polymer (LCP) for hydrogen sulfide (H2S), utilizing self-assembling of biomolecule nucleotide with luminescent terbium ion (Tb(3+)) and sensitizing silver ion (Ag(+)) in aqueous solution. LCP is highly fluorescent due to the inclusion of Ag(+) ions, which sensitized the fluorescence of Tb(3+) ions. H2S can strongly quench the fluorescence of LCP through its high affinity for Ag(+) ions. Such configurated LCP material from initial building blocks showed high sensitivity and selectivity for H2S and was applied to the determination of H2S in human serum. LCP with Tb(3+) ions also has a long fluorescence lifetime, which allows for time-resolved fluorescence assays, possessing particular advantages to probing H2S in biological systems with autofluorescence. PMID:24191713

  4. Isopropyl-3-pentadecylphenyl phosphoric acid - a new reagent for liquid-liquid extraction and separation of rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Sreelatha, S.; Prasada Rao, T.; Narayanan, C.S.; Damodaran, A.D. )

    1993-03-01

    A new reagent isopropyl-3-pentadecylphenyl phosphoric acid (IPPA = HR) was synthesized from cardanol [I-37, 300-39-5] and was used to investigate the extraction behavior of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) from HCl and HClO[sub 4] solutions into toluene. The species extracted were found to be Ln(HR[sub 2])[sub 3] (where Ln = La(III) or Eu(III) or Lu(III)). The extraction behavior of above lanthanides has also been compared with yttrium and other rare earths. It was observed that the extraction increases with increase of atomic number of rare earths. In addition the extraction efficiency of IPPA has been compared with well known acidic organophosphorus extractants like di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 2-ethylhexyl-mono-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (EHEHPA). 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3700 Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia coli serological reagents....

  9. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  13. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  14. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name...

  15. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  16. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  17. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent....

  19. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents...

  20. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents...

  1. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents...

  2. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas...

  3. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents...

  4. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  5. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  6. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent....

  8. Luminescence of Lanthanide-Dimethyl Sulfoxide Compound Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Mingzhen; Li, Yuebin; Hossu, Marius; Joly, Alan G.; Liu, Zhongxin; Liu, Zuli; Chen, Wei

    2011-08-04

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has the ability to penetrate living tissues without causing significant damage. Of foremost importance to our understanding of the possible functions of DMSO in biological systems is its ability to replace some of the water molecules associated with the cellular constituents, or to affect the structure of the omnipresent water. Luminescence probes have been widely used for biological studies such as labeling, imaging and detection. Luminescence probes formed in DMSO may find new applications. Here, luminescence compounds formed by refluxing lanthanide nitrates of Ce, La, Tb, Yb, Nd, Gd and Eu in DMSO are reported and their luminescence properties investigated. Based on their luminescence spectral properties, the compounds can be classified into four classes. For compounds-I with Yb, Ce, and La, the excitation and emission spectra are very broad and their excitation or emission peaks are shifted to longer wavelengths when the monitored emission or excitation wavelength is longer . For compounds-II with Gd and Nd, both the excitation and emission spectra are very broad but their emission wavelengths change little at different excitation wavelengths. For Tb-DMSO as compound-III, both the typical emissions from the f - f transitions of Tb3+ and a broad emission at 445 nm are observed. At low temperatures of reaction, the f - f emissions are dominant, while at high temperatures such as 180 oC of reaction, the broad emission at 445 nm is dominant. For compound-IV with Eu-DMSO compounds, the dominant emissions are from the f - f transitions of Eu3+ and only a weak broad emission is observed, which is likely from the d - f transition of Eu2+ rather than from the metal to ligand charge transfer states.

  9. A High-Sensitivity Lanthanide Nanoparticle Reporter for Mass Cytometry: Tests on Microgels as a Proxy for Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether one can use lanthanide nanoparticles (e.g., NaHoF4) to detect surface biomarkers expressed at low levels by mass cytometry. To avoid many of the complications of experiments on live or fixed cells, we carried out proof-of-concept experiments using aqueous microgels with a diameter on the order of 700 nm as a proxy for cells. These microgels were used to test whether nanoparticle (NP) reagents would allow the detection of as few as 100 proteins per “cell” in cell-by-cell assays. Streptavidin (SAv), which served as the model biomarker, was attached to the microgel in two different ways. Covalent coupling to surface carboxyls of the microgel led to large numbers (>104) of proteins per microgel, whereas biotinylation of the microgel followed by exposure to SAv led to much smaller numbers of SAv per microgel. Using mass cytometry, we compared two biotin-containing reagents, which recognized and bound to the SAvs on the microgel. One was a metal chelating polymer (MCP), a biotin end-capped polyaspartamide containing 50 Tb3+ ions per probe. The other was a biotinylated NaHoF4 NP containing 15 000 Ho atoms per probe. Nonspecific binding was determined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated microgels. The MCP was effective at detecting and quantifying SAvs on the microgel with covalently bound SAv (20 000 SAvs per microgel) but was unable to give a meaningful signal above that of the BSA-coated microgel for the samples with low levels of SAv. Here the NP reagent gave a signal 2 orders of magnitude stronger than that of the MCP and allowed detection of NPs ranging from 100 to 500 per microgel. Sensitivity was limited by the level of nonspecific adsorption. This proof of concept experiment demonstrates the enhanced sensitivity possible with NP reagents in cell-by-cell assays by mass cytometry. PMID:24617504

  10. Containment of Spray Reagents in TLC Spot Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Josef G.

    1996-10-01

    A recent suggestion to visualize spots on thin layer plates by applying phosphomolybdic acid reagent with a cotton ball (1) may not be suitable for all visualization reagents especially concentrated sulfuric acid. If spraying a reagent with a power pac type device is preferred for this or some other reason, we suggest spraying the reagent inside of a twist tie-sealed, clear-plastic kitchen garbage bag. In this way, spray reagents are completely contained obviating the need for spraying the plates in a fume hood, and cleanup is simple. Literature Cited 1. Lee, A. W. M.; Zengpei, Z. J. Chem. Educ., 1996, 73, 358.

