Sample records for lanthanide shift reagents

  1. Binuclear shift reagents for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.J.; Sievers, R.E.

    1983-08-01

    The effects of adding binuclear lanthanide(III)-silver(I) shift reagents to aromatic compounds and phosphines are discussed. With aromatic compounds, the silver bonds at sites away from alkyl substituents so that selective shifts, leading to significant spectral clarification, are observed. Because of different shifts, the analysis of complex mixtures such as the methylbenzenes in gasoline can be performed in the presence of these shift reagents. A study of the relative shifting ability of the binuclear complexes formed with the ligand 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedione (fod), vs. 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione (thd), revealed that the fluorinated ligands are much more effective shift reagents.

  2. Selectivity enhancement of Arsenazo(III) reagent towards heavier lanthanides using polyaminocarboxylic acids: A spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Komal; Mittal, Susheel K.; Ashok Kumar, S. K.; Sahoo, Suban K.

    2015-06-01

    A new study has been conducted to quantify lanthanide(III) ions using Arsenazo III-polyaminocarboxylic acid (PACA) system. The study disclosed two different analytically important information: (i) ?max of lanthanide-Arsenazo III complexes for lighter lanthanides like Ce(III) and Nd(III) did not shift from its original position on addition of PACA and (ii) for heavier lanthanides like Dy(III), Tm(III) and Lu(III) a new ?max at 538 nm was observed, while wavelengths at 610 nm and 654 nm were disappeared in presence of ethylenediaminetertracetic acid (EDTA) and trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (DCTA), further the intensity of peak decreased with increase in lanthanide(III) ion concentration. Effect of ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine-N,N?,N?-triacetic acid (EDTA-OH) on Arsenzo(III)-Ln(III) complex is very weak and there is no analytically importance of such interaction. Moreover, this work confirms that Nd(III) and heavy lanthanides can be successfully determined with high accuracy in the working range of concentration of these metal ions.

  3. Generation of pseudocontact shifts in proteins with lanthanides using small "clickable" nitrilotriacetic acid and iminodiacetic acid tags.

    PubMed

    Loh, Choy-Theng; Graham, Bim; Abdelkader, Elwy H; Tuck, Kellie L; Otting, Gottfried

    2015-03-23

    Pseudocontact shifts (PCS) induced by paramagnetic lanthanide ions provide unique long-range structural information in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, but the site-specific attachment of lanthanide tags to proteins remains a challenge. Here we incorporated p-azido-phenylalanine (AzF) site-specifically into the proteins ubiquitin and GB1, and ligated the AzF residue with alkyne derivatives of small nitrilotriacetic acid and iminodiacetic acid tags using the Cu(I) -catalysed "click" reaction. These tags form lanthanide complexes with no or only a small net charge and produced sizeable PCSs with paramagnetic lanthanide ions in all mutants tested. The PCSs were readily fitted by single magnetic susceptibility anisotropy tensors. Protein precipitation during the click reaction was greatly alleviated by the presence of 150?mM NaCl. PMID:25676727

  4. Peptide-lanthanide cation equilibria in aqueous phase. I. Bound shifts for L-carnosine-praseodymium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossoyan, J.; Asso, M.; Benlian, D.

    L-Carnosine complexes of Pr 3+ were characterized in aqueous solution by 1H NMR and potentiometric titration. A rigorous treatment of chemical shifts and pH variation data with lanthanide concentration is presented. Two different forms of the peptide ligand, forming simultaneously two complexes, were taken into account. At low pH values the cation is only coordinated at the carboxylate site of the ligand in a weak complex ( ?2 = 6) whereas in neutral solution a stronger complex ( ?1 = 37) is present as a consequence of the deprotonation of the imidazole ring. The computation of induced bound shifts † 2 and ?1 for resonating nuclei of the peptide in both forms yields consistent figures. These provide the experimental basis for a conformational model which is usually not obtainable for labile complexes with low stability constants.

  5. Breaking pseudo-symmetry in multiantennary complex N-glycans using lanthanide-binding tags and NMR pseudo-contact shifts.

    PubMed

    Canales, Angeles; Mallagaray, Alvaro; Pérez-Castells, Javier; Boos, Irene; Unverzagt, Carlo; André, Sadine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Cañada, Francisco Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2013-12-16

    Controlling NMR shifts by lanthanides tagged to a "symmetrical" N-glycan reveals individual resonances for the residues of the otherwise identical A and B?arms. This method provides a global perspective of conformational features and interactions in solution. PMID:24346952

  6. Method bacterial endospore quantification using lanthanide dipicolinate luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian (Inventor); Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor); Kirby, James Patrick (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A lanthanide is combined with a medium to be tested for endospores. The dipicolinic acid released from the endospores binds the lanthanides, which have distinctive emission (i.e., luminescence) spectra, and are detected using photoluminescence. The concentration of spores is determined by preparing a calibration curve generated from photoluminescence spectra of lanthanide complex mixed with spores of a known concentration. A lanthanide complex is used as the analysis reagent, and is comprised of lanthanide ions bound to multidentate ligands that increase the dipicolinic acid binding constant through a cooperative binding effect with respect to lanthanide chloride. The resulting combined effect of increasing the binding constant and eliminating coordinated water and multiple equilibria increase the sensitivity of the endospore assay by an estimated three to four orders of magnitude over prior art of endospore detection based on lanthanide luminescence.

  7. Metal-assembled cobalt(II) resorc[4]arene-based cage molecules that reversibly capture organic molecules from water and act as NMR shift reagents.

    PubMed

    Fox, O D; Leung, J F; Hunter, J M; Dalley, N K; Harrison, R G

    2000-02-21

    The complex Co4 1(2)8- is a tetranuclear cobalt(II) cage compound that assembles in aqueous solutions above pH 4 and is capable of encapsulating a variety of organic guest molecules, for example, benzene, hexane, chlorobutane, butanol, and ethyl acetate. Ligand 1 is a resorc[4]arene-based molecule with iminodiacetate moieties appended to its upper rim. 1H NMR studies of Co4 1(2)8-.guest complexes demonstrate inclusion of nonpolar hydrocarbons, substituted phenyls, alcohols, halogen-containing hydrocarbons, and polar organic molecules. The complex Co4 1(2)8- acts as an NMR shift reagent and causes substantial upfield isotropic hydrogen shifts (-30 to -40 ppm) in the guest molecule and separation of the guest hydrogen chemical shifts by typically 12 ppm. The complex Co4 1(2)8- will encapsulate molecules with fewer than eight atoms in a linear chain, mono- and disubstituted benzenes, and polar molecules with greater than two carbon atoms. The solid-state structure of Ba4[Co4 1(2).C6H5C2H5] shows a disordered guest molecule encapsulated within the cavity of Co4 1(2)8-. The cavity dimensions, bond lengths, and bond angles of Ba4[Co4 1(2).C6H5C2H5] are very similar to those determined in Ba4[Co4 1(2).6H2O]. PMID:11272577

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of metal-protn distances in the EF site of carp parvalbumin using the susceptibility contribution to the line broadening of lanthanide-shifted resonances.

    PubMed

    Lee, L; Sykes, B D

    1980-07-01

    The substitution of the paramagnetic lanthanide ion ytterbium for the calcium ion in the EF calcium binding site of carp parvalbumin results in a series of 1H NMR resonances which are shifted well outside of the envelope of the 1H NMR spectrum of the diamagnetic form of the protein. The line broadening of these shifted resonances has been measured as a function of 1H NMR frequency between 200 and 400 MHz, and the spin-lattice relaxation rates have been measured at 270 MHz. The analysis of the relaxation rates based upon the theories of Vega & Fiat [Vega, A. J., & Fiat, D. (1976) Mol. Phys. 31, 347-355] and Guéron [Guéron, M. (1975) J. Magn. Reson. 19, 58-66] indicates that a major contribution to the line widths comes from the novel susceptibility relaxation mechanism and that the metal to proton distances can be directly calculated from this contribution. PMID:7407042

  9. Lanthanide ion (III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate for dual biosensing of pH with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Ali, Meser M; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Relaxivity-based magnetic resonance of phosphonated ligands chelated with gadolinium (Gd(3+)) shows promise for pH imaging. However instead of monitoring the paramagnetic effect of lanthanide complexes on the relaxivity of water protons, biosensor (or molecular) imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting either the nonexchangeable or the exchangeable protons on the lanthanide complexes themselves. The nonexchangeable protons (e.g. -CHx, where 3 ? x ? 1) are detected using a three-dimensional chemical shift imaging method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS), whereas the exchangeable protons (e.g. -OH or -NHy , where 2 ? y ? 1) are measured with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast. Here we tested the feasibility of BIRDS and CEST for pH imaging of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP(8-)) chelated with thulium (Tm(3+) ) and ytterbium (Yb(3+)). BIRDS and CEST experiments show that both complexes are responsive to pH and temperature changes. Higher pH and temperature sensitivities are obtained with BIRDS for either complex when using the chemical shift difference between two proton resonances vs using the chemical shift of a single proton resonance, thereby eliminating the need to use water resonance as reference. While CEST contrast for both agents is linearly dependent on pH within a relatively large range (i.e. 6.3-7.9), much stronger CEST contrast is obtained with YbDOTA-4AmP(5-) than with TmDOTA-4AmP(5-). In addition, we demonstrate the prospect of using BIRDS to calibrate CEST as new platform for quantitative pH imaging. PMID:24801742

  10. Lanthanide-containing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, Anne K.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of a variety of lanthanide-containing polyimide films is described, and results of their characterization are presented. The properties investigated include the glass transition temperature, thermooxidative stability, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity of the polymer. Films containing lanthanide chlorides, fluorides, and sulfides are flexible, but those containing lanthanide nitrates are extremely brittle. The addition of lanthanide acetates and acetylacetonates caused immediate gelation of two of the synthesis-mixture ingredients. It was found that, in general, the addition of lanthanide to the polyimide increases the density and glass transition temperature of the polymer but slightly decreases the thermooxidative stability.

  11. Hyperfine interactions at lanthanide impurities in Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torumba, D.; Vanhoof, V.; Rots, M.; Cottenier, S.

    2006-07-01

    The magnetic hyperfine field and electric-field gradient at isolated lanthanide impurities in an Fe host lattice are calculated from first principles, allowing a qualitative and quantitative understanding of an experimental data set collected over the past 40years . It is demonstrated that the common local density approximation leads to quantitatively and qualitatively wrong results, while the LDA+U method performs much better. In order to avoid pitfalls inherent to the LDA+U method, a combination of free ion calculations and “constrained density matrix” calculations is proposed and tested. Quantitative results for the exchange field and crystal field parameters are obtained ( Bexc=+420T , B04=-1000cm-1 , B06=-800cm-1 ), showing in particular how crystal field effects influence the hyperfine fields for the lightest and heaviest lanthanides. The hyperfine fields are shown to be dominated by the 4f orbital contribution, with small corrections due to the spin dipolar and Fermi contact fields. The latter is found to be constant for all lanthanides, a feature that is understood by a modified version of the well-known core polarization mechanism for 3d hyperfine fields. Spin dipolar fields and electric-field gradients have apart from a 4f contribution a surprisingly strong contribution due to the completely filled lanthanide 5p orbitals—the mechanism behind this is explained. The lanthanide 4f spin moment is found to couple antiparallel to the magnetization of the Fe lattice, in agreement with the model of Campbell and Brooks. There is strong evidence for a delocalization-localization transition that is shifted from Ce to at least Pr and maybe further up to Sm. This shift is interpreted in terms of the effective pressure felt by lanthanides in Fe. Implications for resolving ambiguities in the determination of delocalization in pure lanthanide metals under pressure are discussed. For the localized lanthanides, Yb is shown to be divalent in this host lattice, while all others are trivalent (including Eu). The temperature dependence of the hyperfine fields is discussed as well.

  12. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  13. Thermolysis of lanthanide dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Boncher, William L.; Regulacio, Michelle D. [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington DC 20057 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington DC 20057 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Polycrystalline lanthanide sulfide materials were formed at low temperatures using a single-source precursor based on the lanthanide dithiocarbamate complex. The synthesis temperatures are generally lower than standard solid state preparations, avoid toxic sulfurizing gases and provide a convenient route to prepare lanthanide chalcogenide nanoparticles. Depending on the reaction conditions and oxophilicity of the lanthanide, the sulfide material was formed with oxidized products including oxysulfides, oxysulfates and the oxide. - Graphical abstract: Polycrystalline lanthanide sulfide materials were formed at low temperatures using a single-source precursor based on the lanthanide dithiocarbamate complex.

  14. 4858 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994, 116, 4858-4865 Lanthanide-Cyclodextrin Complexes as Probes for Elucidating

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    4858 J. Am. Chem. SOC.1994, 116, 4858-4865 Lanthanide-Cyclodextrin Complexes as Probes of cyclodextrin-substrate inclusion complexes. Lanthanide-induced shiftsarereported for complexes of aspartame of the shifts agree with previously reported structures of the complexes. Introduction The cyclodextrins

  15. Citrate based ``TALSPEAK`` lanthanide-actinide separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Bond, W.D.; Toth, L.M.; Davis, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The potential hazard posed to future generations by long-lived radionuclides such as the transuranic elements (TRU) is perceived as a major problem associated with the use of nuclear power. TRU wastes have to remain isolated from the environment for ``geological`` periods of time. The costs of building, maintaining, and operating a ``geological TRU repository`` can be very high. Therefore, there are significant economical advantages in segregating the relatively low volume of TRU wastes from other nuclear wastes. The chemical behavior of lanthanides and actinides, 4f and 5f elements respectively, is rather similar. As a consequence, the separation of these two groups is difficult. The ``TALSPEAK`` process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. The method is based on the preferential complexation of the trivalent actinides by an aminopolyacetic acid. Cold experiments showed that by using citric acid the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium are greatly reduced.

  16. Lanthanide-doped luminescent ionogels.

    PubMed

    Lunstroot, Kyra; Driesen, Kris; Nockemann, Peter; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen; Bellayer, Séverine; Viau, Lydie; Le Bideau, Jean; Vioux, André

    2009-01-14

    Ionogels are solid oxide host networks confining at a meso-scale ionic liquids, and retaining their liquid nature. Ionogels were obtained by dissolving lanthanide(III) complexes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C6mim][Tf2N], followed by confinement of the lanthanide-doped ionic liquid mixtures in the pores of a nano-porous silica network. [C6mim][Ln(tta)4], where tta is 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Ho, Er, Yb, and [choline]3[Tb(dpa)3], where dpa=pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate (dipicolinate), were chosen as the lanthanide complexes. The ionogels are luminescent, ion-conductive inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Depending on the lanthanide(III) ion, emission in the visible or the near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed. The work presented herein highlights that the confinement did not disturb the first coordination sphere of the lanthanide ions and also showed the excellent luminescence performance of the lanthanide tetrakis beta-diketonate complexes. The crystal structures of the complexes [C6mim][Yb(tta)4] and [choline]3[Tb(dpa)3] are reported. PMID:19089011

  17. Flavonoids as Analytical Reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystyna Pyrzynska; Anna P?kal

    2011-01-01

    Compounds from the flavonoid family, while exhibiting a wide range of biological effects, are interesting reagents for analytical purposes as well. They form complexes with several p-, d-, and f-electron metals, which could be employed in the determination of these metal ions in different kinds of samples by various techniques. This article presents and discusses the application of flavonoid compounds

  18. Use of soft heterocyclic N-donor ligands to separate actinides and lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Michael J; Harwood, Laurence M; Laventine, Dominic M; Lewis, Frank W

    2013-04-01

    The removal of the most long-lived radiotoxic elements from used nuclear fuel, minor actinides, is foreseen as an essential step toward increasing the public acceptance of nuclear energy as a key component of a low-carbon energy future. Once removed from the remaining used fuel, these elements can be used as fuel in their own right in fast reactors or converted into shorter-lived or stable elements by transmutation prior to geological disposal. The SANEX process is proposed to carry out this selective separation by solvent extraction. Recent efforts to develop reagents capable of separating the radioactive minor actinides from lanthanides as part of a future strategy for the management and reprocessing of used nuclear fuel are reviewed. The current strategies for the reprocessing of PUREX raffinate are summarized, and some guiding principles for the design of actinide-selective reagents are defined. The development and testing of different classes of solvent extraction reagent are then summarized, covering some of the earliest ligand designs right through to the current reagents of choice, bis(1,2,4-triazine) ligands. Finally, we summarize research aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the underlying reasons for the excellent extraction capabilities and high actinide/lanthanide selectivities shown by this class of ligands and our recent efforts to immobilize these reagents onto solid phases. PMID:22867058

  19. A Lanthanide(III) Triflate Mediated Macrolactonization/Solid-Phase Synthesis Approach for Depsipeptide Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Goodreid, Jordan D; Dos Santos, Eduardo da Silveira; Batey, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The effect of dysprosium(III) triflate on macrolactonization reactions to form depsipeptides using MNBA (Shiina's reagent) is reported. Improved yields were obtained for the formation of 16-membered depsipeptides using lanthanide triflate additives. The use of a macrocyclization strategy permits the use of a semiautomated solid-phase synthesis approach for the rapid synthesis of analogues of the antibacterial A54556 acyldepsipeptides in only two physical operations, requiring only final product purification after cyclization. PMID:25866888

  20. Trivalent Actinide and Lanthanide Separations by Dialkyl?Substituted Diphosphonic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chiarizia; D. R. McAlister; A. W. Herlinger

    2005-01-01

    The dialkyl?substituted diphosphonic acids are powerful solvent extraction reagents for actinide separation and preconcentration from biological, environmental, and nuclear waste samples. In spite of the intensive scrutiny of the solvent extraction properties of these compounds, only the extraction of Eu(III) and Am(III), among the lanthanides and trivalent actinides, has been investigated thus far. In this work, we report the extraction

  1. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays.

    SciTech Connect

    Anstey, Mitchell; Fruetel, Julia A.; Foster, Michael E.; Hayden, Carl C.; Buckley, Heather L.; Arnold, John

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves %22Click%22 chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  2. Imaging agents based on lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Prodi, L; Rampazzo, E; Rastrelli, F; Speghini, A; Zaccheroni, N

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology has recently allowed us to design and prepare nanoplatforms with the potential to face currently unresolved problems. Among these platforms, nanoparticles in particular are versatile objects that find applications in many different areas. In the vast ensemble of materials that have been explored to obtain nanoparticles with improved performances, we here focus our attention on lanthanide-based nanocrystals. These recently developed species are extremely interesting and well known particularly for their ability to emit anti-Stokes shifted light (upconversion) with relatively high brightness. Many advantageous characteristics of such materials are emerging, and their use as multimodal imaging agents is rapidly growing. We here survey some recent examples on this subject, mainly focusing on systems having NIR-to-NIR emission properties for in vivo applications. PMID:26090530

  3. LANTHANIDE ENHANCE LUMINESCENCE (LEL) WITH ONE AND TWO PHOTON EXCITATION OF QUANTUM DYES LANTHANIDE (III) - MACROCYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Lanthanide Enhance Luminescence (LEL) with one and two photon excitation of Quantum Dyes? Lanthanide(III)-Macrocycles Principal Author: Robert C. Leif, Newport Instruments Secondary Authors: Margie C. Becker, Phoenix Flow Systems Al Bromm, Virginia Commonw...

  4. Stain Reagent Reversible Stain Kits

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    the protein is stained, not the gel, allowing protein bands to be viewed directly within the staining reagent during the staining process. 1 Water Wash-Enhanced Protein Staining With GelCode ® Blue Stain Reagent Introduction Coomassie® Brilliant Blue is the most common dye used to stain proteins on polyacrylamide gels

  5. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species". Sets of reagents, i.e., monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies, that can identify the major leukocy...

  6. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine, and aquaculture species. Sets of reagents, i.e. monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (Ab), that can identify the major leu...

  7. Investigation of Gravity Lanthanide Separation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Rosara F.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Friese, Judah I.; Farmer, Orville T.; Finn, Erin C.

    2011-03-01

    Lanthanides are common fission products and the ability to separate and quantify these elements is critical to rapid radiochemistry applications. Published lanthanide separations using Eichrom Ln Spec resin utilize an HCl gradient. Here it is shown that the efficacy and resolution of the separation is improved when a nitric acid gradient is used instead. The described method allows parallel processing of many samples in 1.5 hours followed by 60 minute counting for quantification of 9 isotopes of 7 lanthanide elements.

  8. Solvent-Dependent Lithium Bridging in Allenyl-Propargyllithium Reagents

    E-print Network

    Reich, Hans J.

    , the equilib- rium isotope shifts are independent of the number of bonds separating the site of isotopicSolvent-Dependent Lithium Bridging in Allenyl-Propargyllithium Reagents Hans J. Reich* and Jennifer and propargyl isomers have been studied by the Saunders isotope perturbation technique. Variable equilibrium

  9. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100 Complement reagent. (a)...

  10. International Reference Reagents: Antihuman Globulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Case; D. S. Ford; A. Chung; R. Collins; S. Kochman; T. Mazda; M. Overbeeke; R. Perera; T. Sakuldamrongpanich; M. Scott; D. Voak

    1999-01-01

    An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in 1987. The chosen preparation contains levels of anti–IgG and anti–C3 (anti–C3c and anti–C3d) potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific

  11. Helical Lanthanide(III) Complexes with Chiral Nonaaza Macrocycle

    PubMed Central

    Gregoli?ski, Janusz; Starynowicz, Przemys?aw; Hua, KimNgan T.; Lunkley, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The chiral nonaazamacrocyclic amine L, which is a reduction product of the 3+3 Schiff base macrocycle, wraps around the lanthanide(III) ions to form enantiopure helical complexes. These Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) complexes have been isolated in enantiopure form and have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystal structures of the Ln(III) complexes with L show that the thermodynamic product of the complexation of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is the (M)-helical complex in the case of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III). In contrast, the (P)-helical complex is the thermodynamic product in the case of Yb(III) and Lu(III). The NMR and CD spectra show that the (M)-helicity for the kinetic complexation product of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is preferred for all investigated lanthanide(III) ions, while the preferred helicity of the thermodynamic product is (M) for the early lanthanide(III) ions and (P) for the late lanthanide(III) ions. In the case of the late lanthanide(III) ions, a slow inversion of helicity between the kinetic (M)-helical product and the thermodynamic (P)-helical product is observed in solution. For Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) both forms have been isolated in pure form and characterized by NMR and CD. The analysis of 2D NMR spectra of the Lu(III) complex reveals the NOE correlations that prove that the helical structure is retained in solution. The NMR spectra also reveal large isotopic effect on the 1H NMR shifts of paramagnetic Ln(III) complexes, related to NH/ND exchange. Photophysical measurements show that LRRRRRR appears to favour an efficient 3??*-to-Ln energy transfer process taking place for Eu(III) and Tb(III), but these Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-containing complexes with LRRRRRR lead to small luminescent quantum yields due to an incomplete intersystem crossing (isc) transfer, a weak efficiency of the luminescence sensitization by the ligand, and/or efficient non-radiative deactivation processes. Circularly polarized luminescence on the MeOH solutions of Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes confirms the presence of stable chiral emitting species and the observation of almost perfect mirror-image CPL spectra for these compounds with both enantiomeric forms of L. PMID:19053412

  12. Lanthanide Complexes for Luminescence Imaging Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Faulkner; Simon J. A. Pope

    2005-01-01

    In this article, imaging applications of luminescent complexes and recent advances in the design and photophysical behaviour of near?IR responsive complexes are reviewed. Various properties of the luminescent lanthanide complexes are also discussed in detail.

  13. The role of lanthanides in optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    A survey is presented of the use of the lanthanides as chemical components in transmitting optical materials and as activators in materials for luminescent, electro-optic, magneto-optic, and various photosensitive applications.

  14. Octupole effects in the lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Phillips, W. R.; Durell, J. L.; Leddy, M. J.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Schulz, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L. R.

    1999-10-22

    Arrays of Anti-Compton Spectrometer enabled systematic investigations of octupole correlations in the neutron-rich lanthanides. The studies mostly confirm the theoretical expectations of moderate octupole deformation at medium spins in nuclei from this region but in some cases predictions deviate from the experiment. In cesium isotopes strong octupole effects are predicted but not observed and new measurements for {sup 139}Xe suggest octupole effects stronger than expected. Systematics of excitation energy of the 31 states excitations, updated in the present work for Xe isotopes, indicates the N=85 and Z=54 lines as borders for strong octupole correlations. Systematic of electric dipole moment, upgraded in the present work for Ca and Ce isotopes confirms the Z=54 limit and adds new information about local canceling of electric dipole moment at the N=90 neutron number.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents...Serological Reagents § 866.3700 Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological...

  16. US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network: Prioritization & Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network represents a broad community plan to begin to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle), swine, poultry (primarily chickens)...

  17. Selective Separation of Trivalent Actinides from Lanthanides by Aqueous Processing with Introduction of Soft Donor Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth L. Nash

    2009-09-22

    Implementation of a closed loop nuclear fuel cycle requires the utilization of Pu-containing MOX fuels with the important side effect of increased production of the transplutonium actinides, most importantly isotopes of Am and Cm. Because the presence of these isotopes significantly impacts the long-term radiotoxicity of high level waste, it is important that effective methods for their isolation and/or transmutation be developed. Furthermore, since transmutation is most efficiently done in the absence of lanthanide fission products (high yield species with large thermal neutron absorption cross sections) it is important to have efficient procedures for the mutual separation of Am and Cm from the lanthanides. The chemistries of these elements are nearly identical, differing only in the slightly stronger strength of interaction of trivalent actinides with ligand donor atoms softer than O (N, Cl-, S). Research being conducted around the world has led to the development of new reagents and processes with considerable potential for this task. However, pilot scale testing of these reagents and processes has demonstrated the susceptibility of the new classes of reagents to radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation. In this project, separations of trivalent actinides from fission product lanthanides have been investigated in studies of 1) the extraction and chemical stability properties of a class of soft-donor extractants that are adapted from water-soluble analogs, 2) the application of water soluble soft-donor complexing agents in tandem with conventional extractant molecules emphasizing fundamental studies of the TALSPEAK Process. This research was conducted principally in radiochemistry laboratories at Washington State University. Collaborators at the Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have contributed their unique facilities and capabilities, and have supported student internships at PNNL to broaden their academic experience. New information has been developed to qualify the extraction potential of a class of pyridine-functionalized tetraaza complexants indicating potential single contact Am-Nd separation factors of about 40. The methodology developed for characterization will find further application in our continuing efforts to synthesize and characterize new reagents for this separation. Significant new insights into the performance envelope and supporting information on the TALSPEAK process has also been developed.

  18. Hypervalent Iodine Reagents in Organic Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jeff S.

    Hypervalent Iodine Reagents in Organic Synthesis Andrew T. Parsons March 23, 2007 #12;Outline · Background · Iodine(III) reagents · Iodine(V) reagents · Conclusions #12;Hypervalent Iodine: An Introduction Zhdankin, V. V.; Stang, P. J. Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 2523-2584. · Hypervalent iodine: Species that exceed

  19. Iodine monochloride as volumetric reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balwant Singh; G. P. Kashyap

    1958-01-01

    Iodine monochloride is used as volumetric reagent for the determination of arsenious oxide, tartar-emetic, hydrazine sulphate, hydroquinone, sodium sulphite, stannous chloride and potassium ferrocyanide at pH 6.5 to 7.5 in sodium acetate buffered solutions. Chloroform is employed as indicator. It becomes faintly violet at the end-point due to the liberation of iodine. In case of hydroquinone the chloroform layer changes

  20. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents...

  6. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section...DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section...DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section...DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section...DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section...DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to...

  11. Switchable sensitizers stepwise lighting up lanthanide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Xu, Hai-Bing; Tang, Ming-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Shaoming; Deng, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Analagous to a long-ranged rocket equipped with multi-stage engines, a luminescent compound with consistent emission signals across a large range of concentrations from two stages of sensitizers can be designed. In this approach, ACQ, aggregation-caused quenching effect of sensitizers, would stimulate lanthanide emission below 10?4?M, and then at concentrations higher than 10?3?M, the “aggregation-induced emission” (AIE) effect of luminophores would be activated with the next set of sensitizers for lanthanide emission. Simultaneously, the concentration of the molecules could be monitored digitally by the maximal excitation wavelengths, due to the good linear relationship between the maximal excitation wavelengths and the concentrations {lg(M)}. This model, wherein molecules are assembled with two stages (both AIE and ACQ effect) of sensitizers, may provide a practicable strategy for design and construction of smart lanthanide bioprobes, which are suitable in complicated bioassay systems in which concentration is variable. PMID:25791467

  12. Switchable sensitizers stepwise lighting up lanthanide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Jiao, Peng-Chong; Xu, Hai-Bing; Tang, Ming-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Shaoming; Deng, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Analagous to a long-ranged rocket equipped with multi-stage engines, a luminescent compound with consistent emission signals across a large range of concentrations from two stages of sensitizers can be designed. In this approach, ACQ, aggregation-caused quenching effect of sensitizers, would stimulate lanthanide emission below 10(-4) M, and then at concentrations higher than 10(-3) M, the "aggregation-induced emission" (AIE) effect of luminophores would be activated with the next set of sensitizers for lanthanide emission. Simultaneously, the concentration of the molecules could be monitored digitally by the maximal excitation wavelengths, due to the good linear relationship between the maximal excitation wavelengths and the concentrations {lg(M)}. This model, wherein molecules are assembled with two stages (both AIE and ACQ effect) of sensitizers, may provide a practicable strategy for design and construction of smart lanthanide bioprobes, which are suitable in complicated bioassay systems in which concentration is variable. PMID:25791467

  13. Curvature of the Lanthanide Contraction: An Explanation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth; Wellman, Daniel; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Hill, Aru

    2009-12-21

    A number of studies have shown that for isostructural series of the lanthanides (elements La through Lu), a plot of equivalent metal-ligand bond lengths versus atomic number differs significantly from linearity and can be better fit as a quadratic equation. However, for hydrogen type wave functions, it is the inverse of the average distance of the electron from the nucleus (an estimate of size) that varies linearly with effective nuclear charge. This generates an apparent quadratic dependence of radius with atomic number. Plotting the inverse of lanthanide ion radii (the observed distance minus the ligand size) as a function of effective nuclear charge gives very good linear fits for a variety of lanthanide complexes and materials. Parameters obtained from this fit are in excellent agreement with the calculated Slater shielding constant, k.

  14. Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Dina V.; Gonzalez, Sandra I.; Li, Jessica F.; Pagel, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The development and validation of MRI contrast agents consisting of a lanthanide chelate often requires a determination of the concentration of the agent in ex vivo tissue. We have developed a protocol that uses 70% nitric acid to completely digest tissue samples that contain Gd(III), Dy(III), Tm(III), Eu(III), or Yb(III) ions, or the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide. NMR spectroscopy of coaxial tubes containing a digested sample and a separate control solution of nitric acid was used to rapidly and easily measure the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift caused by each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide. Each BMS shift was shown to be linearly correlated with the concentration of each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide in the 70% nitric acid solution and in digested rat kidney and liver tissues. These concentration measurements had outstanding precision, and also had good accuracy for concentrations ?10 mM for Tm(III) Eu(III), and Yb(III), and ?3 mM for Gd(III), gadodiamide, and Dy(III). Improved sample handling methods are needed to improve measurement accuracy for samples with lower concentrations. PMID:24152931

  15. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  16. Validation of a lanthanide tag for the analysis of protein dynamics by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hass, Mathias A S; Keizers, Peter H J; Blok, Anneloes; Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2010-07-28

    Paramagnetic lanthanide tags potentially can enhance the effects of microsecond to millisecond dynamics in proteins on NMR signals and provide structural information on lowly populated states encoded in the pseudocontact shifts. We have investigated the microsecond to millisecond mobility of a two-point attached lanthanide tag, CLaNP-5, using paramagnetic (1)H CPMG relaxation dispersion methods. CLaNP-5 loaded with Lu(3+), Yb(3+), or Tm(3+) was attached to three sites on the surface of two proteins, pseudoazurin and cytochrome c. The paramagnetic center causes large relaxation dispersion effects for two attachment sites, suggesting that local dynamics of the protein at the attachment site causes mobility of the paramagnetic center. At one site the relaxation dispersions are small and limited to the immediate environment of the tag. It is concluded that paramagnetic relaxation dispersion could represent a sensitive method to probe protein dynamics. However, the selection of a rigid attachment site is of critical importance. PMID:20586489

  17. Spectroscopic Study of the Use of Lanthanide Metalloporphyrins as Sensors for Benzene and Acetonitrile Detection in Aqueous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Carlos Lemarr, Jr.

    This work entails the research on lanthanide metalloporphyrins for their potential use as chemical sensors for benzene and acetonitrile. This research is of importance due to the health implications that benzene and acetonitrile cause; benzene is a known carcinogen and acetonitrile is a known lung irritant. The use of UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Gaussian DFT, and X-ray diffraction crystallography were used in the characterization and analysis of the lanthanide porphyrin complexes. Europium, terbium, dysprosium, cerium, and gadolinium were the lanthanides used in conjunction with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakissulfonato porphyrin, TBSP. Based on the luminescence spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy data, an aqueous sensor for acetonitrile and benzene was shown to be promising. Among the compounds studied, EuTPP and DyTPP complexes exposed to sodium hydroxide showed promising results for sensing acetonitrile due to significant narrowing of the soret band and the decrease of Q bands in the UV-Vis spectra, along with the blue shifting of luminescence emission spectra. On the other hand, the CeTPP and EuTPP solutions show promise as benzene sensors due to the blue shifting of emission luminescence and variation in intensity. Based on the lanthanide TBSP complexes, TbTBSP was shown to be a promising sensor for acetonitrile due to the narrow soret band, decreased Q bands, and blue shifted emission spectra. EuTBSP, DyTBSP, and TbTBSP were shown to be promising for benzene sensors. Benzene stabilized the TBSP at a higher energy state, S2, to facilitate the energy transfer to the lanthanide ions.

  18. LANTHANIDE-BASED IMAGING OF PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTIONS IN LIVE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Megha; Yapici, Engin; Miller, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to deduce the molecular mechanisms of biological function, it is necessary to monitor changes in the sub-cellular location, activation and interaction of proteins within living cells in real time. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors that incorporate genetically encoded, fluorescent proteins permit high spatial resolution imaging of protein–protein interactions or protein conformational dynamics. However, non-specific fluorescence background often obscures small FRET signal changes, and intensity-based biosensor measurements require careful interpretation and several control experiments. These problems can be overcome by using lanthanide (Tb(III) or Eu(III)) complexes as donors and green fluorescent protein (GFP) or other conventional fluorophores as acceptors. Essential features of this approach are the long-lifetime (~ms) luminescence of Tb(III) complexes and time-gated luminescence microscopy. This allows pulsed excitation followed by a brief delay that eliminates nonspecific fluorescence before detection of Tb(III)-to-GFP emission. The challenges of intracellular delivery, selective protein labeling, and time-gated imaging of lanthanide luminescence are presented, and recent efforts to investigate the cellular uptake of lanthanide probes are reviewed. Data is presented showing that conjugation to arginine-rich, cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) can be used as a general strategy for cellular delivery of membrane impermeable lanthanide complexes. A heterodimer of a luminescent Tb(III) complex, Lumi4, linked to trimethoprim (TMP) and conjugated to nonaarginine via a reducible disulfide linker rapidly (~10 min) translocates into the cytoplasm of Maden Darby canine kidney cells from culture medium. With this reagent, the intracellular interaction between GFP fused to FK506 binding protein 12 (GFP-FKBP12) and the rapamycin binding domain of mTOR fused to Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (FRB-eDHFR) was imaged at high signal-to-noise ratio with fast (1–3 s) image acquisition using a time-gated luminescence microscope. The data reviewed and presented here show that lanthanide biosensors enable fast, sensitive and technically simple imaging of protein-protein interactions in live cells. PMID:24144069

  19. Inventory management and reagent supply for automated chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kuzniar, E

    1999-08-01

    Developments in automated chemistry have kept pace with developments in HTS such that hundreds of thousands of new compounds can be rapidly synthesized in the belief that the greater the number and diversity of compounds that can be screened, the more successful HTS will be. The increasing use of automation for Multiple Parallel Synthesis (MPS) and the move to automated combinatorial library production is placing an overwhelming burden on the management of reagents. Although automation has improved the efficiency of the processes involved in compound synthesis, the bottleneck has shifted to ordering, collating and preparing reagents for automated chemistry resulting in loss of time, materials and momentum. Major efficiencies have already been made in the area of compound management for high throughput screening. Most of these efficiencies have been achieved with sophisticated library management systems using advanced engineering and data handling for the storage, tracking and retrieval of millions of compounds. The Automation Partnership has already provided many of the top pharmaceutical companies with modular automated storage, preparation and retrieval systems to manage compound libraries for high throughput screening. This article describes how these systems may be implemented to solve the specific problems of inventory management and reagent supply for automated chemistry. PMID:10469883

  20. Enantioselective organocatalytic epoxidation using hypervalent iodine reagents

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Enantioselective organocatalytic epoxidation using hypervalent iodine reagents Sandra Lee and David Abstract--A rare example of a hypervalent iodine reagent participating in a 1,4-heteroconjugate addition in the asymmetric epoxidation of electron-deficient olefins. 15 N NMR studies were conducted to elucidate

  1. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660...FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and...

  2. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660...FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and...

  3. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660...FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and...

  4. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660...FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and...

  5. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Each day of use. Blood grouping reagents Do. Lectins Do. Antibody screening and reverse grouping cells Do. Hepatitis test reagents Each run. Syphilis serology reagents Do. Enzymes Each day of use. (d) Supplies and...

  6. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection...Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be...

  7. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section 160.83 Protection...Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be...

  8. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection...Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be...

  9. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section 792.83 Protection...Facilities Operation § 792.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660...FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and...

  11. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Each day of use. Blood grouping reagents Do. Lectins Do. Antibody screening and reverse grouping cells Do. Hepatitis test reagents Each run. Syphilis serology reagents Do. Enzymes Each day of use. (d) Supplies and...

  12. Lanthanide-based luminescent NanoGUMBOS.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Jonathan C; El-Zahab, Bilal; Challa, Santhosh; Das, Susmita; Chandler, Lin; Tolocka, Michael; Hayes, Daniel J; Warner, Isiah M

    2010-10-01

    Lanthanide photochemistry has been frequently studied for its high luminescence intensity, narrow emission band, and stable luminescent lifetime decay. In the work presented here, nanoparticles prepared using an aerosolization process were derived from europium-based GUMBOS (Group of Uniform Material Based on Organic Salts). These nanoparticles were characterized using electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), absorbance, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. An average diameter of 39.5 ± 8.4 nm for our nanoparticles was estimated by use of electron microscopy. Absorbance, luminescence, and luminescence lifetime decay measurements indicate intense and steady luminescence, which suggests a multitude of possible applications for lanthanide-based GUMBOS, especially in sensory devices, OLEDs, and photovoltaic devices. PMID:20809597

  13. Lanthanide single molecule magnets: progress and perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-03-01

    The last few years have seen a huge renaissance in the study of single molecule magnets (SMMs) thanks to the extensive applications of lanthanide ions with large inherent anisotropy in molecular magnetism. Particularly, the recent theoretical developments and the experimental expansion into the organometallic avenue have led to an eye-catching boost in this field. Here we highlight the recent progress in this fascinating and challenging field, with emphasis on several combined experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:25641200

  14. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a lanthanide chelating protein probe: CLaNP-5 yields predictable paramagnetic effects independent of environment.

    PubMed

    Keizers, Peter H J; Saragliadis, Athanasios; Hiruma, Yoshitaka; Overhand, Mark; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2008-11-01

    Immobilized lanthanide ions offer the opportunity to refine structures of proteins and the complexes they form by using restraints obtained from paramagnetic NMR experiments. We report the design, synthesis, and spectroscopic evaluation of the lanthanide chelator, Caged Lanthanide NMR Probe 5 (CLaNP-5) readily attachable to a protein surface via two cysteine residues. The probe causes tunable pseudocontact shifts, alignment, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, and luminescence, by chelating it to the appropriate lanthanide ion. The observation of single shifts and the finding that the magnetic susceptibility tensors obtained from shifts and alignment analyses are highly similar strongly indicate that the probe is rigid with respect to the protein backbone. By placing the probe at various positions on a model protein it is demonstrated that the size and orientation of the magnetic susceptibility tensor of the probe are independent of the local protein environment. Consequently, the effects of the probe are readily predictable using a protein structure only. These findings designate CLaNP-5 as a protein probe to deliver unambiguous high quality structural restraints in studies on protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. PMID:18826316

  15. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125 Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680 Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 866.3395 - Norovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3395 Norovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320 Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320 Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. (a)...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3280 - Francisella tularensis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3280 Francisella tularensis serological reagents. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3250 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3060 Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3460 Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3165 Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140 Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3300 Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320 Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3380 Mumps virus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3470 Reovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  11. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3250 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3010 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  15. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  16. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3405 Poliovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3145 Coxsackievirus serological reagents. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3255 Escherichia coli serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3175 Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 866.3336 - John Cunningham Virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3336 John Cunningham Virus serological reagents. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3125 Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140 Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3600 Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480 Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  12. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3340 Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  13. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  14. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3175 Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3205 Echovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3320 Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3680 Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270 Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4020 Analyte specific reagents. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  7. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3140 Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  9. Salicylamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Petoud, Stephane (Berkeley, CA); Cohen, Seth (West Lake Village, CA); Xu, Jide (Berkeley, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one salicylamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the salicylamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  10. Phthalamide-lanthanide complexes for use as luminescent markers

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Petoud, Stephane; Cohen, Seth M.; Xu, Jide

    2005-03-08

    The present invention provides luminescent lanthanide metal chelates comprising a metal ion of the lanthanide series and a complexing agent comprising at least one phthalamidyl moiety. Also provided are probes incorporating the phthalamidyl ligands of the invention and methods utilizing the ligands of the invention and probes comprising the ligands of the invention.

  11. Enhanced TCDD degradation by Fenton's reagent preoxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Kao; M. J. Wu

    2000-01-01

    The dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been called the most toxic compound known to man. Because of its poor bioavailability and low biodegradibility, bioremediation technology cannot effectively degrade TCDD when used alone. In this study, chemical pretreatment (partial oxidation) in combination with biodegradation technique was developed to efficiently remediate TCDD-contaminated soils. An oxidizing reagent [Fenton's Reagent (FR)] was applied in

  12. Isolations and characterization of highly water-soluble dimeric lanthanide citrate and malate with ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Long; Gao, Song; Zhou, Zhao-Hui

    2012-01-28

    Highly water-soluble lanthanum and cerium citrates or malates with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NH(4))(8)[Ln(2)(Hcit)(2)(EDTA)(2)]·9H(2)O [Ln = La, 1; Ce, 2], K(8)[La(2)(Hcit)(2)(EDTA)(2)]·16H(2)O (3) and K(6)[Ln(2)(Hmal)(2)(EDTA)(2)]·14H(2)O [Ln = La, 4; Ce, 5] (H(4)cit = citric acid, H(3)mal = malic acid, and H(4)EDTA = ethylenediaminetetracetic acid) were prepared from the reactions of lanthanide ethylenediaminetetraacetate trihydrates with citric or malic acid at pH 5.0-6.5. These compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, TG-DTG, solution (13)C{(1)H} NMR, solid state (13)C NMR spectra and X-ray structural analyses. The main structural feature of the compounds consists of a dinuclear unit deca-coordinated by EDTA and citrate or malate. The ?-hydroxy and ?-carboxy groups of citrate and malate chelate in five-membered ring with one lanthanide ion, while one of the ?-carboxy group coordinates with the other lanthanide ion, forming a dimeric structure. The other pendent ?-carboxy groups in 1-3 form very strong intramolecular hydrogen bond with ?-hydroxy groups [O1O7 2.594(4), 2.587(8) and 2.57(1) Å for 1-3 respectively]. (13)C NMR spectra of the lanthanum compounds show obvious downfield shifts based on solid and solution NMR measurements, indicating the coordinations of mixed-ligand in lanthanum complexes, while highfield shifts are observed in cerium complexes. PMID:22116197

  13. Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanocrystals as luminescent biolabels.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Tu, Datao; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) doped inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) have currently attracted reviving interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics owing to their potential applications in diverse fields such as luminescent biodetection and bioimaging. As an alternative to conventional biolabels, Ln(3+)-doped NCs show superior features including large stokes shift, multicolor fine-tuning, narrow emission band widths, high photostability, and low toxicity. Particularly, the long-lived luminescence and distinct upconversion (UC) of Ln(3+)-doped NCs are desirable for various bioapplications. The long-lived luminescence of Ln(3+) combined with time-resolved technique can efficiently suppress the interference from short-lived background, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and background-free measurements. Near-infrared excited UC emissions of Ln(3+) can bring no autofluorescence and no photodamage to cells or tissues, and thus UC NCs have been regarded as one of the most useful in vivo optical contrast agents. In this review, we outline the most recent development of Ln(3+)-doped NCs as biolabels from the controlled synthesis and surface functionalization of NCs to their bioapplications in heterogeneous and homogeneous biodetection as well as in vitro and in vivo bioimaging. PMID:22480240

  14. Containment of Spray Reagents in TLC Spot Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef G. Krause

    1996-01-01

    A recent suggestion to visualize spots on thin layer plates by applying phosphomolybdic acid reagent with a cotton ball (1) may not be suitable for all visualization reagents especially concentrated sulfuric acid. If spraying a reagent with a power pac type device is preferred for this or some other reason, we suggest spraying the reagent inside of a twist tie-sealed,

  15. Comparison of fat-splitting reagents in the twitchell process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Stirton; E. M. Hammaker; S. F. Herb; Edward T. Roe

    1944-01-01

    Summary  Commercial petroleum sulfonic acid reagents have been compared with Twitchell reagents, alkylarylsulfonic acids, and sulfoarylstearic\\u000a acids as fat-splitting reagents in the hydrolysis of lard oil, tallow, cotton-seed oil, garbage grease, and inedible grease.\\u000a The best reagents were made from commercial wetting agents of the alkylarylsulfonate type. Sulfoxylylstearic acid, seven petroleum\\u000a sulfonic acids, and four Twitchell reagents followed in decreasing order.

  16. Total synthesis of natural products using hypervalent iodine reagents

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Gaëtan; L'Homme, Chloé; Canesi, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last 5 years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the “aromatic ring umpolung” concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol), a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor), acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent), fortucine (antiviral and antitumor), erysotramidine (curare-like effect), platensimycin (an antibiotic), and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis). These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products. PMID:25601909

  17. The Crystal Structure of Lanthanide Zirconates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Richard; Kennedy, Brendan; Ling, Christopher; Stampfl, Anton P. J.

    2010-03-01

    The lanthanide zirconates of composition Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La-Gd) are of interest for use in inert matrix fuels and nuclear wasteforms. The series undergoes a pyrochlore to fluorite phase transition as a function of the Ln atomic radii. The phase transition has been attributed to disordering of both the cation and the anion [1]. We have undertaken a synthesis of the lanthanide zirconate series Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La-Gd), Ln0.2Zr0.8O1.9 (Ln = Tb-Yb) and NdxHo2-xZr2O7 (0

  18. Lanthanide Chelates as a Tool in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Mukkala, Veli-Matti; Takalo, Harri; Liitti, Päivi; Kankare, Jouko; Kuusela, Satu

    1994-01-01

    The potentiality of lanthanide chelates as photoluminescent markers and cleaving agents of nucleic acids is discussed, the main emphasis being on the chelates derived from aromatic nitrogen bases. PMID:18476232

  19. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS A DISINFECTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment facility were disinfected by the Fenton's Reagent of several different compositions. The pre-settled samples contained both suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 28 and 290 mg/L,...

  20. Tritioacetylating reagents and processes for preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Saljoughian, Manoucher (Moraga, CA); Morimoto, Hiromi (El Cerrito, CA); Williams, Philip G. (Oakland, CA); Than, Chit (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Novel acetylating and tritioacetylating reagents suitable for preparation of nonlabelled and radiolabelled organic compounds. N-acetoxynaphthalimide, N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide, N-tritioacetoxysuccinimide, N-tritioacetoxynaphthalimide and processes of their preparation. The invention also concerns synthesis of nonlabelled acetylated and tritioacetylated organic compounds from precursors containing a free --NH.sub.2, --SH or --OH group.

  1. DEGRADATION OF MTBE INTERMEDIATES USING FENTON'S REAGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a previous study, the chemical oxidation of MTBE at low concentrations in water using the Fenton's reagent (FR) was investigated. At certain reaction conditions the process achieved 99.99% degradation of MTBE but it did not result in complete MTBE mineralization. In the pres...

  2. Whole worm glycerol assay Reagents needed

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    Whole worm glycerol assay Reagents needed: 1. Dry Ice 2. Mortar and pestles 3. 1N Perchloric acid-biopharm) Protocol 1. Wash worms off plates w/ M9 (make sure osmolarity matches that of plate) 2. Wash twice 3. Resuspend worm pellet in 10 ml M9 and allow worms to evacuate bacteria for 15 minutes. 4. While worms

  3. AQUEOUS RELAXATION REAGENTS IN NITROGEN-15 NMR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron-nuclear relaxation times T(1)supe's for 15N and 13C in natural abundance are measured for a series of amines in aqueous solution using Gd(III) complexes of a series of polyaminocarboxylate ligands as paramagnetic relaxation reagents (PARRs). The PARRs are classified by t...

  4. Lighting up cells with lanthanide self-assembled helicates

    PubMed Central

    Bünzli, Jean-Claude G.

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanide bioprobes and bioconjugates are ideal luminescent stains in view of their low propensity to photobleaching, sharp emission lines and long excited state lifetimes permitting time-resolved detection for enhanced sensitivity. We show here how the interplay between physical, chemical and biochemical properties allied to microfluidics engineering leads to self-assembled dinuclear lanthanide luminescent probes illuminating live cells and selectively detecting biomarkers expressed by cancerous human breast cells. PMID:24511387

  5. Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan M. van der Ende; Linda Aarts; Andries Meijerink

    2009-01-01

    The use of lanthanide ions to convert photons to different, more useful, wavelengths\\u000ais well-known from a wide range of applications (e.g. fluorescent tubes, lasers, white light LEDs).\\u000aRecently, a new potential application has emerged: the use of lanthanide ions for spectral\\u000aconversion in solar cells. The main energy loss in the conversion of solar energy to electricity is\\u000arelated

  6. Lanthanide binding and IgG affinity construct: Potential applications in solution NMR, MRI, and luminescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Barb, Adam W; Ho, Tienhuei Grace; Flanagan-Steet, Heather; Prestegard, James H

    2012-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide ions when bound to proteins offer great potential for structural investigations that utilize solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, or optical microscopy. However, many proteins do not have native metal ion binding sites and engineering a chimeric protein to bind an ion while retaining affinity for a protein of interest represents a significant challenge. Here we report the characterization of an immunoglobulin G-binding protein redesigned to include a lanthanide binding motif in place of a loop between two helices (Z-L2LBT). It was shown to bind Tb3+ with 130 nM affinity. Ions such as Dy3+, Yb3+, and Ce3+ produce paramagnetic effects on NMR spectra and the utility of these effects is illustrated by their use in determining a structural model of the metal-complexed Z-L2LBT protein and a preliminary characterization of the dynamic distribution of IgG Fc glycan positions. Furthermore, this designed protein is demonstrated to be a novel IgG-binding reagent for magnetic resonance imaging (Z-L2LBT:Gd3+ complex) and luminescence microscopy (Z-L2LBT: Tb3+ complex). PMID:22851279

  7. A High-Sensitivity Lanthanide Nanoparticle Reporter for Mass Cytometry: Tests on Microgels as a Proxy for Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether one can use lanthanide nanoparticles (e.g., NaHoF4) to detect surface biomarkers expressed at low levels by mass cytometry. To avoid many of the complications of experiments on live or fixed cells, we carried out proof-of-concept experiments using aqueous microgels with a diameter on the order of 700 nm as a proxy for cells. These microgels were used to test whether nanoparticle (NP) reagents would allow the detection of as few as 100 proteins per “cell” in cell-by-cell assays. Streptavidin (SAv), which served as the model biomarker, was attached to the microgel in two different ways. Covalent coupling to surface carboxyls of the microgel led to large numbers (>104) of proteins per microgel, whereas biotinylation of the microgel followed by exposure to SAv led to much smaller numbers of SAv per microgel. Using mass cytometry, we compared two biotin-containing reagents, which recognized and bound to the SAvs on the microgel. One was a metal chelating polymer (MCP), a biotin end-capped polyaspartamide containing 50 Tb3+ ions per probe. The other was a biotinylated NaHoF4 NP containing 15?000 Ho atoms per probe. Nonspecific binding was determined with bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated microgels. The MCP was effective at detecting and quantifying SAvs on the microgel with covalently bound SAv (20?000 SAvs per microgel) but was unable to give a meaningful signal above that of the BSA-coated microgel for the samples with low levels of SAv. Here the NP reagent gave a signal 2 orders of magnitude stronger than that of the MCP and allowed detection of NPs ranging from 100 to 500 per microgel. Sensitivity was limited by the level of nonspecific adsorption. This proof of concept experiment demonstrates the enhanced sensitivity possible with NP reagents in cell-by-cell assays by mass cytometry. PMID:24617504

  8. Lanthanides as particulate flow markers in ruminants 

    E-print Network

    Conner, Michael Cronan

    1977-01-01

    or cerium. Tan et al. (1971) used radioruthenium ('osRu) chelated with 1, 10 phenanthr oli ne as a particulate mark r. They found very little ~eaRu adsorb d from the stomach with recovery (97. 4z1. 7/) of the marker recovered in the feces. In vitro... at 50 C and the lanthanide markers then applied. Lartl. . anide I'Iarker Pre aratl'on and Ap~l1cation Cerium-141 ( 4 CeC19 in . 5 N HCI, Sp. Ar t. 1. 89 mCI/II;9 Ce, New Erg land Nuclear) was d11uted to 100 mll with . 5 g Ce(I!109)9. 5Hz0 and . 5 fl...

  9. Stick shift

    E-print Network

    Parness, Aaron J. (Aaron Joseph), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Stick Shift is a novel that has undergone several rounds of significant revision. Scott, the book's main character, is a sarcastic American who travels to England to move in with an ex-girlfriend. He experiences all of the ...

  10. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper...

  11. The Grignard Reagent: Preparation, Structure, and Some Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchin, Milton

    1989-01-01

    The Grignard reagent used in the laboratory synthesis of organic compounds is the product resulting from the reaction of an alkyl or aryl halide with elemental magnesium. Describes the structure, formation, and some reactions of the reagent. (YP)

  12. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose reagent. (a) A general...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper...

  14. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose reagent. (a) A general...

  15. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose reagent. (a) A general...

  16. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper...

  19. {sup 31}P NMR study of the complexation of TBP with lanthanides and actinides in solution and in a clay matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Hartzell, C.J. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

    1994-07-24

    Goal was to use NMR to study TBP/lanthanide complexes in the interlayer or on edge sites of clays. Work in this laboratory yielded details of the complexation of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with TBP in hexane solution; this information is crucial to interpretation of results of NMR studies of the complexes exchanged into clays. The solution {sup 31}P-chemical shift values were improved by repeating the studies on the lanthanide salts dissolved directly into neat TBP. NMR studies of these neat solutions of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex and the Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex show that the {sup 31}P chemical shift remains relatively constant for TBP: lanthanide ratios below 3: 1. At higher ratios, the chemical shift approaches that of free TBP, indicating rapid exchange of TBP between the free and complexed state. Exchange of these complexes into the clay hectorite yielded discrete {sup 31}P-NMR signals for the Eu{lg_bullet}TBP complex at -190 ppm and free TBP at -6 ppm. Adsorption of the Pr{lg_bullet}TBP complex yielded broad signals at 76 ppm for the complex and -6 ppm for free TBP. There was no evidence of exchange between the incorporated complex and the free TBP.

  20. A lithiomethyl trimethylammonium reagent as a methylene donor.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, Tim; Sarria Toro, Juan M; Couzijn, Erik P A; Chen, Peter

    2014-09-21

    Straightforward deprotonation of soluble tetramethylammonium salts with alkyllithium reagents gives lithiomethyl trimethylammonium reagents. Coordination of the Li cation is crucial to the stability of these 'N-C ylides'. These reagents were used to prepare epoxides, aziridines and allylic alcohols. PMID:25096847

  1. Dilute reagent decontamination for pressurized water reactors. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Clark; A. B. Jr. Johnson

    1984-01-01

    The program has involved the following elements: screening studies with candidate reagents using nonradioactive autoclaved Inconel 600 and stainless steel specimens, procurement and characterization of radioactive Inconel 600 steam generator tube sections from operating PWRs, testing of candidate reagents on radioactive Inconel 600 tubing specimens, identification of dilute chemical decontamination methodology for PWRs, and develop decontamination reagents compatible with boric

  2. 21 CFR 58.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagents and solutions. 58.83 Section 58.83 Food and Drugs...Facilities Operation § 58.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be...

  3. 21 CFR 58.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reagents and solutions. 58.83 Section 58.83 Food and Drugs...Facilities Operation § 58.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be...

  4. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and...

  5. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and...

  6. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and...

  7. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and...

  8. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food...DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and...

  9. Product in indole detection by Ehrlich's reagent.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Adam C; Federico-Perez, Roberto A; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Ehrlich's reagent (p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde [DMAB, 1] in 95% EtOH with HCl as catalyst) was employed in spot tests of indoles, providing a diagnosis of, for example, liver diseases, hemolytic processes, occlusion of the common bile duct, and carcinoid syndrome. Although the reagent has been widely used for more than a century, it is not clear how many indole molecules react with a DMAB molecule and whether the reaction takes place at the ?- or ?-position of the indole molecule. Research here shows that the reaction of DMAB (1) with indole (2) in a 1:2 ratio gives ?-bis(indolyl)methane (3). The reaction occurs at the ?-position of indole under the conditions of the Ehrlich test, as confirmed by the crystal structure of 3. PMID:25958008

  10. Microscopy on anesthetized worms Reagents needed

    E-print Network

    Lamitina, Todd

    Microscopy on anesthetized worms Reagents needed · Vacuum grease syringe · M9 + 5 mM Na Azide (3µl of M9/NaAzide in a watchglass slide 2. Pick 5-10 worms off an NGM plate and into the azide into the square. 6. Pick anesthetized worms onto the slide and gently overlay them with a 22 x 22 mm coverslip. 7

  11. Shift Registers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Shift Registers, is the twelfth chapter in Volume IV â??Digital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Serial-in, serial-out shift register, Parallel-in, parallel-out shift register, and Ring counters. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  12. Production of latex agglutination reagents for pneumococcal serotyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current ‘gold standard’ for serotyping pneumococci is the Quellung test. This technique is laborious and requires a certain level of training to correctly perform. Commercial pneumococcal latex agglutination serotyping reagents are available, but these are expensive. In-house production of latex agglutination reagents can be a cost-effective alternative to using commercially available reagents. This paper describes a method for the production and quality control (QC) of latex reagents, including problem solving recommendations, for pneumococcal serotyping. Results Here we describe a method for the production of latex agglutination reagents based on the passive adsorption of antibodies to latex particles. Sixty-five latex agglutination reagents were made using the PneuCarriage Project (PCP) method, of which 35 passed QC. The other 30 reagents failed QC due to auto-agglutination (n=2), no reactivity with target serotypes (n=8) or cross-reactivity with non-target serotypes (n=20). Dilution of antisera resulted in a further 27 reagents passing QC. The remaining three reagents passed QC when prepared without centrifugation and wash steps. Protein estimates indicated that latex reagents that failed QC when prepared using the PCP method passed when made with antiserum containing ? 500 ?g/ml of protein. Sixty-one nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped with our in-house latex agglutination reagents, with the results showing complete concordance with the Quellung reaction. Conclusions The method described here to produce latex agglutination reagents allows simple and efficient serotyping of pneumococci and may be applicable to latex agglutination reagents for typing or identification of other microorganisms. We recommend diluting antisera or removing centrifugation and wash steps for any latex reagents that fail QC. Our latex reagents are cost-effective, technically undemanding to prepare and remain stable for long periods of time, making them ideal for use in low-income countries. PMID:23379961

  13. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described, including novel hardware and countermeasures.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Concentrated Binary Aqueous Solutions of Lanthanide Salts: Structures and Exchange Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Concentrated binary aqueous solutions of lanthanide (Nd3+ and Dy3+) salts (ClO4 - , Cl- , and NO3 - ) have been to reproduce experimental hydration properties. Nd3+ and Dy3+ have been chosen because of their position in the lanthanide series: Nd3+ being a light lanthanide and Dy3+ a heavy one. They are respectively coordinated

  15. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a) Identification...Treponema pallidum treponemal test reagents are devices that consist...antisera and all control reagents (standardized reagents with which test results are compared)...

  16. Shelf-stable electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagents: A brief historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Matsnev, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery by Yagupolskii and co-workers that S-trifluoromethyl diarylsulfonium salts are effective for the trifluoromethylation of thiophenolates, the design and synthesis of electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagents have been extensively researched in both academia and industry, due to the significant unique features that trifluoromethylated compounds have in pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, and functional materials. Several effective reagents have been developed by the groups of Yagupolskii, Umemoto, Shreeve, Adachi, Magnier, Togni and Shibata. Due to the high stability and reactivity of these reagents, a series of Umemoto reagents, Togni reagent and Shibata reagent are now commercially available. In this review, we wish to briefly provide a historical perspective of the development of so-called “shelf-stable electrophilic trifluoromethylating reagents”, although this field is in constant development. PMID:20703379

  17. Extraction of tervalent lanthanides with acidic organophosphorus compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Motomizu, S.; Freiser, H.

    1985-01-01

    The equilibrium extraction behavior for a series of tervalent lanthanide ions (Ln/sup 3 +/) using a chloroform solution containing di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), diphenylphosphinic acid (HDPP), dibutylphosphorothioic acid (HDBPT), di-n-octylphosphorodithoic acid (HDOPDT), or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphorodithioic acid (HDEHPDT), either alone or combined with adduct forming agents is studied. The extracted species are Ln(DEHP)/sub 3/(HDEHP)/sub 3/, Ln(DPP)/sub 3/(HDPP)/sub 3/, Ln(DBPT)/sub 3/, and are Ln(DBPT)/sub 3/(HDEHP)B in the presence of o-phen and its analogs (B). Extraction constants for the lanthanides follow the order HDPP > HDEHP > HDBPT >> HDOPDT. HDPP was the most selective of all the extractants examined. HDOPDT and HDEHPDT were found to be ineffective lanthanide extractants. 23 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Nature of the electronic band gap in lanthanide oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Roland; Clark, Stewart J.; Robertson, John

    2013-03-01

    Accurate electronic structures of the technologically important lanthanide/rare-earth sesquioxides (Ln2O3, with Ln=La,⋯,Lu) and CeO2 have been calculated using hybrid density functionals HSE03, HSE06, and screened exchange (sX-LDA). We find that these density functional methods describe the strongly correlated Ln f electrons as well as the recent G0W0@LDA+U results, generally yielding the correct band gaps and trends across the Ln period. For HSE, the band gap between O 2p states and lanthanide 5d states is nearly independent of the lanthanide, while the minimum gap varies as filled or empty Ln 4f states come into this gap. sX-LDA predicts the unoccupied 4f levels at higher energies, which leads to a better agreement with experiments for Sm2O3, Eu2O3, and Yb2O3.

  19. Ultrasensitive DNAzyme beacon for lanthanides and metal speciation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Lin, Jenny; Cao, Jing; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2014-02-01

    Metal-ion detection and speciation analysis is crucial for environmental monitoring. Despite the importance of lanthanides, few sensors are available for their detection. DNAzymes have been previously used to detect divalent metals, while no analytical work was carried out for trivalent and tetravalent ions. Herein, in vitro selection was performed using a Ce(4+) salt as the target metal, and a new DNAzyme (named Ce13) with a bulged hairpin structure was isolated and characterized. Interestingly, Ce13 has almost no activity with Ce(4+) but is highly active with all trivalent lanthanides and Y(3+), serving as a general probe for rare earth metals (omitting Sc). A DNAzyme beacon was engineered detecting down to 1.7 nM Ce(3+) (240 parts per trillion), and other lanthanides showed similar sensitivity. The feasibility of metal speciation analysis was demonstrated by measuring the reduction of Ce(4+) to Ce(3+). PMID:24383540

  20. Facile Oxidative Rearrangements Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Fateh V; Rehbein, Julia; Wirth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic substituents migrate in a novel oxidative cyclization mediated by iodine(III) reagents. 4-Arylbut-3-enoic acids are cyclized and rearranged to 4-arylfuran-2(5H)-ones by hypervalent iodine compounds in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Other ring sizes are also accessible. The mechanism of the reaction is described in detail, and calculations highlight the cationic nature of the intermediates in the rearrangement. The fast access to heavily substituted furanones is used for the synthesis of biologically active derivatives. PMID:24551514

  1. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL); Kaplan, Louis (Lombard, IL); Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  2. Plasma mass filtering for separation of actinides from lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-06-01

    Separating lanthanides from actinides is a key process in reprocessing nuclear spent fuel. Plasma mass filters, which operate on dissociated elements, offer conceptual advantages for such a task as compared with conventional chemical methods. The capabilities of a specific plasma mass filter concept, called the magnetic centrifugal mass filter, are analyzed within this particular context. Numerical simulations indicate separation of americium ions from a mixture of lanthanides ions for plasma densities of the order of 1012 cm-3, and ion temperatures of about 10 eV. In light of collision considerations, separating small fractions of heavy elements from a larger volume of lighter ones is shown to enhance the separation capabilities.

  3. U. S. VETERINARY IMMUNE REAGENTS NETWORK: PROGRESS WITH POULTRY IMMUNE REAGENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This poster will present a progress report on the CSREES-funded NRI grant to support a broad community approach to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle but inclu...

  4. Electrodialytic reagent introduction in flow systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Santosh K; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-05-15

    We report on electrodialytic introduction of ionizable molecules of significant size (e.g., 4-(2-pyridyl(azo) resorcinol, PAR)) in capillary scale flow systems. Such reagent introduction can be conducted without volumetric dilution, easily programmed through current control and with excellent mixing characteristics. Electrodialytic transport of large hydrophobic aromatic ions through conventional aromatic ion exchangers is inefficient. Such ions are strongly retained by hydrophobic and pi-pi interactions. An external electric field cannot modulate this retention. We show that the electrodialytic introduction of aromatic dye anions is readily possible through both unmodified cellulose dialysis membranes and through cellulose membranes modified with methacrylate skeleton anion exchangers. The applied electrodialysis current conveniently controls the reagent flux. Although the applied voltage is sufficient to cause electrolytic production of hydrogen and oxygen; the gases are generated outside the flowstream of interest. The present device was constructed with a sub-microliter internal volume. We show capillary scale trace analysis of transition metals. A limit of detection of 0.5 fmol Zn (S/N = 3) is demonstrated with a capillary scale flow injection system with a simple light emitting diode based detector. PMID:20423104

  5. Safe 5-nitrotetrazolate anion transfer reagents.

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Sabaté, Carles Miró

    2009-03-14

    Silver 5-nitrotetrazolate (1) and copper(ii) 5-nitrotetrazolate 5-nitrotetrazole dihydrate (2) are useful reagents for the synthesis of 5-nitrotetrazole (NT) salts. Both compounds were synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In addition, their sensitivity towards friction, shock and electrostatic discharge was tested by standard BAM methods. The extremely high sensitivity of both materials makes the transfer of the NT(-) anion using and hazardous and not suitable for up-scaling. In order to diminish the hazards involved with the transfer of the energetic anion and to render the synthesis of NT salts suitable for an industrial scale the two compounds were stabilized by coordination with a chelating ligand and silver(ethylendiamine) 5-nitrotetrazolate and bis(ethylendiamine)copper(ii) 5-nitrotetrazolate were synthesized in high yields. Both the stabilized NT(-) anion transfer reagents were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, the crystal structure of the ethylendiamine copper complex was determined: orthorombic, Pbca; a = 7.5200(1), b = 14.0124(2), c = 14.7740(2) A; V = 1556.78(4) A(3). Furthermore, we synthesized triaminocopper(ii) 5-nitrotetrazolate, which has potential as a more environmentally-friendly primary explosive. Lastly, the synthetic potential of the ethylediamine adducts and to form energetic salts of NT was investigated. PMID:19240919

  6. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  7. Exploiting personalized information for reagent selection in drug design.

    PubMed

    Boström, Jonas; Falk, Niklas; Tyrchan, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Drug discovery is currently being industrialized. This fact is confusing, given that it is happening in times when the rest of the world has entered the subsequent information age. Here, we introduce a concept and an infrastructure for the now popular and well-known recommender systems in the context of exploiting one of the cornerstones of drug design: chemical reagent selection. The goal is to create and transfer information openly to facilitate intuition and serendipity in drug design. The system is tailored to highlight reagents from our corporate reagent database; reagents that a chemist might not have considered based purely on their own experience. PMID:21262382

  8. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1860 Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (a) Identification....

  9. Lanthanide humic substances complexation. I. Experimental evidence for a lanthanide contraction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.

    2006-03-01

    The interaction of the lanthanides (Ln) with humic substances (HS) was investigated with a novel chemical speciation tool, Capillary Electrophoresis-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS). By using an EDTA-ligand competition method, a bi-modal species distribution of LnEDTA and LnHS is attained, separated by CE, and detected online by sector field ICP-MS. We quantified the binding of all 14 rare earth elements (REEs), Sc and Y with Suwannee river fulvic acid, Leonardite coal humic acid, and Elliot soil humic acid under environmental conditions (pH 6-9, 0.001-0.1 mol L -1 NaNO 3, 1-1000 nmol L -1 Ln, 10-20 mg L -1 HS). Conditional binding constants for REE-HS interaction ( Kc) ranged from 8.9 < log Kc < 16.5 under all experimental conditions, and display a lanthanide contraction effect, ?LKc: a gradual increase in Kc from La to Lu by 2-3 orders of magnitude as a function of decreasing ionic radius. HS polyelectrolyte effects cause Kc to increase with increasing pH and decreasing ionic strength. ?LKc increases significantly with increasing pH, and likely with decreasing ionic strength. Based on a strong correlation between ?LKc values and denticity for organic acids, we suggest that HS form a range of tri- to tetra-dentate complexes under environmental conditions. These results confirm HS to be a strong complexing agent for Ln, and show rigorous experimental evidence for potential REE fractionation by HS complexation.

  10. Ion-assisted deposition of lanthanide trifluorides for VUV applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingg, L. J.; Targove, J. D.; Lehan, J. P.; Macleod, H. A.

    1987-01-01

    The lanthanide trifluorides show promise as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) coating materials. The optical properties of single-layer coatings vary with deposition temperature, and with ion-beam energy and current density. The optical constants, stoichiometry, durability, moisture adsorption, and crystallinity are studied for trifluoride films made under a variety of deposition conditions.

  11. Detection of Bacterial Spores with Lanthanide-Macrocycle Binary Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Morgan L.; Kirby, James P.; Levine, Dana J.; Manary, Micah J.; Gray, Harry B.; Ponce, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The detection of bacterial spores via dipicolinate-triggered lanthanide luminescence has been improved in terms of detection limit, stability, and susceptibility to interferents by use of lanthanide-macrocycle binary complexes. Specifically, we compared the effectiveness of Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy complexes with the macrocycle 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetate (DO2A) to the corresponding lanthanide aquo ions. The Ln(DO2A)+ binary complexes bind dipicolinic acid (DPA), a major constituent of bacterial spores, with greater affinity and demonstrate significant improvement in bacterial spore detection. Of the four luminescent lanthanides studied, the terbium complex exhibits the greatest dipicolinate binding affinity (100-fold greater than Tb3+ alone, and 10-fold greater than other Ln(DO2A)+ complexes) and highest quantum yield. Moreover, the inclusion of DO2A extends the pH range over which Tb-DPA coordination is stable, reduces the interference of calcium ions nearly 5-fold, and mitigates phosphate interference 1000-fold compared to free terbium alone. In addition, detection of Bacillus atrophaeus bacterial spores was improved by the use of Tb(DO2A)+, yielding a 3-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio over Tb3+. Out of the eight cases investigated, the Tb(DO2A)+ binary complex is best for the detection of bacterial spores. PMID:19537757

  12. Analytical study of the decomposition products of lanthanide trifluoroacetates

    SciTech Connect

    Kutty, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen different lanthanide salts of trifluoroacetic acid have been prepared and characterized. Molecular weight studies, using Rast's method, showed that the light lanthanides are monomers while the heavier ones tend to show an increasing degree of polymerization. Infrared spectral studies of these compounds further substantiated this fact and revealed two distinct types of spectra based upon the frequency differences between the symmetric and antisymmetric COO/sup -/ band. Pyrolysis of these compounds were done and volatile decomposition products were separated by gas chromatography and identified by means of air spectroscopy. All the compounds produced CO, CO/sub 2/, COF/sub 2/, CF/sub 3/COF and (CF/sub 3/CO)/sub 2/O with variations in the amounts of these products depending on the two classes seen. Two reaction schemes for the decomposition of the lanthanides, one for the groups from La to Gd and another for the group from Tb to Lu, are proposed. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric studies showed the decomposition taking place in definite stages, once again indicating two classes of compounds. Thermal stability increased across the series and was attributed to the lanthanide contraction. Kinetic studies based on non-isothermal decomposition of these salts were also made. This revealed that the activation energy increased across the series in a similar fashion. The order of the reaction was also calculated by the method of Freeman and Carroll.

  13. Luminescent lanthanide graphene for detection of bacterial spores and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Ying; Qi, Wenjin; Song, Yujun

    2015-06-25

    Here, we describe a new approach for preparation of luminescent lanthanide graphene in the presence of dipicolinic acid (DPA). Hg(2+) can competitively bind with DPA which greatly quenches the fluorescence and the resultant complex is able to selectively and sensitively detect cysteine with a detection limit of 5 nM. PMID:26073874

  14. Involvement of lanthanides in the free radicals homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Traykova, Maria; Saso, Luciano; Kostova, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanides are group of rare-earth elements with growing applications both in the industry and healthcare. Their unique properties impose various possibilities for involvement in electron transfer reactions essential for the cellular survival and health on general. The intensified contact of people with lanthanides and the expanding medicinal applications of their compounds insist more profound knowledge on the involvement in biologically relevant electron transfer reactions. It is well known that the balance between formation and elimination of free radicals in a living body is essential for its health and survival. Any internal or environmental factor that alters this balance alters the homeostasis and this way altering the health status. In the present review, the possibilities of changing the balance between formation and elimination of free radicals, due to introduction of different lanthanides and their complexes with organic ligands, were explored, based on the available information in the literature. It was observed that lanthanides may act either as antioxidants or pro-oxidants, depending on the environment, the nature of the bonding in their compounds, and concentration in the tissues. The opportunities for their application in medicine were related with the abilities to control over their involvement in the overall oxidative status of the body. PMID:25478885

  15. Optical Study of Lanthanide Metals at High Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Kraus; E. D. Emmons; J. S. Thompson; A. M. Covington

    2007-01-01

    We are currently investigating the pressure dependence of the photoluminescence spectra of lanthanides, including Gadolinium metal. This investigation is conducted at hydrostatic pressures up to 10 gigapascals. Static pressure is obtained using a four post diamond anvil cell. The photoluminescence is excited with a low power (5 mW) continuous wave Argon ion gas laser, and the spectrum is collected using

  16. Intracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Deprivation through Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Zeng, Xiao; Xie, Xiaoji; Han, Sanyang; Liew, Oi-Wah; Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Lianhui; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-05-27

    Growing interest in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for biological and medical uses has brought particular attention to their safety concerns. However, the intrinsic toxicity of this new class of optical nanomaterials in biological systems has not been fully evaluated. In this work, we systematically evaluate the long-term cytotoxicity of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (NaGdF4 and NaYF4) to HeLa cells by monitoring cell viability (mitochondrial activity), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, and cell membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase release), respectively. Importantly, we find that ligand-free lanthanide-doped nanoparticles induce intracellular ATP deprivation of HeLa cells, resulting in a significant decrease in cell viability after exposure for 7 days. We attribute the particle-induced cell death to two distinct cell death pathways, autophagy and apoptosis, which are primarily mediated via the interaction between the nanoparticle and the phosphate group of cellular ATP. The understanding gained from the investigation of cytotoxicity associated with lanthanide-doped nanoparticles provides keen insights into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological systems. PMID:25923914

  17. Lanthanide 4f-level location in lanthanide doped and cerium-lanthanide codoped NaLaF4 by photo- and thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpel, A. H.; van der Kolk, E.; Zeelenberg, D.; Bos, A. J. J.; Krämer, K. W.; Dorenbos, P.