  11. Lanthanide accumulation in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli B.

    PubMed

    Bayer, M E; Bayer, M H

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of growing Escherichia coli B with lanthanide ions [lanthanum(III), terbium(III), and europium(III)] and subsequent aldehyde-OsO4 fixation caused areas of high contrast to appear within the periplasm (the space between inner and outer membrane of the cell envelope). X-ray microanalysis of ultrathin sections of Epon-embedded or acrylic resin-embedded cells revealed the presence of the lanthanide and of phosphorus in the areas, whose contrast greatly exceeded that of other stained structures. Comparatively small amounts of the lanthanide were also present in the outer membrane and in the cytoplasm. The distribution of the periplasmic areas of high contrast was found to be random and not clustered at areas of current or future septum formation. Irregular cell shapes were observed after lanthanide treatment before onset of fixation. In contrast to glutaraldehyde-OsO4 fixation, glutaraldehyde used as the sole fixer caused a scattered distribution of the lanthanide. Cryofixation (slam-freezing) and freeze substitution revealed a lanthanum stain at both the periplasm and the outer part of the outer membrane. Deenergization of the cell membrane by either phage T4 or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone abolished the metal accumulation. Furthermore, addition of excess calcium, administered together with the lanthanide solution, diminished the quantity and size of areas of high contrast. Cells grown in media of high NaCl concentration revealed strongly stained areas of periplasmic precipitates, whereas cells grown under low-salt conditions showed very few high-contrast patches in the periplasm. Terbium treatment (during fixation) enhanced the visibility of the sites of inner-outer membrane contact (the membrane adhesion sites) in plasmolized cells, possibly as the result of an accumulation of the metal at the adhesion domains. The data suggest a rapid interaction of the lanthanides with components of the cell envelope, the periplasm, and the energized inner membrane. PMID:1987113

  12. Investigation of benzoyloximes as benzoylating reagents: benzoyl-Oxyma as a selective benzoylating reagent.

    PubMed

    Burugupalli, Satvika; Shah, Sayali; van der Peet, Phillip L; Arora, Seep; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) and HOBt-derived reagents have been classified as Class I explosives, with restrictions on their transportation and storage. We explored a range of benzoylated oxime-based reagents as alternatives to benzoyloxybenzotriazole (BBTZ) for the selective benzoylation of carbohydrate polyols. Benzoylated oximes derived from 2-hydroximino-malononitrile, ethyl 2-hydroximino-2-cyanoacetate (Oxyma), and tert-butyl 2-hydroximino-2-cyanoacetate were most effective for benzoylation of a simple primary alcohol, with yields approaching that obtained for BBTZ. When applied to carbohydrate diols, the most effective reagent was identified as benzoyl-Oxyma. Benzoyl-Oxyma is a highly crystalline, readily prepared alternative to BBTZ, useful in the selective benzoylation of carbohydrate polyols. PMID:26531176

  13. {sup 31}P NMR study of the complexation of TBP with lanthanides and actinides in solution and in a clay matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hartzell, C.J.

    1994-07-24

    Goal was to use NMR to study TBP/lanthanide complexes in the interlayer or on edge sites of clays. Work in this laboratory yielded details of the complexation of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with TBP in hexane solution; this information is crucial to interpretation of results of NMR studies of the complexes exchanged into clays. The solution {sup 31}P-chemical shift values were improved by repeating the studies on the lanthanide salts dissolved directly into neat TBP. NMR studies of these neat solutions of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex and the Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex show that the {sup 31}P chemical shift remains relatively constant for TBP: lanthanide ratios below 3: 1. At higher ratios, the chemical shift approaches that of free TBP, indicating rapid exchange of TBP between the free and complexed state. Exchange of these complexes into the clay hectorite yielded discrete {sup 31}P-NMR signals for the Eu{lg_bullet}TBP complex at -190 ppm and free TBP at -6 ppm. Adsorption of the Pr{lg_bullet}TBP complex yielded broad signals at 76 ppm for the complex and -6 ppm for free TBP. There was no evidence of exchange between the incorporated complex and the free TBP.