    2008-10-01

    Photo- and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra of NaLaF4:Ln3+ (Ln=Ce,Pr,Nd,Sm,Eu,Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm) and NaLaF4:Ce3+, Ln3+ (Ln=Nd,Sm,Ho,Er,Tm) are presented and used together with the empirical Dorenbos model in order to establish the 4f energy level positions of all tri- and divalent lanthanide ions doped in NaLaF4. The information will be presented in the form of an energy level diagram. It is shown that in addition to this diagram only two assumptions, viz., the presence of two host related electron traps and the presence of Vk-centers, are necessary for explaining the lanthanide-specific TL glow curves of both Ln mono- and Ce-Ln codoped NaLaF4.

  18. Enhancement of Anion Binding in Lanthanide Optical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Morgan L.; Kirby, James P.; Gray, Harry B.; Ponce, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In the design of molecular sensors, researchers exploit binding interactions that are usually defined in terms of topology and charge complementarity. The formation of complementary arrays of highly cooperative, noncovalent bonding networks facilitates protein-ligand binding, leading to motifs such as the ‘lock-and-key.’ Synthetic molecular sensors often employ metal complexes as key design elements as a way to construct a binding site with the desired shape and charge to achieve target selectivity. In transition metal complexes, coordination number, structure and ligand dynamics are governed primarily by a combination of inner-sphere covalent and outer-sphere noncovalent interactions. These interactions provide a rich variable space that researchers can use to tune structure, stability and dynamics. In contrast, lanthanide(III)-ligand complex formation and ligand-exchange dynamics are dominated by reversible electrostatic and steric interactions, because the unfilled f shell is shielded by the larger, filled d shell. Luminescent lanthanides such as terbium, europium, dysprosium and samarium display many photophysical properties that make them excellent candidates for molecular sensor applications. Complexes of lanthanide ions act as receptors that exhibit a detectable change in metal-based luminescence upon binding of an anion. In our work on sensors for detection of dipicolinate, the unique biomarker of bacterial spores, we discovered that the incorporation of an ancillary ligand (AL) can enhance binding constants of target anions to lanthanide ions by as much as two orders of magnitude. In this Account, we show that selected ALs in lanthanide/anion systems greatly improve sensor performance for medical, planetary science and biodefense applications. We suggest that the observed anion binding enhancement could result from an AL-induced increase in positive charge at the lanthanide ion binding site. This effect depends on lanthanide polarizability, which can be established from the ionization energy of Ln3+ ? Ln4+. These results account for the order Tb3+ > Dy3+ > Eu3+ ? Sm3+. As with many lanthanide properties, ranging from hydration enthalpy to vaporization energy, this AL-induced enhancement shows a large discrepancy between Tb3+ and Eu3+ despite their similarity in size, a phenomenon known as the ‘gadolinium break.’ This discrepancy, based on the unusual stabilities of the Eu2+ and Tb4+ oxidation states, results from the half-shell effect, as both of these ions have half-filled 4f-shells. The high polarizability of Tb3+ explains the extraordinarily large increase in the binding affinity of anions for terbium compared to other lanthanides. We recommend that researchers consider this AL-induced enhancement when designing lanthanide-macrocycle optical sensors. Ancillary ligands also can reduce the impact of interfering species such as phosphate) commonly found in environmental and physiological samples. PMID:24032446

  19. Reactions of lanthanide atoms with oxygen difluoride and the role of the Ln oxidation state.

    PubMed

    Mikulas, Tanya; Chen, Mingyang; Dixon, David A; Peterson, Kirk A; Gong, Yu; Andrews, Lester

    2014-01-01

    Laser-ablated lanthanide metal atoms were condensed with OF2 in excess argon or neon at 4 K. New infrared absorption bands were observed and assigned to the oxidative addition products OLnF2 and OLnF on the basis of (18)O isotopic substitution and electronic structure calculations of the vibrational frequencies. The dominant absorptions in the 500 cm(-1) region are identified as Ln-F stretching modes, which follow the lanthanide contraction. The Ln-O stretching frequency is an important measure of the oxidation states of the Ln and oxygen and the spin state of the complex. The OCeF2, OPrF2, and OTbF2 molecules have higher frequency Ln-O stretching modes. The Ce is assigned to the IV oxidation state and the Pr and Tb are assigned to a mixed III/IV oxidation state. The remaining OLnF2 compounds have lower Ln-O stretches, and the Ln is in the III oxidation state and the O is in the -1 oxidation state. For all of the OLnF compounds, the metal is in the III oxidation state, and the Ln-F bonds are ionic. In OCeF2, OLaF, and OLuF, the bonding between the Ln and O is best described as a highly polarized ? bond and two pseudo ? bonds formed by donation from the two 2p lone pairs on the O to the Ln. Bonding for the OLnF2 compounds in the III oxidation state is predicted to be fully ionic. The bonding in OLnF2 and OLnF is dominated by the oxidation state on the lanthanide and the spin state of the molecule. The observation of larger neon to argon matrix shifts for Ln-O modes in several OLnF molecules as compared to their OLnF2 analogues is indicative of more ionic character in the OLnF species, consistent with the more formal negative charge on the oxygen in OLnF. PMID:24344827

  20. Advances in synthetic peptides reagent discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial display technology offers a number of advantages over competing display technologies (e.g, phage) for the rapid discovery and development of peptides with interaction targeted to materials ranging from biological hazards through inorganic metals. We have previously shown that discovery of synthetic peptide reagents utilizing bacterial display technology is relatively simple and rapid to make laboratory automation possible. This included extensive study of the protective antigen system of Bacillus anthracis, including development of discovery, characterization, and computational biology capabilities for in-silico optimization. Although the benefits towards CBD goals are evident, the impact is far-reaching due to our ability to understand and harness peptide interactions that are ultimately extendable to the hybrid biomaterials of the future. In this paper, we describe advances in peptide discovery including, new target systems (e.g. non-biological materials), advanced library development and clone analysis including integrated reporting.

  1. Phenylethynyl endcapping reagents and reactive diluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A phenylethynyl composition which can be used to endcap nucleophilic species is employed in the production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers exclusively. These phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers display unique thermal characteristics, as exemplified by the model compound, 4-phenoxy 4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, which is relatively stable at 200 C, but reacts at 350 C. In addition, a reactive diluent was prepared which decreases the melt viscosity of the phenylethynyl terminated oligomers and subsequently reacts therewith to increase density of the resulting thermoset. The novelty of this invention resides in the phenylethynyl composition used to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent was also employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to increase the crosslink density of the resulting thermoset. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  2. Spectroscopic studies on the lanthanide sensitized luminescence and chemiluminescence properties of fluoroquinolone with different structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunyan; Ping, Hong; Zhang, Minwei; Li, Hongkun; Guan, Fengrui

    2011-11-01

    Lanthanide sensitized luminescence and chemiluminescence (CL) are of great importance because of the unique spectral properties, such as long lifetime, large Stokes shifts, and narrow emission bands characteristic to lanthanide ions (Ln 3+). With the fluoroquinolone (FQ) compounds including enoxacin (ENX), norfloxacin (NFLX), lomefloxacin (LMFX), fleroxacin (FLRX), ofloxacin (OFLX), rufloxacin (RFX), gatifloxacin (GFLX) and sparfloxacin (SPFX), the luminescence and CL properties of Tb 3+-FQ and Eu 3+-FQ complexes have been investigated in this contribution. Ce 4+-SO 32- in acidic conditions was taken as the CL system and sensitized CL intensities of Tb 3+-FQ and Eu 3+-FQ complexes were determined by flow-injection analysis. The luminescence and CL spectra of Tb 3+-FQ complexes show characteristic peaks of Tb 3+ at 490 nm, 545 nm, 585 nm and 620 nm. Complexes of Tb 3+-ENX, Tb 3+-NFLX, Tb 3+-LMFX and Tb 3+-FLRX display relatively strong emission intensity compared with Tb 3+-OFLX, Tb 3+-RFX, Tb 3+-GFLX and Tb 3+-SPFX. Quite weak peaks with unique characters of Eu 3+ at 590 nm and 617 nm appear in the luminescence and CL spectra of Eu 3+-ENX, but no notable sensitized luminescence and CL of Eu 3+ could be observed when Eu 3+ is added into other FQ. The distinct differences on emission intensity of Tb 3+-FQ and Eu 3+-FQ might originate from the different energy gap between the triplet levels of FQ and the excited levels of the Ln 3+. The different sensitized luminescence and CL signals among Tb 3+-FQ complexes could be attributed to different optical properties and substituents of these FQ compounds. The detailed mechanism involved in the luminescence and CL properties of Tb 3+-FQ and Eu 3+-FQ complexes has been investigated by analyzing the luminescence and CL spectra, quantum yields, and theoretical calculation results.

  3. Methyltrihydroborate complexes of the lanthanides and actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Shinomoto, R.S.

    1984-11-01

    Reaction of MC1/sub 4/ (M = Zr, Hf, U, Th, Np) with LiBH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/ in chlorobenzene produces volatile, hexane-soluble M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/. Crystal structures are monomeric, tetrahedral species. Lewis base adducts prepared include U(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.THT, Th(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.L (L = THF (tetrahydrofuran), THT (tetrahydrothiophene), SMe/sub 2/, OMe/sub 2/), U(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2L (L = THF, pyridine, NH/sub 3/), Th(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2L (L = THF, THT, py, NH/sub 3/), M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.L-L (M = U, Th; L-L = dme (1,2-dimethoxyethane), bmte (bis(1,2-methylthio)ethane), tmed (N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), dmpe (1,2-dimethylphosphinoethane)) and Th(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.1/2 OEt/sub 2/. Reaction of MC1/sub 3/ (M = Ho, Yb, Lu) with LiBH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/ in diethyl ether produces volatile, toluene-soluble M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.OEt/sub 2/. Other Lewis base adducts prepared from M(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.OEt/sub 2/ include Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.L (L = THT, THF, py), Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.2L (L = THT, THF, py), Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.tmed, Ho(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.3/2 L-L (L-L = dmpe, bmte), Yb(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.3/2 dmpe, Yb(BH/sub 3/Ch/sub 3/).L (L = THF, dme), Yb(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.2THF, and Lu(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/.THF. By structural criteria, the bonding in actinide and lanthanide methyltrihydroborate complexes is primarily ionic in character even though they display covalent-like physical properties. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that there is some degree of covalent bonding in U(BH/sub 3/CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/.

  4. Modification of sodium and gating currents by amino group specific cross-linking and monofunctional reagents.

    PubMed Central

    Drews, G; Rack, M

    1988-01-01

    To test the possible role of lysine residues in Na channel function the effects of several imidoesters on Na and gating currents were studied in voltage-clamped single frog nerve fibers. Mono- and bisimidoesters were used. These reagents modify amino groups exclusively and do not change the net charge. The three bisimidoesters used easily introduce cross-links between neighboring amino groups. Their structure is almost identical; only the length of the spacers between the two amino-reactive groups is different. An irreversible reduction of Na currents and gating currents was observed with the longest (dimethyl suberimidate [DMS]) and the shortest (dimethyl adipimidate [DMA]) of the cross-linkers used. Of the three cross-linking reagents only the shortest made Na current inactivation slow and incomplete. The steady-state inactivation curve, h infinity (E), was shifted by greater than 25 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by each of the reagents. The voltage dependence of activation, however, remained unchanged. Furthermore, the effects of two different monoimidoesters (ethyl acetimidate [EAI] and isethionyl acetimidate [IAI]) on gating currents were tested. EAI can penetrate a membrane, whereas IAI is membrane impermeant. IAI was almost without effect, whereas EAI caused a considerable reduction of the gating currents. EAI and DMS reduced the Qoff/Qon ratio without affecting the decay of the Na currents. The results show that lysine residues are critically involved in Na channel gating. PMID:2850028

  5. Kumada-Corriu coupling of Grignard reagents, probed with a chiral Grignard reagent.

    PubMed

    Hölzer, Bettina; Hoffmann, Reinhard W

    2003-03-21

    The Grignard reagent 2, in which the magnesium-bearing carbon atom is the sole stereogenic centre has been coupled with vinyl bromide under Pd(0) or Ni(0)-catalysis to give compound 3 with full retention of configuration. Coupling using Fe(acac)3 or Co(acac)2 as catalyst was accompanied by considerable racemisation. These findings are discussed with respect to a dichotomy between concerted polar and stepwise SET transmetallation pathways. PMID:12703796

  6. Effect of reagent charge on the labeling of erythrocyte membrane proteins by photoactivated reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, J.C.; Hakimian, R.; Shimer, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    Leaky erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with /sup 3/H-(2-(4-azido-2-nitroanilino)ethyl)trimethylammonium iodide (cationic label) or /sup 3/H-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-..beta..-alanine (anionic label). After the membranes were thoroughly washed, seven times as much cationic label was associated with the membranes as anionic label at 5 ..mu..M, whereas at 50 ..mu..M the cationic label was favored 15-fold. The distribution of label in the membrane proteins was ascertain by SDS-gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. At 50 ..mu..M cationic label, erythrocyte membrane protein bands 1,2,3,4.2, and 5 were intensely labeled, while band 6 was labeled weakly. At 5 ..mu..M cationic label, bands 1 and 4.2 were heavily labeled, while 2,3 and 5 were labeled less well. At both 50 ..mu..M and 5 ..mu..M anionic label, bands 1 and 6 were most prominently labeled. Bands 2,3,4.2 and 5 were labeled also at 50 ..mu..M, but they were labeled only very weakly at 5 ..mu..M. Band 4.1 was labeled very poorly if at all by either reagent. A mixture of the reagents gave an additive pattern. Thus, the charge and concentration of these reagents appear to play a major role in their ability to label membrane proteins indiscriminately. Because these reagents contain the same chromophore, 4-azido-2-nitroaniline, and differ mainly only in their charge, they may prove useful in assessing the location of charged sites on proteins in supramolecular complexes.

  7. New Silyl Ether Reagents for the Absolute Stereochemical Determination

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    New Silyl Ether Reagents for the Absolute Stereochemical Determination of Secondary Alcohols R set of silyl ether reagents for determining the enantiomeric purity and absolute stereochemistry ether group allows for simple derivitiza- tion6 and convenient recovery of the original chiral compound

  8. EFFECT OF FENTON'S REAGENT ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIOLOGY AND BIODEGRADATION CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosm studies were conducted to determine the effect of Fenton's reagent on subsurface microbiology and biodegradation capacity in a DNAPL (PCE/TCE) contaminated aquifer previously treated with the reagent. Groundwater pH declined from 5 to 2.4 immediately after the treatmen...

  9. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James

    1988-01-01

    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  10. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  11. Dynamic tests for actinide/lanthanide separation by CMPO solvent in fluorinated diluents

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachenko, L.; Babain, V.; Alyapyshev, M.; Vizniy, A.; Il'in, A. [V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskiy Ave 28., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shadrin, A. [A.A. Bochvar High-technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, 5-a, Rogova str., Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Actinide and lanthanide extraction by new solvent: 0.2 M phenyl-octyl-N,N-diiso-butylcarbamoyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) + 30% TBP + formal of octafluoro-pentanol was studied. A dynamic test with this solvent was performed. It was shown that americium and lanthanides are effectively extracted from PUREX process raffinate. The separation of americium from light lanthanides was confirmed in the modified SETFICS flowsheet with this new solvent. (authors)

  12. Standard Materials for Microbeam Analysis of Lanthanides and Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, I.; Gorton, M.; Rucklidge, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Traces of Th and U in naturally-occuring minerals monazite, xenotime and zircon are used for dating host rocks. Natural variations of actinide concentrations in some rock formations are well documented. Microbeam techniques perform dating in-situ where grains of indicator minerals are left intact in thin sections. Separated individual grains of these minerals are also routinely dated by Pb-isotope mass spectrometry. Ideal calibration materials will be compatible with multiple techniques. Quantitative analysis of low levels of lanthanides (REE), U, Th and Pb found in natural minerals requires standards containing similar concentrations of these elements. The ideal low-level standard suite will have materials with each REE cation present below 5%, similar to natural rare-earth phosphate minerals. In contrast, REE orthophosphates LnPO4 have cation concentrations from 59 to 64%, and ultraphosphates LnP5O14 from 27% to 32%. The concentrations of U and Pb must also be in the 1% range in the host REE phosphate. There are two competing limits to the synthesis of crystals with multiple cations in the REE sites. The crystal structure limits potential cation mixtures to selections within groups (La,Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu), (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho), and (Er, Tm,Yb, Lu, Y). Complex L X-ray spectra limit the use of contiguous REE in a single material. There are two general synthetic routes for the preparation of lanthanide/actinide standard materials for beam analysis and dating. Lanthanide orthophosphates (LnPO4) are crystallized from lead-free heterogeneous fluxes; oligomers (metaphosphates LnP3O9 and ultraphosphates LnP5O14) are formed by condensation of phosphoric acid in the presence of cations. All of these trivalent lanthanide phosphate crystal structures are hosts for Th+4 and U+4, and in synthetic materals, Ca+2 is used for charge compensation. Our work focuses on the preparation of mixed-cation lanthanide metaphosphates and ultraphosphates. The solvent (essentially P2O5) provides redox conditions that favour Ce+3, Th+4, and U+4 instead of higher oxidation states. The absence of any cations other than those deliberately added permits positive control of cation mixtures in starting materials. The synthetic pathway—condensation of POx units--provides ideal conditions for the homogeneous distribution of cations including those with different charges. We present the results of synthesis, elemental analysis and imaging by XRF and SEM-EDX for mixed lanthanide-actinide phosphate materials.

  13. Compounds of lanthanide picrates and 2-azacyclononanone (aza): synthesis, characterization and thermal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P Marinho; D. M Araújo Melo; L. B Zinner; K Zinner; J. E Xavier de Matos

    1998-01-01

    Addition compounds between lanthanide(III) picrates and azacyclononanone(aza) were characterized by spectroscopic, microanalytical and X-ray data, with special emphasis on thermogravimetric techniques.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs...Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus...

  16. Hypervalent Iodine Reagents Very Important Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201310897

    E-print Network

    Müller, Peter

    Hypervalent Iodine Reagents Very Important Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201310897 Structural Reevaluation of the Electrophilic Hypervalent Iodine Reagent for Trifluoromethylthiolation Supported* Abstract: Hypervalent iodine l3 -benziodoxoles are common electrophilic transfer reagents known

  17. Synthesis of Solid 2-Pyridylzinc Reagents and Their Application in Negishi Reactions

    E-print Network

    Bernhardt, Sebastian

    In search of alternatives to unstable or unreliable 2-pyridylboron reagents, we have explored two new varieties of solid, moderately air-stable 2-pyridylzinc reagents. Both reagents can be manipulated in air and are competent ...

  18. The first quaternary lanthanide(III) nitride iodides: NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} (M=La-Nd)

    SciTech Connect

    Schurz, Christian M. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schleid, Thomas, E-mail: schleid@iac.uni-stuttgart.d [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    In attempts to synthesize lanthanide(III) nitride iodides with the formula M{sub 2}NI{sub 3} (M=La-Nd), moisture-sensitive single crystals of the first quaternary sodium lanthanide(III) nitride iodides NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} (orthorhombic, Pna2{sub 1}; Z=4; a=1391-1401, b=1086-1094, c=1186-1211 pm) could be obtained. The dominating structural features are {sup 1}{sub {infinity}}{l_brace}[NM{sub 4/2}{sup e}]{sup 3+}{r_brace} chains of trans-edge linked [NM{sub 4}]{sup 9+} tetrahedra, which run parallel to the polar 2{sub 1}-axis [001]. Between the chains, direct bonding via special iodide anions generates cages, in which isolated [NaI{sub 6}]{sup 5-} octahedra are embedded. The IR spectrum of NaLa{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} recorded from 100 to 1000 cm{sup -1} shows main bands at {upsilon}=337, 373 and 489 cm{sup -1}. With decreasing radii of the lanthanide trications these bands, which can be assigned as an influence of the vibrations of the condensed [NM{sub 4}]{sup 9+} tetrahedra, are shifted toward higher frequencies for the NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} series (M=La-Nd), following the lanthanide contraction. - Abstract: View at the main structural features of the NaM{sub 4}N{sub 2}I{sub 7} series (M=La-Nd): The {sup 1}{sub {infinity}}{l_brace}[NM{sub 4/2}{sup e}]{sup 3+}{r_brace} chains, consisting of trans-edge connected [NM{sub 4}]{sup 9+} tetrahedra, and the special kind of iodide anions, namely (I7){sup -}, form cages, in which isolated [NaI{sub 6}]{sup 5-} octahedra are embedded.

  19. Immobilized Bioluminescent Reagents in Flow Injection Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Abdul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Bioluminescent reactions exhibits two important characteristics from an analytical viewpoint; they are selective and highly sensitive. Furthermore, bioluminescent emissions are easily measured with a simple flow-through detector based on a photomultiplier tube and the rapid and reproducible mixing of sample and expensive reagent is best achieved by a flow injection manifold. The two most important bioluminescent systems are the enzyme (luciferase)/substrate (luciferin) combinations extracted from fireflies (Photinus pyralis) and marine bacteria (Virio harveyi) which requires ATP and NAD(P)H respectively as cofactors. Reactions that generate or consume these cofactors can also be coupled to the bioluminescent reaction to provide assays for a wide range of clinically important species. A flow injection manifold for the study of bioluminescent reactions is described, as are procedures for the extraction, purification and immobilization of firefly and bacterial luciferase and oxidoreductase. Results are presented for the determination of ATP using firefly system and the determination of other enzymes and substrates participating in ATP-converting reactions e.g. creatine kinase, ATP-sulphurylase, pyruvate kinase, creatine phosphate, pyrophosphate and phophoenolypyruvate. Similarly results are presented for the determination of NAD(P)H, FMN, FMNH_2 and several dehydrogenases which produce NAD(P)H and their substrates, e.g. alcohol, L-lactate, L-malate, L-glutamate, Glucose-6-phosphate and primary bile acid.

  20. Lanthanide complexes of triethylenetetramine tetra-, penta-, and hexaacetamide ligands as paramagnetic chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: nona- versus decadentate coordination.

    PubMed

    Burdinski, Dirk; Pikkemaat, Jeroen A; Lub, Johan; de Peinder, Peter; Nieto Garrido, Lidia; Weyhermüller, Thomas

    2009-07-20

    The solid state and solution structure of a series of lanthanide complexes of the decadentate ligand triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetamide, (ttham), its two decadentate derivatives di-tert-butyl N,N,N''',N'''-tetra(carbamoylmethyl)-triethylenetetramine-N',N''-diacetate (Bu(2)ttha-tm) and N,N,N''',N'''-tetra(carbamoylmethyl)-triethylenetetramine-N',N''-diacetic acid (H(2)ttha-tm), and its two nonadentate derivatives N-benzyl-triethylenetetramine-N,N',N'',N''',N'''-pentaacetamide (1bttpam) and N'-benzyl-triethylenetetramine-N,N,N'',N''',N'''-pentaacetamide (4bttpam) have been investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, cyclovoltammetry, and NMR spectroscopy. In these mononuclear lanthanide complexes, the first coordination sphere is generally saturated by four amine nitrogens of the triethylenetetramine ligand backbone and five or six carbonyl oxygen atoms of the pendent amide or acetate donor groups. In the [Ln(ttham)](3+) complex series, a switch from a decadentate to a nonadentate coordination occurs between [Er(ttham)](3+) and [Tm(ttham)](3+). This switch in coordination mode, which is caused by decreasing metal ion radii going from lanthanum to lutetium (lanthanide contraction), has no significant effect on the T(1)-relaxivity of these complexes. It is shown that the T(1)-relaxivity is dominated by second coordination sphere interactions, with an ascendant contribution of the classical dipolar relaxation mechanism for the earlier (Ce-Sm) and very late (Tm, Yb) lanthanides, and a prevailing Curie relaxation mechanism for most of the remaining paramagnetic lanthanide ions. In chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer (CEST) (1)H NMR experiments, most of the above complexes exhibit multiple strong CEST peaks of the paramagnetically shifted amide protons spread over a >100 ppm chemical shift range. The effective CEST effect of the studied thulium complexes strongly depends on temperature and pH. The pH at which the CEST effect maximizes (generally between pH 7 and 8) is determined by the overall charge of the complex. Depending on the used saturation frequency offset, the temperature-dependence varies between the extremes of strongly linearly dependent and fully independent in the case of [Tm(ttham)](3+). In combination with the strong pH-dependence of the CEST effect at the latter frequency offset, this complex is highly suitable for simultaneous temperature and pH mapping using magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:19507818

  1. Dilute reagent decontamination for pressurized water reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.L.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    The program has involved the following elements: screening studies with candidate reagents using nonradioactive autoclaved Inconel 600 and stainless steel specimens, procurement and characterization of radioactive Inconel 600 steam generator tube sections from operating PWRs, testing of candidate reagents on radioactive Inconel 600 tubing specimens, identification of dilute chemical decontamination methodology for PWRs, and develop decontamination reagents compatible with boric acid and lithium hydroxide (PWR coolant additives). Reagent studies conducted in a once-through test facility (OTTF), in recirculating acutoclaves, and in a recirculating test facility (RTF). Primary side films on Inconel 600 PWR steam generator tubing responded to strong oxidizing agents and to strong reducing agents. The reagent studies identified both single-stage and two-stage decontamination treatments that can remove large fractions of the radioactivity from Inconel 600 PWR steam generator tube specimens. The highest decontamination factors were achieved with reagents that largely removed the radioactive films as particulates. Reagent formulations have been identified that offer promise for testing under scale-up conditions. Engineering aspects of a PWR decontamination were discussed with the staff of a 1000-MWe PWR.

  2. A TRUEX-based separation of americium from the lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Nicholas C. Schmitt; Mary E. Case

    2011-03-01

    Abstract: The inextractability of the actinide AnO2+ ions in the TRUEX process suggests the possibility of a separation of americium from the lanthanides using oxidation to Am(V). The only current method for the direct oxidation of americium to Am(V) in strongly acidic media is with sodium bismuthate. We prepared Am(V) over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and investigated its solvent extraction behavior for comparison to europium. While a separation is achievable in principal, the presence of macro amounts of cerium competes for the sparingly soluble oxidant and the oxidant itself competes for CMPO complexation. These factors conspire to reduce the Eu/Am separation factor from ~40 using tracer solutions to ~5 for extractions from first cycle raffinate simulant solution. To separate pentavalent americium directly from the lanthanides using the TRUEX process, an alternative oxidizing agent will be necessary.

  3. Photo and electroluminescence of lanthanide(III) complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Kuz’mina; S. V. Eliseeva

    2006-01-01

    Major classes of coordination compounds used as electroluminescent materials are surveyed, and their advantages and disadvantages\\u000a are discussed. The strategy of the directed synthesis of lanthanide(III) complexes promising for use as electroluminescent\\u000a materials is formulated. The results of studies dealing with the design of electroluminescent devices based on europium(III),\\u000a terbium(III), and thulium(III) complexes are considered.

  4. Reaction of phenyl derivatives of lanthanides with carbonyl compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Sigalov; É. S. Petrov; L. F. Rybakova; I. P. Beletskaya

    1983-01-01

    1.The reaction of PhLnI (Ln=Yb, Eu, Sm, Ce) with trans-chalcone takes place regiospecifically as 1,2-addition, in contrast to the reactions of PhMgI and PhLi.2.A new reaction of deoxygenation of the lanthanide carbinolates (prepared by addition of PhLnI to ketones) under the effect of reducing agents was found.

  5. Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells.

    PubMed

    van der Ende, Bryan M; Aarts, Linda; Meijerink, Andries

    2009-12-21

    The use of lanthanide ions to convert photons to different, more useful, wavelengths is well-known from a wide range of applications (e.g. fluorescent tubes, lasers, white light LEDs). Recently, a new potential application has emerged: the use of lanthanide ions for spectral conversion in solar cells. The main energy loss in the conversion of solar energy to electricity is related to the so-called spectral mismatch: low energy photons are not absorbed by a solar cell while high energy photons are not used efficiently. To reduce the spectral mismatch losses both upconversion and downconversion are viable options. In the case of upconversion two low energy infrared photons that cannot be absorbed by the solar cell, are added up to give one high energy photon that can be absorbed. In the case of downconversion one high energy photon is split into two lower energy photons that can both be absorbed by the solar cell. The rich and unique energy level structure arising from the 4f(n) inner shell configuration of the trivalent lanthanide ions gives a variety of options for efficient up- and downconversion. In this perspective an overview will be given of recent work on photon management for solar cells. Three topics can be distinguished: (1) modelling of the potential impact of spectral conversion on the efficiency of solar cells; (2) research on up- and downconversion materials based on lanthanides; and (3) proof-of-principle experiments. Finally, an outlook will be given, including issues that need to be resolved before wide scale application of up- and downconversion materials can be anticipated. PMID:20024374

  6. Thermal Decomposition of Lanthanide, Yttrium, and Scandium Oxalates and Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, Vyacheslav A.; Bezdenezhnykh, G. V.

    1981-07-01

    Data concerning the thermal decomposition of lanthanide, yttrium, and scandium oxalates and carbonates are surveyed. The complexity of the process, the large number of stages involved, and the dependence of the composition of the intermediates in the thermal transformations on the experimental conditions is noted. Certain process characteristics have been discovered and it is concluded that the decomposition process depends on the ionic radius of the metal. The bibliography includes 83 references.

  7. Complexes of Alkyl Esters of Ethylidenediphosphonic Acids with Lanthanide Nitrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladislav Arabadzhiev; Jordanka Petrova; Erhard T. K. Haupt; Jürgen Kopf; Isabelle Nevoigt

    2008-01-01

    The lanthanide complexes LnL2(NO3)33a?c and 5a?c, where Ln is La, Ce and Sm and L are tetraethyl esters of ethylidenediphosphonic acid 1 (for complexes 3) and tetraisopropyl esters of ethylidenediphosphonic acid 4 (for complexes 5) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of DyL2(NO3)37 (L is tetraisopropyl ester of methylenediphosphonic acid) was determined

  8. Oxidative Injury in the Brain of mice Caused by Lanthanid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiquan Zhao; Zhe Cheng; Renping Hu; Jie Chen; Mengmeng Hong; Min Zhou; Xiaolan Gong; Ling Wang; Fashui Hong

    2011-01-01

    The organ toxicity of lanthanides (Ln) on organisms had been recognized, but very little is known about the oxidative injury\\u000a of brain caused by Ln. In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of Ln on the brain, ICR mice were injected\\u000a with a single 20 mg\\/kg body weight dose of LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 into the abdominal cavity daily

  9. Luminescent nine-coordinate lanthanide complexes derived from fluorinated ?-diketone and 2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashid Ilmi; K. Iftikhar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis, photoluminescence, 4f–4f absorptions, and NMR studies of nine-coordinate lanthanide(III) complexes, [Ln(tfaa)3(tptz)] (Ln?=?La, Nd, Sm, and Eu; tfaa is the anion of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pantanedione; and tptz?=?2,4,6-tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), are reported. These complexes are synthesized in a single pot by in situ method and thoroughly characterized. The ?-diketone and tptz chemical shifts, in the cases of paramagnetic complexes, are in the opposite directions.

  10. Valence calculations of lanthanide anion binding energies: a comprehensive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Steven M.; Beck, Donald R.

    2009-05-01

    We have applied a methodology of universal jls restrictions on the 4f^n subgroup of relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of progressively more complex lanthanide anionsootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012505 (2008).^,ootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 78, 012510 (2008).^,ootnotetextS. M. O'Malley and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A, in press.. Our completed study of the row predicts bound 6p attachments to all lanthanide ground state configurations except Yb, additional 6p attachments to excited opposite parity configurations in Tb and Lu, and 6s attachments to excited open-6s thresholds in La, Ce, Pr, and Gd. In total we predict more than 100 bound states for the lanthanide anions, and we hope this comprehensive study encourages further experimentalootnotetexte.g. V. T. Davis et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 241, 118 (2005).^,ootnotetexte.g. C. W. Walter et al., Phys. Rev. A 76, 052702 (2007). interest in these anions. Such measurements will be useful in ``fine tuning'' these ab initio binding energies to account for missing core-valence correlation and the approximations that were necessary in these complex calculations.

  11. Epoxidations of Alkenes: The Reagents vElectrophilic reagent -electron rich double bonds react faster.

    E-print Network

    Charette, André

    on Cytochrome P-450. NN N N R R RR M O M N N O R R M = Fe, Mn, Ru, Cr Y M Y M [O] O O [O] = NaOCl, Oxone, H2O2 Chemoselectivity is inverse to the one of electrophilic reagents. O HOO ROO or O O HO O O Me O AcO Me H Me H H H2O2 OHMe O Ti(Oi-Pr)4, TBHP Diastereoselection: >20:1 Synthesis of maysine #12;12 Epoxidation

  12. Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry Model for the Lanthanides: RM1 (Recife Model 1) Parameters for Dysprosium, Holmium and Erbium

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Manoel A. M.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.; Freire, Ricardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Complexes of dysprosium, holmium, and erbium find many applications as single-molecule magnets, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, as anti-cancer agents, in optical telecommunications, etc. Therefore, the development of tools that can be proven helpful to complex design is presently an active area of research. In this article, we advance a major improvement to the semiempirical description of lanthanide complexes: the Recife Model 1, RM1, model for the lanthanides, parameterized for the trications of Dy, Ho, and Er. By representing such lanthanide in the RM1 calculation as a three-electron atom with a set of 5 d, 6 s, and 6 p semiempirical orbitals, the accuracy of the previous sparkle models, mainly concentrated on lanthanide-oxygen and lanthanide-nitrogen distances, is extended to other types of bonds in the trication complexes’ coordination polyhedra, such as lanthanide-carbon, lanthanide-chlorine, etc. This is even more important as, for example, lanthanide-carbon atom distances in the coordination polyhedra of the complexes comprise about 30% of all distances for all complexes of Dy, Ho, and Er considered. Our results indicate that the average unsigned mean error for the lanthanide-carbon distances dropped from an average of 0.30 Å, for the sparkle models, to 0.04 Å for the RM1 model for the lanthanides; for a total of 509 such distances for the set of all Dy, Ho, and Er complexes considered. A similar behavior took place for the other distances as well, such as lanthanide-chlorine, lanthanide-bromine, lanthanide, phosphorus and lanthanide-sulfur. Thus, the RM1 model for the lanthanides, being advanced in this article, broadens the range of application of semiempirical models to lanthanide complexes by including comprehensively many other types of bonds not adequately described by the previous models. PMID:24497945

  13. Separation and determination of trace metal ions using organic chelating reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Palmieri, M.D.

    1987-11-01

    The four reagents tested were N,N-dihexylacetamide (DHA), 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(furoylhydrazone) (H/sub 2/dapf), 1,3-dimethyl-4-acetyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (DMAP) and N-methylfurohydroxamic acid (NMFHA). DHA and H/sub 2/dapf were investigated for their complex formation with uranium, and DMAP and NMFHA were used as chelating agents in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Uranium(VI) is preferentially extracted from nitric acid solutions using DHA in toluene. The extraction characteristics of the U-DHA complex are studied. A 119,000 ..mu..gL/sup -1/ U solution is analyzed for twenty-six elements. The U is extracted with DHA, and the trace metal ions are then determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Uranium must be removed from the sample before analysis to prevent ionization suppression. H/sub 2/dapf is synthesized and characterized. Studies of the complexation of metal ions with H/sub 2/dapf is described. U(VI) forms a stable complex with H/sub 2/dapf, and a procedure for selectively determining trace U by spectrophotometry is presented. DMAP complexes of Cu(II), Fe(III), Ga(III), Th(IV), U(VI), V(V), and Zr(IV) are separated using reversed phase HPLC. NMFHA complex of Al(III), Fe(III), Hf(IV), Nb(V), Sb(III), and Zr(IV) are separated using reversed phase HPLC. NMFHA is also used to separate uranium(VI) from trace lanthanide ions. 266 refs., 46 figs., 24 tabs

  14. Novel and cost-effective 6-plex isobaric tagging reagent, DiART, is effective for identification and relative quantification of complex protein mixtures using PQD fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Ramsubramaniam, Nikhil; Tao, Feng; Li, Shuwei; Marten, Mark R

    2013-09-01

    Deuterium isobaric Amine Reactive Tag (DiART) reagents facilitate relative quantification during proteomic analysis in a functionally similar manner to commercially available isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and tandem mass tag (TMT) reagents. In contrast to iTRAQ and TMT, DiART reagents incorporate deuterium isotopes which significantly reduce the number of required synthesis steps and hence have potential to significantly reduce reagent production cost. We examined the capability of DiART for performing quantitative proteomic experiments using a linear ion-trap mass spectrometer with Pulsed Q Dissociation (PQD) fragmentation. Using a synthetic peptide tagged with DiART reagent, we observed a precise mass shift of 144.79?Da on the triply charged precursor ion, which shows complete derivatization of the N-terminus and ?-amino group of lysine. A DiART tagged tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin showed a sequence coverage of 57.99% which was very comparable to that showed by iTRAQ, 54.77%. Furthermore, a ten protein mixture tagged with DiART reagents and mixed in 1:1:1:1:1:1 exhibited?reagents and mixed in different ratios, they exhibited similar trends. We conclude that DiART reagents are capable of performing quantitative proteomic experiments using PQD on a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. PMID:24078244

  15. Utility of Arylamido Ligands in Yttrium and Lanthanide Chemistry(1).

    PubMed

    Evans, William J.; Ansari, Mohammad A.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Khan, Saeed I.

    1996-09-11

    The reactivity of KNHAr reagents (Ar = C(6)H(5), C(6)H(3)Me(2)-2,6, C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6) with lanthanide and yttrium trichlorides has been investigated. With the larger metals Nd and Sm and the smaller 2,6-dimethyl-substituted ligand, the bimetallic dianionic complexes [K(THF)(6)](2)[Ln(&mgr;-NHC(6)H(3)Me(2)-2,6)(NHC(6)H(3)Me(2)-2,6)(3)](2) (Ln: Sm, 1a; Nd, 1b) are isolated as the potassium salts. Under the same reaction conditions YCl(3) forms a bimetallic anion which retains chloride: [K(DME)(2)(THF)(3)][Y(2)(&mgr;-NHC(6)H(3)Me(2)-2,6)(2)(&mgr;-Cl)(NHC(6)H(3)Me(2)-2,6)(4)(THF)(2)], 2. With the larger 2,6-diisopropyl ligands, neutral complexes are isolated in both solvated monometallic and unsolvated bimetallic forms. With Nd, a distorted octahedral trisolvate, Nd(NHC(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6)(3)(THF)(3), 3, was obtained, whereas with Yb and Y the trigonal bipyramidal disolvates, Ln(NHC(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6)(3)(THF)(2) (Ln: Yb, 4a; Y, 4b), were isolated. THF-free complexes of the NHC(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6 ligand are available by reacting the amine NH(2)C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6 with Ln[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3) complexes. By this route, the dimers [Ln(&mgr;-NHC(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6)(NHC(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)-2,6)(2)](2) (Ln: Yb, 5a; Y, 5b) were isolated. The reaction of the unsubstituted arylamido salt KNHC(6)H(5) with NdCl(3) produced an insoluble material which was characterized as [Nd(NHC(6)H(5))(3)(KCl)(3)], 6. 6 reacted with Al(2)Me(6) in hexanes and produced a heteroleptic mixed-metal complex {[Me(2)Al(&mgr;-Me(2))](2)Nd(&mgr;(3)-NC(6)H(5))(&mgr;-Me)AlMe}(2), 7, and the trimeric aluminum arylamido complex [Me(2)Al(&mgr;-NHC(6)H(5))](3), 8. The solvent of crystallization and relevant crystallographic data for the compounds identified by X-ray analysis follow: 1a,THF, 156 K, P2(1)/n, a = 12.985(2) Å, b = 27.122(5) Å, c = 17.935(3) Å, beta = 100.19(1) degrees, V = 6216(1) Å(3), Z = 2, 6148 reflections (I > 3sigma(I)), R(F)() = 7.1%; 1b,THF, 156 K, P2(1)/n, a = 12.998(2) Å, b = 27.058(3) Å, c = 17.962(2) Å, beta = 99.74(1) degrees, V = 6225(1) Å(3), Z = 2; 2,DME/hexanes, P2(1)/n, a = 23.335(2) Å, b = 12.649(1) Å, c = 27.175(3) Å, beta = 96.36(1) degrees, V = 7971(1) Å(3), Z = 4, 2788 reflections (I > 3sigma(I)), R(F)() = 9.5%; 3, THF, P2(1), a = 12.898(1) Å, b = 16.945(1) Å, c = 13.290(1) Å, beta = 118.64(2) degrees, V = 2549.3(3) Å(3), Z = 2, 3414 reflections (I > 3sigma(I)), R(F)() = 4.3%; 4a, hexanes, P2(1), a = 9.718(2) Å, b = 19.119(3) Å, c = 12.640(2) Å, beta = 112.08(1) degrees, V = 2176.3(6) Å(3), Z = 2, 2933 reflections (I > 3sigma(I)), R(F)() = 4.3%; 4b, hexanes, 158 K, a = 9.729(2) Å, b = 19.095(5) Å, c = 12.744(1) Å, beta = 112.11(1) degrees, V = 2193.4(6) Å(3); 5b, hot toluene, 158 K, P2(1), a =19.218(9) Å, b = 9.375(3) Å, c = 19.820(5) Å, beta = 110.25(2) degrees, V = 3350(2)Å(3), Z = 2, 1718 reflections (I > 2sigma (I)), R1 = 9.7%; 7, hexanes, 156 K, P&onemacr;, a = 9.618(3) Å, b = 12.738(4) Å, c = 9.608(3) Å, alpha = 99.32(1) degrees, beta = 108.87(1) degrees, gamma = 94.23(1) degrees, V = 1089.1(6) Å(3), Z = 2, 2976 reflections (I > 3sigma(I)), R(F)() = 3.9%; 8, hexanes, 156 K, Pcab, a = 23.510(5) Å, b = 25.462(5) Å, c = 8.668(2) Å, V = 5188(1) Å(3), Z = 8, 1386 reflections (I > 3sigma(I)), R(F)() = 5.7%. PMID:11666728

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Use of a Cobalt(II) Complex as an NMR Shift Reagent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Harold M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes procedures for preparing acetylacetonate complex of cobalt(II), followed by spectrophotometric analysis to characterize the material, with additional characterization methods supplied by students to provide open-ended dimension for the experiment. (SK)

  17. Oxygen-induced magnetic surface states on the ,,0001... surfaces of heavy lanthanide metals C. Schuler-Langeheine,1

    E-print Network

    Grigoriev, Alexei

    Oxygen-induced magnetic surface states on the ,,0001... surfaces of heavy lanthanide metals C. Schu adsorption on the close-packed surfaces of trivalent heavy lanthanide metals leads to the formation of well, resembling the surface states of the clean metal surfaces. For the magnetic lanthanides, these states exhibit

  18. Polymeric Microspheres as Protein Transduction Reagents*

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, David; Behrendt, Jonathan M.; Chimonides, Gwen F.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Devitt, Andrew; Sutherland, Andrew J.; Hine, Anna V.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering the function of an unknown protein, particularly one with neither structural nor functional correlates, is a daunting task. Interaction analyses determine binding partners, whereas DNA transfection, either transient or stable, leads to intracellular expression, though not necessarily at physiologically relevant levels. In theory, direct intracellular protein delivery (protein transduction) provides a conceptually simpler alternative, but in practice the approach is problematic. Domains such as HIV TAT protein are valuable, but their effectiveness is protein specific. Similarly, the delivery of intact proteins via endocytic pathways (e.g. using liposomes) is problematic for functional analysis because of the potential for protein degradation in the endosomes/lysosomes. Consequently, recent reports that microspheres can deliver bio-cargoes into cells via a non-endocytic, energy-independent pathway offer an exciting and promising alternative for in vitro delivery of functional protein. In order for such promise to be fully exploited, microspheres are required that (i) are stably linked to proteins, (ii) can deliver those proteins with good efficiency, (iii) release functional protein once inside the cells, and (iv) permit concomitant tracking. Herein, we report the application of microspheres to successfully address all of these criteria simultaneously, for the first time. After cellular uptake, protein release was autocatalyzed by the reducing cytoplasmic environment. Outside of cells, the covalent microsphere–protein linkage was stable for ?90 h at 37 °C. Using conservative methods of estimation, 74.3% ± 5.6% of cells were shown to take up these microspheres after 24 h of incubation, with the whole process of delivery and intracellular protein release occurring within 36 h. Intended for in vitro functional protein research, this approach will enable study of the consequences of protein delivery at physiologically relevant levels, without recourse to nucleic acids, and offers a useful alternative to commercial protein transfection reagents such as Chariot™. We also provide clear immunostaining evidence to resolve residual controversy surrounding FACS-based assessment of microsphere uptake. PMID:24692642

  19. Widely applicable metallacarborane reagents for ?-conjugated systems.

    PubMed

    Farràs, Pau; Musteti, Ana D; Rojo, Isabel; Viñas, Clara; Teixidor, Francesc; Light, Mark E

    2014-06-01

    The compounds [N(CH3)4][3,3'-Co(8-(p-C6H4C2H3)-1,2-C2B9H10)(1',2'-C2B9H11)], [N(CH3)4][3,3'-Co(8-(p-C6H4CHO)-1,2-C2B9H10)(1',2'-C2B9H11)], and [N(CH3)4][3,3'-Co(8-(m-C6H4CHO)-1,2-C2B9H10)(1',2'-C2B9H11)] were synthesized using an easy methodology, in very good yields and large quantities, which are important requisites to be employed as starting reagents. They have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF-MS, and the crystal structures of [N(CH3)4][3,3'-Co(8-(p-C6H4C2H3)-1,2-C2B9H10)(1',2'-C2B9H11)] and [N(CH3)4][3,3'-Co(8-(p-C6H4CHO)-1,2-C2B9H10)(1',2'-C2B9H11)] were elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These compounds, having terminal formyl and vinyl functional groups, are suitable platforms to involve the aromatic cobaltabisdicarbollide unit into extended ?-conjugated systems. It is expected that these synthons will facilitate the applicability of metallacarboranes in a wide variety of different fields, where ?-conjugated systems are needed to keep electronic communication. PMID:24819777

  20. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY...serological reagents are devices that consist of Echinococcus...characterized by the development of cysts in the liver...general controls). The device is exempt from...

  1. Fluorescent Labeling Reagents Optimized for Capillary Electrophoretic Separations 

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Roy Tonacao, III

    2012-02-14

    states are pH-dependent, they are often hydrophobic and they have a tendency to significantly change the properties of the analytes after labeling. A group of fluorescent labeling reagents have been prepared whose fluorophores have properties...

  2. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and monoclonal, specific receptor proteins, ligands, nucleic acid sequences, and similar reagents which, through...February 28, 1994. 4. “Draft Review Criteria for Nucleic Acid Amplification-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices...

  3. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and monoclonal, specific receptor proteins, ligands, nucleic acid sequences, and similar reagents which, through...February 28, 1994. 4. “Draft Review Criteria for Nucleic Acid Amplification-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices...

  4. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and monoclonal, specific receptor proteins, ligands, nucleic acid sequences, and similar reagents which, through...February 28, 1994. 4. “Draft Review Criteria for Nucleic Acid Amplification-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...are occasionally associated with gastroenteritis (food poisoning) and wound infections. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...are occasionally associated with gastroenteritis (food poisoning) and wound infections. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...are occasionally associated with gastroenteritis (food poisoning) and wound infections. (b)...

  8. Development of chlorotriazine polymer dehydrocondensing reagents (Poly-Trzs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munetaka Kunishima; Kazuyoshi Yamamoto; Kazuhito Hioki; Tomohito Kondo; Masumi Hasegawa; Shohei Tani

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-type dehydrocondensing reagents comprising of a triazine dehydrocondensing reagent, itself in a polymerized form (Poly-Trz—MMs'), have been developed by exploiting the chemical properties of cyanuric chloride that readily binds to alcohol or amines. A chlorotriazine polymer bearing two alkoxy substituents at the 4- and 6- positions (Poly-O-Trz–Cl) was prepared by alternating copolymerization between cyanuric chloride and tetra(ethylene glycol). Similarly, polymers

  9. Modified reagent mode in porphyry copper-molybdenum ore flotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Bocharov; L. S. Khachatryan; V. A. Ignatkina; Zh. Baatarkhuu

    2008-01-01

    Test data on the selective reagent modes at bulk flotation cycle and modified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) at a selection\\u000a cycle for the bulk copper-molybdenum concentrate. The selected reagent mode at a bulk flotation cycle with industrial kerosene\\u000a and Beraflot as collectors and OPSB as a frother made it possible to recover 87 % of copper and 82 % of molybdenum into

  10. Lanthanides in Metallic Nuclear Fuels: Their Behavior and Methods for Their Control

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Mariani; Douglas L. Porter; Thomas P. O'Holleran; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-12-01

    The thermodynamic and experimental basis is given for using dopant additives to bind lanthanides as intermetallic compounds in metallic nuclear fuels. Lanthanide fission products are a major factor in limiting the lifetime of the fuel, because they migrate to the fuel slug peripheral surface where they participate in fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) with the steel cladding. Lanthanide carryover in recycled metal fuels can accelerate FCCI, as recycled lanthanides would likely segregate from the fuel phase, putting the lanthanides in prompt contact with the cladding. In out-of-pile tests we examined the use of Pd for binding the lanthanides, with Pd selected because of its known metallurgical properties in fuel related systems and because of its known behavior in irradiated EBR-II fuels. Initial results confirmed that palladium may be expected to mitigate FCCI arising from lanthanides, and it has been recommended for in-pile tests. We also evaluated transport phenomena responsible for lanthanide migration, and identified liquid-like behaviors as being dominant. Liquid-like behaviors include transport with liquid metals, liquid metal solutions, and rapid surface transport of alloys/metals near their melting temperatures. The analysis led to establishing general criteria for selecting alternate dopant additives, and identifying Sn, Sb, and Te as alternates for further testing.

  11. Spectroscopic studies of lanthanide (Ce, Eu) chlorides in ethane-1,2-diol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Keller; Janina Legendziewicz; Jan Przybylski; Ma?gorzata Guzik; Jacek Gli?ski

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a consequence of our earlier studies on the structure of solutions of anhydrous and hydrated lanthanide chlorides in different types of alcohols. Such investigations are important mainly in understanding the spectroscopic behavior of silica gels and glasses obtained by alcohol methods and codoped with Ce3+ and other lanthanide ions. Our work focuses on the spectroscopy of Ce(III)

  12. Optical in situ size determination of single lanthanide-ion doped oxide nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Optical in situ size determination of single lanthanide-ion doped oxide nanoparticles Didier 18 December 2006 We show that the size of a lanthanide-ion doped nanoparticle can be accurately with the distribution obtained from transmission electron microscopy. These data confirm that single nanoparticles

  13. Detection of lanthanides and actinides in solutions based on laser-induced luminescence and chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izosimov, I. N.; Firsin, N. G.; Gorshkov, N. G.; Nekhoroshkov, S. N.

    2014-06-01

    This work is devoted to applications of the time-resolved laser- induced luminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced chemiluminescence spectroscopy for detection of lanthanides and actinides. The limit of detection (LOD) of some lanthanides and actinides in solutions by the time-resolved laser luminescence spectroscopy is up to 10-13 mole/liter. Unfortunately, Pu, Np, and some U compounds do not produce luminescence in solutions, but when excited by laser radiation, they can induce chemiluminescence. The characteristics of chemiluminescence induced by excited lanthanide and actinide complexes in solutions are considered. A key problem of chemiluminescence application for lanthanide and actinide detection in solutions is the increase of the detection selectivity. This problem can be solved by using the multistep schemes of chemiluminescence excitation. It is shown that the time-resolved luminescence laser spectroscopy and chemiluminescence laser spectroscopy can be successfully used for detection of lanthanides and actinides in solutions.

  14. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  15. Strategies to prepare and use functionalized organometallic reagents.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Thomas; Markiewicz, John T; Sämann, Christoph; Knochel, Paul

    2014-05-16

    Polyfunctional zinc and magnesium organometallic reagents occupy a central position in organic synthesis. Most organic functional groups are tolerated by zinc organometallic reagents, and Csp(2)-centered magnesium organometallic reagents are compatible with important functional groups, such as the ester, aryl ketone, nitro, cyano, and amide functions. This excellent chemoselectivity gives zinc- and magnesium-organometallic reagents a central position in modern organic synthesis. Efficient and general preparations of these organometallic reagents, as well as their most practical and useful reactions, are presented in this Perspective. As starting materials, a broad range of organic halides (iodides, bromides, and also to some extent chlorides) can be used for the direct insertion of magnesium or zinc powder; the presence of LiCl very efficiently promotes such insertions. Alternatively, aromatic or heterocyclic bromides also undergo a smooth bromine-magnesium exchange when treated with i-PrMgCl·LiCl. Alternative precursors of zinc and magnesium reagents are polyfunctionalized aryl and heteroaryl molecules, which undergo directed metalations with sterically hindered TMP bases (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperide) of magnesium and zinc. This powerful C-H functionalization method gives access to polyfunctional heterocyclic zinc and magnesium reagents, which undergo efficient reactions with numerous electrophiles. The compatibility of the strong TMP-bases with BF3·OEt2 (formation of frustrated Lewis pairs) dramatically increases the scope of these metalations, giving for example, a practical access to magnesiated pyridines and pyrazines, which can be used as convenient building blocks for the preparation of biologically active molecules. PMID:24697240

  16. Centrifugal atomization of lanthanide materials for cryogenic coolers

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.G.

    1994-01-04

    Until recently, Pb was the preferred heat exchanger matrix material used in low temperature cryocoolers; however, the heat capacity of Pb drops drastically below {approximately}15K and new matrix materials based on the lanthanide elements have been developed. These materials magnetically order at low temperatures and the entropy change associated with ordering contributes to the materials` heat capacities. The drawback to widespread use of lanthanide intermetallic compounds in cryocoolers has been the difficulty in manufacturing high-quality particulates. The purpose of this project was to develop a technique for producing high-quality powders of lanthanide metals and lanthanide intermetallic compounds for use in cryocooler heat exchangers. A series of atomization experiments was performed using Er{sub 3}Ni, Nd, Nd{sub 3}Ni, and (Er{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}){sub 3}Ni. Atomization of these materials resulted in particles ranging from mostly spherical to extremely flattened. Analyses of size distributions for the experiments indicate that increased atomization disk speed and superheat result in smaller mean particle diameters and narrower size distributions. Chemical analyses of the atomized powders indicate that the CA/RQB technique produces particulate with much lower interstitial contamination than other techniques. The Er{sub 3}Ni and Nd{sub 3}Ni powders were predominantly of the desired phase and the (Er{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}){sub 3}Ni powder had one major and possibly three minor phases. The solidification morphology is typically fine dendritic or cellular with finer microstructure spacings near the particle surfaces. The Er{sub 3}Ni powders have higher heat capacities than gas atomized powders reported in literature. The heat capacity of Nd{sub 3}Ni has a peak which does not degrade dramatically with processing. The (Er{sub 0.5}Nd{sub 0.5}){sub 3}Ni material has a higher heat capacity compared to Er{sub 3}Ni, Nd{sub 3}Ni, and Nd at temperatures above 10K.

  17. Evaluation of novel derivatisation reagents for the analysis of oxysterols

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Peter J.; Aponte, Jennifer; Bentley, T. William; Matthews, Ian; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol that are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. They are also ligands to nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors. Analysis of oxysterols in biological systems is challenging due to their low abundance coupled with their lack of a strong chromophore and poor ionisation characteristics in mass spectrometry (MS). We have previously used enzyme-assisted derivatisation for sterol analysis (EADSA) to identify and quantitate oxysterols in biological samples. This technique relies on tagging sterols with the Girard P reagent to introduce a charged quaternary ammonium group. Here, we have compared several modified Girard-like reagents and show that the permanent charge is vital for efficient MSn fragmentation. However, we find that the reagent can be extended to include sites for potential stable isotope labels without a loss of performance. PMID:24525124

  18. Lanthanide impurity level location in GaN, AlN, and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbos, P.; van der Kolk, E.

    2007-02-01

    A method that has proven succesful in locating the energy levels of divalent and trivalent lanthanide ions (Ce, Pr,..., Eu,...Yb, Lu) in wide band gap inorganic compounds like YPO 4 and CaF II is applied to locate lanthanide levels in the wideband semiconductors GaN, AlN, their solid solutions Al xGa 1-xN, and ZnO. The proposed schemes provide a description of relevant optical and luminescence properties of these lanthanide doped semiconductors. Especially, the relation between thermal quenching of Tb 3+ emission and the location of the energy levels is explained.

  19. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in lanthanide ferromagnets: From bulk to surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovensiepen, Uwe

    2011-03-01

    The intense research on femtosecond laser-induced magnetization dynamics resulted in rich ultrafast phenomena. A microscopic description of the underlying elementary processes, however, remains a challenge. Most efforts focus on the 3 d transition metal ferromagnets and related compounds. This talk discusses recent work on the lanthanide ferromagnets Gd and Tb. Their magnetic moment is dominated by 4 f electrons which are localized at the ion core. Their spin-lattice coupling is determined by the angular momentum of the 4 f electrons. Using femtosecond x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the femtosecond slicing facility at the BESSY II storage ring in Berlin, Germany, we measure the ultrafast change in the magnetic moment, which occurs on two specific timescales. The faster one is 0.75~ps. It is driven by hot electrons and is identical for both lanthanides. The slower one is different for Gd (40~ps) and Tb (8~ps) due to the stronger spin-lattice coupling in Tb. The talk also discusses time-resolved non-linear optical studies on Gd(0001) and Tb(0001) surfaces. We find a coherent surface phonon which is strongly coupled with the ultrafast magnetic response and pronounced differences compared to the bulk dynamics which are attributed to spin-polarized transport effects. This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research through FEMTOSPEX.

  20. Molecular lanthanide single-ion magnets: from bulk to submonolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiser, J.

    2015-05-01

    Single-ion magnets (SIMs) are mononuclear molecular complexes exhibiting slow relaxation of magnetization. They are currently attracting a lot of interest because of potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. However, exploiting SIMs in, e.g. molecule-inorganic hybrid devices requires a fundamental understanding of the effects of molecule–substrate interactions on the SIM magnetic properties. In this review the properties of lanthanide SIMs in the bulk crystalline phase and deposited on surfaces in the (sub)monolayer regime are discussed. As a starting point trivalent lanthanide ions in a ligand field will be described, and the challenges in characterizing the ligand field are illustrated with a focus on several spectroscopic techniques which are able to give direct information on the ligand-field split energy levels. Moreover, the dominant mechanisms of magnetization relaxation in the bulk phase are discussed followed by an overview of SIMs relevant for surface deposition. Further, a short introduction will be given on x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and scanning tunneling microscopy. Finally, the recent experiments on surface-deposited SIMs will be reviewed, along with a discussion of future perspectives.

  1. Basic understanding of the lanthanide related upconversion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hao; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-06-01

    With abundant energy levels of 4f electron configurations, trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln3+) are endowed with unique and fascinating luminescent properties. Inheriting the native transition behaviour of the lanthanide ions, Ln3+ based nanomaterials have aroused great interest for a wide range of applications, including lighting and displays, optical fibers and amplifiers, responsive luminescent stains for biomedical analysis, in vivo and in vitro imaging, and enhancement for silicon solar cell devices. It should be noted that the application depends completely on the corresponding luminescent behaviour. To deepen the understanding of the luminescent mechanism is important for the developing of the field and the design of new Ln3+ based luminescent materials toward applications. In this review, we focused mainly on the recent developments on upconversion (UC) emission studies. Firstly, the emphasis was put on the introduction of basic luminescent properties of Ln3+ with f-f transitions, and then the corresponding mechanisms and properties of UC emission were discussed in detail, the potential researches with respect to UC mechanisms and properties were finally outlined.

  2. Purification of lanthanides for double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polischuk, O. G.; Barabash, A. S.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Boiko, R. S.; Cappella, F.; Cerulli, R.; Danevich, F. A.; Incicchitti, A.; Laubenstein, M.; Mokina, V. M.; Nisi, S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.

    2013-08-01

    There are several potentially double beta active isotopes among the lanthanide elements. However, even high purity grade lanthanide compounds contain 238U, 226Ra and 232,228Th typically on the level of ˜ (0.1 - 1) Bq/kg. The liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to remove traces of U, Ra and Th from CeO2, Nd2O3 and Gd2O3. The radioactive contamination of the samples before and after the purification was tested by using ultra-low-background HPGe ? spectrometry at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). After the purification the radioactive contamination of gadolinium oxide by Ra and Th was decreased at least one order of magnitude. The efficiency of the approach to purify cerium oxide from Ra was on same level, while the radioactive contamination of neodymium sample before and after the purification is below the sensitivity of analytical methods. The purification method is much less efficient for chemically very similar radioactive elements like lanthanum, lutetium and actinium. R&D of the methods to remove the pollutions with improved efficiency is in progress.

  3. Lanthanide sorbent based on magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with organophosphorus extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basualto, Carlos; Gaete, José; Molina, Lorena; Valenzuela, Fernando; Yañez, Claudia; Marco, Jose F.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, an adsorbent was prepared based on the attachment of organophosphorus acid extractants, namely, D2EHPA, CYANEX 272, and CYANEX 301, to the surface of superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with oleic acid, first by a chemisorption mechanism and later by the respective extractant via physical adsorption. The obtained core–shell functionalized magnetite nanoparticle composites were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, infrared absorption and vibrating sample magnetometry. All the prepared nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization capacity that varied between 72 and 46 emu g?1 and decreased as the magnetite nanoparticle was coated with oleic acid and functionalized. The scope of this study also included adsorption tests for lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium and the corresponding analysis of their results. Sorption tests indicated that the functionalized nanoparticles were able to extract the four studied lanthanide metal ions, although the best extraction performance was observed when the sorbent was functionalized with CYANEX 272, which resulted in a loading capacity of approximately 12–14 mgLa/gMNP. The magnetization of the synthesized nanoparticles was verified during the separation of the lanthanide-loaded sorbent from the raffinate by using a conventional magnet.

  4. A Kalman filter for poisoned reagent feed streams

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, C.D.; Croson, D.V.

    1988-09-01

    A Kalman filter was designed for a reagent feed system to reduce the noise in an analyzer measurement used to initiate shutdowns of the system under accident conditions. The filter's performance was validated by simulating plant conditions and also in a plant test. The standard deviation in steady state analyzer measurements, processed as a 36-second moving average of one second readings, was reduced by 33% using the Kalman filter estimate. Additionally, unmeasured leaks to the system were estimated by the filter providing a means of incipient failure detection against dilution of the reagent vessel's contents. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Gear shift control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, D.A.

    1987-03-10

    A gear shift control mechanism is described comprising: multiple shift rods directed substantially parallel to one another, each rod carrying a shift fork for axial movement; a shift lever supported for pivotal movement about a first axis directed parallel to the axes of the shift rods and for pivotal movement about a second axis directed substantially perpendicular to the axes of the shift rods. The lever is moveable about the first axis and the second axis into engagement with a selected shift fork; interlock means located on each lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis for blocking engagement with the shift forks; detent means for holding the shift lever in multiple predetermined angular positions about the second axis; and spring means located on a lateral side of the shift lever and mounted for pivotal movement about the first axis into interference contact with the shift forks for producing a force tending to resiliently bias the shift lever out of engagement with the selected shift fork.

  6. Preparation of N,N-dialkylcarbamato lanthanide complexes by extraction of lanthanide ions from aqueous solution into hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Armelao, Lidia; Belli Dell'Amico, Daniela; Biagini, Paolo; Bottaro, Gregorio; Chiaberge, Stefano; Falvo, Paola; Labella, Luca; Marchetti, Fabio; Samaritani, Simona

    2014-05-19

    Lanthanides are easily extracted as N,N-dibutylcarbamato complexes from aqueous solutions of their chlorides into heptane solutions of dibutylamine saturated with CO2. The products are recovered in high yields and are soluble in hydrocarbons. The derivatives [Ln(O2CNBu2)3]n [Ln = Nd (1), Eu (2), Tb (3)], [NH2Bu2]2[Ln4(CO3)(O2CNBu2)12] [Ln = Tb (4), Sm (5), Eu (6)], and [Sm4(CO3)(O2CNBu2)10], 7, have thus been obtained. The crystal and molecular structure of 4 has been solved; the samarium and europium complexes 5 and 6 were found to be isostructural. Mass spectra of the complexes 1-3, 4, and 7 (in MeCN/toluene) reveal that equilibria are present in solution. Compound 2 has been reacted in toluene with NHBz2 in the presence of CO2 affording [NH2Bz2][Eu(O2CNBz2)4], 8, through a ligand exchange process. By thermal treatment, 8 afforded [Eu(O2CNBz2)3]n, 9. With a similar procedure [Sm(O2CNBz2)3]n, 10, was obtained from 5. According to the photoluminescence study carried out on solid samples of 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, the metal centered f-f transitions represent the only effective way to induce lanthanide luminescence in these complexes. PMID:24779510

  7. Lanthanide-functionalized nanoparticles as MRI and luminescent probes for sensing and/or imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Comby, Steve; Surender, Esther M; Kotova, Oxana; Truman, Laura K; Molloy, Jennifer K; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2014-02-17

    The combination of lanthanides and nanoparticles to develop new hybrid nanomaterials has become a highly topical area of research in the field of sensing, biomedical imaging, drug delivery, etc. However, these novel nanomaterials have to be carefully designed to ensure that the unique properties conveyed by each component, i.e., lanthanide ions and nanoparticles, are maximized and not negatively affected by one another. In this Forum Article, the main advances in the design of lanthanide-based nanoparticles will be discussed, with the first part focusing on the design of gadolinium(III)-based nanoparticles and their use as magnetic resonance imaging agents. The second part will then describe the main and most recent designs of luminescent lanthanide-based nanoparticles and their applications as sensors or imaging agents, with a special emphasis on our contribution to this area. PMID:24354305

  8. Engineering Encodable Lanthanide-Binding Tags (LBTs) into Loop Regions of Proteins

    E-print Network

    Barthelmes, Katja

    Lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) are valuable tools for investigation of protein structure, function, and dynamics by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and luminescence studies. We have inserted LBTs into three different ...

  9. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a technician using Pauli's reagent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W V Evans; A Seaton

    1979-01-01

    A technician working in a medical laboratory used a spray of sodium diazobenzenesulphate (Pauli's reagent) in chromatography. She developed a respiratory illness with both airways obstruction and radiographic and physiological evidence of interstitial pneumonitis. An occupational type of challenge test was followed by both immediate and late bronchial obstructive responses, by a fall in arterial oxygen tension, and by increased

  10. Towards supramolecular fixation of NOX gases: encapsulated reagents for nitrosation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yanlong; Zyryanov, Grigory V; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2005-03-01

    The use of simple calix[4]arenes for chemical conversion of NO2/N2O4 gases is demonstrated in solution and in the solid state. Upon reacting with these gases, calixarenes 1 encapsulate nitrosonium (NO+) cations within their cavities with the formation of stable calixarene-NO+ complexes 2. These complexes act as encapsulated nitrosating reagents; cavity effects control their reactivity and selectivity. Complexes 2 were effectively used for nitrosation of secondary amides 5, including chiral derivatives. Unique size-shape selectivity was observed, allowing for exclusive nitrosation of less crowded N-Me amides 5 a-e (up to 95 % yields). Bulkier N-Alk (Alk>Me) substrates 5 did not react due to the hindered approach to the encapsulated NO+ reagents. Robust, silica gel based calixarene material 3 was prepared, which reversibly traps NO2/N2O4 with the formation of NO+-storing silica gel 4. With material 4, similar size-shape selectivity was observed for nitrosation. The N-Me-N-nitroso derivatives 6 d,e were obtained with approximately 30 % yields, while bulkier amides were nitrosated with much lower yields (<8 %). Enantiomerically pure encapsulating reagent 2 d was tested for nitrosation of racemic amide 5 t, showing modest but reproducible stereoselectivity and approximately 15 % ee. Given high affinity to NO+ species, which can be generated by a number of NOX gases, these supramolecular reagents and materials may be useful for NOX entrapment and separation in the environment and biomedical areas. PMID:15674979

  11. Product specification ECL Plus Western blotting reagent pack

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    , such as laboratory overalls, safety glasses and gloves. Care should be taken to avoid contact with the skin or eyes. In the case of contact with skin or eyes, wash immediately with water. Description This kit contains reagents.1% is usually sufficient) for 1 hour at room temperature on an orbital shaker. 2) Washing PBS or TBS Tween (0

  12. CPTC expand scope of Reagents and Resources Core

    Cancer.gov

    Whether in determining if a women is pregnant or not by measuring human chorionic gonadotropin or determining whether someone is HIV positive, antibodies and other affinity reagents play a key role both in diagnostic decision making and advancing the research field.

  13. A Kalman filter for poisoned reagent feed streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Griffin; D. V. Croson

    1988-01-01

    A Kalman filter was designed for a reagent feed system to reduce the noise in an analyzer measurement used to initiate shutdowns of the system under accident conditions. The filter's performance was validated by simulating plant conditions and also in a plant test. The standard deviation in steady state analyzer measurements, processed as a 36-second moving average of one second

  14. Electrochemical generation of the Fenton's reagent: application to atrazine degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Ventura; G Jacquet; A Bermond; V Camel

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of refractory chemicals in water requires chemical oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. Among the systems that may be used to generate OHo, the Fenton's reagent consists of the mixing of ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide. Even though this system is very simple, the oxidation of an organic compound is difficult to control and the ferrous iron regeneration is limited.

  15. Microwave synthesis Microwave assisted reactions with gas reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELENA PETRICCI; MAURIZIO TADDEI

    Controlled microwave heating has found many important applications in organic synthesis. Almost all kinds of reactions have been tested using microwaves. Major successes in carrying out rapid organic transformations have been achieved when high temperatures are required and substrates or reagents do not survive to prolonged heating. On the other hand, very few reports deal with the use of gas

  16. Labeling Cells and Analyzing Inositol Phospholipids Reagents Required

    E-print Network

    Pike, Linda J.

    Reagents Required: Silica-coated thin layer plates Dipping Solution: 5 g potassium oxalate, 2 mM EDTA, 250, spot hot or cold standards in outside lanes (You can use the edges for this.) 6. Place TLC plates as necessary to identify orientation and plate number. 8. If using [3 H], spray lightly with En3 Hance and wrap

  17. Protein kinase affinity reagents based on a 5-aminoindazole scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurty, Ratika; Brock, Amanda M.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Affinity reagents that target protein kinases are powerful tools for signal transduction research. Here, we describe a general set of kinase ligands based on a 5-aminoindazole scaffold. This scaffold can readily be derivatized with diverse binding elements and immobilized analogues allow selective enrichment of protein kinases from complex mixtures. PMID:21078554

  18. Millisecond Kinetics on a Microfluidic Chip Using Nanoliters of Reagents

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Millisecond Kinetics on a Microfluidic Chip Using Nanoliters of Reagents Helen Song and Rustem F describes a microfluidic chip for performing kinetic measurements with better than millisecond resolution. Rapid kinetic measurements in microfluidic systems are complicated by two problems: mixing is slow

  19. Reagents and Solutions Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS)

    E-print Network

    Reagents and Solutions Albumin-Dextrose-Saline (ADS) 950ml dH20 8.1g 50 g Bovine Serum Albumin alcohol. Store for 2 weeks at room temperature. CTAB Solution (Cetrimide Saline Solution) Dissolve 4.1g to precipitate insoluble material. Sterilize clarified solution by filtration through a 0.22 micron pore membrane

  20. RSFQ circular shift registers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cess A. Mancini; Nada Vukovic; Andrea M. Herr; Kris Gaj; Mark F. Bocko; Marc J. Feldman

    1997-01-01

    The circular shift register is a versatile building block for RSFQ digital circuits. It can be used for local memory and it is essential for the proposed implementation of residue number system arithmetic. It is surprising that the successful recurrent operation of such a shift register has never been reported m the RSFQ literature. Circular shift registers have a design

  1. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanide and group 1 metal complexes bearing sulfur-rich ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Likitha Priyanthi Seneviratne

    2006-01-01

    A study has been carried out to synthesize lanthanide and group 1 metal complexes bearing sulfur-rich ligands for use in CVD or ALD. 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, IR, melting point measurements, X-ray crystal structure analysis, and elemental analyses were used to characterize the lanthanide and group 1 metal complexes. Volatility and thermal stability were also determined. ^ A

  2. Satellite structures in the ESCA spectra of (diphthalocyaninato)lanthanides(III) and actinides(IV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tatsumi; K. Kasuga; M. Tsutsui

    1979-01-01

    Lanthanides studied include lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, and gadolinium; actinides are thorium and uranium. The results of their x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the satellites accompanying lanthanide 3dââ and actinide 4dââ signals are reported. Interpretation is based on the hypothesis that half-occupied f orbitals play an important role in the striking change of the satellite intensity throughout the f transition metal

  3. Environmental fate and ecotoxicity of lanthanides: are they a uniform group beyond chemistry?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Veronica; Vignati, Davide A L; Leyval, Corinne; Giamberini, Laure

    2014-10-01

    Lanthanides are a chemically uniform group of metals (La-Lu) that, together with yttrium (Y) and scandium (Sc), form the group of rare earth elements (REEs). Because of their many applications (e.g., agriculture, medicine, motor industry), their global production has increased exponentially in the last decades and their biogeochemical cycles are being disrupted by human uses (e.g., gadolinium anomalies in freshwater and tap water, REEs enrichment of soils as a consequence of agricultural practices). However, ecotoxicological effects and mechanism of action of these elements are still poorly understood. In particular, there is no consensus as to lanthanides showing a coherent and predictable pattern of (eco)toxicity in the same way as their atomic properties. For aquatic organisms, contradictory conclusions on this issue can be found in the bibliography. This review shows that the variable composition of culture media used in ecotoxicology, and the associated differences in lanthanide's speciation, are the most likely cause for such discrepancies. In particular, the formation of insoluble species in some highly complexing media likely leads to changes in the soluble concentration of lanthanide during some tests; with the potential for a generalized underestimation of their toxicity at the present state of knowledge. For terrestrial organisms, suitable studies to establish trends in lanthanides' toxicity are practically nonexistent; with most research focusing on the effects of REE mixtures. Molecular level studies to elucidate the mechanisms of action of lanthanides are essentially limited to La, pointing to the need for further research to identify common mechanisms of action or modes of action across lanthanides. Overall, agreement on the correct procedures to follow to obtain reliable and comparable data for individual lanthanide is the first action to take in order to arrive at a reliable risk assessment for this group of elements in both aquatic and terrestrial systems. PMID:25036616

  4. Nitrite-Templated Synthesis of Lanthanide-Containing [2]Rotaxanes for Anion Sensing**

    PubMed Central

    Langton, Matthew J; Blackburn, Octavia A; Lang, Thomas; Faulkner, Stephen; Beer, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    The first anion-templated synthesis of a lanthanide-containing interlocked molecule is demonstrated by utilizing a nitrite anion to template initial pseudorotaxane formation. Subsequent stoppering of the interpenetrated assembly allows for the preparation of a lanthanide-functionalized [2]rotaxane in high yield. Following removal of the nitrite anion template, the europium [2]rotaxane host is demonstrated to recognize and sense fluoride selectively. PMID:24989322

  5. Extraction of Trivalent Lanthanides and Americium by Tri-n-octylphosphine Oxide from Ammonium Thiocyanate Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Brigham; Coralie Badajoz; Gerard Cote; Kenneth L. Nash

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the solvent extraction of trivalent lanthanides and Am from ammonium-thiocyanate media by tri(n-octyl)phosphine oxide (TOPO) in toluene has been completed. This system is of interest both for its potential as a means of separating transplutonium actinides from fission-product lanthanides and for inherent interest in thiocyanate-based solvent extraction systems. Partitioning was monitored using radiotracer techniques where appropriate, and

  6. Anion Effects in the Extraction of Lanthanide 2Thenoyltrifluoroacetone Complexes into an Ionic Liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark P. Jensen; Marian Borkowski; Ivan Laszak; James V. Beitz; Paul G. Rickert; Mark L. Dietz