  14. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  15. A Simple Empirical Analysis of the Enthalpies of Formation of Lanthanide Halides and Oxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a simple and general method whereby the lattice energies of lanthanide(II) and (IV) compounds are derived directly from those found experimentally for the corresponding lanthanide(III) compounds. The method is applicable to all lanthanide halides and oxides and involves calculations which can be easily and quickly performed by students.…

  16. Facile Oxidative Rearrangements Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Fateh V; Rehbein, Julia; Wirth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic substituents migrate in a novel oxidative cyclization mediated by iodine(III) reagents. 4-Arylbut-3-enoic acids are cyclized and rearranged to 4-arylfuran-2(5H)-ones by hypervalent iodine compounds in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Other ring sizes are also accessible. The mechanism of the reaction is described in detail, and calculations highlight the cationic nature of the intermediates in the rearrangement. The fast access to heavily substituted furanones is used for the synthesis of biologically active derivatives. PMID:24551514

  17. Luminescent chiral lanthanide(III) complexes as potential molecular probes

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    This perspective gives an introduction into the design of luminescent lanthanide(III)-containing complexes possessing chiral properties and used to probe biological materials. The first part briefly describes general principles, focusing on the optical aspect (i.e. lanthanide luminescence, sensitization processes) of the most emissive trivalent lanthanide ions, europium and terbium, incorporated into molecular luminescent edifices. This is followed by a short discussion on the importance of chirality in the biological and pharmaceutical fields. The second part is devoted to the assessment of the chiroptical spectroscopic tools available (typically circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence) and the strategies used to introduce a chiral feature into luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes (chiral structure resulting from a chiral arrangement of the ligand molecules surrounding the luminescent center or presence of chiral centers in the ligand molecules). Finally, the last part illustrates these fundamental principles with recent selected examples of such chiral luminescent lanthanide-based compounds used as potential probes of biomolecular substrates. PMID:19885510

  18. Lanthanide-doped hollow nanomaterials as theranostic agents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaojiao; Li, Chunxia; Cheng, Ziyong; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyao; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The field of theranostics has sprung up to achieve personalized medicine. The theranostics fuses diagnostic and therapeutic functions, empowering early diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and real-time monitoring of treatment effect into one step. One particularly attractive class of nanomaterials for theranostic application is lanthanide-doped hollow nanomaterials (LDHNs). Because of the existence of lanthanide ions, LDHNs show outstanding fluorescent and paramagnetic properties, enabling them to be used as multimodal bioimaging agents. Synchronously, the huge interior cavities of LDHNs are able to be applied as efficacious tools for storage and delivery of therapeutic agents. The LDHNs can be divided into two types based on difference of component: single-phase lanthanide-doped hollow nanomaterials and lanthanide-doped hollow nanocomposites. We describe the synthesis of first kind of nanomaterials by use of hard template, soft template, template-free, and self-sacrificing template method. For lanthanide-doped hollow nanocomposites, we divide the preparation strategies into three kinds (one-step, two-step, and multistep method) according to the synthetic procedures. Furthermore, we also illustrate the potential bioapplications of these LDHNs, including biodetection, imaging (fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging), drug/gene delivery, and other therapeutic applications. PMID:24227795

  19. Development of the Actinide-Lanthanide Separation (ALSEP) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Gelis, Artem V.

    2014-09-30

    Separating the minor actinide elements (Am and Cm) from acidic high-level raffinates arising from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is an important step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Most proposed approaches to this problem involve two solvent extraction steps: 1) co-extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, followed by 2) separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. The objective of our work is to develop a single solvent-extraction process for isolating the minor actinide elements. We report here a solvent containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) combined with 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) that can be used to separate the minor actinides in a single solvent-extraction process. T2EHDGA serves to co-extract the trivalent actinide and lanthanide ions from nitric acid solution. Switching the aqueous phase chemistry to a citrate buffered solution of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid at pH 2.5 to 4 results in selective transfer of the actinides to the aqueous phase, thus affecting separation of the actinides from the lanthanides. Separation factors between the lanthanides and actinides are approximately 20 in the pH range of 3 to 4, and the distribution ratios are not highly dependent on the pH in this system.

  20. From Antenna to Assay: Lessons Learned in Lanthanide Luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Evan; Samuel, Amanda; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-09-25

    Ligand-sensitized luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable current interest due to their unique photophysical properties (micro- to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts), which make them well suited to serve as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived Ln(III) emission can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence, resulting in vastly enhanced measurement sensitivity. One of the challenges in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive Ln(III) complexes that also possess sufficient stability and aqueous solubility required for practical applications. In this account we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology, the requirements and current use of which will be briefly discussed. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms as well as using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity compared to earlier examples that utilize a single pendant antenna chromophore. We have found that ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ca. 60%. Solution thermodynamic studies have indicated that these complexes are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM-chromophore, in conjunction with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) activity. To efficiently sensitize Eu(III) emission, we have utilized ligands based on the 1-hydroxypyridin-2-one (1,2-HOPO) chelate, which are remarkable since they combine both excellent photophysical properties in addition to exceptional aqueous stabilities. A more compete understanding of this chromophore has been achieved by combining low temperature phosphorescence measurements with the same TD-DFT approach used with the IAM system. Also, Eu(III) complexes with strong CPL activity have been obtained through preparation of chiral 1,2-HOPO ligands. Using the unique spectroscopic properties of Eu(III), we have also undertaken the kinetic analysis of radiative and non-radiative decay pathways for a series of complexes, which has highlighted the importance of the metal ion symmetry on the ensuing photophysical properties. Lastly, the commercial development of a Tb-IAM compound that offers improved performance in the common HTRF platform and has the potential to vastly improve the sensitivity of measurements carried out using this technique is presented.

  1. Lanthanide-doped luminescent nano-bioprobes: from fundamentals to biodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongsheng; Tu, Datao; Zhu, Haomiao; Ma, En; Chen, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    Trivalent lanthanide (Ln3+)-doped luminescent inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), characterized by long-lived luminescence, large Stokes and/or anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands and high photochemical stability, are considered to be promising candidates as luminescent bioprobes in biomedicine and biotechnology. In this feature article, we provide a brief overview of the most recent advances in Ln3+-doped luminescent inorganic NPs as sensors, which covers from their chemical and physical fundamentals to biodetection, such as controlled synthesis methodology, surface modification chemistry, optical physics, and their promising applications in diverse bioassays, with an emphasis on heterogeneous and homogeneous in vitro biodetection. Finally, some of the most important emerging trends and future efforts toward this active research field are also proposed.