    2012-01-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO4 into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butanesulfonate by the ?-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the

  7. Electrical conductivity of the ZrO 2–Ln 2O 3 (Ln=lanthanides) system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Arachi; H. Sakai; O. Yamamoto; Y. Takeda; N. Imanishai

    1999-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of the system ZrO2–Ln2O3 (Ln=lanthanides) has been measured as a function of dopant concentration in a temperature range 350–1000°C. The Arrhenius plots of the conductivity showed a distinct curvature near 600–700°C. The migration enthalpy of oxide ions and the association enthalpy of oxide ion vacancies with the dopant lanthanide ions were estimated from the difference of the

  8. Tetraanionic biphenyl lanthanide complexes as single-molecule magnets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenliang; Le Roy, Jennifer J; Khan, Saeed I; Ungur, Liviu; Murugesu, Muralee; Diaconescu, Paula L

    2015-03-01

    Inverse sandwich biphenyl complexes [(NN(TBS))Ln]2(?-biphenyl)[K(solvent)]2 [NN(TBS) = 1,1'-fc(NSi(t)BuMe2)2; Ln = Gd, Dy, Er; solvent = Et2O, toluene; 18-crown-6], containing a quadruply reduced biphenyl ligand, were synthesized and their magnetic properties measured. One of the dysprosium biphenyl complexes was found to exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling and single-molecule-magnet behavior with Ueff of 34 K under zero applied field. The solvent coordinated to potassium affected drastically the nature of the magnetic interaction, with the other dysprosium complex showing ferromagnetic coupling. Ab initio calculations were performed to understand the nature of magnetic coupling between the two lanthanide ions bridged by the anionic arene ligand and the origin of single-molecule-magnet behavior. PMID:25695369

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of lanthanide(III) texaphyrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan L. Sessler; Tarak D. Mody; Gregory W. Hemmi; Vincent Lynch

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of several lanthanide(III) texaphyrin complexes of 4, 5, 9, 24-tetraethyl-16, 17-dimethoxy-10, 23-dimethyl-13, 20, 25, 26, 27-pentaazapentacyclo[20.2.1.1 heptacosa]-1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11(27),-12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22(25), 23-tridecaene (2), 4, 5, 9, 24-tetraethyl-16, 17-bis((3-hydroxypropyl)oxy)-10, 23-dimethyl-13, 20, 25, 26, 27-pentaazapentacyclo-[20.2.1.1] heptacosa-1,3, 5, 7, 9, 11(27), 12, 14(19), 15, 17, 20, 22(25),-20, 25, 26, 27-pentaazapentacyclo[20.2.1.1] heptacosa-1,3, 5, 7,

  10. Lanthanide-based emitting materials in light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    de Bettencourt-Dias, Ana

    2007-06-14

    Since the description of efficient electroluminescence from aluminium tris(hydroxyquinoline) in the mid 1980s, interest in new complexes and polymers with luminescence properties as emitting layers in light-emitting diodes has steadily increased. Recently, Ln(III) ion complexes have gained in importance for this type of application. Here we review some of the seminal work in the area, along with new developments in the field. The photophysical characterization of complexes of lanthanide ions both in solution and in the solid state allows the determination of which of the complexes might be successfully utilized as emitting layers in light-emitting diodes for display applications. However, the architecture of the device is also of major importance, to allow for good charge transport and recombination and thus obtain pure colors and high emission quantum efficiency. PMID:17534483

  11. Temporally and spectrally resolved imaging microscopy of lanthanide chelates.

    PubMed Central

    Vereb, G; Jares-Erijman, E; Selvin, P R; Jovin, T M

    1998-01-01

    The combination of temporal and spectral resolution in fluorescence microscopy based on long-lived luminescent labels offers a dramatic increase in contrast and probe selectivity due to the suppression of scattered light and short-lived autofluorescence. We describe various configurations of a fluorescence microscope integrating spectral and microsecond temporal resolution with conventional digital imaging based on CCD cameras. The high-power, broad spectral distribution and microsecond time resolution provided by microsecond xenon flashlamps offers increased luminosity with recently developed fluorophores with lifetimes in the submicrosecond to microsecond range. On the detection side, a gated microchannel plate intensifier provides the required time resolution and amplification of the signal. Spectral resolution is achieved with a dual grating stigmatic spectrograph and has been applied to the analysis of luminescent markers of cytochemical specimens in situ and of very small volume elements in microchambers. The additional introduction of polarization optics enables the determination of emission polarization; this parameter reflects molecular orientation and rotational mobility and, consequently, the nature of the microenvironment. The dual spectral and temporal resolution modes of acquisition complemented by a posteriori image analysis gated on the spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions lead to a very flexible and versatile tool. We have used a newly developed lanthanide chelate, Eu-DTPA-cs124, to demonstrate these capabilities. Such compounds are good labels for time-resolved imaging microscopy and for the estimation of molecular proximity in the microscope by fluorescence (luminescence) resonance energy transfer and of molecular rotation via fluorescence depolarization. We describe the spectral distribution, polarization states, and excited-state lifetimes of the lanthanide chelate crystals imaged in the microscope. PMID:9591648

  12. Controlled release of dry reagents in porous media for tunable temporal and spatial distribution upon rehydration

    PubMed Central

    Le, Huy Q.; Fu, Elain; Yager, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods are demonstrated that enable controlled spatial and temporal rehydration of dried reagents in a porous matrix. These methods can be used in paper-based microfluidic assays to define reagent concentrations over time at zones downstream for improved performance, and can reduce costs by simplifying the manufacturing process with the use of a single porous substrate. First, the creation of uniform reagent pulses from patterned arrays of dried reagent is demonstrated. Second, reagents are stored dry in separate regions of the porous matrix so that they can be combined upon rehydration for immediate use in the device. Third, reagents are reconstituted sequentially from dry storage depots with tunable delivery times. Fourth, the total time for dissolution is varied to achieve a range of reagent delivery times to a downstream region. Finally, the utility of these control methods is demonstrated in the context of real-time reagent rehydration and mixing on a porous device. PMID:22960691

  13. Manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices : characterizing seals for on-board reagent delivery

    E-print Network

    Inamdar, Tejas Satish

    2013-01-01

    The reagent delivery mechanism in a point-of-care, HIV diagnostic, microfluidic device is studied. Reagents held in an aluminum pack are released on the opening of a fluidic seal. Fluidic seals, controlling the flow of ...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3830 Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3830 Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3390 Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3410 - Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3410 Proteus spp. (Weil-Felix) serological reagents. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3820 Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3900 - Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3900 Varicella-zoster virus serological reagents. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3332 - Reagents for detection of specific novel influenza A viruses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3332 Reagents for detection of specific novel influenza A viruses. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3830 - Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3830 Treponema pallidum tre-ponemal test reagents. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification....

  3. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3235 Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3390 Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3820 - Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3820 Treponema pallidum non-treponemal test reagents. (a)...

  7. A red-shifted fluorescent substrate for aldehyde dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Minn, Il; Wang, Haofan; Mease, Ronnie C.; Byun, Youngjoo; Yang, Xing; Wang, Julia; Leach, Steven D.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of cells positive for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity from a green fluorescent background is difficult with existing reagents. Here we report a red-shifted fluorescent substrate for ALDH, AldeRed 588-A, for labeling viable ALDHpos cells. We demonstrate that AldeRed 588-A successfully isolates ALDHhi human hematopoietic stem cells from heterogeneous cord blood mononuclear cells. AldeRed 588-A can be used for multi-color applications to fractionate ALDHpos cells in the presence of green fluorophores including the ALDEFLUOR™ reagent and cells expressing eGFP. AldeRed 588-A stains ALDHpos murine pancreatic centroacinar and terminal duct cells, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. AldeRed588-A provides a useful tool to select stem cells or study ALDH within a green fluorescent background. PMID:24759454

  8. Preparation of lyophilized partial thromboplastin time reagent composed of synthetic phospholipids: usefulness for monitoring heparin therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton M. H. P. van den Besselaar; Jacoline Neuteboom; Joyce Meeuwisse-Braun; Rogier M. Bertina

    To contribute to the development of a reference reagent for monitoring heparin therapy, a lyophilized partial thromboplastin time (PTT) reagent was prepared from synthetic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphos- phatidylserine, and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, with colloidal silica as activator. The reagent, coded 91\\/558, was contained in sealed glass ampoules; it dete- riorated in a heat degradation experiment, but its activ- ity remained constant for at

  9. Rapid transdermal bloodless and reagent-free malaria detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Campbell, Kelly M.; Constantinou, Pamela E.; Braam, Janet; Olson, John S.; Ware, Russell E.; Sullivan, David S.; Lapotko, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    Successful diagnosis, screening, and elimination of malaria critically depend on rapid and sensitive detection of this dangerous infection, preferably transdermally and without sophisticated reagents or blood drawing. Such diagnostic methods are not currently available. Here we show that the high optical absorbance and nanosize of endogenous heme nanoparticles called hemozoin, a unique component of all blood-stage malaria parasites, generate a transient vapor nanobubble around hemozoin in response to a short and safe near-infrared picosecond laser pulse. The acoustic signals of these malaria-specific nanobubbles provided the first transdermal non-invasive and rapid detection of a malaria infection as low as 0.00034% in animals without using any reagents or drawing blood. These on-demand transient events have no analogs among current malaria markers and probes, can detect and screen malaria in seconds and can be realized as a compact, easy to use, inexpensive and safe field technology.

  10. Microfluidic synthesis of rigid nanovesicles for hydrophilic reagents delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Jiuling; Sun, Jiashu; Shi, Xinghua; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-03-23

    We present a hollow-structured rigid nanovesicle (RNV) fabricated by a multi-stage microfluidic chip in one step, to effectively entrap various hydrophilic reagents inside, without complicated synthesis, extensive use of emulsifiers and stabilizers, and laborious purification procedures. The RNV contains a hollow water core, a rigid poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) shell, and an outermost lipid layer. The formation mechanism of the RNV is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic reagents such as calcein, rhodamine?B and siRNA inside the hollow water core of RNV is ?90?%. In comparison with the combination of free Dox and siRNA, RNV that co-encapsulate siRNA and doxorubicin (Dox) reveals a significantly enhanced anti-tumor effect for a multi-drug resistant tumor model. PMID:25704675

  11. Shelf Life of Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Merritt E.; Miller, James N.; Pringle, Thomas C.; Binnings, Gerald F.

    1968-01-01

    Properly prepared, standarized, and stored fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) reagents have been shown to have stabilities equal to other biological reagents. A liquid antigen over 10 years old has been shown to give a satisfactory reaction. Newer preparations have now been shown to be stable for over 5 years, and the tests on each are being continued. The very new liquid antigens which were originally standardized by the FTA-ABS method have shown no decrease in potency over a 20-month period. Stability studies on antigens dried on slides are now in their eighth month, with no apparent loss in potency. The stability of the conjugate is constant when stored frozen at ?20 C or lyophilized. When stored as a liquid at 4 C, the stability is governed by the pH and the molarity of the buffer. The standardized and lyophilized sorbent has been shown to be stable for over 1 year. PMID:4882013

  12. Microfluidic Synthesis of Rigid Nanovesicles for Hydrophilic Reagents Delivery**

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Jiuling; Sun, Jiashu; Shi, Xinghua; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    We present a hollow-structured rigid nanovesicle (RNV) fabricated by a multi-stage microfluidic chip in one step, to effectively entrap various hydrophilic reagents inside, without complicated synthesis, extensive use of emulsifiers and stabilizers, and laborious purification procedures. The RNV contains a hollow water core, a rigid poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) shell, and an outermost lipid layer. The formation mechanism of the RNV is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic reagents such as calcein, rhodamine?B and siRNA inside the hollow water core of RNV is ?90?%. In comparison with the combination of free Dox and siRNA, RNV that co-encapsulate siRNA and doxorubicin (Dox) reveals a significantly enhanced anti-tumor effect for a multi-drug resistant tumor model. PMID:25704675

  13. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-06-01

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  14. New reagents for detecting free radicals and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Barzegar Amiri Olia, Mina; Schiesser, Carl H; Taylor, Michelle K

    2014-09-21

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play important roles in the deterioration of materials, and free radicals are important intermediates in many biological processes. The ability to detect these reactive species is a key step on the road to their understanding and ultimate control. This short review highlights recent progress in the development of reagents for the detection of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with broad application to materials science as well as biology. PMID:25053503

  15. Behavior of a chlorinated ethene plume following source-area treatment with Fenton's reagent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Casey, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring data collected over a 6-year period show that a plume of chlorinated ethene-contaminated ground water has contracted significantly following treatment of the contaminant source area using in situ oxidation. Prior to treatment (1998), concentrations of perchloroethene (PCE) exceeded 4500 ??g/L in a contaminant source area associated with a municipal landfill in Kings Bay, Georgia. The plume emanating from this source area was characterized by vinyl chloride (VC) concentrations exceeding 800 ??g/L. In situ oxidation using Fenton's reagent lowered PCE concentrations in the source area below 100 ??g/L, and PCE concentrations have not rebounded above this level since treatment. In the 6 years following treatment, VC concentrations in the plume have decreased significantly. These concentration declines can be attributed to the movement of Fenton's reagent-treated water downgradient through the system, the cessation of a previously installed pump-and-treat system, and the significant natural attenuation capacity of this anoxic aquifer. While in situ oxidation briefly decreased the abundance and activity of microorganisms in the source area, this activity rebounded in <6 months. Nevertheless, the shift from sulfate-reducing to Fe(III)-reducing conditions induced by Fenton's treatment may have decreased the efficiency of reductive dechlorination in the injection zone. The results of this study indicate that source-area removal actions, particularly when applied to ground water systems that have significant natural attenuation capacity, can be effective in decreasing the areal extent and contaminant concentrations of chlorinated ethene plumes. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  16. Solid-water detoxifying reagents for chemical and biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Hoffman, Dennis M. (Livermore, CA); Chiu, Ing Lap (Castro Valley, CA)

    2006-04-18

    Formation of solid-water detoxifying reagents for chemical and biological agents. Solutions of detoxifying reagent for chemical and biological agents are coated using small quantities of hydrophobic nanoparticles by vigorous agitation or by aerosolization of the solution in the presence of the hydrophobic nanoparticles to form a solid powder. For example, when hydrophobic fumed silica particles are shaken in the presence of IN oxone solution in approximately a 95:5-weight ratio, a dry powder results. The hydrophobic silica forms a porous coating of insoluble fine particles around the solution. Since the chemical or biological agent tends to be hydrophobic on contact with the weakly encapsulated detoxifying solution, the porous coating breaks down and the detoxifying reagent is delivered directly to the chemical or biological agent for maximum concentration at the point of need. The solid-water (coated) detoxifying solutions can be blown into contaminated ventilation ducting or other difficult to reach sites for detoxification of pools of chemical or biological agent. Once the agent has been detoxified, it can be removed by flushing the area with air or other techniques.

  17. Organozinc pivalate reagents: segregation, solubility, stabilization, and structural insights.

    PubMed

    Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Herd, Emma; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Knochel, Paul; Koszinowski, Konrad; Manolikakes, Sophia M; Mulvey, Robert E; Schnegelsberg, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    The pivalates RZnOPiv?Mg(OPiv)X?n?LiCl (OPiv=pivalate; R=aryl; X=Cl, Br, I) stand out amongst salt-supported organometallic reagents, because apart from their effectiveness in Negishi cross-coupling reactions, they show more resistance to attack by moist air than conventional organometallic compounds. Herein a combination of synthesis, coupling applications, X-ray crystallographic studies, NMR (including DOSY) studies, and ESI mass spectrometric studies provide details of these pivalate reagents in their own right. A p-tolyl case system shows that in [D8]THF solution these reagents exist as separated Me(p-C6H4)ZnCl and Mg(OPiv)2 species. Air exposure tests and X-ray crystallographic studies indicate that Mg(OPiv)2 enhances the air stability of aryl zinc species by sequestering H2O contaminants. Coupling reactions of Me(p-C6H4)ZnX (where X=different salts) with 4-bromoanisole highlight the importance of the presence of Mg(OPiv)2. Insight into the role of LiCl in these multicomponent mixtures is provided by the molecular structure of [(THF)2Li2(Cl)2(OPiv)2Zn]. PMID:24482294

  18. A new reagent for stable thiol-specific conjugation.

    PubMed

    Badescu, George; Bryant, Penny; Swierkosz, Julia; Khayrzad, Farzad; Pawlisz, Estera; Farys, Monika; Cong, Yuehua; Muroni, Maurizio; Rumpf, Norbert; Brocchini, Steve; Godwin, Antony

    2014-03-19

    Many clinically used protein therapeutics are modified to increase their efficacy. Example modifications include the conjugation of cytotoxic drugs to monoclonal antibodies or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to proteins and peptides. Monothiol-specific conjugation can be efficient and is often accomplished using maleimide-based reagents. However, maleimide derived conjugates are known to be susceptible to exchange reactions with endogenous proteins. To address this limitation in stability, we have developed PEG-mono-sulfone 3, which is a latently reactive, monothiol selective conjugation reagent. Comparative reactions with PEG-maleimide and other common thiol-selective PEGylation reagents including vinyl sulfone, acrylate, and halo-acetamides show that PEG-mono-sulfone 3 undergoes more efficient conjugation under mild reaction conditions. Due to the latent reactivity of PEG-mono-sulfone 3, its reactivity can be tailored and, once conjugated, the electron-withdrawing ketone is easily reduced under mild conditions to prevent undesirable deconjugation and exchange reactions from occurring. We describe a comparative stability study demonstrating a PEG-maleimide conjugate to be more labile to deconjugation than the corresponding conjugate obtained using PEG-mono-sulfone 3. PMID:24512057

  19. UV Decontamination of MDA Reagents for Single Cell Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Janey; Tighe, Damon; Sczyrba, Alexander; Malmatrom, Rex; Clingenpeel, Scott; Malfatti, Stephanie; Rinke, Christian; Wang, Zhong; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Woyke, Tanja

    2011-03-18

    Single cell genomics, the amplification and sequencing of genomes from single cells, can provide a glimpse into the genetic make-up and thus life style of the vast majority of uncultured microbial cells, making it an immensely powerful and increasingly popular tool. This is accomplished by use of multiple displacement amplification (MDA), which can generate billions of copies of a single bacterial genome producing microgram-range DNA required for shotgun sequencing. Here, we address a key challenge inherent to this approach and propose a solution for the improved recovery of single cell genomes. While DNA-free reagents for the amplification of a single cell genome are a prerequisite for successful single cell sequencing and analysis, DNA contamination has been detected in various reagents, which poses a considerable challenge. Our study demonstrates the effect of UV irradiation in efficient elimination of exogenous contaminant DNA found in MDA reagents, while maintaining Phi29 activity. Consequently, we also find that increased UV exposure to Phi29 does not adversely affect genome coverage of MDA amplified single cells. While additional challenges in single cell genomics remain to be resolved, the proposed methodology is relatively quick and simple and we believe that its application will be of high value for future single cell sequencing projects.

  20. Lanthanide contraction and anions-controlled dimensional diversity in Ln/Cu/NTA (Ln0/lanthanide, H3NTA0/nitrilotriacetic acid)

    E-print Network

    Gao, Song

    of this series of LnCu polymers. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities for 1, 3, 4, 5 and 8 were, H3NTA0/nitrilotriacetic acid) coordination polymers: crystal structure and magnetic properties Qin A series of lanthanideÁ/copper coordination polymers with nitrilotriacetic acid (H3NTA) were synthesized

  1. Structural and catalytic properties of lanthanide (La, Eu, Gd) doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, W.Y., E-mail: yesidhdz@hotmail.com [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Laguna, O.H.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Ce{sub 0.9}M{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}} mixed oxides (M=La, Eu and Gd) were synthesized by coprecipitation. Independent of the dopant cation, the obtained solids maintain the F-type crystalline structure, characteristic of CeO{sub 2} (fluorite structure) without phase segregation. The ceria lattice expands depending on the ionic radii of the dopant cation, as indicated by X-ray diffraction studies. This effect also agrees with the observed shift of the F{sub 2g} Raman vibrational mode. The presence of the dopant cations in the ceria lattice increases the concentration of structural oxygen vacancies and the reducibility of the redox pair Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+}. All synthesized materials show higher catalytic activity for the CO oxidation reaction than that of bare CeO{sub 2}, being Eu-doped solid the one with the best catalytic performances despite of its lower surface area. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Ce{sub 0.9}M{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}} mixed oxides (M=La, Eu and Gd) were synthesized by coprecipitation. Independent of the dopant cation, the obtained solids maintain the F-type crystalline structure, characteristic of CeO{sub 2} (fluorite structure) without phase segregation. The ceria lattice expands depending on the ionic radii of the dopant cation, as indicated by X-ray diffraction studies. This effect also agrees with the observed shift of the F{sub 2g} Raman vibrational mode. The presence of the dopant cations in the ceria lattice increases the concentration of structural oxygen vacancies and the reducibility of the redox pair Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+}. All synthesized materials show higher catalytic activity for the CO oxidation reaction than that of bare CeO{sub 2}, being Eu-doped solid the one with the best catalytic performances despite of its lower surface area. Highlights: > Lanthanide doped ceria as catalytic supports for CO oxidation reaction. > A higher concentration of oxygen vacancies promotes a higher catalytic activity. > Eu-doped ceria shows improved catalytic properties for the CO oxidation reaction.

  2. Preparation of lyophilized partial thromboplastin time reagent composed of synthetic phospholipids: usefulness for monitoring heparin therapy.

    PubMed

    van den Besselaar, A M; Neuteboom, J; Meeuwisse-Braun, J; Bertina, R M

    1997-07-01

    To contribute to the development of a reference reagent for monitoring heparin therapy, a lyophilized partial thromboplastin time (PTT) reagent was prepared from synthetic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylserine, and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine, with colloidal silica as activator. The reagent, coded 91/558, was contained in sealed glass ampoules; it deteriorated in a heat degradation experiment, but its activity remained constant for at least 4 years when stored at -70 degrees C. Within- and between-run precision with this reagent complied with the requirements proposed by the International Committee for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) Panel on PTT. The response of this reagent and of two other reagents to heparin added to pooled normal plasma was nonlinear. Citrated samples from 58 patients receiving intravenous heparin and from 24 apparently healthy volunteers were tested with reagent 91/558, with Automated APTT (Organon Teknika), with Manchester APTT reagent, with an antifactor Xa assay, and with an anti-factor IIa assay. The correlation of APTT with anti-Xa and anti-IIa activity was poor. The best correlation was observed between reagent 91/558 and the Organon Teknika reagent. Correlations were improved when individual patients' samples were replaced by pooled plasmas from heparinized patients, in whom the effect of oral anticoagulation was minimal. These results suggest that preparation of a lyophilized synthetic phospholipid reagent is feasible for use in monitoring heparin therapy. PMID:9216459

  3. Stability study for magnetic reagent assaying Hb and HbA1c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chieh, J. J.; Yang, C. C.; Yang, S. Y.; Chen, Po-Yu; Huang, Yu-Hao; Hong, Y. W.; Horng, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    Reagents for magnetically labeled immunoassay on human Hb and human HbA1c have been synthesized. The reagents consist of Fe3O4 magnetic particles biofunctionalized with antibodies against Hb and HbA1c. It has been demonstrated that the reagents can be applied to quantitatively detect Hb and HbA1c by using immunomagnetic reduction assay. In addition to characterizing the assay properties, such as the standard curve and the low-detection limit, the stability of reagents is investigated. To do this, the temporal dependence of particle sizes and the bio-activity of reagents are monitored. The results show that the reagents are highly stable when stored at 2-8 °C. This means that the reagents synthesized in this work are promising for practical applications.

  4. REPRESENTATIONS OF SHIFTED YANGIANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JONATHAN BRUNDAN; ALEXANDER KLESHCHEV

    We study highest weight representations of shifted Yangians over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0. In particular, we classify the finite dimensional irreducible representations and explain how to compute their Gelfand- Tsetlin characters in terms of known characters of standard modules and certain Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. Our approach exploits the relationship between shifted Yangians and the finite W-algebras associated to

  5. Generalized minimum shift keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, I.

    1980-03-01

    A generalized minimum shift keying (GMSK) signal is defined, and its equivalence to a modified offset quadrature shift keying signal is shown. A simple formula for the spectrum of a GMSK signal is presented and the spectrum and out-of-band power are computed for two examples.

  6. Lanthanide-chelating carbohydrate conjugates are useful tools to characterize carbohydrate conformation in solution and sensitive sensors to detect carbohydrate-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Canales, Ángeles; Mallagaray, Álvaro; Berbís, M Álvaro; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando; Domínguez, Gema; Cañada, F Javier; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Pérez-Castells, Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The increasing interest in the functional versatility of glycan epitopes in cellular glycoconjugates calls for developing sensitive methods to define carbohydrate conformation in solution and to characterize protein-carbohydrate interactions. Measurements of pseudocontact shifts in the presence of a paramagnetic cation can provide such information. In this work, the energetically privileged conformation of a disaccharide (lactose as test case) was experimentally inferred by using a synthetic carbohydrate conjugate bearing a lanthanide binding tag. In addition, the binding of lactose to a biomedically relevant receptor (the human adhesion/growth-regulatory lectin galectin-3) and its consequences in structural terms were defined, using Dy(3+), Tb(3+), and Tm(3+). The described approach, complementing the previously tested protein tagging as a way to exploit paramagnetism, enables to detect binding, even weak interactions, and to characterize in detail topological aspects useful for physiological ligands and mimetics in drug design. PMID:24831588

  7. Studies of electronic configurations in the emission spectra of lanthanides and actinides: application to the interpretation of Es I and Es II, predictions for Fm I

    SciTech Connect

    Wyart, Jean-Francois [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, Batiment 505, Centre Universitaire, FR-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-francois.wyart@lac.u-psud.fr; Blaise, Jean [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, Batiment 505, Centre Universitaire, FR-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Worden, Earl F. [Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-044, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2005-02-15

    The interpretation of the spectra of free atoms and gaseous ions in the 4f{sup N} and 5f{sup N} periods became less active after critical compilations of energy levels appeared. However, several spectra are still under study and the application of the Racah-Slater and HFR methods to extended sets of configurations leads to revisions and additions. In doubly charged ions of lanthanides, the treatment of configuration interaction by means of effective parameters and by extension of the basis of states are both important. Concerning actinides, calculations of several observables (Lande factors and isotope shifts in Pu I, hyperfine constants, transition probabilities) prove the quality of eigenfunctions. The classification of Es I and Es II has been extended and radial parameters for fine and hyperfine structures have been derived. Level predictions for the next element fermium are supported by parameter extrapolations.

  8. Use of lanthanides to alleviate the effects of metal ion-deficiency in Desmodesmus quadricauda (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Goecke, Franz; Jerez, Celia G; Zachleder, Vilém; Figueroa, Félix L; Bišová, Kate?ina; ?ezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanides are biologically non-essential elements with wide applications in technology and industry. Their concentration as environmental contaminants is, therefore, increasing. Although non-essential, lanthanides have been proposed (and even used) to produce beneficial effects in plants, even though their mechanisms of action are unclear. Recently, it was suggested that they may replace essential elements. We tested the effect of low concentrations of lanthanides on the common freshwater microalga Desmodesmus quadricauda, grown under conditions of metal ion-deficiency (lower calcium or manganese concentrations). Our goal was to test if lanthanides can replace essential metals in their functions. Physiological stress was recorded by studying growth and photosynthetic activity using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeter. We found that nutrient stress reduced parameters of growth and photosynthesis, such as maximal quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, photon capturing efficiency and light saturation irradiance. After adding low concentrations of five lanthanides, we confirmed that they can produce a stimulatory effect on microalgae, depending on the nutrient (metal) deprivation. In the case of a calcium deficit, the addition of lanthanides partly alleviated the adverse effects, probably by a partial substitution of the element. In contrast, with manganese deprivation (and at even lower concentrations), lanthanides enhanced the deleterious effect on cellular growth and photosynthetic competence. These results show that lanthanides can replace essential elements, but their effects on microalgae depend on stress and the nutritional state of the microalgae, raising the possibility of environmental impacts at even low concentrations. PMID:25674079

  9. Coordination chemistry of several radius-sensitive complexones and applications to lanthanide-actinide separations

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, M.W.

    1981-10-01

    The relationships between the lanthanide complex formation equilibria and the lanthanide-actinide separation application of three radius sensitive ligands have been studied. The consecutive stepwise formation constants of the 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 chelate species formed by the interaction of DHDMB and the tripositive lanthanides and yttrium were determined potentiometrically at 0.1 M ionic strength and 25/sup 0/C. Results indicate that three different coordination modes, one tridentate and two bidentate are in evidence. Tracer level /sup 241/Am - /sup 155/Eu cation-exchange experiments utilizing DHDMB eluents indicate that this dihydroxycarboxylate does not form a sufficiently strong americium complex to elute that actinide ahead of europium. The overall stability of the americium 3:1 complex appears intermediate between samarium and europium. Cation-exchange elutions of /sup 241/Am, /sup 155/Eu, and /sup 160/Tb mixtures with EEDTA solutions prove that the EEDTA ligand is capable of eluting americium ahead of all of the tripositive lanthanide cations. The minimum separation occurs with terbium, where the Am-Tb separation factor is 1.71. 1,5-diaminopentane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PMDTA) was synthesized using cation exchange. A mathematical method was developed for the formation constants of the protonated and unprotonated lanthanide-PMDTA complexes from potentiometry. Cation-exchange elutions of tracer quantities of Am, Eu, and Tb revealed that terbium is eluted ahead of both americium and europium.

  10. New crystal structural families of lanthanide chloride alcohol/water complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of lanthanide chloride compounds as possible scintillation materials for gamma ray and neutron detection has led to the discovery of several new families of crystal structures with the general formula LnCl3(CH3OH)x(H2O)y. The specific crystal structure depends on the water/methanol content and lanthanide ion. The coordination of the light (large) lanthanides is the typical value of 8 and reduces to 7 for the heavier (small) lanthanides. The binding energy of water versus alcohol ligands is comparable, so that if water is present in the system, it is typically incorporated as a ligand in the crystal. In these crystals, the molecular adducts occur as monomers, dimers, and dichloro-bridged chains. These, in turn, form 3-D frameworks through H-bonds to the Cl atoms. Other distinct crystal structures are predicted, given the volume changes due to the lanthanide contraction, the water content of the crystal growth solutions, and the specific halide.

  11. Determination of the formation constant for the inclusion complex between Lanthanide ions and Dansyl chloride derivative by fluorescence spectroscopy: Theoretical and experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Siavash; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Hariri, Maryam; Abdolahzadeh, Shaghayegh; Norouzi, Parviz

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a sensitive, easy, efficient, and suitable method for the calculation of Kf values of complexation between one derivative of Dansyl chloride [5-(dimethylamino) naphthalene-1-sulfonyl 4-phenylsemicarbazide] (DMNP) and Lanthanide(III) (Ln) ions is proposed, using both spectrofluorometric and spectrophotometric methods. Determination of Kf showed that DMNP was mostly selective towards the erbium (III) ion. The validity of the method was also confirmed calculating the Stern-Volmer fluorescence quenching constants ( Ksv) that resulted in the same consequence, obtained by calculating the Kf of complexation values. In addition, the UV-vis spectroscopy was applied for the determination of Kf only for the Ln ions that had interactions with DMNP. Finally, the DFT studies were done on Er 3+ and the DMNP complex for distinguishing the active sites and estimating the pair wise interaction energy. It can be concluded that this derivative of Dansyl chloride with inherent high fluorescence intensity is a suitable reagent for the selective determination of the Er 3+ ion which can be used in constructing selective Er 3+ sensors.

  12. Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1 Hydroxy-2-pyridinones

    SciTech Connect

    University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Jocher, Christoph J.; Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Eu} {approx} 21.5%) with high stability (pEu {approx} 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysical properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree with corresponding TD-DFT calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.

  13. Ultrasmall lanthanide-doped nanoparticles as multimodal platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.; Pedraza, Francisco J.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, there has been a great amount of interest in nanoparticles which are able to provide a platform with high contrast for multiple imaging modalities in order to advance the tools available to biomedical researchers and physicians. However, many nanoparticles do not have ideal properties to provide high contrast in different imaging modes. In order to address this, ultrasmall lanthanide doped oxide and fluoride nanoparticles with strong NIR to NIR upconversion fluorescence and a strong magnetic response for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been developed. Specifically, these nanoparticles incorporate gadolinium, dysprosium, or a combination of both into the nano-crystalline host to achieve the magnetic properties. Thulium, erbium, and neodymium codopants provide the strong NIR absorption and emission lines that allow for deeper tissue imaging since near infrared light is not strongly absorbed or scattered by most tissues within this region. This also leads to better image quality and lower necessary excitation intensities. As a part of the one pot synthesis, these nanoparticles are coated with peg, pmao, or d-glucuronic acid to make them water soluble, biocompatible, and bioconjugable due to the available carboxyl or amine groups. Here, the synthesis, morphological characterization, magnetic response, NIR emission, and the quantum yield will be discussed. Cytotoxicity tested through cell viability at varying concentrations of nanoparticles in growth media will also be discussed.

  14. Microwave plasma synthesis of lanthanide zirconates from microwave transparent oxides.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Hsin; Hondow, Nicole; Thomas, Chris I; Mitchell, Robert; Brydson, Rik; Douthwaite, Richard E

    2012-02-28

    Lanthanide zirconate phases Ln(2)Zr(2)O(7) and Ln(4)Zr(3)O(12) (Ln = Y, La, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb) have been prepared using a microwave induced plasma methodology, which allows rapid synthesis using materials which do not couple directly with microwaves at room temperature. We describe the measurement of heating profiles of the precursor binary metal oxides which can be used to identify conditions conducive to the synthesis of more complex oxides. Uncontrolled heating which can be a feature of microwave synthesis of ceramics is not observed, allowing reproducible synthesis. Conventionally these phases are prepared at >1400 °C over hours or days and are being investigated for applications including the immobilisation of nuclear waste where rapid processing is important. Using the microwave plasma method, phase-pure materials have been prepared in minutes. Furthermore, it is clear that Ln(2)Zr(2)O(7) and Ln(4)Zr(3)O(12) also exhibit significant plasma-promoted dielectric heating (e.g. >2200 °C for Dy(4)Zr(3)O(12)) which is typically greater than either of the respective precursors, thus providing a driving force to rapidly complete the reaction. PMID:22215067

  15. Lanthanide titanates as promising matrices for immobilization of actinide wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudintsev, S. V.

    2015-02-01

    The samples on the basis of Ln2Ti2O7 and Ln4Ti9O24 lanthanide titanates were obtained by compacting-sintering and melting-crystallization processes. The substances as such are promising as immobilizing matrices for the rare earth-actinide fraction of wastes of the treatment of used nuclear fuel. The content of simulators of the rare earth-actinide fraction in the obtained phases was as high as 50 mass % or more. The phases were characterized by a narrow range of variations of their composition. The admixtures of zirconium and aluminum caused the formation of zirconolite; the excess of titanium resulted in the formation of rutile or rhombic titanate (in the cases of Ln4Ti9O24 and Ln2Ti2O7, respectively). The use of these crystalline matrices for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides should provide a considerable decrease in the volume of solidified radioactive wastes to be disposed in deep-seated storage.

  16. Effect of Lanthanide Complex Structure on Cell Viability and Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 ?M) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 ?M complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

  17. Thermochemical Properties ( D° 0and IP) of the Lanthanide Monohalides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaledin, Leonid A.; Heaven, Michael C.; Field, Robert W.

    1999-02-01

    Thermochemical data for the lanthanide monohalides have been combined with recent ligand field theory calculations (A. L. Kaledin, M. C. Heaven, R. W. Field, and L. A. Kaledin (1996). J. Mol. Spectrosc.179, 310) to estimate the dissociation energies and ionization potentials for all LnX(where Ln? Ba through Lu, and X? F, Cl, Br, or I) molecules and the dissociation energies for the LnX+ions. Owing to the negligible involvement of the core-like 4 felectrons in bonding, the dissociation energies and ionization potentials of all LnXmolecules, where Ln? Ba through Lu, and X? O, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, should vary with Lnatom in a simple linear manner, provided that corrections are made for differences in f-orbital occupancy between the LnXmolecule and the free Lnatom or between the LnXmolecule and the LnX+molecular ion. We provide such a model here and, in so doing, correct several inconsistencies in the thermochemical data. Based on thermochemical data (A. A. Kitaev, I. S. Gotkis, P. G. Val'kov, and K. C. Krasnov (1996). Russ. Chem. Phys.7, 1685) and recent spectroscopic observations (M. C. McCarthy, J. C. Bloch, R. W. Field, and L. A. Kaledin (1996) J. Mol. Spectrosc.179, 251), a revised value for the ionization potential of DyF, IP(DyF) = 5.85 ± 0.06 eV, is proposed.

  18. Selective extraction of trivalent actinides from lanthanides with dithiophosphinic acids and tributylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.; Barrans, R.; Schroeder, N.; Wade, K.; Jones, M.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mills, J.; Howard, G. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Freiser, H.; Muralidharan, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A variety of chemical systems have been developed to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides based on the slightly stronger complexation of the trivalent actinides with ligands that contain soft donor atoms. The greater stability of the actinide complexes in these systems has often been attributed to a slightly greater covalent bonding component for the actinide ions relative to the lanthanide ions. The authors have investigated several synergistic extraction systems that use ligands with a combination of oxygen and sulfur donor atoms that achieve a good group separation of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides. For example, the combination of dicyclohexyldithiophosphinic acid and tributylphosphate has shown separation factors of up to 800 for americium over europium in a single extraction stage. Such systems could find application in advanced partitioning schemes for nuclear waste.

  19. Effectiveness of a dopant in U-Zr metallic fuel to prevent lanthanide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wieneck, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (about 50%) without requiring refueling by way of using metallic alloy fuel have gained interest. Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and its migration to cladding and reaction with cladding is a potential life-limiting phenomenon. As a means to solve this problem, adding an element that forms stable compounds with lanthanides to immobilize them has been proposed. The theoretical assessment shows that indium, thallium, gallium, and antimony are good candidates. Except for Sb, because these elements are low-melting temperature elements, liquid metal embrittlement of cladding is a concern if large sized agglomerates exist contacting the cladding. Alloy characterization of as-fabricated samples was performed to examine the effectiveness of the dopant addition method using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Although preliminary, the present results showed that indium is a better dopant to immobilize lanthanides.

  20. Carbon bridged triphenolate lanthanide complexes: synthesis, characterization, DFT studies and catalytic activities for isoprene polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Liang, Zhenhua; Ling, Jun; Ni, Xufeng; Shen, Zhiquan

    2015-06-28

    The dinuclear lanthanide complexes [Ln2(L)2(THF)n] (Ln = Nd (1) n = 4, Gd (2) n = 3, Lu (3) n = 2) supported by carbon bridged triphenolate ligands [LH3 = tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)methane] were synthesized via a salt metathesis reaction between lanthanide trichlorides and LNa3 in THF. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography, and complex 3 was characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Agostic interactions were found in these complexes and were further substantiated by DFT calculations of complex 3. These lanthanide complexes in combination with aluminum alkyls and [Ph3C](+)[B(C6F5)4](-) generated efficient homogeneous catalysts for the cis-1,4 polymerization of isoprene, with complex 1 having the best catalytic activity. PMID:26008592

  1. Luminescent nanoparticles with lanthanide-containing poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(?-caprolactone) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Thévenaz, David C; Monnier, Christophe A; Balog, Sandor; Fiore, Gina L

    2014-11-10

    Lanthanide-containing nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their unique optical properties and potential in nanotechnological applications. An amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone) methyl ether (mPEG-PCL) was functionalized with a dipicolinic acid (dpa) moiety and coordinated to lanthanide ions to afford [Ln(dpa-PCL-PEG-OCH3)3](HNEt3)3 (Ln = Eu(3+), Tb(3+)). Micelle-like nanoparticles of dpa-PCL-PEG-OCH3 macroligand and metal-centered polymers were prepared by solvent displacement methods. Dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of solid sphere (<47 nm in diameter) and vesicle (>47 nm in diameter) morphologies. The viability and stability of the lanthanide complexes in micelle-like nanoparticles was explored by DLS and luminescence spectroscopy, and found to be stable for several weeks. PMID:25233264

  2. [Sludge dewaterability with combined conditioning using Fenton's reagent and CPAM].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-wei; Liu, Jie-wei; Cao, Rui; Yue, Dong-bei; Wang, Hong-tao

    2013-09-01

    The moisture of sludge significantly influenced its dewaterability and the disposal cost. Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and Fenton's reagent were investigated for sludge dewatering with separate and combined conditioning. Several parameters were used to evaluate the dewatering performance and to analyze the conditioning mechanism, such as cake moisture, soluble COD, protein and polysaccharide contents in supernatant and sludge particle size. The results indicated that favorable dewaterability was achieved when the sludge was conditioned at higher CPAM degrees, and sludge dewatering ability was further improved at acidic conditions. In Fenton reaction, higher H2O2 dosages enhanced the dewatering performance of sludge. Combined conditioning using Fenton's reagent and CPAM led to considerable improved sludge dewaterability. At the optimized dosages of FeSO4 (2 g x L(-1)) and H2O2 (6 g x L(-1)), the sludge moisture declined to 76.7% from 85.5% (raw sludge), while a moisture as low as 74.8% was obtained by combined conditioning using CPAM (3 kg x t(-1)). Sludge particle size went down and the specific surface area grew bigger after Fenton reaction. As a result of disintegration of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the adsorbed and intrinsic water were released from microorganisms and sludge flocs. CPAM addition remarkably promoted the coagulating and flocculating of dispersed flocs. Sludge particle size changed from 35.16 microm to 50.50 microm, and the specific surface area declined from 0.39 m2 x g(-1) to 0.20 m2 x g(-1). The combined conditioning using Fenton's reagent and CPAM was proved to be more effective in improving sludge dewaterability, compared with the separate conditioning. PMID:24289002

  3. Desalting protein ions in native mass spectrometry using supercharging reagents.

    PubMed

    Cassou, Catherine A; Williams, Evan R

    2014-10-01

    Effects of the supercharging reagents m-NBA and sulfolane on sodium ion adduction to protein ions formed using native mass spectrometry were investigated. There is extensive sodium adduction on protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions containing millimolar concentrations of NaCl, which can lower sensitivity by distributing the signal of a given charge state over multiple adducted ions and can reduce mass measuring accuracy for large proteins and non-covalent complexes for which individual adducts cannot be resolved. The average number of sodium ions adducted to the most abundant ion formed from ten small (8.6-29 kDa) proteins for which adducts can be resolved is reduced by 58% or 80% on average, respectively, when 1.5% m-NBA or 2.5% sulfolane are added to aqueous solutions containing sodium compared to without the supercharging reagent. Sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at reducing sodium ion adduction and at preserving non-covalent protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Desalting with 2.5% sulfolane enables detection of several glycosylated forms of 79.7 kDa holo-transferrin and NADH bound to the 146 kDa homotetramer LDH, which are otherwise unresolved due to peak broadening from extensive sodium adduction. Although sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at protein ion desalting, m-NBA reduces salt clusters at high m/z and can increase the signal-to-noise ratios of protein ions by reducing chemical noise. Desalting is likely a result of these supercharging reagents binding sodium ions in solution, thereby reducing the sodium available to adduct to protein ions. PMID:25133273

  4. New coupling reagents for homogeneous esterification of cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merima Mehmedovic Hasani; Gunnar Westman

    2007-01-01

    A group of known, but in cellulose chemistry new coupling reagents for homogeneous esterification has been investigated: 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methyl-morpholinium\\u000a chloride, N-methyl-2-bromopyridinium iodide, N-methyl-2-chloropyridinium iodide, and N-methyl-2-bromopyridinium tosylate. In order to study their ability to activate carboxylic acids in esterifications of cellulose\\u000a they have been employed in synthesis of cellulose adamantate esters. Their effectiveness has been estimated in terms of degree\\u000a of

  5. Hypervalent iodine reagent mediated reaction of [60]fullerene with amines.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chun-Bao; Lu, Xin-Wei; Wu, Ping; Li, Jiaxing; Ren, Wen-Long; Xing, Meng-Lei; Sun, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Hai-Tao

    2013-12-01

    The hypervalent iodine reagent mediated reaction of C60 with various readily available amines for the easy preparation of iminofullerenes has been developed. The reaction between C60 and sulfonamides can be effectively controlled to selectively synthesize azafulleroids or aziridinofullerenes under PhI(OAc)2/I2 or PhIO/I2/CuCl/lutidine conditions, respectively. For phosphamide and urea, only one isomer is obtained. However, carbamate gives three kinds of products. Interestingly, the reaction of C60 with alkylamines allows the effective synthesis of aziridinofullerenes and regioselective cis-1-bisaziridinofullerenes. PMID:24215597

  6. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Studies of Lanthanides(III) Complexation with Polyamines in Dimethyl Sulfoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bernardo, Plinio; Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Melchior, Andrea; Portanova, Roberto; Tolazzi, Marilena; Choppin, Gregory R.; Wang, Zheming

    2008-02-04

    The thermodynamic parameters of complexation of Ln(III) cations with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) and tetraethylenepentamine (tetren) were determined in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by potentiometry and calorimetry. The excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decay constants of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexed by tren and tetren, as well as those of the same lanthanides(III) complexed with diethylenetriamine (dien) and triethylenetetramine (trien), were also obtained in the same solvent. The combination of thermodynamic and spectroscopic data showed that, in the 1:1 complexes, all nitrogens of the ligands bound to the lanthanides except in the case of tren, in which only pendant N bound. For the larger ligands (trien, tren, tetren) in the higher complexes (ML2), there was less complete binding by available donors, presumably due to steric crowding. FT-IR studies were carried out in an acetonitrile/DMSO mixture, suitably chosen in order to follow the changes in the primary solvation sphere of lanthanide(III) due to complexation of amine ligands. Results show that the mean number of molecules of DMSO removed from the inner coordination sphere of lanthanides(III) is lower than ligand denticity and that the coordination number of the metal ions increases with amine complexation from ?8 to ?10. Independently of the number and structure of the amines, linear trends, similar for all lanthanides, were obtained by plotting the values of *Gj°, *Hj° and T*Sj° for the complexation of ethylenediamine (en), dien, trien, tren and tetren as a function of the number of amine metal-coordinated nitrogen atoms. The main factors on which the thermodynamic functions of lanthanide(III) complexation reactions in DMSO depend are discussed.

  7. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies of lanthanides(III) complexation with polyamines in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, P; Zanonato, P L; Melchior, A; Portanova, R; Tolazzi, M; Choppin, G R; Wang, Z

    2008-02-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of complexation of Ln(III) cations with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) and tetraethylenepentamine (tetren) were determined in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by potentiometry and calorimetry. The excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decay constants of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexed by tren and tetren, as well as those of the same lanthanides(III) complexed with diethylenetriamine (dien) and triethylenetetramine (trien), were also obtained in the same solvent. The combination of thermodynamic and spectroscopic data showed that, in the 1:1 complexes, all nitrogens of the ligands are bound to the lanthanides except in the case of tren, in which the pendant N is bound. For the larger ligands (trien, tren, tetren) in the higher complexes (ML2), there was less complete binding by available donors, presumably due to steric crowding. FT-IR studies were carried out in an acetonitrile/DMSO mixture, suitably chosen to follow the changes in the primary solvation sphere of lanthanide(III) due to complexation of amine groups. Results show that the mean number of molecules of DMSO removed from the inner coordination sphere of lanthanides(III) is lower than ligand denticity and that the coordination number of the metal ions increases with amine complexation from approximately 8 to approximately 10. Independently of the number and structure of the amines, linear trends, similar for all lanthanides, were obtained by plotting the values of DeltaGj degrees, DeltaHj degrees, and TDeltaSj degrees for the complexation of ethylenediamine (en), dien, trien, tren, and tetren as a function of the number of amine metal-coordinated nitrogen atoms. The main factors on which the thermodynamic functions of lanthanide(III) complexation reactions in DMSO depend are discussed. PMID:18166040

  8. Trivalent lanthanide ions do not cleave RNA in DNA-RNA hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kolasa, K.A.; Morrow, J.R.; Sharma, A.P. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1993-09-15

    Lanthanide(III) complexes rapidly catalyze cleavage of single-stranded RNA. RNA cleavage by lanthanide complexes is, however, dependent on RNA structure. A DNA-RNA hybrid formed by annealing a complementary oligodeoxynucleotide to t-RNA[sup phe] is found to be inert to cleavage by a europium(III) hexadentate Schiff base complex and by Eu(CO[sub 2]CH[sub 3])[sub 3]. Because DNA-RNA hybrids are important structures in antisense oligonucleotide strategies, these results may influence the design of antisense oligonucleotides with attached metal complex cleaving agents.

  9. Use of Azo Dyestuffs for the Polarographic Determination of the Lanthanides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Florence; L. E. Smythe

    1960-01-01

    THE polarographic behaviour of some 2,2'-di-hydroxy azo dyes in the presence of the lanthanides has recently been a subject of study in this laboratory. The lanthanides were found to form coloured chelates in alkaline solution with erichrome violet B (5-sulpho-2-hydroxy benzene-azo-2-naphthol, C.I. No. 169), eriochrome black PV (5-sulpho-2-hydroxy benzene-azo-l,5-dihydroxy naphthalene, C.I. No. 170) and mordant blue 31 (5-sulpho-2-hydroxy benzene-azo-1,8-dihydroxy naphthalene

  10. Effective transition probability for the Faraday effect of lanthanide(III) ion solutions.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kayoko; Isai, Kento; Suwa, Masayori; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2009-05-13

    The Faraday effects of 14 lanthanide(III) ion solutions were systematically analyzed on the basis of the Faraday C term. The effective transition probability, K, which measures the magneto-optical contribution of the 4f(n) --> 4f(n-1)5d transition to the molar Verdet constant, was determined. Linear correlations between K and the square root of the molar magnetic susceptibility of the lanthanide(III) ions, chi(m)(1/2), were obtained. From the observed new regularity, K for promethium(III) was estimated. PMID:19378955

  11. Luminescent trimethoprim-polyaminocarboxylate lanthanide complex conjugates for selective protein labeling and time-resolved bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, D. Rajasekhar; Pedró Rosa, Laura E.; Miller, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Labeling proteins with long-lifetime emitting lanthanide (III) chelate reporters enables sensitive, time-resolved luminescence bioaffinity assays. Heterodimers of trimethoprim (TMP) covalently linked to various cs124-sensitized, polyaminocarboxylate chelates stably retain lanthanide ions and exhibit quantum yields of europium emission up to 20% in water. A time-resolved, luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) assay showed that TMP-polyaminocarboxylates bind to Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR) fusion proteins with nanomolar affinity in purified solutions and in bacterial lysates. The ability to selectively impart terbium or europium luminescence to fusion proteins in complex physiological mixtures bypasses the need for specific antibodies and simplifies sample preparation. PMID:21619068

  12. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells. PMID:26119691

  13. Lanthanide sensitized chemiluminescence determination of grepafloxacin in tablets and human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Ocaña; M Callejón; F. J Barragán; F. F De la Rosa

    2003-01-01

    A flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method, based on the luminescent properties of the Ce(IV)–Na2SO3–lanthanide(III)–grepafloxacin system, was developed for the determination of grepafloxacin {1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-5-methyl-7-(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid}. La(III), Tb(III), and Eu(III) ions were tested as possible chemiluminescence sensitizers. The best results were achieved when Tb(III) was used as lanthanide ion, so the technique was optimised working with this ion. Under the optimum experimental conditions,

  14. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  15. Paramagnetic lanthanide complexes as PARACEST agents for medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Mark; Woessner, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review examines the fundamental aspects of a new class of contrast media for MRI based upon the chemical shift saturation transfer (CEST) mechanism. Several paramagnetic versions called PARACEST agents have shown utility as responsive agents for reporting physiological or metabolic information by MRI. It is shown that basic NMR exchange theory can be used to predict how parameters such as chemical shift, bound water lifetimes, and relaxation rates can be optimized to maximize the sensitivity of PARACEST agents. PMID:16729144

  16. Surface immobilized hydrogels as versatile reagent reservoirs for microarrays.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Gagni, Paola; Cretich, Marina; Chiari, Marcella

    2013-05-31

    The accuracy of antibody-based microarrays depends on eliminating or at least minimizing the effect of cross-reactive components. In this work, a method to create a versatile, compartmentalized storage system for antibodies and soluble microarray reagents is described. These containers are made of hydrogel plugs immobilized on a slide facing the corresponding sub-array on a printed surface. The hydrogels were polymerized using a 4% w/v N,N-dimethylacrylamide and 3% w/v bisacrylamide solution, thus generating large pore sizes to allow the facile transfer of intact, functional biomolecules. The hydrogel microenvironments can be desiccated and rehydrated with a desired solution, and they can store reagents in a dry form. These hydrogels were shown to provide limits of detection similar to those obtained by conventional incubation conditions in an assay for HIV p24 antigen. Moreover, they prevent cross-reactivity issues in the detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B and promote the accurate quantification of interleukin 10 by a microarray-integrated calibration curve. PMID:23454034

  17. Chemiluminescence flow sensor for berberine with immobilized reagents.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Zhao, T; Wang, L; Xiao, Z

    2001-07-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for berberine combined with flow-injection (FI) technology is described. The analytical reagents involved in the CL reaction, including luminol and potassium ferricyanide, were both immobilized on an anion-exchange resin column. While a volume of sodium phosphate was passed through the column, the two CL reagents were eluted from the resin and then mixed with a berberine stream under alkaline conditions. By means of the fast oxidation reaction between berberine and potassium ferricyanide, potassium ferrocyanide was generated, which then inhibited the CL reaction of luminol and potassium ferricyanide. The decreased CL intensity was correlated with the berberine concentration in the range from 0.05 to 300 ng mL(-1 )with a relative standard deviation of less than 4.3%, and the limit of detection was 0.02 ng mL(-1) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). It was shown that the flow sensor could greatly improve the selectivity and sensitivity for determination of berberine. The determination of analyte could be performed in 2 min, including sampling and washing and be stable for over 300 analyses. Some interference and additives in preparations were tested. Two herbal medicines commonly found in compound prescriptions, rutin and baicalin, were studied preliminarily. The method has been applied for the determination of berberine in pharmaceutical preparations successfully. PMID:11425570

  18. Interactions of Plutonium and Lanthanides with Ordered Mesoporous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi

    Ordered mesoporous materials are porous solids with a regular, patterned structure composed of pores between 2 and 50 nm wide. Such materials have attracted much attention in the past twenty years because the chemistry of their synthesis allows control of their unique physicochemical properties, which can be tuned for a variety of applications. Generally, ordered mesoporous materials have very high specific surface areas and pore volumes, and offer unique structures that are neither crystalline nor amorphous. The large tunable interface provided by ordered mesoporous solids may be advantageous in applications involving sequestration, separation, or detection of actinides and lanthanides in solution. However, the fundamental chemical interactions of actinides and lanthanides must be understood before applications can be implemented. This dissertation focuses primarily on the fundamental interactions of plutonium with organically modified mesoporous silica, as well as several different porous carbon materials, both untreated and chemically oxidized. A method for functionalizing mesoporous silica by self assembly and molecular grafting of functional organosilane ligands was optimized for the 2D-hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica known as SBA-15 (Santa Barbara amorphous silica). Four different organically-modified silica materials were synthesized and characterized with several techniques. To confirm that covalent bonds were formed between the silane anchor of the ligand and the silica substrate, functionalized silica samples were analyzed with 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy was used in combination with 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to verify the molecular structures of the ligands after they were synthesized and grafted to the silica. The densities of the functional silane ligands on the silica surface were estimated using thermogravimetric analysis. Batch sorption experiments were conducted with solutions of Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Eu(III), Ce(III), and Zr(IV). The acetamide phosphonate functionalized silica called Ac-Phos-SBA-15 required more extensive synthesis than the other three functionalized silica materials. Development of functionalized mesoporous silica extractants for actinides is contingent on their synthesis and hydrolytic stability, and these two aspects of the Ac-Phos-SBA-15 material are discussed. This material showed the highest binding affinity for all of the target ions, and the sorption and desorption of Pu(VI) to Ac-Phos-SBA-15 was extensively investigated. Ordered mesoporous carbons are attractive as sorbents because of their extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes, and could be suitable substrates for the development of actinide sensors based on their electrochemical properties. Three different mesoporous carbon materials were synthesized by collaborators to test their application as radionuclide sorbent materials. The first is called CMK (carbons mesostructured by Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), and was synthesized using a hard silica template with 3D-bicontinuous ordered mesostructure. Highly ordered body-centered cubic mesoporous carbon was synthesized by self-assembly of a phenol resin around a soft polymer template, and this material is known as FDU-16 (Fudan University). Etching of the silica portion of mesoporous carbon-silica composites created the 2D-hexagonal mesoporous carbon called C-CS (carbon from carbon-silica nanocomposites) with a bimodal pore size distribution. The as-synthesized nanocast mesoporous carbon in this work is called UN CMK, and the same material after oxidation treatment with nitric acid is called OX CMK. A portion of both FDU-16-type and C-CS-type ordered mesoporous carbons were oxidized with acidic ammonium persulfate, which created the oxidized carbon materials called FDU-16-COOH and C-CS-COOH, respectively. The mesoporous carbons were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to view their particle sizes and morphologies. Their porosities and structures on the meso-scale were an

  19. Influence of different chemical reagents on the preparation of activated carbons from bituminous coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Yeh Hsu; Hsisheng Teng

    2000-01-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation from bituminous coal with three chemical reagents, ZnCl2, H3PO4 and KOH. The activation consisted of impregnation of a reagent followed by carbonization in nitrogen at various temperatures. A thermogravimetric study showed that these reagents were capable of suppressing the evolution of tarry substances during carbonization. Because of carbon oxidation and gasification mechanisms, activation

  20. Blood-typing of Indian Water Buffaloes with Reagents for Antigenic Factors of Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Datta; W. H. Stone

    1963-01-01

    MORE than eighty heritable antigenic factors have been detected on the erythrocytes (cells) of cattle by their reactions with blood-grouping reagents; the reagent being an antibody population made relatively specific for a particular factor by appropriate absorptions1. Using cattle reagents, it has been shown that at least nine genetic blood-group systems of cattle have their homologues in American bison, Bison

  1. Ligand-assisted elution chromatography for separation of lanthanides.

    PubMed

    Ling, Lei; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2015-04-10

    Lanthanides (Ln's) are the major components of rare earth elements, which are critical components of many high-value products. The ions of adjacent Ln's have the same valence and very similar ionic radii. They cannot be separated using conventional adsorption or ion exchange processes. Current production of high-purity Ln's is based on multiple sequential and parallel solvent extraction processes, which require large amounts of toxic solvents and result in serious negative impact on the environment. In this study, a ligand-assisted elution chromatography process for the separation of Ln's was developed for the first time for titania, which is a robust and inexpensive inorganic sorbent. A selective ligand for Ln's, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), was found to adsorb on the sorbent. The adsorbed EDTA became strong adsorption sites for the Ln's. Desorption of Ln's was driven by reversible reactions of Ln's with EDTA in the mobile phase. The overall sorbent selectivity for the reaction and adsorption process was approximately equal to the ratio of the sorbent selectivity to the ligand selectivity. The separation mechanisms were tested and verified using rate model simulations and experimental data for the separation of praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), and samarium (Sm). Simulations based on the model were used to design efficient linear gradient elution and stepwise elution processes. The purity and yield of all three Ln's were found to be above 95% in the designed processes. Stepwise elution can be implemented in a continuous process for increasing sorbent productivity and reducing costs for large-scale separation. Ligand assisted elution processes are much simpler and more environmentally friendly than the conventional solvent extraction processes. PMID:25746756

  2. Discrete site surface complexation constants for lanthanide adsorption to bacteria as determined by experiments and linear free energy relationships.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Bryne T; Magennis, Marisa; Olive, Valerie; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Ellam, Robert M

    2010-01-15

    Bacteria are abundant in many natural and engineered environments where they are thought to exert important controls on the cycling, mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of metal contaminants. In order to probe their role in moderating the behavior of lanthanides, pH-dependent adsorption edges of 13 individual lanthanides and yttrium to the Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans were used to generate discrete site surface complexation constants. The calculated surface complexation constants were compared with stability constants estimated using linear free energy relationships based on a number of hydroxyl-containing ligands. The experimental data suggests that lanthanide adsorption edges below pH 6.5 are consistent with adsorption to phosphate groups for the light and some of the middle lanthanides (La to Gd), whereas some of the middle and heavy lanthanides appear to favor carboxyl co-ordination (Tb to Yb), although exceptions occur in each grouping. The experimentally derived surface complexation constants for carboxyl coordination were of similar magnitude to stability constants estimated from linear free energy correlations using fulvic acid stability constants. The implication is that the adsorption of lanthanides to bacterial surfaces could be modeled reasonably well using lanthanide stability constants for natural organic matter, except perhaps at low pH where phosphate binding dominates. PMID:20000843

  3. Water-soluble monodispersed lanthanide oxide submicrospheres: PVP-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, size-control and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Lai, Xiaoyong; Li, Li; Hu, Zhudong; Wang, Shuo; Halpert, Jonathan E; Yu, Ranbo; Wang, Dan

    2012-07-16

    We report a facile hydrothermal synthetic route to prepare a class of monodispersed lanthanide-based compound submicrospheres with controllable size, which employs raw lanthanide oxides as starting material, urea as precipitator and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) as surfactant. Dependent on the intrinsic properties of respective lanthanide, the resulting products could be in the form of oxide, hydroxide or basic carbonate. These lanthanide hydroxides or basic carbonates can be easily transformed into their corresponding oxides by calcination, retaining the same morphology and size dispersion. The formation mechanism of these lanthanide-based compound submicrospheres is investigated and PVP plays a critical role in forming uniform and well-dispersed products. Furthermore, this method could be extended to a binary system by using two kinds of lanthanide oxides as starting material, resulting in doped-type lanthanide oxide submicrospheres (such as Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+)). The Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) submicrospheres exhibit nearly uniform spherical morphology and narrow size distribution as well as good water solubility and sharp spectral emission at 610 nm (corresponding to the 5D(0)-7F(2) transition of Eu(3+)). This makes them attractive materials for applications in fields such as fluorescent lamps, field emission displays (FEDs) or LCDs, or as biomedical labels and molecular probes. PMID:22213203

  4. LOMI (low oxidation-state transition metal ion) decontamination reagents and related preoxidation processes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, T.; Segal, M.G.; Williams, W.J.; Pick, M.E.

    1987-12-01

    The development of the LOMI decontamination system is described covering aspects from the initial laboratory oxide dissolution studies through to the application on a full reactor primary circuit. Limited work on advanced LOMI reagents for the dissolution of chromium containing oxide is also described. The optimization of potassium-permanganate based pre-oxidation reagents for high chromium oxides is discussed, leading to the establishment of the dilute NP (nitric permanganate) and AP (alkaline permanganate) reagents for use in combination with LOMI and also the POD (PWR oxidative decontamination) system using NP and citrox reagents. An outline of the extensive materials compatibility studies required to clear the reagents for reactor use is given. Much of this work has been conducted by organizations independent of the CEGB, e.g., United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, General Electric, Agesta Project. For such work overall conclusions only are presented. A wide range of materials corrosion work has been undertaken in the joint CEGB/EPRI studies and some more sensitive issues such as the corrosion of Stellite have been addressed in detail. Waste management techniques have been developed to minimize the volume of arisings. These involve both the optimization of reagent composition to avoid use of excess chemicals and also the development of ion exchange techniques for the direct treatment of pre-oxidation reagents and for the control of reagent pH. The kinetics of chromium leaching using ozone as a pre-oxidation reagent have been investigated in detail since this gives low waste arisings.

  5. Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Isoflavone Derivatives Using Polymer-Supported Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yasuhiko; Maruyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Kazuyo; Tsukayama, Masao

    Isoflavones are synthesized in one-pot manner by action of a hypervalent iodine (III) reagent, ?hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo?benzene (HTIB, Koser's reagent) on 2'-benzoyloxychalcones in MeOH. A combined usage of iodobenzene diacetate (IBD)—p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH) is also effective for the same purpose. As an extension of those monomeric reagents, polymer-supported IBD (PSIBD, poly ?4-(diacetoxy)iodo?styrene) with TsOH works also well with merit of easy separation of isoflavones from the reaction mixture, no liberation of PhI, and reuse of the reagent.

  6. Clinical utility of a monoclonal direct fluorescent reagent specific for Legionella pneumophila: comparative study with other reagents.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, P H; Beer, K B; Sturge, J C; Watson, A J; Goldstein, L C

    1985-09-01

    Twenty-four lower respiratory tract samples taken from patients with culture-confirmed Legionella pneumophila infection were examined with three different direct immunofluorescent antisera to L. pneumophila, as were 29 samples from similar sources taken from patients without Legionnaires disease. The reagents studied were Genetic Systems Corp. (GS) monoclonal L. pneumophila conjugate, which reacts with all known serogroups of L. pneumophila, BioDx polyvalent L. pneumophila serogroups 1 through 6 conjugate, and Centers for Disease Control polyvalent pool A L. pneumophila serogroups 1 through 4 conjugate. The specimens had been frozen at -70 degrees C for 0.5 to 5 years. Randomization was used in coding the samples, which were stained and read by an independent observer. All three conjugates correctly identified all positive and negative samples. No difference was noted among the conjugates in the absolute numbers of fluorescent L. pneumophila bacteria per sample. The GS conjugate had a much cleaner background than did the other two reagents. Mean staining intensity scores were 3.4, 3.9, and 3.7 for the GS, BioDx, and Centers for Disease Control conjugates, respectively. This study demonstrates that the diagnostic efficiency of all three conjugates is equivalent. Since the GS conjugate is easier to read, does not cross-react with non-L. pneumophila bacteria, and reacts with serogroups 1 through 10 of L. pneumophila, it appears to be preferable for use in diagnostic testing on nonhistopathologically processed specimens. PMID:3900129

  7. Selective separation of lanthanides by supported liquid membranes containing Cyanex 925 as a carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Garcia-Valls; M. Muñoz; M. Valiente

    1999-01-01

    The work describes in detail the transport of lanthanides between chloride solutions by a facilitated transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing Cyanex 925 (a mixture of alkylphosphine oxides, Cyanamid). The chemical nature of this carrier requires a strong difference of chloride content between the two sides of the membrane which leads to a strong rise in the osmotic

  8. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Huei-Ho, Chuen (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Hurlbut, Charles (Sweetwater, TX)

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  9. An aryl-phosphonate appended macrocyclic platform for lanthanide based bimodal imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Placidi, Matteo P; Engelmann, Jörn; Natrajan, Louise S; Logothetis, Nikos K; Angelovski, Goran

    2011-11-01

    Four ligand systems have been prepared whose characteristics are well suited to the design of bimodal MRI and luminescence probes. The lanthanide complexes display high relaxivities and luminescence quantum yields. These properties are retained at higher magnetic fields and in a range of competitive environments including model extracellular medium and cultured cells. PMID:21952162

  10. A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide Series

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    1) binds transition metals and rare earths with extreme stability under physiological conditionsA Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide affinity and exquisite specificity.1 An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used

  11. Lanthanide compounds as environmentally-friendly corrosion inhibitors of aluminium alloys: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bethencourt; F. J. Botana; J. J. Calvino; M. Marcos; M. A. RodrÍguez-Chacón

    1998-01-01

    Currently, chromates are among the most common substances used as inhibitors or incorporated in anticorrosive pretreatments of aluminium alloys. However, these compounds are highly toxic and their use produces serious environmental hazards. Consequently, an intense research effort is being undertaken to replace chromates by more ecological compounds. In recent years, several authors have begun studies of the behaviour of lanthanide

  12. Two types of lanthanide selenidostannates(IV) first prepared under the same solvothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xiao, Hong; Xiao, Hong-Ping; Yang, Tao; Zou, Hua-Hong; Liu, Xing; Zhao, Rong-Qing; Tang, Qiuling

    2015-01-21

    Two types of lanthanide selenidostannates(iv) [Ln2(tepa)2(?-OH)2Sn2Se6] {Ln = Y(), Pr (), Dy (), Er (), Tm (); tepa = tetraethylenepentamine} and [Ln2(tepa)2(?2-OH)2Cl2]2[Sn4Se10]·4H2O {Ln = Y (), Dy (), Er (), Tm ()} have been synthesized under identical solvothermal conditions and characterized structurally. Type I (, , , and ) displays 1-D neutral chains [Ln2(tepa)2(?-OH)2Sn2Se6]n, while type II (, , and ) contains discrete adamantane-like [Sn4Se10](4-) ions with binuclear lanthanide complex [Ln2(tepa)2(?-OH)2Cl2](2+) ions as counterions. Although the solvothermal synthetic methods could result in the formation of various transition-metal chalcogenidometalates, such identical experimental conditions usually result in the only stable phases of lanthanide chalcogenidometalates. Hence, two different lanthanide selenidostannates(iv), obtained under same solvothermal conditions and starting materials, have been first observed in this work. The optical properties of all the compounds have been investigated by UV-vis spectra. PMID:25421214

  13. Solid-liquid separation of oxidized americium from fission product lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehee, T. C.; Martin, L. R.; Nash, K. L.

    2010-03-01

    The separation of americium from the lanthanides and curium is a requirement if transmutation of americium is to be performed in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Oxidation of Am3+ to AmO2+ or AmO22+ may allow separation of Am from Ln and Cm in one step, since the lanthanides and curium do not have higher oxidation states as accessible. Two possible solid-liquid separation methods have been developed to address this difficult separation. Under acidic conditions using oxone or persulfate, the oxidation and retention of tracer Am in the aqueous phase has been observed with a separation factor of 11 ± 1. Most of these studies have been conducted using 237NpO2(NO3), 233UO2(NO3)2, 238Pu(NO3)4 and 241Am(NO3)3 at radiotracer concentrations. Lanthanides precipitate as the sodium or potassium europium double sulfate salt. Under basic conditions, ozone oxidation of Am(CO3)OH(s) solubilizes Am from a lanthanide carbonate hydroxide solid phase to the aqueous phase as the AmO2(CO3)34-or AmO2(CO3)35- species. For the ozone oxidation of the americium tracer a separation factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 and 47 ± 2 for the oxidation/separation in Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 respectively.

  14. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/MSE)

    2010-08-23

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  15. Quantitation with chemical tagging reagents in biomarker studies.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jules A; Noirel, Josselin; Brown, Janet E; Wright, Phillip C; Evans, Caroline A

    2015-04-01

    Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and related chemical tag reagents provide analytical platforms for quantitative proteomics applied to clinical samples. In this Viewpoint article, applications for discovery and targeted modes are discussed with an emphasis on study design and technical considerations in biomarker analysis. The evolution and promise of emerging, related strategies are also discussed. It should be noted that iTRAQ and TMT users contributed to the key debates in the biomarker field, to define strategies for biomarker discovery for identification of clinical biomarkers, and continue to inform design of verification and validation assays via implementation of non-isobaric variants for targeted analyses. PMID:25504339

  16. Comparative studies on sulfhydryl determination of soy protein using two aromatic disulfide reagents and two fluorescent reagents.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qijun; Chen, Yeming; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-03-20

    In this study, the sulfhydryl (SH) contents of unheated and heated (90 °C, 5 min) soy protein were detected under different conditions (pH, reagent addition order, SDS/GuHCl concentration, EDTA) using two aromatic disulfide reagents: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (DPS). Two fluorescent alkylating reagents, monobromobimane (mBBr) and N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (NPM), were chosen due to their high sensitivity and were also used. Amino acid analysis was used to detect the SH (cysteine) contents of unheated (7.51 ± 0.45 ?mol SH/g protein) and heated (1.47 ± 0.10 ?mol SH/g protein) soy protein, and similar results were obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis-assisted DPS. The SH content detected by DTNB was affected by pH, denaturant species, and denaturant concentration, and the best results were obtained at pH 7.0 when 6 M GuHCl was added after DTNB. These results were lower than that of the amino acid analysis, however. The SH detected by DPS was not as affected as that of DTNB by pH, denaturant species, and denaturant concentration. Additionally, the results of the amino acid analysis were similar to that of DPS at pH 7.0 in 2% SDS and 4-6 M GuHCl when SDS and GuHCl were added after DPS. EDTA did not have a significant effect on SH detection when DTNB and DPS were added before SDS and GuHCl. Finally, although mBBr and NPM can detect SH in low protein concentrations ((1)/10 of that required for DTNB and DPS), mBBr and NPM overestimated the SH content of soy protein. Therefore, using DPS at pH 7.0 when it is added before SDS and GuHCl is the most reliable method for detecting the SH content of soy protein. PMID:23432329

  17. Lanthanide doped nanoparticles as remote sensors for magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Junpei; Xu, Beibei; Sang, Xiangwen; Chen, Weibo; Liu, Xiaofeng; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-10-01

    We report the effect of magnetic fields (MFs) on emission Eu-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles. A notable shift in the position of emission bands and the suppressed emission intensity are observed with the MF. These magnetic-optical interactions are explained in terms of the Zeeman effect, enhanced cross-relaxation rate and change of site symmetry. PMID:25123099

  18. Bifunctional phosphoramidite reagents for the introduction of histidyl and dihistidyl residues into oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Smith, T H; LaTour, J V; Bochkariov, D; Chaga, G; Nelson, P S

    1999-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of reagents for the incorporation of histidyl residues into oligonucleotides by automated chemical synthesis is described. Automated oligonucleotide synthesis utilizing a bifunctional reagent for the incorporation of a dihistidyl residue into oligonucleotides is described. Oligonucleotides incorporating one to three dihistidyl residues were prepared and characterized. The interaction of these oligonucleotides with a metal chelating IMAC matrix was explored. PMID:10411463

  19. Reagent-Loaded Cartridges for Valveless and Automated Fluid Delivery in Microfluidic Devices

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Vincent Linder, Samuel K. Sia, and George M. Whitesides* Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology in a microchannel in 2 min with low-nanomolar sensitivity and demonstrate the diagnosis of HIV in 13 min, these microchips suffer from the lack of a simple method for handling multiple reagents. Typically, reagents

  20. Electrospun zein fibers using glyoxal or formaldehyde as the cross-linking reagent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyoxal or formaldehyde was used as a cross-linking reagent for zein (corn protein) to provide electrospun fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance. These reagents were used between 2 and 6%. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in acetic acid for various lengths of ti...

  1. Reactions of carbonyl compounds with Grignard reagents in the presence of cerium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneo Imamoto; Nobuyuki Takiyama; Kimikazu Nakamura; Toshihiko Hatajima; Yasuo Kamiya

    1989-01-01

    The addition of Grignard reagents to ketones is significantly enhanced by cerium chloride with remarkable suppression of side reactions, particularly enolization. Some esters, which are prone to side reactions, also react readily with Grignard reagents in the presence of cerium chloride to give normal reaction products in reasonable to high yields.

  2. POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) RELEASE FROM SOIL DURING TREATMENT WITH FENTON'S REAGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton's Reagent was used to treat soil from a wood-treating site in southeastern Ohio which had been contaminated with creosote. Slurries, consisting of 10 µg of contaminated soil and 30 mL water were treated with 40 mL of Fenton's Reagent (1:1 of 30% H2O2 ...