  2. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-10-01

    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications.

  3. Purificaiton of Lanthanides for Large Neutrino Detectors: Thorium Removal from Gadolinium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, M.; Cumming, J.B.; Hans, S.; Hahn, R.L.

    2010-06-01

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillators are the detectors of choice for various neutrino experiments. Procedures have been developed to transfer metals into organic liquids by solvent extraction or direct dissolution of a metallic compound. Traces of natural radioactivity introduced into the scintillator with the metal may produce undesirable backgrounds. Measurements using a {sup 229}Th tracer indicate that the inclusion of a pH-controlled partial hydrolysis and filtration prior to the preparation of a gadolinium-loading compound can reduce thorium by a factor of {approx}100. This 'self-scavenging' procedure has the advantage that it uses only reagents encountered in the production process. Addition of non-elemental scavengers such as iron, or the use of solvent extraction or ion exchange procedures can be avoided. It also improves the optical transmission in the blue region by removing traces of iron. This purification method has potential applications to the large-scale production of other metal-loaded liquid scintillators and for the removal of traces of thorium in the industrial production of lanthanides.

  4. U. S. VETERINARY IMMUNE REAGENTS NETWORK: PROGRESS WITH POULTRY IMMUNE REAGENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This poster will present a progress report on the CSREES-funded NRI grant to support a broad community approach to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle but inclu...

  5. Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles as dual imaging agent in biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenlong; Bony, Badrul Alam; Kim, Cho Rong; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that the molecular imaging is an extremely important technique in diagnosing diseases. Dual imaging is emerging as a step forward in molecular imaging technique because it can provide us with more information useful for diagnosing diseases than single imaging. Therefore, diverse dual imaging modalities should be developed. Molecular imaging generally relies on imaging agents. Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles could be valuable materials for dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-fluorescent imaging (FI) because they have both excellent and diverse magnetic and fluorescent properties useful for dual MRI-FI, depending on lanthanide ions used. Since they are mixed nanoparticles, they are compact, robust, and stable, which is extremely useful for biomedical applications. They can be also easily synthesized with facile composition control. In this study, we explored three systems of ultrasmall mixed lanthanide (Dy/Eu, Ho/Eu, and Ho/Tb) oxide nanoparticles to demonstrate their usefulness as dual T2 MRI–FI agents. PMID:24220641

  6. Nature of the electronic band gap in lanthanide oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Roland; Clark, Stewart J.; Robertson, John

    2013-03-01

    Accurate electronic structures of the technologically important lanthanide/rare-earth sesquioxides (Ln2O3, with Ln=La,⋯,Lu) and CeO2 have been calculated using hybrid density functionals HSE03, HSE06, and screened exchange (sX-LDA). We find that these density functional methods describe the strongly correlated Ln f electrons as well as the recent G0W0@LDA+U results, generally yielding the correct band gaps and trends across the Ln period. For HSE, the band gap between O 2p states and lanthanide 5d states is nearly independent of the lanthanide, while the minimum gap varies as filled or empty Ln 4f states come into this gap. sX-LDA predicts the unoccupied 4f levels at higher energies, which leads to a better agreement with experiments for Sm2O3, Eu2O3, and Yb2O3.

  7. Shelf-stable electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagents: A brief historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Matsnev, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery by Yagupolskii and co-workers that S-trifluoromethyl diarylsulfonium salts are effective for the trifluoromethylation of thiophenolates, the design and synthesis of electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagents have been extensively researched in both academia and industry, due to the significant unique features that trifluoromethylated compounds have in pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, and functional materials. Several effective reagents have been developed by the groups of Yagupolskii, Umemoto, Shreeve, Adachi, Magnier, Togni and Shibata. Due to the high stability and reactivity of these reagents, a series of Umemoto reagents, Togni reagent and Shibata reagent are now commercially available. In this review, we wish to briefly provide a historical perspective of the development of so-called “shelf-stable electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagents”, although this field is in constant development. PMID:20703379

  8. Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides

    DOEpatents

    Kay, D. Alan R.; Wilson, William G.

    1989-12-05

    A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

  9. Thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides-A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P.; Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-06-24

    Thermodynamical properties like Entropy (S), Internal energy (E) and Helmholtz free energy (F) of liquid lanthanides using a variation principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubuv (GB) inequality with Percus Yevick hard sphere reference system have been reported in the present investigation. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our newly constructed parameter free model potential along with Sarkar et al. local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides.

  10. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrandt, R.A.; Hyman, H.H.; Vogler, S.

    1962-08-14

    A process of countercurrently extracting an aqueous mineral acid feed solution for the separation of actinides from lanthanides dissolved therern is described. The feed solution is made acid-defrcient with alkali metal hydroxide prior to.contact with acid extractant; during extraction, however, acid is transferred from organic to aqueous solution and the aqueous solution gradually becomes acid. The acid-deficient phase ' of the process promotes the extraction of the actinides, while the latter acid phase'' of the process improves retention of the lanthanides in the aqueous solution. This provides for an improved separation. (AEC)

  12. Bis-(N-maleimidomethyl) ether: an antisickling reagent.

    PubMed Central

    Zak, S J; Geller, G R; Finkel, B; Tukey, D P; McCormack, M K; Krivit, W

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of bis-(N-maleimidomethyl) ether with oxyhemoglobin results in covalent linkages of both maleimide groups, converting them to succinyl derivatives of beta93 Cys and beta97 His at their sulfhydryl and imidazolyl side chains, respectively. The resultant hemoglobin is stable, and reveals a left-shifted oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve in which cooperativity is abolished. This reagent readily traverses the red cell membrane and prevents the sickling reaction upon deoxygenation. It appears to affect none of the activities of the red cell enzymes adversely, nor does it appear to affect the red cell membrane. Since there are several defined effects on the stereochemical status of the molecule conferred by interaction with bis-(N-maleimidomethyl) ether, the precise mechanism of the anitsickling effect remains to be elucidated. A more subtle perturberant will be required to specify a precise antisickling effect. By use of bis-(N-maleimidomethyl) ether a precise locus on the beta chain of human hemoglobin S can be perturbed to produce the desired effect. Images PMID:1060096

  13. The Reagent-sorption Technology of Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Neschimenko, Y. P.; Feklistov, D. Y.

    The main purpose of this work is to intensify and to improve the efficiency of water treatment processes as well as to combine optimally modern techniques and technological devices in water treatment processes. Offered comprehensive hybrid water treatment developing technology of different origin is based on the combination of the treatment by reagent and membrane electro dialysis. In offered technology, of water treatment as a reagent is proposed to use alumino-silicic reagent, which simultaneously is coagulant, flocculant and adsorbent.

  14. Allylic Functionalization of Unactivated Olefins with Grignard Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hongli; Bayeh, Liela; Tambar, Uttam K.

    2014-01-01

    Allylic functionalization of unactivated olefins with carbon nucleophiles is a powerful strategy for converting olefins into complex products. We report a general method for functionalizing olefins with aromatic, aliphatic, and vinyl Grignard reagents. In a one-pot process, olefins are oxidized by a commercially available reagent to allylic electrophiles, which undergo selective Cu-catalyzed allylic alkylation with Grignard reagents. Products are formed in high yield and regioselectivity. PMID:24458538

  15. Advances in synthetic peptides reagent discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial display technology offers a number of advantages over competing display technologies (e.g, phage) for the rapid discovery and development of peptides with interaction targeted to materials ranging from biological hazards through inorganic metals. We have previously shown that discovery of synthetic peptide reagents utilizing bacterial display technology is relatively simple and rapid to make laboratory automation possible. This included extensive study of the protective antigen system of Bacillus anthracis, including development of discovery, characterization, and computational biology capabilities for in-silico optimization. Although the benefits towards CBD goals are evident, the impact is far-reaching due to our ability to understand and harness peptide interactions that are ultimately extendable to the hybrid biomaterials of the future. In this paper, we describe advances in peptide discovery including, new target systems (e.g. non-biological materials), advanced library development and clone analysis including integrated reporting.

  16. Degradation of hexachloroethane by Fenton's reagents.

    PubMed

    Jho, E H; Singhal, N; Turner, S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on the degradation of hexachloroethane (HCA) in the absence and the presence of tetrachloroethene (PCE) by Fenton's reagent was investigated at pH 3 with 1 mM iron(II) and H2O2 concentrations ranging from 0.01 M to 2 M. HCA degradation in the absence of PCE increased with increasing H2O2 concentration between 0.2 M and 2 M. In the presence of PCE, HCA degradation was similar to that in the absence of PCE for H2O2 concentration up to 1 M, but significantly higher for 2 M H2O2. We propose that this increase is a result of elevated reductant radicals when PCE is present. This study highlights the need for further investigation into the degradation of contaminant mixtures at higher H2O2 concentrations. PMID:19092198

  17. Oxidation of chlorobenzene with Fenton's reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlak, D.L.; Andren, A.W. )

    1991-04-01

    The degradation of chlorobenzene and its oxidation products by hydroxyl radicals generated with Fenton's reagent was studied. In the absence of oxygen, chlorophenols, dichlorobiphenyls (DCBs), and phenolic polymers were the predominant initial products. In the presence of oxygen, DCB yields decreased markedly and chlorobenzoquinone was also formed. Chlorophenol isomers were further oxidized by OH's to form chlorinated and nonchlorinated diols. DCBs and the phenolic polymers were also oxidized. The highest yield of product formed per mole of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumed was observed in the pH range of 2-3. The pH dependence and product distributions suggest that complexes of aromatic intermediate compounds with iron and oxygen may play a role in regulating reaction pathways. At pH 3.0, approximately 5 mol of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/mol of chlorobenzene were required to remove all of the aromatic intermediate compounds from solution.

  18. Highly Luminescent, Water-Soluble Lanthanide Fluorobenzoates: Syntheses, Structures and Photophysics, Part I: Lanthanide Pentafluorobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Kalyakina, Alena S; Utochnikova, Valentina V; Bushmarinov, Ivan S; Ananyev, Ivan V; Eremenko, Igor L; Volz, Daniel; Rönicke, Franziska; Schepers, Ute; Van Deun, Rik; Trigub, Alexander L; Zubavichus, Yan V; Kuzmina, Natalia P; Bräse, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Highly luminescent, photostable, and soluble lanthanide pentafluorobenzoates have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized, with a focus on Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes as visible emitters and Nd(III) , Er(III) , and Yb(III) complexes as infrared emitters. Investigation of the crystal structures of the complexes in powder form and as single crystals by using X-ray diffraction revealed five different structural types, including monomeric, dimeric, and polymeric. The local structure in different solutions was studied by using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of terbium and europium complexes were 39 and 15 %, respectively; the latter value was increased almost twice by using the heterometallic complex [Tb0.5 Eu0.5 (pfb)3 (H2 O)] (Hpfb=pentafluorobenzoic acid). Due to the effectively utilized sensitization strategy (pfb)(-) →Tb→Eu, a pure europium luminescence with a PLQY of 29 % was achieved. PMID:26489887

  19. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  20. On the suitability of lanthanides as actinide analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza

    2008-07-01

    With the current level of actinide materials used in civilian power generation and the need for safe and efficient methods for the chemical separation of these species from their daughter products and for long-term storage requirements, a detailed understanding of actinide chemistry is of great importance. Due to the unique bonding properties of the f-elements, the lanthanides are commonly used as structural and chemical models for the actinides, but differences in the bonding between these 4f and 5f elements has become a question of immediate applicability to separations technology. This brief overview of actinide coordination chemistry in the Raymond group at UC Berkeley/LBNL examines the validity of using lanthanide analogs as structural models for the actinides, with particular attention paid to single crystal X-ray diffraction structures. Although lanthanides are commonly accepted as reasonable analogs for the actinides, these comparisons suggest the careful study of actinide materials independent of their lanthanide analogs to be of utmost importance to present and future efforts in nuclear industries. (authors)

  1. Luminescent 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone chelates of lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Xu, Jide; Moore, Evan G.; Werner, Eric J.

    2013-10-15

    The present invention provides luminescent complexes between a lanthanide ion and an organic ligand which contains 1,2-hydroxypyridinone units. The complexes of the invention are stable in aqueous solutions and are useful as molecular probes, for example in medical diagnostics and bioanalytical assay systems. The invention also provides methods of using the complexes of the invention.

  2. Detection of Bacterial Spores with Lanthanide-Macrocycle Binary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Morgan L.; Kirby, James P.; Levine, Dana J.; Manary, Micah J.; Gray, Harry B.; Ponce, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The detection of bacterial spores via dipicolinate-triggered lanthanide luminescence has been improved in terms of detection limit, stability, and susceptibility to interferents by use of lanthanide-macrocycle binary complexes. Specifically, we compared the effectiveness of Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy complexes with the macrocycle 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetate (DO2A) to the corresponding lanthanide aquo ions. The Ln(DO2A)+ binary complexes bind dipicolinic acid (DPA), a major constituent of bacterial spores, with greater affinity and demonstrate significant improvement in bacterial spore detection. Of the four luminescent lanthanides studied, the terbium complex exhibits the greatest dipicolinate binding affinity (100-fold greater than Tb3+ alone, and 10-fold greater than other Ln(DO2A)+ complexes) and highest quantum yield. Moreover, the inclusion of DO2A extends the pH range over which Tb-DPA coordination is stable, reduces the interference of calcium ions nearly 5-fold, and mitigates phosphate interference 1000-fold compared to free terbium alone. In addition, detection of Bacillus atrophaeus bacterial spores was improved by the use of Tb(DO2A)+, yielding a 3-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio over Tb3+. Out of the eight cases investigated, the Tb(DO2A)+ binary complex is best for the detection of bacterial spores. PMID:19537757

  3. Plasmonic enhancement of lanthanides luminescence using metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, A.; Derom, S.; Abdellaoui, N.; Benamara, O.; Pillonnet, A.; Pereira, A.; Colas des Francs, G.; Moine, B.; Jurdyc, A.-M.

    2014-03-01

    This work summarizes how plasmonic phenomena can enhance the fluorescence of lanthanides (Ln3+) coupled to metallic nanoparticles (MNP). Lanthanide-ions emission lines, based on 4f-4f transitions, are weak due to Laporte selection rules for optical transitions. This effect results in low absorption cross sections for excitation and long lifetimes for emission processes. We propose to use metallic nanoparticles in order to determine how plasmonic nanoparticles can enhance absorption and emission of two emblematic lanthanides ions used for bio-labeling and energy conversion, i.e., Eu3+ and Er3+. This work quantifies the average enhancement factor (AEF) is expected for different geometries of nanoparticle structures and compares it to previous studies. Then, we theoretically and numerically investigate metal-enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with lanthanides ions. The shape and size of the particles are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor of the overall doped shell. We show with theoretical considerations and numerical studies that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) is achieved by tuning either the dipolar or the quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare-earth ion's excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained under similar conditions (plasmon-mediated enhancement) or when a metal-Ln3+ energy-transfer mechanism is involved.

  4. Heat capacities of lanthanide and actinide monazite-type ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Beridze, George; Vinograd, Victor L.; Bosbach, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    (Ln, An) xPO4 monazite-type ceramics are considered as potential matrices for the disposal of nuclear waste. In this study we computed the heat capacities and the standard entropies of these compounds using density functional perturbation theory. The calculations of lanthanide monazites agree well with the existing experimental data and provide information on the variation of the standard heat capacities and entropies along the lanthanide series. The results for AnPO4 monazites are similar to those obtained for the isoelectronic lanthanide compounds. This suggests that the missing thermodynamic data on actinide monazites could be similarly computed or assessed based on the properties of their lanthanide analogs. However, the computed heat capacity of PuPO4 appear to be significantly lower than the measured data. We argue that this discrepancy might indicate potential problems with the existing experimental data or with their interpretation. This shows a need for further experimental studies of the heat capacities of actinide-bearing, monazite-type ceramics.

  5. Ratiometric oxygen sensing using lanthanide luminescent emitting interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Joshua; Tropiano, Manuel; Beer, Paul D; Faulkner, Stephen; Davis, Jason J

    2015-11-14

    Herein we describe the first example of a ratiometric lanthanide luminescent oxygen sensing interface. Immobilisation of terbium and europium cyclen complexes on glass substrates was achieved by a novel aryl nitrene photografting approach. The resulting interfaces demonstrated a ratiometric oxygen response between 0 and 0.2 atm partial oxygen pressure. PMID:26376829

  6. On the Suitability of Lanthanides as Actinide Analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, Geza; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-04-11

    With the current level of actinide materials used in civilian power generation and the need for safe and efficient methods for the chemical separation of these species from their daughter products and for long-term storage requirements, a detailed understanding of actinide chemistry is of great importance. Due to the unique bonding properties of the f-elements, the lanthanides are commonly used as structural and chemical models for the actinides, but differences in the bonding between these 4f and 5f elements has become a question of immediate applicability to separations technology. This brief overview of actinide coordination chemistry in the Raymond group at UC Berkeley/LBNL examines the validity of using lanthanide analogs as structural models for the actinides, with particular attention paid to single crystal X-ray diffraction structures. Although lanthanides are commonly accepted as reasonable analogs for the actinides, these comparisons suggest the careful study of actinide materials independent of their lanthanide analogs to be of utmost importance to present and future efforts in nuclear industries.

  7. Enhancement of Anion Binding in Lanthanide Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Morgan L.; Kirby, James P.; Gray, Harry B.; Ponce, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In the design of molecular sensors, researchers exploit binding interactions that are usually defined in terms of topology and charge complementarity. The formation of complementary arrays of highly cooperative, noncovalent bonding networks facilitates protein-ligand binding, leading to motifs such as the ‘lock-and-key.’ Synthetic molecular sensors often employ metal complexes as key design elements as a way to construct a binding site with the desired shape and charge to achieve target selectivity. In transition metal complexes, coordination number, structure and ligand dynamics are governed primarily by a combination of inner-sphere covalent and outer-sphere noncovalent interactions. These interactions provide a rich variable space that researchers can use to tune structure, stability and dynamics. In contrast, lanthanide(III)-ligand complex formation and ligand-exchange dynamics are dominated by reversible electrostatic and steric interactions, because the unfilled f shell is shielded by the larger, filled d shell. Luminescent lanthanides such as terbium, europium, dysprosium and samarium display many photophysical properties that make them excellent candidates for molecular sensor applications. Complexes of lanthanide ions act as receptors that exhibit a detectable change in metal-based luminescence upon binding of an anion. In our work on sensors for detection of dipicolinate, the unique biomarker of bacterial spores, we discovered that the incorporation of an ancillary ligand (AL) can enhance binding constants of target anions to lanthanide ions by as much as two orders of magnitude. In this Account, we show that selected ALs in lanthanide/anion systems greatly improve sensor performance for medical, planetary science and biodefense applications. We suggest that the observed anion binding enhancement could result from an AL-induced increase in positive charge at the lanthanide ion binding site. This effect depends on lanthanide polarizability, which can be established from the ionization energy of Ln3+ → Ln4+. These results account for the order Tb3+ > Dy3+ > Eu3+ ≈ Sm3+. As with many lanthanide properties, ranging from hydration enthalpy to vaporization energy, this AL-induced enhancement shows a large discrepancy between Tb3+ and Eu3+ despite their similarity in size, a phenomenon known as the ‘gadolinium break.’ This discrepancy, based on the unusual stabilities of the Eu2+ and Tb4+ oxidation states, results from the half-shell effect, as both of these ions have half-filled 4f-shells. The high polarizability of Tb3+ explains the extraordinarily large increase in the binding affinity of anions for terbium compared to other lanthanides. We recommend that researchers consider this AL-induced enhancement when designing lanthanide-macrocycle optical sensors. Ancillary ligands also can reduce the impact of interfering species such as phosphate) commonly found in environmental and physiological samples. PMID:24032446

  8. Enhancement of anion binding in lanthanide optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Cable, Morgan L; Kirby, James P; Gray, Harry B; Ponce, Adrian

    2013-11-19

    In the design of molecular sensors, researchers exploit binding interactions that are usually defined in terms of topology and charge complementarity. The formation of complementary arrays of highly cooperative, noncovalent bonding networks facilitates protein-ligand binding, leading to motifs such as the "lock-and-key". Synthetic molecular sensors often employ metal complexes as key design elements as a way to construct a binding site with the desired shape and charge to achieve target selectivity. In transition metal complexes, coordination number, structure and ligand dynamics are governed primarily by a combination of inner-sphere covalent and outer-sphere noncovalent interactions. These interactions provide a rich variable space that researchers can use to tune structure, stability, and dynamics. In contrast, lanthanide(III)-ligand complex formation and ligand-exchange dynamics are dominated by reversible electrostatic and steric interactions, because the unfilled f shell is shielded by the larger, filled d shell. Luminescent lanthanides such as terbium, europium, dysprosium, and samarium display many photophysical properties that make them excellent candidates for molecular sensor applications. Complexes of lanthanide ions act as receptors that exhibit a detectable change in metal-based luminescence upon binding of an anion. In our work on sensors for detection of dipicolinate, the unique biomarker of bacterial spores, we discovered that the incorporation of an ancillary ligand (AL) can enhance binding constants of target anions to lanthanide ions by as much as two orders of magnitude. In this Account, we show that selected ALs in lanthanide/anion systems greatly improve sensor performance for medical, planetary science, and biodefense applications. We suggest that the observed anion binding enhancement could result from an AL-induced increase in positive charge at the lanthanide ion binding site. This effect depends on lanthanide polarizability, which can be established from the ionization energy of Ln(3+) → Ln(4+). These results account for the order Tb(3+) > Dy(3+) > Eu(3+) ≈ Sm(3+). As with many lanthanide properties, ranging from hydration enthalpy to vaporization energy, this AL-induced enhancement shows a large discrepancy between Tb(3+) and Eu(3+) despite their similarity in size, a phenomenon known as the "gadolinium break". This discrepancy, based on the unusual stabilities of the Eu(2+) and Tb(4+) oxidation states, results from the half-shell effect, as both of these ions have half-filled 4f-shells. The high polarizability of Tb(3+) explains the extraordinarily large increase in the binding affinity of anions for terbium compared to other lanthanides. We recommend that researchers consider this AL-induced enhancement when designing lanthanide-macrocycle optical sensors. Ancillary ligands also can reduce the impact of interfering species such as phosphate commonly found in environmental and physiological samples. PMID:24032446

  9. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930 Section 866.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255 Section 866.3255 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  19. Redox mediation and hydrogen-generation with bipyridinium reagents

    DOEpatents

    Wrighton, Mark S.; Bookbinder, Dana C.; Bruce, James A.; Dominey, Raymond N.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    1984-03-27

    A variety of redox mediating agents employing bipyridinium reagents and such reagents in conjunction with dispersed noble metals, such as platinium, are disclosed as coatings for substrates and electrodes. The agents may be charged by an applied voltage or by photoelectric effects or may be equilibrated with hydrogen. The agents are useful in reducing biological materials and electrolytic hydrogen production.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  1. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. 864.1860 Section 864.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1860 Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a)...

  2. EFFECT OF FENTON'S REAGENT ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIOLOGY AND BIODEGRADATION CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosm studies were conducted to determine the effect of Fenton's reagent on subsurface microbiology and biodegradation capacity in a DNAPL (PCE/TCE) contaminated aquifer previously treated with the reagent. Groundwater pH declined from 5 to 2.4 immediately after the treatmen...

  3. Structure–kinetic relationship study of organozinc reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guanghui; Li, Jing; Deng, Yi; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Bunel, Emilio E.; Lei, Aiwen

    2014-01-01

    Phenylzinc reagents prepared from various zinc halides show distinct kinetic features in the palladium-catalyzed Negishi-type oxidative coupling reaction, in which the phenylzinc reagent prepared from ZnI2 gives the highest rate. In situ infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies show that the higher reaction rate was observed for longer Zn–C bond distances.

  4. Structure-kinetic relationship study of organozinc reagents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanghui; Li, Jing; Deng, Yi; Miller, Jeffrey T; Kropf, A Jeremy; Bunel, Emilio E; Lei, Aiwen

    2014-08-14

    Phenylzinc reagents prepared from various zinc halides show distinct kinetic features in the palladium-catalyzed Negishi-type oxidative coupling reaction, in which the phenylzinc reagent prepared from ZnI2 gives the highest rate. In situ infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies show that the higher reaction rate was observed for longer Zn-C bond distances. PMID:24964262

  5. Physically absorbable reagents-collectors in elementary flotation

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Kondrat'ev; I.G. Bochkarev

    2007-09-15

    Based on the reviewed researches held at the Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, the effect of physically absorbable reagents-collectors on formation of a flotation complex and its stability in turbulent pulp flows in flotation machines of basic types is considered. The basic requirements for physically absorbable reagents-collectors at different flotation stages are established.

  6. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  9. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James

    1988-01-01

    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  10. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  11. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General purpose reagent. 864.4010 Section 864.4010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General...

  12. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents...

  13. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents...

  14. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents...

  15. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents...

  16. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3336 - John Cunningham Virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false John Cunningham Virus serological reagents. 866.3336 Section 866.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866.3520 Section 866.3520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460 Section 866.3460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section 866.3020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3500...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350 Section 866.3350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550 Section 866.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415 Section 866.3415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. 866.3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175 Section 866.3175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. 866.3010 Section 866.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. 866.3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Norovirus serological reagents. 866.3395 Section 866.3395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Francisella tularensis serological reagents. 866.3280 Section 866.3280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740 Section 866.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510 Section 866.3510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. 866.3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section 866.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3400...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coxsackievirus serological reagents. 866.3145 Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470...

  15. 21 CFR 58.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagents and solutions. 58.83 Section 58.83 Food... solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer... solutions shall not be used....

  16. 21 CFR 58.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reagents and solutions. 58.83 Section 58.83 Food... solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer... solutions shall not be used....

  17. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose reagent. 864.4010 Section 864.4010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General...

  18. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analyte specific reagents. 864.4020 Section 864.4020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4020 Analyte...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864.8950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper...

  20. Chiral Shift Reagent Analysis of Enantioselectivity in Baker's Yeast Reductions of Ethylacetoacetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipkowitz, K. B.; Mooney, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a laboratory exercise that uses nuclear magnetic resonance to monitor enantiomeric excess in asymmetric reductions. The laboratory exercise has been used successfully with undergraduate organic chemistry students. (RH)