  3. LOMI (low oxidation-state transition metal ion) decontamination reagents and related preoxidation processes: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Swan; M. G. Segal; W. J. Williams; M. E. Pick

    1987-01-01

    The development of the LOMI decontamination system is described covering aspects from the initial laboratory oxide dissolution studies through to the application on a full reactor primary circuit. Limited work on advanced LOMI reagents for the dissolution of chromium containing oxide is also described. The optimization of potassium-permanganate based pre-oxidation reagents for high chromium oxides is discussed, leading to the

  4. Formation and reactions of alkylzinc reagents in room-temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Law, Man Chun; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Chan, Tak Hang

    2005-12-01

    [reaction: see text] The presence of a suitable amount of bromide or chloride ions was found to be critical in forming the alkylzinc reagents from alkyl iodides and zinc metal in the room-temperature ionic liquid, N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate. Beta-hydride transfer in the reactions of butylzinc reagents with aldehydes can also be reduced by a bromide ion. PMID:16323854

  5. 6,6??Bis(5,5,8,8?tetramethyl?5,6,7,8?tetrahydro?benzo[1,2,4]triazin?3?yl) [2,2?]bipyridine, an Effective Extracting Agent for the Separation of Americium(III) and Curium(III) from the Lanthanides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Geist; Clément Hill; Giuseppe Modolo; Mark R. St. J. Foreman; Michael Weigl; Klaus Gompper; Michael J. Hudson

    2006-01-01

    The extraction of americium(III), curium(III), and the lanthanides(III) from nitric acid by 6,6??bis(5,5,8,8?tetramethyl?5,6,7,8?tetrahydro?benzo[1,2,4]triazin?3?yl)?[2,2?]bipyridine (CyMe4?BTBP) has been studied. Since the extraction kinetics were slow, N,N??dimethyl?N,N??dioctyl?2?(2?hexyloxy?ethyl)malonamide (DMDOHEMA) was added as a phase transfer reagent. With a mixture of 0.01 M CyMe4?BTBP+0.25 M DMDOHEMA in n?octanol, extraction equilibrium was reached within 5 min of mixing. At a nitric acid concentration of 1 M, an americium(III) distribution

  6. Effects of the order of addition of reagents and alkali on modification of wheat starches.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhongquan; Huber, Kerry C; BeMiller, James N

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this research was to determine if adding reactive reagents to wheat starch granules before addition of alkali (the TRF method) would produce products that are different than those obtained with the conventional procedure (adding alkali before addition of reagent). Laboratory-isolated (LI) and commercial (C) normal (NWS) and waxy (WWS) wheat starches were each reacted with 6 reagents (acetic-adipic mixed anhydride (AAMA), phosphoryl chloride (POCl3), sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), acetic anhydride (AA), succinic anhydride (SA), octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)). Data obtained were similar to those previously obtained with maize starches (Sui, Huber, & BeMiller, 2013). Almost no starch polymer molecule modification occurred when the TRF method and AAMA or AA were used; less than a third as much reaction when SA was the reagent used, and about the same amount of reaction when POCl3, STMP, or OSA were the reagents used (for different reasons). PMID:25857973

  7. The oxidation technique for efficient ionization of lanthanides by a helium-jet loaded on-line isotope separator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoichi Kawase; Kotoyuki Okano

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation technique has successfully been developed for efficient ionization of lanthanides by a He-jet type on-line isotope separator for fission products. By introducing a small amount of oxygen to the helium-jet, monoxides of lanthanides (LaO, CeO, PrO, NdO and PmO) can be ionized with a very high efficiency (40-86%) by a surface ionization ion source. The ionization characteristics have

  8. F-lanthanide complexes: T1 -and T2 -dependent signal gain using gradient echoes Gisela E Hagberg1

    E-print Network

    -9S gradient insert, dual 1H/19F single loop surface coil) scanner and a fixed voxel size (1x1x5mm19 F-lanthanide complexes: T1 - and T2 - dependent signal gain using gradient echoes Gisela E be achieved in gradient echo (GE) FLASH images by lanthanide-complexes that shorten the 19 F T1 and T2

  9. Lanthanide oleates: chelation, self-assembly, and exemplification of ordered nanostructured colloidal contrast agents for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozhen; Conn, Charlotte E; Drummond, Calum J

    2009-12-10

    Eight lanthanide(III) oleates have been prepared and characterized. The chelation and self-assembly structures of these rare-earth oleates have been studied by elemental analysis, Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Elemental analysis and FTIR results indicate that three oleate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation and, with the exception of anhydrous cerium(III) oleate, form either a mono- or a hemihydrate. The X-ray analysis showed that the neat lanthanide soaps have a lamellar bilayer structure at room temperature. The thermal behavior has been investigated by cross-polarized optical microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). POM scans showed that all the lanthanide oleates form a lamellar phase in the presence of excess water. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and XRD were used to investigate the internal structure of the bulk lanthanide oleates in excess water, and these X-ray results confirmed that the lanthanide oleates do not swell in water. Select lanthanide oleates were dispersed in water to form nonswelling lamellar submicrometer particles, confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and synchrotron SAXS measurements. NMR results indicated that colloidal dispersions of lanthanide oleates containing paramagnetic ions, such as gadolinium(III), terbium(III), and dysprosium(III), have a significant effect on the longitudinal (T(1)) and transverse (T(2)) relaxation times of protons in water. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements have demonstrated that colloidal dispersions of europium(III) oleate exhibit strong luminescence. The rare earth metal soaps exemplify the potential of self-assembled chelating amphiphiles as contrast agents in medical imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging. PMID:19904961

  10. Highly Sensitive Immunoassay Based on Controlled Rehydration of Patterned Reagents in a 2-Dimensional Paper Network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated a multistep 2-dimensional paper network immunoassay based on controlled rehydration of patterned, dried reagents. Previous work has shown that signal enhancement improves the limit of detection in 2-dimensional paper network assays, but until now, reagents have only been included as wet or dried in separate conjugate pads placed at the upstream end of the assay device. Wet reagents are not ideal for point-of-care because they must be refrigerated and typically limit automation and require more user steps. Conjugate pads allow drying but do not offer any control of the reagent distribution upon rehydration and can be a source of error when pads do not contact the assay membrane uniformly. Furthermore, each reagent is dried on a separate pad, increasing the fabrication complexity when implementing multistep assays that require several different reagents. Conversely, our novel method allows for consistent, controlled rehydration from patterned reagent storage depots directly within the paper membrane. In this assay demonstration, four separate reagents were patterned in different regions of the assay device: a gold-antibody conjugate used for antigen detection and three different signal enhancement components that must not be mixed until immediately before use. To show the viability of patterning and drying reagents directly onto a paper device for dry reagent storage and subsequent controlled release, we tested this device with the malaria antigen Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) as an example of target analyte. In this demonstration, the signal enhancement step increases the visible signal by roughly 3-fold and decreases the analytical limit of detection by 2.75-fold. PMID:24882058

  11. Ambiguous Red Shifts

    E-print Network

    Carl E. Wulfman

    2010-10-11

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

  12. Lanthanide doped nanoparticles as remote sensors for magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Junpei; Xu, Beibei; Sang, Xiangwen; Chen, Weibo; Liu, Xiaofeng; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-09-01

    We report the effect of magnetic fields (MFs) on emission Eu-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles. A notable shift in the position of emission bands and the suppressed emission intensity are observed with the MF. These magnetic-optical interactions are explained in terms of the Zeeman effect, enhanced cross-relaxation rate and change of site symmetry.We report the effect of magnetic fields (MFs) on emission Eu-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles. A notable shift in the position of emission bands and the suppressed emission intensity are observed with the MF. These magnetic-optical interactions are explained in terms of the Zeeman effect, enhanced cross-relaxation rate and change of site symmetry. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02983f

  13. Treatment of SRS Tank 48H Simulants Using Fenton's Reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, PA

    2003-11-18

    High-level-waste Tank 48H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) contains about 50,000 lb of tetraphenylborate (TPB), which must be destroyed to return the tank to active service. Laboratory-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the use of Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide and a metal catalyst) to treat simulants of the Tank 48H waste. Samples of the treated slurry and the off-gas were analyzed to determine the reaction products. Process parameters developed earlier by AEA Technology were used for these tests; namely (for 500 mL of waste simulant), reduce pH to 7.5 with nitric acid, heat to boiling, add hydrogen peroxide at 1 mL/min for 1 h, reduce pH to 3.5, and add the remaining peroxide at 2 mL/min. These parameters were developed to minimize the formation of tarry materials during the early part of the reaction and to minimize the concentration of total organic carbon in the final treated slurry. The treated samples contained low concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and no detectable TPB. Tests using a mixture of iron and copper salts as the Fenton's catalyst had a lower TOC concentration in the final treated slurry than did tests that used a copper-only catalyst. TPB is known to hydrolyze to benzene, particularly at high temperature and low pH, and copper is known to increase the rate of hydrolysis. Significant amounts of benzene were present in the off-gas from the tests, especially during the early portion of the treatment, indicating that the hydrolysis reaction was occurring in parallel with the oxidation of the TPB by Fenton's reagent. For the reaction conditions used in these tests, approximately equal fractions of the TPB were converted to benzene and carbon dioxide. Minimizing the formation of benzene is important to SRS personnel; however, this consideration was not addressed in the AEA-recommended parameters, since they did not analyze for benzene in the off-gas. Smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and other organics were also produced. One test used a simulant with much lower concentrations of salts, representing washed sludge, and this test produced much smaller amounts of benzene. The nitrite ions in the simulant were oxidized to nitrate, which would increase the amount of peroxide required to oxidize all of the organic carbon. Oxygen is the primary constituent of the off-gas produced from treatment of the samples.

  14. Colloid facilitated transport of lanthanides through discrete fractures in chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Emily; Klein Ben-David, Ofra; Teutsch, Nadya; Weisbrod, Noam

    2015-04-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the internationally agreed-upon, long term solution for the disposal of long lived radionuclides and spent fuel. Eventually, corrosion of the waste canisters may lead to leakage of their hazardous contents, and the radionuclides can ultimately make their way into groundwater and pose a threat to the biosphere. Engineered bentonite barriers placed around nuclear waste repositories are generally considered sufficient to impede the transport of radionuclides from their storage location to the groundwater. However, colloidal-sized mobile bentonite particles eroding from these barriers have come under investigation as a potential transport vector for radionuclides sorbed to them. In addition, the presence of organic matter in groundwater has been shown to additionally facilitate the uptake of radionuclides by the clay colloids. This study aims to evaluate the transport behaviors of radionuclides in colloid-facilitated transport through a fractured chalk matrix and under geochemical conditions representative of the Negev desert, Israel. Lanthanides are considered an acceptable substitute to actinides for research on radionuclide transportation due to their similar chemical behavior. In this study, the migration of Ce both with and without colloidal particles was explored and compared to the migration of a conservative tracer (bromide). Tracer solutions containing known concentrations of Ce, bentonite colloids, humic acid and bromide were prepared in a matrix solution containing salt concentrations representative of that of the average rain water found in the Negev. These solutions were then injected into a flow system constructed around a naturally fractured chalk core. Samples were analyzed for Ce and Br using ICP-MS, and colloid concentrations were determined using spectrophotographic analysis. Breakthrough curves comparing the rates of transportation of each tracer were obtained, allowing for comparison of transport rates and calculation of overall tracer recovery. Preliminary results suggest that mobility of Ce as a solute is negligible, and in experiments conducted without bentonite colloids, the 2% of the Ce that was recovered during the experiments travelled as "intrinsic" colloids in the form of Ce2(CO3)3-6H2O precipitate. However, the total recovery of the Ce increased to 9% when it was injected into the core in the presence of bentonite colloids and 13% when both bentonite and the carbonate precipitate colloids were injected. In addition, the maximum relative concentration (C/C0) of the Ce in the samples from the experiments conducted without bentonite colloids is about 0.002, whereas that of the experiments conducted in the presence of bentonite colloids reaches almost 0.2. This indicates that colloid presence does indeed markedly increase the mobility of radionuclides through fractured chalk matrices and should therefore be considered in models representing transport of radionuclide waste originating from nuclear repositories.

  15. Chemiluminescence flow sensor for folic acid with immobilized reagents.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Zhou, X

    2001-11-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) sensor for folic acid combined flow-injection (FI) technology was presented in this paper. The analytical reagents involved in the CL reaction, including luminol and hexacyanoferrate(III), were both immobilized on an anion-exchange column in FI system. The CL signal produced by the reaction between luminol and hexacyanoferrate(III), which were eluted from the column through sodium phosphate injection, was decreased in the presence of folic acid. The CL emission was correlated with the folic acid concentration in the range from 0.01 to 15 microg ml(-1), and the detection limit was 3.5 ng ml(-1) folic acid (3sigma). At a flow rate of 2.0 ml min(-1), including sampling and washing, could be performed in 2 min with a relative standard deviation of < 2.5%. The flow sensor could be reused more than 300 times and has been applied to the analysis of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. and the recovery was from 97.4% to 100.4%. PMID:11765783

  16. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins using oxidized quercetin reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Gamal A.; El-Shaboury, Salwa R.; Mohamed, Fardous A.; Rageh, Azza H.

    2009-09-01

    A simple, precise and accurate kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of cefoperazone sodium, cefazolin sodium and ceftriaxone sodium in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. The method is based upon a kinetic investigation of the reaction of the drug with oxidized quercetin reagent at room temperature for a fixed time of 30 min. The decrease in absorbance after the addition of the drug was measured at 510 nm. The absorbance concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 80-400 ?g mL -1 for all studied drugs. The concentration of the studied drugs was calculated using the corresponding calibration equation for the fixed time method. The determination of the studied drugs by initial rate, variable time and rate-constant methods was feasible with the calibration equations obtained but the fixed time method has been found to be more applicable. The analytical performance of the method, in terms of accuracy and precision, was statistically validated; the results were satisfactory. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied drugs in commercial pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with a well established reported method showed excellent agreement and proved that there is no significant difference in the accuracy and precision.

  17. False negative results from using common PCR reagents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The sensitivity of the PCR reaction makes it ideal for use when identifying potentially novel viral infections in human disease. Unfortunately, this same sensitivity also leaves this popular technique open to potential contamination with previously amplified PCR products, or "carry-over" contamination. PCR product carry-over contamination can be prevented with uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UNG), and it is for this reason that it is commonly included in many commercial PCR master-mixes. While testing the sensitivity of PCR assays to detect murine DNA contamination in human tissue samples, we inadvertently discovered that the use of this common PCR reagent may lead to the production of false-negative PCR results. Findings We show here that contamination with minute quantities of UNG-digested PCR product or any negative control PCR reactions containing primer-dimers regardless of UNG presence can completely block amplification from as much as 60 ng of legitimate target DNA. Conclusions These findings could potentially explain discrepant results from laboratories attempting to amplify MLV-related viruses including XMRV from human samples, as none of the published reports used internal-tube controls for amplification. The potential for false negative results needs to be considered and carefully controlled in PCR experiments, especially when the target copy number may be low - just as the potential for false positive results already is. PMID:22032271

  18. Simultaneous Dual Protein Labeling using a Triorthogonal Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Kumarapperuma, Sidath C.; Gabrielse, Kari; Fegan, Adrian; Wagner, Carston R.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Construction of heterofunctional proteins is a rapidly emerging area of biotherapeutics. Combining a protein with other moieties such as a targeting element, a toxic protein or small molecule, a fluorophore or PEG groups, can improve the specificity, functionality, potency, and pharmacokinetic profile of a protein. Protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) is able to site-specifically and quantitatively prenylate proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX box amino acid sequence with various modified isoprenoids. Here, we describe the design, synthesis and application of a triorthogonal reagent, 1, that can be used to site-specifically incorporate an alkyne and aldehyde group simultaneously into a protein. To illustrate the capabilities of this approach, a protein was enzymatically modified with 1 followed by oxime ligation and click reaction to simultaneously incorporate an azido-TAMRA fluorophore and an aminooxy-PEG moiety. This was done with both a model protein (GFP) as well as a therapeutically useful protein (CNTF). Next, a protein was enzymatically modified with 1 followed by coupling to an azido-bis-methotrexate dimerizer and aminooxy-TAMRA. Incubation of that construct with a DHFR-DHFR-anti-CD3 fusion protein resulted in the self-assembly of nanoring structures that were endocytosed into T-leukemia cells and visualized therein. These results highlight how complex multifunctional protein assemblies can be prepared using this this facile triorthogonal approach. PMID:24134212

  19. Simultaneous dual protein labeling using a triorthogonal reagent.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Kumarapperuma, Sidath C; Gabrielse, Kari; Fegan, Adrian; Wagner, Carston R; Distefano, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Construction of heterofunctional proteins is a rapidly emerging area of biotherapeutics. Combining a protein with other moieties, such as a targeting element, a toxic protein or small molecule, and a fluorophore or polyethylene glycol (PEG) group, can improve the specificity, functionality, potency, and pharmacokinetic profile of a protein. Protein farnesyl transferase (PFTase) is able to site-specifically and quantitatively prenylate proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX-box amino acid sequence with various modified isoprenoids. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and application of a triorthogonal reagent, 1, that can be used to site-specifically incorporate an alkyne and aldehyde group simultaneously into a protein. To illustrate the capabilities of this approach, a protein was enzymatically modified with compound 1 followed by oxime ligation and click reaction to simultaneously incorporate an azido-tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) fluorophore and an aminooxy-PEG moiety. This was performed with both a model protein [green fluorescent protein (GFP)] as well as a therapeutically useful protein [ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)]. Next, a protein was enzymatically modified with compound 1 followed by coupling to an azido-bis-methotrexate dimerizer and aminooxy-TAMRA. Incubation of that construct with a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-DHFR-anti-CD3 fusion protein resulted in the self-assembly of nanoring structures that were endocytosed into T-leukemia cells and visualized therein. These results highlight how complex multifunctional protein assemblies can be prepared using this facile triorthogonal approach. PMID:24134212

  20. Effects of acidifying reagents on microwave treatment of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Nkansah-Boadu, Frank; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2014-01-01

    Dairy manure, acidified using organic acids (acetic, oxalic, and citric acid) were treated with microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP). The effect of a mixture of oxalic acid and commonly used mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acid) on MW/H2O2-AOP was also examined. Substantial amounts of phosphorus were released under MW/H2O2-AOP, regardless of organic acid or mineral acid used. All three organic acids were good acidifying reagents; however, only oxalic acid could remove free calcium ion in the solution, and improve settleability of dairy manure. The MW/H2O2-AOP and calcium removal process could be combined into a single-stage process, which could release phosphate, solubilize solids and remove calcium from dairy manure at the same time. A mixture of oxalic acid and mineral acid produced the maximum volume of clear supernatant and had an ideal molar ratio of calcium to magnesium for effective struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) crystallization process. A single-stage MW/H2O2-AOP would simplify the process and reduce mineral acid consumption compared to a two-stage operation. The results of a pilot scale study demonstrate that MW/H2O2-AOP is effective in treating manure and recovering resource from dairy farms. PMID:24813989

  1. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  2. Strong shift equivalence theory and the shift equivalence problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. WAGONER

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses strong shift equivalence and counterexamples to the long standing Shift Equivalence Problem in symbolic dynamics. We also discuss how strong shift equivalence theory is closely related to areas of mathematics outside dynamics such as algebraic K-theory, cyclic homology, and topological quantum eld theory.

  3. Measurement of high acidity using a renewable-reagent fiber optic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, K.J.; Dyke, J.T.

    1995-02-01

    The renewable-reagent sensor concept was initially developed to address shortcomings in fiber optic chemical sensors dependent on immobilized, reversible reagents to produce analyte specific responses. The renewable-reagent sensor incorporates semi-selective membranes, analyte specific reagents and remote spectroscopic detection to extract selective responses. While renewable-reagent fiber optic sensor have been demonstrated for a number of chemical sensing applications, the transfer of laboratory prototypes to real world applications require devices which oversample the measurement matrix to differentiate among environmental and analyte specific response components. For example, optical sensor which acquire broadband rather than single wavelength spectroscopic data provide diagnostics regarding the identity of and measurement error associated with matrix interferences. The following describes the fabrication and evaluation of two renewable-reagent fiber optic sensor designs for the measurement of HNO{sub 3} in the 0.1 M to 10.0 M concentration range. Both sensor designs employ an internal pH indicator reagent and broadband visible spectroscopic detection to characterize HNO{sub 3} concentration.

  4. DETERMINATION OF URANIUM USING DISODIUM 1:8-DIHYDROXYNAPHTHALENE-3:6- DISULPHONATE (CHROMOTROPIC SALT) AS A COLORIMETRIC REAGENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Mukherji; A. K. Dey

    1958-01-01

    The use of disodium 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6disulfonate ; (chromotropic salt) as a reagent for the determination of uranium on a micro-; scale is described. The reagent is sensitive to 30 ppm of uranium, and Beer's ; law holds good in the range of concentration of 50 to 200 ppm. The reagent ; added should be at least 30 times the molar concentration

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of new lanthanide coordination polymers with nitrilotriacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang; Zhang, Li-Ping; Jin, Lin-Pei

    2004-04-01

    Reported herein are the hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structures of four lanthanide coordination polymers with nitrilotriacetic acid (H 3NTA) [Ln(NTA)(H 2O)] n (Ln=La, 1; Pr, 2; Nd, 3; Eu, 4). Despite similar syntheses, compounds 1 to 4 show transformation in coordination mode of NTA and coordination number of Ln 3+ duo to lanthanide contraction. The Ln(III) ions in 1 and 2 are nine-coordinated and connected through octadentate bridging ligands (NTA) to form a three-dimensional network. The Ln(III) ions in 3 and 4 are eight-coordinated and bridged by heptadentate bridging ligands (NTA) to form an extended two-dimensional layer structure, which further construct a three-dimensional supramolecular structure via coordination bond and three-centered hydrogen bonding between adjacent layers.

  6. Synthesis and lanthanide coordination chemistry of trifluoromethyl derivatives of phosphinoylmethyl pyridine N-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pailloux, Sylvie [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Shirima, Cornel Edicome [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Duesler, Eileen N. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Smith, Karen Ann [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Paine, Robert T. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Klaehn, John D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); McIlwain, Michael E [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A synthetic route for the formation of 2-[bis-(2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine N-oxide (1c) and 2-[bis-(3,5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-phosphinoylmethyl]-pyridine N-oxide (1d) was developed and the new ligands characterized by spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The coordination chemistry of the ligands was examined with early and late lanthanide ions. The molecular structure of one complex, [Yb(1c)(NO3)3(DMF)](DMF)(H2O)0.5, was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods and the ligand found to coordinate in a bidentate fashion. This coordination chemistry is compared against lanthanide coordination chemistry observed for the related ligand, [Ph2P(O)CH2] C5H4NO.

  7. Separation of yttrium from heavy lanthanide by CA-100 using the complexing agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y G; Xiong, Y; Meng, S L; Li, D Q

    2004-05-28

    The selective extraction of yttrium from heavy lanthanide by liquid-liquid extraction using CA-100 in the presence of the complexing agent, such as EDTA, DTPA, and HEDTA was investigated. The extraction of heavy lanthanide in the present of the complexing agent was suppressed when compared to that of Y because of the masking effect, but the selective extraction of Y was enhanced. All complexing agents formed 1:1 complex with rare earth elements (RE), and only free rare earth ions could take part in the extraction. The condition for separation was obtained by exploring the effects of the complexing agent concentration, the extractant concentration, pH and the equilibration time on the extraction of the heavy rare earth elements. PMID:18969423

  8. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  9. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  10. Structural and photophysical properties of lanthanide complexes with N-(diphenylphosphoryl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzycka, E.; Trush, V. A.; Amirkhanov, V. M.; Jerzykiewicz, L.; Gawryszewska, P.

    2014-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes with N-(diphenylphosphoryl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (HPMSP) as new sensitizers of visible luminescence were obtained. The series of stable lanthanide complexes Na[Ln(PMSP)4], where Ln = Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+ were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra at 295 and 77 K as well as luminescence decay times and intrinsic emission quantum yields. The Tb complex, exhibiting relatively efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer and strong metal-centred emission, is a promising candidate for effective UV-to-visible energy converters. Temperature dependent quenching of sensitized 5D0 europium emission and presence of 5D1 emission are discussed.

  11. Lanthanide nano-drums: a new class of molecular nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications†

    PubMed Central

    Gnanam, Annie J.; Arambula, Jonathan F.; Jones, Jessica N.; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W.; DePue, Lauren J.; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Ehrlich, Lauren I. R.; Brown, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a new class of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as potential reporter molecules for imaging, and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors in diagnostic systems. These lanthanide “nano-drums” are homogeneous 4d–4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter that can emit from the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here, we present syntheses, crystal structures, photophysical properties, and comparative cytotoxicity data for six nano-drums containing either Eu, Tb, Lu, Er, Yb or Ho. Imaging capabilities of these nano-drums are demonstrated using epifluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and two-photon microscopy. We discuss how these molecular nanoparticles can to be adapted for a range of assays, particularly by taking advantage of functionalization strategies with chemical moieties to enable conjugation to protein or nucleic acids. PMID:25284181

  12. Synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with a novel multipodal ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhen-Zhong; Hou, Na; Wang, Cong-Min

    2015-02-01

    Solid complexes of lanthanide nitrates with an novel multipodal ligand, 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-bis{N,N-bis[((2?-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-aminomethyl}-benzene (L) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and molar conductivity measurements. At the same time, the luminescent properties of the Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) nitrate complexes in solid state were investigated. Under the excitation of UV light, these complexes exhibited characteristic emission of central metal ions. The lowest triplet state energy level of the ligand indicates that the triplet state energy level (T1) of the ligand matches better the resonance level of Tb(III) than other lanthanide ions.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with a novel multipodal ligand.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen-Zhong; Hou, Na; Wang, Cong-Min

    2015-02-25

    Solid complexes of lanthanide nitrates with an novel multipodal ligand, 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-bis{N,N-bis[((2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-aminomethyl}-benzene (L) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and molar conductivity measurements. At the same time, the luminescent properties of the Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) nitrate complexes in solid state were investigated. Under the excitation of UV light, these complexes exhibited characteristic emission of central metal ions. The lowest triplet state energy level of the ligand indicates that the triplet state energy level (T1) of the ligand matches better the resonance level of Tb(III) than other lanthanide ions. PMID:25305620

  14. [On the issue of the safety of reagents used for water treatment and purification].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A V; Tafeeva, E A; Snigirev, S V; Churikov, F I

    2014-01-01

    There was shown the actuality of the problem of the safety of reagents used for water treatment. There have been analyzed several composite reagents used in Russia in the Practice of Water-Supplying Treatment. In technical specifications for these reagents, there was no information on the origin, composition and properties of modifying additives 'M', the synthetic polyelectrolytes level (%). Up to date, there are no available analytical methods permitting to determine reliably the content of polymers and monomers at the levels actually present in water after application of synthetic polyelectrolytes. It is necessary to strengthen the control over the use of synthetic polyelectrolytes in water-supplying practice. PMID:25831931

  15. 2-Hydroxymethylboronate as a reagent to detect carbohydrates: application to the analysis of the formose reaction.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Alonso; Frye, Fabianne; Carrigan, Matthew A; Tipton, Jeremiah D; Powell, David H; Benner, Steven A

    2006-12-01

    2-Hydroxymethylphenylboronate is described as a reagent that converts neutral 1,2-diols, as found in simple carbohydrates, into 1:1 anionic complexes that are easily detected by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The value of this reagent was demonstrated through its application to analyze complex mixtures of carbohydrates formed in the formose process, often cited as a way that biologically significant carbohydrates might have been generated from formaldehyde under prebiotic conditions. Coupled with isotope studies, the reagent shows that the simplest autocatalytic cycle for the consumption of formaldehyde in this process cannot account for the bulk consumption of formaldehyde. PMID:17137382

  16. Shifting Times Tables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity provides students with an opportunity to recognize arithmetic sequences and at the same time reinforces identifying multiples. The interactivity displays five numbers and the student must discover the times table pattern and the numerical shift. On Levels 1 and 2, the first five numbers in the sequence are given and on Levels 3 and 4, the numbers given could be any five numbers in the sequence. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of some lanthanide metal ions by polyoxyalkylene systems.

    PubMed

    Jaber, A M; Al-Naser, A E

    1997-10-01

    Polyoxyalkylene systems, namely, polypropylene glycol (PPG-1025), polyethylene glycol (PEG-600) and polybutadieneoxide (PBDO-700) dissolved in either nitrobenzene or 1,2-dichloroethane have been tested as prospective extractants for some lanthanide metal ions (Eu(3+), Pr(3+) and Er(3+)) from their aqueous solutions in the presence of picrate anions. The metal ions were quantified before and after extraction using the inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry technique. The percent extraction and the distribution coefficients have indicated that pH of the aqueous phase, picrate concentration and the organic solvent are the major parameters that affect the extraction efficiency of the metal ions. The optimum pH range was found to be 3.5-5.5 and the picrate concentration should be as high as possible; however, a picrate concentration of about 0.05 M proved to be adequate for a near quantitative extraction. In all cases, nitrobenzene enhanced a higher percent extraction compared to 1,2-dichloroethane. The efficiency of the polyoxyalkylene systems to extract certain lanthanide metal ions was in the order PBDO-700>PPG-1025>PEG-600 when nitrobenzene was the organic solvent and in the order PPG-1025>PBDO-700 approximately PEG-600 when 1,2-dichloroethane used as the solvent in the organic phase. The extractability of PPG-1025 towards the lanthanide metal ions was in the order Pr(3+)>Eu(3+)>Er(3+) irrespective of the organic solvent used. The stoichiometry of the extracted polyoxyalkylene ion-pairs with the lanthanide metal ions has been estimated. Each mole of metal ions is associated with three moles of picrate anions and 13 to 14 moles of propyleneoxide units in the case of PPG-1025, and about 9 to 10 moles of ethyleneoxide units in the case of PEG-600 and 10 moles of butadieneoxide units in the case of PBDO-700. PMID:18966911

  18. Localized and Itinerant States in Lanthanide Oxides United by GW @ LDA U Hong Jiang,1

    E-print Network

    for CeO2 and Ce2O3. Unlike the LDA þ U method G0W0 exhibits only a weak dependence on U in a physically [CeO2 and Ln2O3 (Ln ¼ lanthanide se- ries)] [6] in this Letter. These compounds have important technological applications [7­12], in particular, in cataly- sis, where CeO2-based compounds have attracted

  19. Micronebulization for trace analysis of lanthanides in small biological specimens by ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valderi L. Dressler; Dirce Pozebon; Andreas Matusch; J. Sabine Becker

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the development of a mass spectrometric method for the determination of lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) at ng g-1 levels in small amounts of biological specimens by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Two different systems were investigated for introducing the aqueous solutions

  20. Micronebulization for trace analysis of lanthanides in small biological specimens by ICP-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valderi L. Dressler; Dirce Pozebon; Andreas Matusch; J. Sabine Becker

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the development of a mass spectrometric method for the determination of lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) at ngg?1 levels in small amounts of biological specimens by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Two different systems were investigated for introducing the aqueous solutions of

  1. Structural Studies on Dy to 119 GPa and Applications to Lanthanide Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J; Akella, J

    2005-05-31

    The Rare Earth elements (REE) are known to undergo crystallographic as well as electronic structure changes with applied pressure. On increasing pressure, the trivalent lanthanides follow the sequence hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} fcc {yields} dfcc. In this report we present room-temperature high-pressure x-ray diffraction data for Dy as well as our observations on the post-dfcc phases and concomitant volume changes in the heavy REE.

  2. Lanthanide doping in ZnS and SrS thin-film electroluminescent devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Keir; C. Maddix; B. A. Baukol; J. F. Wager; B. L. Clark; D. A. Keszler

    1999-01-01

    The relative high field transport efficiency and short wavelength electroluminescence (EL) potential of the phosphors ZnS and SrS for alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) device flat-panel display applications are assessed via a comparison of the EL spectra of ZnS and SrS ACTFEL devices prepared in a very similar manner and doped with the same lanthanide luminescent impurities: Dy, Er, Ho, Tb,

  3. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naifu Zhou; Jinguang Wu; Zhijian Yu; R. D. Neuman; Dujin Wang; Guangxian Xu

    1997-01-01

    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl\\u000a ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination\\u000a structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemica nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of\\u000a the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed

  4. Extraction study of lanthanide nitrato complexes - the adogen-464NOâ - NHâNOâ system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sokolowska; S. Siekierski

    1983-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanides and yttrium was studied in the interval of ammonium nitrate concentrations from 1 to 10M, and of Adogen-464 nitrate concentrations from 0.00039 to 0.39M. From the aqueous phase separation factor and from the published stability constant for europium (Eu), stability constants for 1:1 complexes of lanthanum (La), neodymium (Nd), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), thulium (Tm), lutetium (Lu)

  5. Actinide-lanthanide separation with solvents on the base of amides of heterocyclic diacids

    SciTech Connect

    Babain, V.A.; Alyapyshev, M.Y.; Tkachenko, L.I. [Khlopin Radium Institute, 28, 2ndMurinski pr., St-Petersburg, Russia 19402 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The separation of actinides from lanthanides with a particular emphasis on Am(III) from Eu(III) with amides of heterocyclic dicarboxylic diacids was reviewed. It was shown that the di-amides of the 2,2'-dipyridyl-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid are the most promising ligands for the simultaneous selective recovery of actinides from HLLW (high level radioactive liquid waste) within the GANEX concept. (author)

  6. High pressure phase diagrams of binary lanthanide alloys between La, Ce and Pr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Degtyareva; W. B. Holzapfel

    2000-01-01

    In comparison with the “regular” binary alloy phase diagrams between “regular” trivalent lanthanide metals, binary intralanthanide alloys of Ce exhibit many irregularities typical for Ce under pressure due to its f electron delocalization. For comparison with the La-Ce and Ce-Pr high pressure phase diagrams also the more regular La-Pr data are presented for the pressure range up to 40GPa.

  7. Biofunctionalization, cytotoxicity, and cell uptake of lanthanide doped hydrophobically ligated NaYF4 upconversion nanophosphors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingning Shan; Jianbo Chen; Juan Meng; Josh Collins; Wole Soboyejo; Joseph S. Friedberg; Yiguang Ju

    2008-01-01

    Surface biofunctionalization of the hydrophobic lanthanide ion doped hexagonal phase NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) was achieved by introducing amino and carboxyl groups, respectively. Amino groups were added by using the 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane reaction after a thin layer of SiO2 coating. The carboxyl groups on surface were added directly by coating modified amphiphilic polyacrylic acid polymer. Experimental studies of cytotoxicity and cell

  8. Preparative effects on poly(ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes of lanthanide salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos J. R. Silva; Michael J. Smith

    1995-01-01

    A series of solid polymer electrolytes prepared from commercial poly(ethylene oxide) and lanthanide triflates (La3+, Nd3+ and Eu3+), in which the salt ions are solubilised by complexation with the oxygen atoms in the flexible polymer molecule, has been studied using ac conductivity and thermal analysis measurements. Two techniques, solvent casting and hot-pressing, were applied to produce a range of polymer

  9. Lanthanide tetramethoxyborate complexes isolated from reductive amination of 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, K.D.; Kahwa, I.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, Kingston (Jamaica)); Johnson, M.P.; Mague, J.T.; McPherson, G.L. (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States))

    1993-04-14

    Treatment of a hot methanolic solution of 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol (1 mmol), 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanediamine (2 mmol), and a lanthanide(III) nitrate (1 mmol) with sodium cyanotrihydroborate (1.5 mmol) unexpectedly yields a mixture of isostructural but totally different compounds, [Ln(B(OCH[sub 3])[sub 4])(NO[sub 3])[sub 2](CH[sub 3]OH)[sub 2

  10. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT B COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Marra; Charles L. Crawford; Ned E. Bibler

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE\\/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during

  11. Topological aspects of lanthanide–adipate–aqua compounds: Close packed and open framework structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, Durga Sankar; Kumar Jana, Swapan; Hazari, Debdoot [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India); Zangrando, Ennio, E-mail: ezangrando@units.it [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Via L. Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalai, Sudipta, E-mail: sudipta@mail.vidyasagar.ac.in [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2013-07-15

    A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) for lanthanide complexes with adipate [OOC(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}COO]{sup 2?} and aqua ligands retrieved a fair number of compounds. To this dataset a new lanthanum metal–organic framework, ([La{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) (adipH{sub 2}=adipic acid), synthesised and structurally characterized in these labs, was included. The crystal structures of these coordination polymers, of general formulation [Ln{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub x}], exhibit a variety of topologies and dimensionality, which were clustered in different classes and described in detail. It was explored that the majority of these evidences the presence of metal chains or dinuclear Ln{sub 2} entities (separated in both cases by 4.0–4.8 Å), where lanthanide ions are differently connected by carboxylate groups with chelating or oxygen-bridging mode. The different amount of coordinated water molecules appear to affect the solid state networks. Moreover the crystal packing of these compounds shows peculiar aspects and examples were reported in the literature where the long alkyl chain of adipate connectors give rise to interpenetrated structures, or to porous material where lattice water or neutral larger molecules are clathrated. - Graphical abstract: A survey of structures and topologies of lanthanide adipate compounds is presented. A newly synthesized lanthanium adipate complex ([La{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (adipH{sub 2}=adipic acid) is also reported. - Highlights: • The use of lanthanide and adipic acid demonstrate the possibility to construct coordination polymer of different dimensionality. • The number of coordination and adipate conformation influence the different topologies. • The ionic radii of the rare earth cations seem also to affect the architecture observed.

  12. Generation and electronic properties of lanthanide–cyclooctatetraene organometallic clusters in gas phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kurikawa; Y. Negishi; F. Hayakawa; S. Nagao; K. Miyajima; A. Nakajima; K. Kaya

    1999-01-01

    Organometallic clusters of lanthanide (Ln = Nd, Er, Eu, and Yb) and 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (C 8H 8) were produced by a combination of laser vaporization and molecular beam methods. In the mass spectra of [Ln n(C 8H 8) m], compositions of m=n+1 were magic numbers. From mass spectrometry, photoionization spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy, we have concluded that these magic-numbered clusters take

  13. Microbial formation of lanthanide-substituted magnetites by Thermoanaerobacter sp. TOR-39.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Roh, Yul; Yeary, Lucas W; Lauf, Robert J; Rawn, Claudia J; Love, Lonnie J; Phelps, Tommy J

    2007-11-01

    The potentially toxic effects of soluble lanthanide (L) ions, although microbially induced mineralization can facilitate the formation of tractable materials, has been one factor preventing the more widespread use of L-ions in biotechnology. Here, we propose a new mixed-L precursor method as compared to the traditional direct addition technique. L (Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho and Er)-substituted magnetites, L( y )Fe(3 - y )O(4) were microbially produced using L-mixed precursors, L( x )Fe(1 - x )OOH, where x = 0.01-0.2. By combining lanthanides into the akaganeite precursor phase, we were able to mitigate some of the toxicity, enabling the microbial formation of L-substituted magnetites using a metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter sp. TOR-39. The employment of L-mixed precursors enabled the microbial formation of L-substituted magnetite, nominal composition up to L(0.06)Fe(2.94)O(4), with at least tenfold higher L-concentration than could be obtained when the lanthanides were added as soluble salts. This mixed-precursor method can be used to extend the application of microbially produced L-substituted magnetite, while also mitigating their toxicity. PMID:17673945

  14. Structural, Magnetic and Luminescent Properties of Lanthanide Complexes with N-Salicylideneglycine

    PubMed Central

    Van?o, Ján; Trávní?ek, Zden?k; Kozák, Ond?ej; Bo?a, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A series of anionic heavy lanthanide complexes, involving the N-salicylideneglycinato(2-) Schiff base ligand (salgly) and having the general formula K[Ln(salgly)2(H2O)2]?H2O (1–6), where Ln stands for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, was prepared using the one-pot template synthesis. The complexes were thoroughly characterized by elemental and Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopies, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and their magnetic properties were studied by temperature-dependent dc magnetic measurements using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The X-ray structure of the terbium(III) complex (2), representing the unique structure between the lanthanide complexes of N-salicylideneamino acids, was determined. The results of spectral and structural studies revealed the isostructural nature of the prepared complexes, in which the lanthanide ion is octacoordinated by two O,N,O-donor salgly ligands and two aqua ligands. The analysis of magnetic data confirmed that the complexes behave as paramagnets obeying the Curie law. The results of photoluminescence spectral studies of the complexes showed the different origin in their luminescent properties between the solid state and solution. An antenna effect of the Schiff base ligand was observed in a powder form of the complex only, while it acts as a fluorophore in a solution. PMID:25927576

  15. A new type of metal chelate affinity chromatography using trivalent lanthanide ions for phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Munazza R; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Güzel, Yüksel; Schemeth, Dieter; Stasyk, Taras; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Huber, Lukas A; Rode, Bernd M; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-05-21

    In this study, a new type of immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resin for the isolation of phosphopeptides was synthesized which is based on the specific interaction between phosphate groups and chelated lanthanide metal ions. In this regard trivalent lanthanum, holmium and erbium ions were chelated to a highly porous phosphonate polymer which was prepared by radical polymerization of vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) and divinylbenzene (DVB). The developed method was evaluated with peptide mixtures from digested standard proteins (?-casein, ?-casein and ovalbumin) as well as with bovine milk, egg white and a spiked HeLa cell lysate. Compared to the commonly used TiO2 approach, the presented method showed higher selectivity for phosphorylated peptides. This can be explained by the strong preference of trivalent lanthanide ions for phosphates with which they form very tight ionic bonds. Mono- and multiply phosphorylated peptides could be enriched and released in a single basic elution step, while non-phosphorylated peptides remained on the resin. Ab initio quantum mechanical energy minimizations of model complexes for polymer-ion-ligand interactions provided geometries, binding energies and charges which are discussed in conjunction with the observed experimental properties, leading to the most satisfying agreement. The presented lanthanide-IMAC resins represent promising affinity materials for the selective isolation of phosphopeptides from biological samples. PMID:23552617

  16. A series of binuclear lanthanide(III) complexes: Crystallography, antimicrobial activity and thermochemistry properties studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ren, Ning; Xu, Su-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Da-Hai

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel lanthanide complexes with the general formula [Ln(3,4-DClBA)3phen]2 (Ln = Ho(1), Nd(2), Sm(3), Dy(4), Eu(5), Tb(6), Yb(7) and Er(8), 3,4-DClBA = 3,4-dichlorobenzoate, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were prepared at room temperature and characterized. The crystal structures of complexes 1-8 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These complexes are isomorphous and lanthanide ions are all eight-coordinated to oxygen atoms and nitrogen atoms with distorted square-antiprism geometry. The thermal decomposition mechanism and TG-FTIR spectra of gaseous products of thermal decomposition processes for complexes 1-8 were acquired through TG/DSC-FTIR system. The heat capacities of complexes 1-8 were measured using DSC technology and fitted to a polynomial equation by the least-squares method. Complexes 3-6 display characteristic lanthanide emission bands in the visible region. Meanwhile, these complexes exhibit in good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureu.

  17. Effect of Lanthanide Ions on Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Enhancement and Liquid State T1 Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jeremy; Fain, Sean B.; Rowland, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    In the dynamic nuclear polarization process, microwave irradiation facilitates exchange of polarization from a radical’s unpaired electron to nuclear spins at cryogenic temperatures, increasing polarization by >10000. Doping samples with Gd3+ ions further increases the achievable solid-state polarization. However, upon dissolution, paramagnetic lanthanide metals can be potent relaxation agents, decreasing liquid-state polarization. Here, the effects of lanthanide metals on the solid and liquid-state magnetic properties of [1-13C]pyruvate are studied. The results show that in addition to gadolinium, holmium not only increases the achievable polarization but also the rate of polarization. Liquid-state relaxation studies found that unlike gadolinium, holmium minimally affects T1. Additionally, results reveal that linear contrast agents dissociate in pyruvic acid, greatly reducing liquid-state T1. While macrocyclic agents do not readily dissociate, they yield lower solid-state polarization. Results indicate that polarization with free lanthanides and subsequent chelation during dissolution produces the highest polarization enhancement while minimizing liquid-state relaxation. PMID:22367680

  18. Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C?O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates

    SciTech Connect

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-07-15

    Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C?O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C?O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C?O cleavage occurs via a C?H ? O?H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C?O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C?O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

  19. Syntheses and characterization of novel lanthanide adamantine-dicarboxylate coordination complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xing; Wei Danyi; Huang Shijie [Institute of Solid Materials Chemistry, State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zheng Yueqing [Institute of Solid Materials Chemistry, State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)], E-mail: zhengyueqing@nbu.edu.cn

    2009-01-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}L) and lanthanide chlorides yielded six compounds: [Ln(L)(HL)(phen)] (Ln=Pr, 1; Nd, 2), [Ln(L)(HL)(phen)(H{sub 2}O)] (Sm, 3; Eu, 4), [Tb(L)(HL)(phen)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (5), [Er{sub 3}(L){sub 4}(OH)(phen)]{sub 2} (6). Compounds 1-4 are structurally featured by one-dimensional polymeric chains; 5 hold binuclear structure constructed from eight-coordinated lanthanide center LnN{sub 2}O{sub 6} of distorted bicapped trigonal prism bridged by dicarboxylate ligands; 6 shows that erbium ions are in mono and bicapped trigonal prismatic geometries, respectively, which are further connected by {mu}{sub 3}-OH to give rise to trinuclear structure. Thermogravimetric analyses of 1, 3 and 5 were performed. Fluorescent measurements of 4 and 5 were carried out, respectively. - Grapical Abstract: Hydrothermal reactions of 1,10-phenanthroline, 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid and lanthanide choloride yielded a novel supramolecular architectures constructed from polyhedral LnN{sub 2}O{sub 6} of distorted bicapped trigonal prism bridged by dicarboxylate.

  20. Lanthanide near infrared imaging in living cells with Yb3+ nano metal organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Foucault-Collet, Alexandra; Gogick, Kristy A.; White, Kiley A.; Villette, Sandrine; Pallier, Agnès; Collet, Guillaume; Kieda, Claudine; Li, Tao; Geib, Steven J.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Petoud, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We have created unique near-infrared (NIR)–emitting nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) incorporating a high density of Yb3+ lanthanide cations and sensitizers derived from phenylene. We establish here that these nano-MOFs can be incorporated into living cells for NIR imaging. Specifically, we introduce bulk and nano-Yb-phenylenevinylenedicarboxylate-3 (nano-Yb-PVDC-3), a unique MOF based on a PVDC sensitizer-ligand and Yb3+ NIR-emitting lanthanide cations. This material has been structurally characterized, its stability in various media has been assessed, and its luminescent properties have been studied. We demonstrate that it is stable in certain specific biological media, does not photobleach, and has an IC50 of 100 ?g/mL, which is sufficient to allow live cell imaging. Confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma measurements reveal that nano-Yb-PVDC-3 can be internalized by cells with a cytoplasmic localization. Despite its relatively low quantum yield, nano-Yb-PVDC-3 emits a sufficient number of photons per unit volume to serve as a NIR-emitting reporter for imaging living HeLa and NIH 3T3 cells. NIR microscopy allows for highly efficient discrimination between the nano-MOF emission signal and the cellular autofluorescence arising from biological material. This work represents a demonstration of the possibility of using NIR lanthanide emission for biological imaging applications in living cells with single-photon excitation. PMID:24108356

  1. A new heavy lanthanide-dependent DNAzyme displaying strong metal cooperativity and unrescuable phosphorothioate effect

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Matuszek, ?aneta; Liu, Juewen

    2015-01-01

    In vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes was performed using three heavy lanthanide ions (Ln3+): Ho3+, Er3+ and Tm3+. The resulting sequences were aligned together and about half of the library contained a new family of DNAzyme. These DNAzymes have a simple loop structure, and they are active only with the seven heavy Ln3+. Among the tested non-lanthanide ions, only Y3+ induced cleavage and even Pb2+ failed to cleave, suggesting a very high specificity. A representative DNAzyme, Tm7, has a sigmoidal metal binding curve with a Hill coefficient of 3, indicating that three metal ions are involved in the catalytic step. Its pH-rate profile has a slope of 1, suggesting a single deprotonation step is involved in the rate-limiting step. Tm7 has a cleavage rate of 1.6 min?1 at pH 7.8 with 10 ?M Er3+. Phosphorothioate substitution at the cleavage junction completely inhibits the activity, which cannot be rescued by Cd2+ alone, or by a mixture of Er3+ and Cd2+, suggesting that two interacting metal ions are involved in direct bonding to both non-bridging oxygen atoms. A new model involving three lanthanide ions is proposed based on this study. A biosensor is engineered using Tm7 to detect Dy3+ down to 14 nM. PMID:25488814

  2. A family of lanthanide-based coordination polymers with boronic Acid as ligand.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao; Freslon, Stéphane; Daiguebonne, Carole; Pollès, Laurent Le; Calvez, Guillaume; Bernot, Kevin; Yi, Xiaohui; Huang, Gang; Guillou, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Reactions in water between the sodium salt of 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (Hcpb) and lanthanide ions (Pr-Nd, Sm-Lu, and Y) led to a family of lanthanide-based coordination polymers with general chemical formula {[Ln(cpbOH)(H2O)2](cpb)}?. Structural characterizations were ensured by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy ((11)B, (13)C, and (89)Y). This family of compounds constitutes the first example of lanthanide-based coordination polymers involving 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid as ligand. To evaluate their potential usefulness, luminescent and magnetic properties of some of the compounds that constitute this family were explored. From a magnetic point of view, the Yb(III) compound is the more promising. On the other hand, upon UV irradiation (?exc = 303 nm) ligand phosphorescence is quite intense and offers a sizable blue component to emission spectra. This is quite unusual and can constitute an asset as far as white emission is targeted. Moreover, luminescence properties of these compounds are highly temperature-dependent, and some of them seem promising as molecular thermometers. PMID:25974836

  3. STRUCTURAL CRITERIA FOR THE MODEL OF BONDING IN ORGANOACTINIDES AND -LANTHANIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Eigenbrot, Jr., Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    Following the structure analysis of uranocene, U(C{sub 8}H{sub 8}){sub 2}, we found to our surprise that almost nothing was known about the structure and bonding of organoactinides and lanthanides - a situation we have endeavored to change during the intervening years. The reported synthesis of uranocene in 1968 by Mueller-Westerhoff and Streitwieser sparked renewed interest in a field that had remained dormant since the synthesis of the cyclopentadienide compounds in the early 1950's. Two recent Accounts articles have described some of the subsequent developments in this field. A question which frequently occurs in discussions of this chemistry is: 'How covalent is the bonding in these compounds?' Within a careful and limited structural definition of covalent and ionic bonding, this question can be examined in some detail. This Account, while summarizing much of the structural information accumulated during the last ten years, will focus on the unifying structural trends in these compounds and the question of the mode of bonding. Complete reviews of the structural chemistry and further discussion of the structural aspects of the bonding can be found elsewhere. Our discussion will consider scandium and yttrium as lanthanides, based on their general chemical similarity to the true lanthanides.

  4. Biosorption of Lanthanides from Aqueous Solutions Using Pretreated Buccinum tenuissimum Shell Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Koto, Yusuke; Kano, Naoki; Wang, Yudan; Sakamoto, Nobuo; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Biosorption experiment from aqueous solutions containing known amount of rare earth elements (REEs) using pre-treated Buccinum tenuissimum shell was explored to evaluate the efficiency of shell biomass as sorbent for REEs. In this work, four kinds of sieved shell samples: (a) “Ground original sample”, (b) “Heat-treatment (480°C, 6 hours) sample”, (c) “Heat-treatment (950°C, 6 hours) sample” and (d) “Heat-treatment (950°C, 6 hours) and water added sample” were used. Furthermore, to confirm the characteristics of the shell biomass, the crystal structure, the surface morphology, and the specific surface area of these shell samples were determined. Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The crystal structure of the shell biomass was transformed from aragonite (CaCO3) into calcite (CaCO3) phase by heat-treatment (480°C, 6 hours); then mainly transformed into calcium oxide (CaO) by heat-treatment (950°C, 6 hours), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) by heat-treatment (950°C, 6 hours) and adding water. (2) The shell biomass showed excellent sorption capacity for lanthanides. (3) Adsorption isotherms using the shell biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for lanthanides except “heat-treatment (950°C, 6 hours) sample”. (4) Shell biomass (usually treated as waste material) can be an efficient sorbent for lanthanides in future. PMID:20981250

  5. Homodinuclear lanthanide complexes of phenylthiopropionic acid: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, DNA cleavage, and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shiju, C; Arish, D; Kumaresan, S

    2013-03-15

    Lanthanide complexes of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), and Ho(III) with phenylthiopropionic acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, TGA, and powder XRD. The results show that the lanthanide complexes are homodinuclear in nature. The two lanthanide ions are bridged by eight oxygen atoms from four carboxylate groups. Thermal decomposition profiles are consistent with the proposed formulations. Powder XRD studies show that all the complexes are amorphous in nature. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit more activity than the ligand itself. The DNA cleavage activity of the ligand and its complexes were assayed on Escherichia coli DNA using gel electrophoresis in the presence of H(2)O(2). The result shows that the Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes have completely cleaved the DNA. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and colon cancer cells (HCT116) and it was found that the La(III) and Nd(III) complexes are more active than the corresponding Pr(III), Sm(III), Ho(III) complexes, and the free ligand on both the cancer cells. PMID:23395806

  6. Shifted nondiffractive Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Kotlyar, Victor V.; Porfirev, Alexey A.

    2015-05-01

    Nondiffractive Bessel beams are well known to have infinite energy and infinite orbital angular momentum (OAM). However, when normalized to unity of energy, their OAM is finite. In this work, we derive an analytical relationship for calculating the normalized OAM of the superposition of off-axis Bessel beams characterized by the same topological charge. We show that if the constituent beams of the superposition have real-valued weight coefficients, the total OAM of the superposition of the Bessel beams equals that of an individual nonshifted Bessel beam. This property enables generating nondiffractive beams with different intensity distributions but identical OAM. The superposition of a set of identical Bessel beams centered on an arbitrary-radius circle is shown to be equivalent to an individual constituent Bessel beam put in the circle center. As a result of a complex shift of the Bessel beam, the transverse intensity distribution and OAM of the beam are also shown to change. We show that, in the superposition of two or more complex-shifted Bessel beams, the OAM may remain unchanged, while the intensity distribution is changed. Numerical simulation is in good agreement with theory.

  7. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  8. Selectivity of reagents used to extract iron from soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Vasil'Ev, A. A.; Morgun, E. G.; Rumyantseva, K. A.

    2007-10-01

    The selectivity of the Tamm and Mehra-Jackson reagents to iron (hydr)oxides was verified chemically by comparing the efficiencies of the two methods of iron extraction: parallel (commonly adopted) and sequential, i.e., by calculating the difference ?Fe = [Fedit - (Feox(paral) + Fedit(seq))]. The expected equality of the extracted iron (i.e., ?Fe ˜ 0) is rarely observed. A positive balance reaching ?Fe = (0.5-0.8)% predominates upon iron extraction from forest soils of the Cis-Ural region. This is probably due to the stable Fe(II)-oxalate forming in the course of the Tamm extraction, which is incompletely dissolved by the dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). On the contrary, a negative balance with ?Fe reaching -0.4% predominates in the steppe soils of the Stavropol region. This may be caused by Fe(II) minerals (pyrite and siderite) acting as catalyzers in Tamm’s extract, while being weakly soluble in the DCB. To follow the additivity principle for the Tamm and Mehra-Jackson extracts, we suggest a modification of the Schwertmann criterion KSch = (Feox: Fedit(paral)), which sometimes exceeds 1, to K{Sch/m} = Feox: (Feox + Fedit(seq)), which is always less than 1. The values of the modified Schwertmann criterion better agree with the color of the Cis-Ural forest soils expressed in the CIE-L*a*b* optical system as compared with the initial Schwertmann criterion. In the steppe soils, the use of the modified criterion makes it possible to replace the illogical values of KSch = 1.11-1.37 by the quite acceptable K{Sch/m} = 0.68-0.83.

  9. Structures and Modes of Reactions of Some Hexachlorocyclodiphosphazane With Some Bifunctional Reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. M. Ibrahim

    1989-01-01

    Aminocyclodiphosph(v)azanes of the type (II-V) obtained from the interaction of hexachlorocyclodiphosphazanes (I) with some bifunctional reagents (such as phenylurea, diphenylurea, thiourea and its phenyl derivatives) in acetonitrile, have been discussed.

  10. Exp. Eye Res. (1987) 45, 961-967 Inhibition of Phase Separation by Reagents that Prevent

    E-print Network

    Clark, John

    1987-01-01

    and Benedek, 1982). Glycols, aldehydes, amides and imido esters lower T~ in lenses and prevent opacification. explanation for this effect is that these reagents are 'free radical scavengers' which react

  11. 21 CFR 866.3332 - Reagents for detection of specific novel influenza A viruses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification . Reagents for detection of specific novel influenza A viruses are devices that are intended for use in a nucleic acid amplification test to directly detect specific virus RNA in human respiratory specimens or viral cultures....

  12. 21 CFR 866.3332 - Reagents for detection of specific novel influenza A viruses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification . Reagents for detection of specific novel influenza A viruses are devices that are intended for use in a nucleic acid amplification test to directly detect specific virus RNA in human respiratory specimens or viral cultures....

  13. 21 CFR 809.30 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution and use of analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Requirements...ASR's may only be sold to: (1) In vitro diagnostic manufacturers; (2...reagent definition are sold to: (1) In vitro diagnostic manufacturers; or...

  14. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-5 - Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...portion thereof. When major amounts are to be destroyed, the action shall be coordinated with local air and water pollution control authorities. (3) Destruction of surplus drugs, biologicals, and reagents shall be performed by an...

  15. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  16. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the morphotypes of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria Chloroflexus and Chromatium and few bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes whereas the lows (at 22 mm depth) were associated with low abundances of cells and morphotype richnesses of these groups of prokaryotes, where M. chthonoplastes, Chloroflexus and Chromatium persisted. Europium showed independent trends from both groups, being closer to the "group B". As an additional fact, the trace element uranium, commonly associated to organic-matter-rich-sediments and in some cases a representative of reducing conditions, seems to be enriched similarly to the light lanthanide "group A". It is hard to withstand at this point, but the preliminary results might suggest a preferential adsorption of light versus heavy lanthanides to the cell walls of some specific types of bacteria. This might be a pure physicochemical effect or a biological mechanism.

  17. Acidic 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides with luminescent and catalytic ester hydrolysis properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mao-Long; Shi, Yan-Ru; Yang, Yu-Chen; Zhou, Zhao-Hui

    2014-11-01

    In acidic solution, a serials of water-soluble coordination polymers (CPs) were isolated as zonal 1D-CPs 1,3-propanediaminetetraacetato lanthanides [Ln(1,3-H3pdta)(H2O)5]n·2Cln·3nH2O [Ln=La, 1; Ce, 2; Pr, 3; Nd, 4; Sm, 5] (1,3-H4pdta=1,3-propanediaminetetraacetic acid, C11H18N2O8) in high yields. When 1 eq. mol potassium hydroxide was added to the solutions of 1D-CPs, respectively, two 1D-CPs [Ln(1,3-H2pdta)(H2O)3]n·Cln·2nH2O [Ln=Sm, 6; Gd, 7] were isolated at room temperature and seven 2D-CPs [Ln(1,3-H2pdta)(H2O)2]n·Cln·2nH2O [Ln=La, 8; Ce, 9; Pr, 10; Nd, 11; Sm, 12; Eu, 13; Gd, 14] were isolated at 70 °C. When the crystals of 1-4 were hydrothermally heated at 180 °C with 1-2 eq. mol potassium hydroxide, four 3D-CPs [Ln(1,3-Hpdta)]n·nH2O [Ln=La, 15; Ce, 16; Pr, 17; Nd, 18] were obtained. The two 2D-CPs [Ln(1,3-Hpdta)(H2O)]n·4nH2O (Sm, 19; Eu, 20) were isolated in similar reaction conditions. With the increments of pH value in the solution and reaction temperature, the structure becomes more complicated. 1-5 are soluble in water and 1 was traced by solution 13C{1H} NMR technique, the water-soluble lanthanides 1 and 5 show catalytic activity to ester hydrolysis reaction respectively, which indicate their important roles in the hydrolytic reaction. The europium complexes 13 and 20 show visible fluorescence at an excitation of 394 nm. The structure diversity is mainly caused by the variation of coordinated ligand in different pH values and lanthanide contraction effect. Acidic conditions are favorable for the isolations of lanthanide complexes in different structures and this may helpful to separate different lanthanides. The thermal stability investigations reveal that acidic condition is favorable to obtain the oxides at a lower temperature.

  18. Role of membrane sulfhydryl groups in stimulation of renin secretion by sulfhydryl reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S Doh; Cheol Joo Lee; Peter M Hwang; Kyung Woo Cho; Thomas W Honeyman; Chun Sik Park

    1991-01-01

    Role of membrane sulfhydryl groups in stimulation of renin secretion by sulfhydryl reagents. The present study was designed to address the reactivity and accessibility of the particular class of sulfhydryl groups involved in the regulatory process of renin secretion. Both mercurial (such as P-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate [PCMPS]) and non-mercurial sulfhydryl reagents (for example, 6,6-dithiodinicotinic acid [DTDN]), which very slowly penetrate the

  19. Reagent for the detection of protein thiocarboxylates in the bacterial proteome: lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl azide.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Kalyanaraman; Begley, Tadhg P

    2010-08-25

    Protein thiocarboxylates are involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin, molybdopterin, thioquinolobactin, and cysteine. Sequence analysis suggests that this post-translational modification is widely distributed in bacteria. Here we describe the development of lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl azide as a sensitive click reagent for the detection of protein thiocarboxylates and describe the use of this reagent to detect PdtH, a putative protein thiocarboxylate involved in the biosynthesis of the pyridine dithiocarboxylic acid siderophore, in the Pseudomonas stutzeri proteome. PMID:20677756

  20. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determinations for human blood lead using controlled reagent release technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Qu; Shan Cheng Yan; Hua Lu; Zu Hong Lu

    2008-01-01

    A flow-through CL method for the determination of lead combined with controlled-reagent-release technology has been developed.\\u000a Chemiluminescence (CL) reagents luminol and potassium permanganate were immobilized on anion exchange resin by electrostatic\\u000a interaction. Lead ion was determined by its enhancing effect on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium permanganate.\\u000a Both luminol and potassium permanganate were eluted from the anion exchange

  1. An Efficient Multistrategy DNA Decontamination Procedure of PCR Reagents for Hypersensitive PCR Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Mélanie; Bennett, E. Andrew; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background PCR amplification of minute quantities of degraded DNA for ancient DNA research, forensic analyses, wildlife studies and ultrasensitive diagnostics is often hampered by contamination problems. The extent of these problems is inversely related to DNA concentration and target fragment size and concern (i) sample contamination, (ii) laboratory surface contamination, (iii) carry-over contamination, and (iv) contamination of reagents. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a quantitative evaluation of current decontamination methods for these last three sources of contamination, and developed a new procedure to eliminate contaminating DNA contained in PCR reagents. We observed that most current decontamination methods are either not efficient enough to degrade short contaminating DNA molecules, rendered inefficient by the reagents themselves, or interfere with the PCR when used at doses high enough to eliminate these molecules. We also show that efficient reagent decontamination can be achieved by using a combination of treatments adapted to different reagent categories. Our procedure involves ?- and UV-irradiation and treatment with a mutant recombinant heat-labile double-strand specific DNase from the Antarctic shrimp Pandalus borealis. Optimal performance of these treatments is achieved in narrow experimental conditions that have been precisely analyzed and defined herein. Conclusions/Significance There is not a single decontamination method valid for all possible contamination sources occurring in PCR reagents and in the molecular biology laboratory and most common decontamination methods are not efficient enough to decontaminate short DNA fragments of low concentration. We developed a versatile multistrategy decontamination procedure for PCR reagents. We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA. PMID:20927390

  2. Mercury-free preparation and selective reactions of propargyl (and propargylic) Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Hukum P; Miyoshi, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuichi

    2007-08-30

    ZnBr2 was found to catalyze formation of propargyl and propargylic Grignard reagents, and thus put an end to the standard method using a mercury catalyst. The Grignard reagents were submitted to addition reaction with carbonyl compounds and allylation with the cyclic monoacetate to afford the propargyl-type products selectively. Furthermore, the product from the monoacetate was transformed to an acetylene analogue of 2-(5,6-epoxyisoprostane A2)phosphorylcholines. PMID:17685623

  3. Thymidylate synthase inspired biomodel reagent for the conversion of uracil to thymine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Palwinder; Kumar, Arun; Kaur, Sukhmeet; Singh, Amrinder

    2015-06-01

    Inspired by TSase catalysis for dUMP conversion to dTMP, a biomodel reagent is developed. The presence of NH2, Gly-(S)-Cys and (S)-oxiran methyl, at C5, C4 and N-10 of acridine, respectively, in addition to the pH of the reaction mixture, allows for good complementary inter- and intra-molecular interactions and chiral discrimination for the reagent to achieve conversion of uracil to thymine. PMID:25997777

  4. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    DOEpatents

    Herling, Darrell R (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T. (Middleton, WI) [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  5. Method of generating hydrocarbon reagents from diesel, natural gas and other logistical fuels

    DOEpatents

    Herling, Darrell R. (Richland, WA); Aardahl, Chris L. (Richland, WA); Rozmiarek, Robert T. (Middleton, WI); Rappe, Kenneth G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Holladay, Jamelyn D. (Kennewick, WA)

    2010-06-29

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  6. On the Efect of the Oxidative Reagents on the Conductivity of Polyaniline/MMT Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Bernabé, A.; Gil-Agustí, M.; Ortega, G.; Llovera, P.; Almarza, A.; Vázquez, S.; Amantia, D.; Aubouy, L.

    2010-06-01

    The synthesis of polyaniline has been reported using three different oxidative reagents: ammonium persulfate, potassium iodate and potassium iodate+sodium hypochlorite. This polyaniline has been used to prepare several nanocomposites with different percentage of Montmorillonite. The DC conductivity of the nanocomposites was determined by impedance spectroscopy. The oxidative reagent that gives higher conductivity is ammonium persulfate. The temperature dependence of the conductivity was studied.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of nickel using a new chromogenic reagent in plant leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. SURESH KUMAR; B. LOKANATH SWAROOP; S. PRABHAKARA RAO; P. CHIRANJEEVI

    2004-01-01

    A Spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel in plant leaves with new chromogenic reagent is presented. A new highly sensitive and selective chromogenic reagent dibromo?p?methyl?carboxyazo was synthesized; in 0.25 M phosphoric acid medium, which greatly increases the selectivity. Nickel reacts with DBMCA to form a 1:2 mole?ratio bluish red complex, having a sensitive absorption peak at 625 nm under optimal conditions.

  8. Phase shifting interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. Whereas current interferometers illuminate the optic to be tested with an aberrated wavefront which also limits the accuracy of the measurement, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical measurement wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  9. Phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An interferometer which has the capability of measuring optical elements and systems with an accuracy of .lambda./1000 where .lambda. is the wavelength of visible light. Whereas current interferometers employ a reference surface, which inherently limits the accuracy of the measurement to about .lambda./50, this interferometer uses an essentially perfect spherical reference wavefront generated by the fundamental process of diffraction. This interferometer is adjustable to give unity fringe visibility, which maximizes the signal-to-noise, and has the means to introduce a controlled prescribed relative phase shift between the reference wavefront and the wavefront from the optics under test, which permits analysis of the interference fringe pattern using standard phase extraction algorithms.

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Deactivates Common Nitrobenzofurazan-Based Fluorescent Thiol Labeling Reagents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sulfhydryl-containing compounds, including thiols and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), play important but differential roles in biological structure and function. One major challenge in separating the biological roles of thiols and H2S is developing tools to effectively separate the reactivity of these sulfhydryl-containing compounds. To address this challenge, we report the differential responses of common electrophilic fluorescent thiol labeling reagents, including nitrobenzofurazan-based scaffolds, maleimides, alkylating agents, and electrophilic aldehydes, toward cysteine and H2S. Although H2S reacted with all of the investigated scaffolds, the photophysical response to each scaffold was significantly different. Maleimide-based, alkylating, and aldehydic thiol labeling reagents provided a diminished fluorescence response when treated with H2S. By contrast, nitrobenzofurazan-based labeling reagents were deactivated by H2S addition. Furthermore, the addition of H2S to thiol-activated nitrobenzofurazan-based reagents reduced the fluorescence signal, thus establishing the incompatibility of nitrobenzofurazan-based thiol labeling reagents in the presence of H2S. Taken together, these studies highlight the differential reactivity of thiols and H2S toward common thiol-labeling reagents and suggest that sufficient care must be taken when labeling or measuring thiols in cellular environments that produce H2S due to the potential for both false-positive and eroded responses. PMID:24852143

  11. The Yariv reagent: behaviour in different solvents and interaction with a gum arabic arabinogalactan-protein.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, B S; Craik, D J; Dunstan, D E; Stone, B A; Bacic, A

    2014-06-15

    The ?-D-Glc Yariv reagent is frequently used to isolate and to study the structure of arabinogalactan-proteins with the arabinogalactan type II structure. The present paper describes the aggregation features of the Yariv reagent in water, salt solutions and in organic solvents as determined by NMR, absorption spectroscopy and light scattering experiments. The results indicate that in water the Yariv reagent forms aggregates of up to 300 units and in 1% aqueous NaCl the degree of aggregation is approx. 150. The aggregates are formed both by H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions, the former appearing to be of most importance in water. The interaction between the Yariv reagent and an AGP fraction from gum arabic, showed a degree of aggregation of the Yariv reagent when using 1% NaCl to be of approx. 150 units, whereas disruption of the aggregate took place in 10% NaCl with an aggregation number of approx. 100. Partial acid hydrolysis of an AGP from gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) and analyses of the linkage types remaining indicated that a certain length of (1?3)-?-linked galactose units was necessary for binding between the Yariv reagent and the AGP. This is in accordance to what also was recently observed by Kitazawa et al. (2013). PMID:24721102

  12. Lanthanide oxide clusters: from tetrahedral [Dy4(?4-O)](10+) to supertetrahedral [Ln20(?4-O)11]38+ (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er).

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Quan; Liao, Xiao-Fen; Jia, Jian-Hua; Leng, Ji-Dong; Liu, Jun-Liang; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Supertetrahedral clusters: A family of lanthanide oxide supertetrahedral T3{Ln20} clusters (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho, Er; see figure) were obtained from the solvothermal reaction of lanthanide(III) salts with polytriazolate ligands that could be methylated and oxidized in situ. PMID:23794500

  13. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  14. Development of a Novel Derivatization Reagent for the Sampling and Analysis of Total Isocyanate Group in Air and Comparison of its Performance with that of Several Established Reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Streicher; James E. Arnold; M. Kathleen Ernst; Charles V. Cooper

    1996-01-01

    Analytical reference standards generally are not available for non-monomeric isocyanate species, making accurate identification and quantitation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) difficult. A successful derivatizing reagent must react rapidly with all isocyanate groups, the derivatized isocyanate must be detectable selectively and at very low levels, and the detector used for quantitation must give a response proportional to the number of

  15. Trifunctional conjugation reagents. Reagents that contain a biotin and a radiometal chelation moiety for application to extracorporeal affinity adsorption of radiolabeled antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Kegley, Brian B; Nilsson, Rune; Sandberg, Bengt E B; Brechbiel, Martin

    2002-01-01

    A method of removing radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from blood using a device external to the body, termed extracorporeal affinity-adsorption (EAA), is being evaluated as a means of decreasing irradiation of noncancerous tissues in therapy protocols. The EAA device uses an avidin column to capture biotinylated-radiolabeled mAbs from circulated blood. In this investigation, three trifunctional reagents have been developed to minimize the potential deleterious effect on antigen binding brought about by the combination of radiolabeling and biotinylation of mAbs required in the EAA approach. The studies focused on radiolabeling with (111)In and (90)Y, so the chelates CHX-A' '-DTPA and DOTA, which form stable attachments to these radionuclides, were incorporated in the trifunctional reagents. The first trifunctional reagent prepared did not incorporate a group to block the biotin cleaving enzyme biotinidase, but the two subsequent reagents coupled aspartic acid to the biotin carboxylate for that purpose. All three reagents used 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine as water-soluble spacers between an aminoisophthalate core and the biotin or chelation group. The mAb conjugates were radioiodinated to evaluate cell binding as a function of substitution. Radioiodination was used so that a direct comparison with unmodified mAb could be made. Evaluation of the number of conjugates per antibody versus cell binding immunoreactivities indicated that minimizing the number of conjugates was best. Interestingly, a decrease of radioiodination yield as a function of the number of isothiocyanate containing conjugates per mAb was noted. The decreased yields were presumably due to the presence of thiourea functionality formed in the conjugation reaction. Radiolabeling with (111)In and (90)Y was facile at room temperature for conjugates containing the CHX-A' ', but elevated temperature (e.g., 45 degrees C) was required to obtain good yields with the DOTA chelate. Stability of (90)Y labeled mAb in serum, and when challenged with 10 mM EDTA, was high. However, challenging the (90)Y labeled mAb with 10 mM DTPA demonstrated high stability for the DOTA containing conjugate, but low stability for the CHX-A' ' containing conjugate. Thus, the choice between these two chelating moieties might be made on requirements for facile and gentle labeling versus very high in vivo stability. Application of the trifunctional biotinylation reagents to the blood clearance of labeled antibodies in EAA is under investigation. The new reagents may also be useful for other applications. PMID:12236790

  16. X-ray absorption and magnetic studies of trivalent lanthanide ions sorbed on pristine and phosphate-modified boehmite surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Soh-joung; Helmke, Philip A.; Amonette, James E.; Bleam, William F.

    2002-12-24

    The feasibility of immobilizing radionuclides on mineral surfaces was examined in the absence and the presence of phosphate anions, using trivalent lanthanide ions (Eu3+, Gd3+, and Dy3+) as chemical analogues of trivalent actinide radionuclides. The amount of the lanthanide ions (Ln3+) sorbed on boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) surfaces dramatically increased on the presence of phosphate below pH 5. The structure of the sorbed lanthanide was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We proved Dy3+ forms precipitates on boehmite surfaces in the presence of phosphate, and Gd3+ both in the presence and absence of phosphate. In the presence of phosphate, however, these rare-earth cations react to from ultrafine particles of LnPO4 surface precipitates on boehmite surfaces.

  17. Interactions of trivalent lanthanide cations with tetradentate Schiff bases: New lanthanide(III) complexes from (1 S,2 S, N 1 E, N 2 E)– N, N?-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mantha Tsiouri; Nick Hadjiliadis; Taner Arslan; Benson M. Kariuki; John C. Plakatouras

    2006-01-01

    The novel lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(NO3)3(MeOH)L] (Ln=La 1, Pr 2), and [Ln(NO3)3L]·MeOH (Ln=Sm 3, Gd 4) where L=N,N?-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, have been obtained by direct reaction of the Schiff base ligand and the corresponding hydrated lanthanide(III) nitrates in methanol. All complexes were characterized spectroscopically and thermogravimetrically. Complexes 2 and 3 were also characterized with crystallographic studies. In the molecular structure of 2, Pr(III)

  18. Microstructural Changes In Thermally Cycled U-Pu-Zr-Am-Np Metallic Transmutation Fuel With 1.5% Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

    2008-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing metallic actinide-zirconium alloy fuels for the transmutation of minor actinides as part of a closed fuel cycle. The molten salt electrochemical process to be used for fuel recycle has the potential to carry over up to 2% fission product lanthanide content into the fuel fabrication process. Within the scope of the fuel irradiation testing program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), candidate metal alloy transmutation fuels containing quantities of lanthanide elements have been fabricated, characterized, and delivered to the Advanced Test Reactor for irradiation testing.

  19. Binary lanthanide(III)/nitrate and ternary lanthanide(III)/nitrate/chloride complexes in an ionic liquid containing water: optical absorption and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Liu, Lisheng; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-14

    The formation of binary Ln(iii)/nitrate and ternary Ln(iii)/nitrate/chloride complexes in a water-saturated ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (denoted BumimTf(2)N), was investigated by absorption spectrophotometry and luminescence spectroscopy. Four successive binary complexes, Nd(NO(3))(2+), Nd(NO(3))(2)(+), Nd(NO(3))(3), and Nd(NO(3))(4)(-), were identified, and their stability constants in water-saturated BumimTf(2)N are several orders of magnitude higher than those in aqueous solutions, but much lower than those observed in dry BumimTf(2)N. The complexation of lanthanides with nitrate in wet BumimTf(2)N proceeds via the replacement of water molecules by bidentate nitrate anions from the inner solvation spheres of Ln(3+) cations. In the absence of nitrate, the precipitation of Ln(iii)/chloride complex(es) occurs at low ratios of C(Cl)/C(Ln) (<6) in BumimTf(2)N, which precludes the determination of stability constants of binary Ln(iii)/chloride complexes by spectrophotometry or luminescence spectroscopy. However, using a competition approach, the formation of two ternary complexes, Ln(NO(3))(3)Cl(2)(2-) and Ln(NO(3))(2)Cl(4)(3-), has been observed and their stability constants in wet BumimTf(2)N were determined. Data indicate that both nitrate and chloride are stronger ligands than water for lanthanides in BumimTf(2)N. PMID:25567210

  20. Portable shift register

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M[sup 3]CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M[sup 3]CA; like the M[sup 3]CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel.