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Sample records for lapland

  1. A descent of the aurora over Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiter, Daniel; Partamies, Noora

    2014-05-01

    A very large statistical study (≃ 4 × 105 measurements) into the peak emission height of the aurora has shown that the aurora over Lapland descended significantly between 1996 and 2007. The study was performed using images from a network of ground-based all-sky cameras which form part of the MIRACLE (Magnetometers-Ionospheric Radar-All-sky Cameras Large Experiment) network, and are located at various observation stations across northern Finland and Sweden. The height of the aurora was first measured about a century ago. Since then, it has generally been assumed that the peak emission height of any particular auroral emission is constant for similar geomagnetic conditions. The present work was motivated by the need to improve estimates of the height of the aurora used to calculate other ionospheric and auroral properties, such as optical flow velocities and auroral arc widths. In recent years MIRACLE has produced approximately 105 images of the aurora per station per year. In order to analyse such a large number of images, a novel fast and automatic method was developed for finding the peak emission height of an auroral structure from a pair of all-sky camera images with overlapping fields of view. This method has been applied to all auroral images recorded by the MIRACLE intensified CCD cameras in operation between 1996 and 2007. Such a large data set allows the study of variations in the height of the aurora with time (yearly, monthly, hourly) and with solar and geomagnetic indices such as F10.7 and Kp. Results from the statistical study show that the peak emission height of green (557.7 nm, O1S - O1D transition) aurora over Lapland descended by about 10 km between 1996 and 2007. This descent occurred independently of the solar cycle, and is thought to be due to a cooling and contraction of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  2. In-flight breech delivery in Finnish lapland.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Ilkka; Pirnes, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Although medical crews may initially approach obstetric transport requests with (at least internal) trepidation, it has been shown that the risk of an in-flight delivery occurring is extremely low, even among patients considered high risk.(1-4) Nevertheless, the greatest concern of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) personnel remains the potential for in-flight delivery.(5) Finland is a Northern European country, with a land area almost equivalent to that of the US state of New Mexico. The Finnish HEMS system is managed by FinnHEMS, and there are 6 HEMS units in Finland. The northernmost HEMS unit, FinnHEMS 51, is based at Rovaniemi Airport in Finnish Lapland, which is located within the Arctic Circle; it operates over a remote and sparsely habited area. Finnish Lapland accounts for almost 30% of Finland by area; however, the density of population is low (only 2.0 persons per square kilometer), and the average annual year-round temperature is only -1°C (30°F).(6) So far, there has been only 1 reported in-flight delivery; in 1939, a baby girl was born in an airplane operated by the Finnish Border Guard.(7.) PMID:25441526

  3. Catastrophic-flood Features in Swedish Lapland as a Terrestrial Analog for Martian Channel Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.; Rhodes, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding associated with deglaciation created unusual landscapes in several areas of northern Sweden. These areas in Swedish Lapland are distinguished by the large grain-size material that forms them. The presence of boulders at both Viking landing sites suggests the relevance of this analog. The Baldakatj area of Swedish Lapland offers terrestrial analogs for erosional remnants on Mars. Although the Baldakatj features are an order of magnitude or more smaller than the Martian forms, they created in boulder-rich till that may be a good approximation of the near-surface material on Mars. The Baldakatj area also includes other landforms that could reasonably be expected to occur with the Martian outflow channels, including boulder deltas, large transported blocks, and large-scale bedforms.

  4. Controls of sediment transfers, sedimentary budgets and relief development in cold environments: Results from four catchment systems in Iceland, Swedish Lapland and Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    By the combined, longer-term and quantitative recording of relevant denudative slope processes and stream work in four selected catchment systems in sub-arctic oceanic Eastern Iceland (Hrafndalur and Austdalur), arctic-oceanic Swedish Lapland (Latnjavagge) and sub-arctic oceanic Finnish Lapland (Kidisjoki), information on the absolute and relative importance of the different denudative processes is collected. Direct comparison of the four catchment geo-systems (the catchment sizes range from 7 km2 to 23 km2) allows conclusions on major controls of sediment transfers, sedimentary budgets and relief development in theses cold climate environments. To allow direct comparison of the different processes, all mass transfers are calculated as tonnes multiplied by meter per year, i.e. as the product of the annually transferred mass and the corresponding transport distance. Ranking the different processes according to their annual mass transfers shows that stream work dominates over slope denudation. For Hrafndalur (Eastern Iceland) the following order of denudative processes is found after nine years of process studies (2001 - 2010): (1) Fluvial suspended sediment plus bedload transport, (2) Fluvial solute transport, (3) Rock falls plus boulder falls, (4) Chemical slope denudation, (5) Mechanical fluvial slope denudation (slope wash), (6) Creep processes, (7) Avalanches, (8) Debris flows, (9) Translation slides, (10) Deflation. Compared to that, in Austdalur the following ranking is given after fourten years of process studies (1996 - 2010): (1) Fluvial suspended sediment plus bedload transport, (2) Fluvial solute transport, (3) Mechanical fluvial slope denudation (slope wash), (4) Chemical slope denudation, (5) Avalanches, (6) Rock falls plus boulder falls, (7) Creep processes, (8) Debris flows, (9) Deflation, (10) Translation slides. In the Latnjavagge catchment (Swedish Lapland) the ranking is (eleven-years period of studies, 1999 - 2010): (1) Fluvial solute transport

  5. Crustal Architecture of the Inverted Central Lapland Rift Along the HUKKA 2007 Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiira, Timo; Janik, Tomasz; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Grad, Marek; Korja, Annakaisa; Komminaho, Kari; HegedŰs, Endre; Kovács, Csaba Attila; Silvennoinen, Hanna; BrŰckl, Ewald

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the lateral velocity variations along a partly buried inverted paleo-rift in Central Lapland, Northern Europe with a 2D wide-angle reflection and refraction experiment, HUKKA 2007. The experiment was designed to use seven chemical explosions from commercial and military sites as sources of seismic energy. The shots were recorded by 102 stations with an average spacing of 3.45 km. Two-dimensional crustal models of variations in P-wave velocity and Vp/Vs-ratio were calculated using the ray tracing forward modeling technique. The HUKKA 2007 experiment comprises a 455 km long profile that runs NNW-SSE parallel to the Kittilä Shear Zone, a major deformation zone hosting gold deposits in the area. The profile crosses Paleoproterozoic and reactivated Archean terranes of Central Lapland. The velocity model shows a significant difference in crustal velocity structure between the northern (distances 0-120 km) and southern parts of the profile. The difference in P-wave velocities and Vp/Vs ratio can be followed through the whole crust down to the Moho boundary indicating major tectonic boundaries. Upper crustal velocities seem to vary with the terranes/compositional differences mapped at the surface. The lower layer of the upper crust displays velocities of 6.0-6.1 km/s. Both Paleoproterozoic and Archean terranes are associated with high velocity bodies (6.30-6.35 km/s) at 100 and 200-350 km distances. The Central Lapland greenstone belt and Central Lapland Granitoid complex are associated with a 4 km-thick zone of unusually low velocities (<6.0 km/s) at distances between 120 and 220 km. We interpret the HUKKA 2007 profile to image an old, partly buried, inverted continental rift zone that has been closed and modified by younger tectonic events. It has structural features typical of rifts: inward dipping rift shoulders, undulating thickness of the middle crust, high velocity lower crust and a rather uniform crustal thickness of 48 km.

  6. The Paleoproterozoic komatiite-hosted PGE mineralization at Lomalampi, Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törmänen, T.; Konnunaho, J. P.; Hanski, E.; Moilanen, M.; Heikura, P.

    2016-03-01

    Several komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-PGE deposits occur in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Greenstone Belts in Finland. Some of these deposits are enriched in platinum-group elements, especially in Pd and Pt. The Lomalampi PGE-(Cu-Ni) deposit is associated with a peridotitic cumulate body of the Sattasvaara Formation in the Paleoproterozoic Central Lapland Greenstone Belt. The sulfides in the deposit occur in disseminated form. Whole rock sulfur contents are 0.4-2 wt%, and Ni contents are <0.5 wt% and Cu <0.4 wt%, while PGE contents exceed 500 ppb. The sulfides consist of magmatic pentlandite, pyrrhotite, and chalcopyrite and have not been substantially modified by metamorphic processes. Palladium minerals are associated with sulfides and silicates, but the only Pt-bearing phase, sperrylite, occurs mainly within silicates. The host rock of the deposit is a chromite undersaturated Al-undepleted high-Mg basalt or low-Mg komatiite. In contrast to most other komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-PGE deposits world-wide that have Pt/Pd around 0.5, the Lomalampi deposit is enriched in Pt over Pd (Pt/Pd = 2). Only a weak contamination signal in the host-cumulate is evident in REE data, but a strong signal is evident in S-isotope ratios (δ34S + 10 ‰ to +15 ‰), which differ substantially from the mantle value (0 ± 2 ‰). Geochemical characteristics (e.g., PGE enrichment) and R-factor modeling indicate certain similarities between Lomalampi and the Raglan Ni-Cu-PGE deposits of Canada. The combined data suggest that Lomalampi formed through contamination of a PGE-rich magnesian magma with S rich country rocks. This suggests that the extensive Central Lapland Greenstone Belt is favorable for komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-PGE deposits, which are substantially enriched in platinum and palladium.

  7. Permafrost peatland dynamics during the last millennia in NE European Russia and Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Väliranta, Minna; Piilo, Sanna; Amesbury, Matthew; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost peatlands cover vast areas in circum-Arctic regions. Since the 1980s, annual temperatures in these areas have risen by ca. 2 °C and warming is projected to continue. Accordingly, the large carbon store in these peatlands may therefore be threatened. Alternatively, warming may increase productivity more than decomposition and peat accumulation rates may increase. To better understand how high latitude permafrost peatlands have responded to recent warming and what might be their future fate, we carried out detailed studies on two permafrost peatlands in NE Russia and two in Finnish Lapland. Our study methods included high resolution testate amoeba, plant macrofossil, C/N analyses, together with 210Pb and radiocarbon dating. We reconstructed changes in hydrological conditions, plant composition, and peat and carbon accumulation rates. Our preliminary results showed large variations in peat accumulation rates even within a very small area. Furthermore, testate amoeba and plant macrofossil data suggest variations in hydrological conditions during the last millennia. In the future, we will compare our regional data derived from different peatlands to each other, to climate reconstructions and to measured meteorological data.

  8. Radiocarbon dating of palaeosol components in moraines in Lapland, northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hormes, Anne; Karlén, Wibjörn; Possnert, Göran

    2004-10-01

    Accurate geochronologies are the key for comparison of palaeoclimate records. In order to clarify problems concerning the geochronology of glacier fluctuations we dated palaeosols in moraines in the Kebnekaise mountain region of Swedish Lapland. These palaeosols already have been dated several years ago using bulk samples of the palaeosols and yielded ages of 6180-5790 and 2750-2100 cal yr BP. In an attempt to evaluate the sources of contamination associated with bulk samples these soils were re-dated by using Coleoptera fragments, Cenococcum geophilum spores, humic acids and woody plant tissues. The new dates reveal that the two palaeosols found within the moraines represent much longer periods of time than was previously assumed. Soil formation periods can be distinguished for periods 7800-7580, 6300-4080, 2450-2000 and 1170-740 cal yr BP. These age groups point to differentiated soil formation processes, resedimentation, bioturbation and/or cryoturbation. The results show that dated terrestrial macrofossils from glacial moraines indicate climate changes that are in accordance with other proxy records in northern and central Scandinavia and in certain times off-phase with glacier fluctuations in southern maritime Norway. This throws light on possible changing interaction of forcing factors during the Holocene.

  9. Endolithic bacterial communities in rock coatings from Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland.

    PubMed

    Marnocha, Cassandra L; Dixon, John C

    2014-11-01

    Rock coatings in Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland, are widespread and mineralogically diverse. A preliminary study of the rock coatings revealed higher than expected bacterial diversity for an endolithic environment in the arctic. Using 454 Roche pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, nine rock coating samples from three different coating mineralogies were sequenced. The three coating types include Fe films of goethite and hematite, sulfate crusts of jarosite and gypsum, and aluminum glazes of basaluminite and alunite. Over 20,000 quality sequences were analyzed, and over 2800 operational taxonomic units were identified. Diversity indices and richness estimates confirmed high levels of diversity, particularly in the sulfate crusts with diversity indices at the level of complex soils. Inferred physiology shows the presence of both heterotrophs and autotrophs, with genera of autotrophic Fe and S metabolisms present in at least 2% of the total for each coating type. The most common phyla included Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria - all common soil taxa. Coatings also showed distinct community structure between coating mineralogies. Given the diversity in coating types found in areas receiving the same chemical and environmental inputs, the distinct microbial communities suggest a biological role in coating development. PMID:25118061

  10. Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  11. Sedimentary anisotropy diverges from flute trends in south-east Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Närhi, Paavo; Haavikko, Paula; Piekkari, Matti; Middleton, Maarit

    2010-12-01

    Subglacial flutes are parallel-to-ice flow lineations indicative of glacial streamlining, yet their depositional/erosional origin or sedimentary anisotropy is not fully understood. The flutes, aligned NW-SE with a flow direction to the SE, are superimposed on westerly oriented drumlins, in Kuusamo, south-eastern Finnish Lapland (65°45'N and 29°40'E) and reflect ice stream flow pattern towards the Younger Dryas End Moraines (YDEMs) in Russian Karelia. We investigated bedform morphology (flutes, drumlins and crescentic troughs), as well as sedimentary anisotropy of flute ridges and troughs using digital elevation models (DEMs), airborne radiometric (AR) data, and measurements of azimuthal electrical conductivity ( σa). The DEM-AR revealed elongation ratios ( L/ W) from 2:1 to 25:1, yet the highest ratios reached L/ W = 48:1. Flutes in the study area fan towards the east and south-east, whereas the drumlins on which they are superimposed show ice flow from the west (280°). The σa-anisotropy of the flute ridges and troughs indicates sedimentation from 340° to 350°, diagonal with respect to both drumlins and flutes. We found erosional crescentic troughs with down-flow rims indicative of both phases, but failed to find evidence for subglacial meltwater boulder lags or ice-flow erosional bedrock bump sticky spots. We contend that the studied flutes are erosional and date to the YDEM-phase, yet the origin of the precursory sediments may date to Early Weichselian.

  12. K, Rb, Sr, Ba, U and Th geochemistry of the Lapland Granulites (Fennoscandia). LILE fractionation controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbey, P.; Cuney, M.

    1982-12-01

    The LILE geochemical patterns of the three main lithological units (graywacke-shale metasedimentary sequence, tholeiitic metaigneous rocks and migmatitic rocks) of the Lapland Granulite belt are described. K, Ba, Sr and Th concentrations in metasediments are nearly similar to average continental crust, whereas Rb and U are unevenly impoverished. In particular graphitic metashales and calcsilicate rocks are not significantly depleted in uranium. Tholeiitic metaigneous rocks comprises metavolcanics which present K/Rb ratios similar to metasediments, and metaplutonics with LILE abundances close to those of the low-K-tholeiites. Migmatites show wide range in LILE content. Metatexites and diatexites have higher K, Rb, Th and U concentrations and similar K/Rb ratios with respect to equivalent unmobilized rocks. Potassic pegmatoïds are strongly enriched K, Rb, Ba and Th but moderately in Sr and U. Plagioclasic pegmatoids and ferromagnesian restites are rich in Sr and poor in other LIL elements. A comparative review of the LILE geochemistry between Lapland granulites and equivalent lithological units taken from non metamorphosed to high grade terrains suggest that fractionation processes are not systematic but controlled by original lithology and mineralogy, mineral — fluid equilibria during progressive (or retrogressive) metamorphism and mineral-melt-fluid equilibria during anatexis. Moreover, statistical analysis on K-Rb distribution patterns in these various rock types shows that there is no metamorphic trend characteristic of granulite facies terrains as previously suggested.

  13. GPRsurvey as a part of land-use planning in Levi, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupila, Juho

    2010-05-01

    The need for detailed information regarding overlying soil layers in townplanning areas has become an important issue, especially in certain areas of Finnish Lapland where the lack of usable soil materials is obvious. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a fast and cost-effective method of determining the structure of subsurface layers and quantity of soil material above the bedrock surface. This environmental project was carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland together with local enterprises, environmental authorities and an EU structural fund. One of the goals of the project was to use GPR to determine the thickness of soil layers and the differences in material above the bedrock level in certain target areas of the project. The study area is located in the municipality of Kittilä, in the center of the Levi ski resort. The study area (total size of 28 hectares) and surroundings are under fast townplanning and there are, for example, plans for a hotel, apartments and underground garages and service routes, thus it is very important to determine the volume of quarrying. As well, the quality and quantity of existing soil is valid data for the reuse of materials and upcoming construction. One drilling program has already been executed in the area (11 boreholes), so GPR profiles were planned based on this drilling data, soil mapping data and data collected from the townplanning map of the area. According to these earlier drillings and soil mapping, most of the soil in the study area was morainic, so the antenna for the GPR-survey was set at 100 MHz. The positioning method used in this project was VRS-GPS (Virtual Reference Station Global Positioning System), which is a very accurate positioning system to use. Accuracy can be as good as a few centimeters. After the GPR-survey, secondary drilling program was carried out according to the GPR-profiles, thus the total amount of collected data from the planning area was 23 boreholes and 3500 meters of GPR

  14. Methodology of determining soil structure in important groundwater areas: case studies in Kauvonkangas, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupila, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Finland is fully self-sufficient in clean groundwater and even has a capacity of exportation. There are approx. 6000 groundwater areas with a total yield of 5.4 million m3/day. Currently only 10% of this groundwater resource is in use. For the efficient and safe exploitation of these areas in the future, detailed modeling of soil structure is an important method in groundwater surveys. 3D -models improve the general knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as a base information in water supply service development and when performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, when creating the groundwater flow models the collected information is utilized and is usually the main data source. Geological Survey of Finland has carried out soil structure studies in co-operation with authorities, municipalities and the local water suppliers. The main objectives of these projects are to determine the geological structure of groundwater area for estimating the validity of the present exclusion area, the quantity of ground water volume and recharge capability and possible risks to the groundwater. Research areas are usually under an active water supply service. Kauvonkangas groundwater area is located in the municipality of Tervola, in Southern part of Finnish Lapland. Extent of the area is 7.9 km2 and it is an important water source for the local and nearby population centers. There are two active water supply companies in the area. Field studies in the project will include general geological and hydrological mapping, soil drilling with observation pipe installation, test pumping and water sampling. Geophysical measures will play a key-role, including ground penetrating radar (GPR) and gravimetric measurements. Studies will be carried out in spring and summer 2016. The main results will be the models of the bedrock and groundwater level and main characteristics of the soil layers in the area. Results

  15. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Dynamics Trough Fen-Stream-Lake Continuum in North Boreal Zone, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juutinen, S.; Kuutti, V.; Valiranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Weckstrom, J.; Tuittila, E.

    2006-12-01

    This study aims to determine spatial and temporal variation in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dynamics through a fen-lake continuum. Study was carried out in a catchment dominated by aapa mire over the period from spring 2005 to autumn 2006 in north boreal zone in Finnish Lapland. The study region characteristically has very high lake and mire density. To cover spatial variability we set measurement plots to different plant communities along moisture gradient in the fen and to different positions in the stream and lake. Six different mire communities, stream input to lake marginal mire, a lower stream site, lake in- and output sites, and three littoral and one pelagial site were measured. We measured CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes using closed chamber technique, and dissolved CO2 and CH4 concentrations using headspace equilibration technique weekly to biweekly over the open water season. In association of gas sampling peat and water temperatures, water levels in mire and lake, and stream flow rate were measured. Catchment boundaries and proportions of mire, lake and mineral soil area were determined using topographic maps, aerial photograph and field survey. Precipitation data is achieved from nearby weather station. We will present results of spatial and temporal pattern and seasonal budget of wetland atmosphere exchange of CO2 and CH4. Our preliminary results indicate that there is input of dissolved CO2 and CH4 from mire to the lake. In addition, our observations indicate that there is spatial variation in gas flux dynamics in aquatic environments in relation to the differences in stream flow rate and sediment quality. Seasonally varying hydrology causes changes in gas flux dynamics in all studied wetland surfaces. Information from this study improve the knowledge of carbon transport and balances in northern aapa mire region, where mires are commonly affected by through flow from watershed, and where number of small lakes is great.

  16. Auroras Now! - Auroral nowcasting service for Hotels in Finnish Lapland and its performance during winter 2003-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Mälkki, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nevanlinna, H.; Ketola, A.; Tulkki, V.; Raita, T.; Blanco, A.

    2004-12-01

    European Space Agency is currently supporting 17 Service Development Activities (SDA) within its Space Weather Pilot Project. Auroras Now!, one of the SDAs, has been operated during November 2003 - March 2004 as its pilot season. The service includes a public part freely accessible in Internet (http://aurora.fmi.fi) and a private part visible only to the customers of two hotels in the Finnish Lapland through the hotels' internal TV-systems. The nowcasting system is based on the magnetic recordings of two geophysical observatories, Sodankylä (SOD, MLAT ~64 N) and Nurmijärvi (NUR, MLAT ~57 N). The probability of auroral occurrence is continuously characterised with an empirically determined three-level scale. The index is updated once per hour and based on the magnetic field variations recorded at the observatories. During dark hours the near-real time auroral images acquired at SOD are displayed. The hotel service also includes cloudiness predictions for the coming night. During the pilot season the reliability of the three-level magnetic alarm system was weekly evaluated by comparing its prediction with auroral observations by the nearby all-sky camera. Successful hits and failures were scored according to predetermined rules. The highest credit points when it managed to spot auroras in a timely manner and predict their brightness correctly. Maximum penalty points were given when the alarm missed clear bright auroras lasting for more than one hour. In this presentation we analyse the results of the evaluation, present some ideas to further sharpen the procedure, and discuss more generally the correlation between local auroral and magnetic activity.

  17. Revealing a circadian clock in captive arctic-breeding songbirds, lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), under constant illumination.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Noah T; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Schwabl, Ingrid; Goymann, Wolfgang; Salli, Brady M; Bentley, George E; Buck, C Loren

    2014-12-01

    Most organisms in temperate or tropic regions employ the light-dark (LD) cycle as the primary Zeitgeber to synchronize circadian rhythms. At higher latitudes (>66°33'), continuous illumination during the summer presents a significant time-keeping dilemma for polar-adapted species. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding migratory songbirds, are one of the few recorded species maintaining an intact diel rhythm in activity and plasma melatonin titers during polar summer. However, it is unknown whether rhythms are endogenous and entrain to low-amplitude polar Zeitgeber signals, such as daily variations in light intensity and the spectral composition of the sun (as measured by color temperature). Wild-caught male and female longspurs were brought into captivity, and locomotor activity was assessed using infrared detection. To examine if rhythms were endogenous, birds were exposed to constant bright light (LL; 1300 lux) or constant darkness (DD; 0.1 lux). All birds exhibited free-running activity rhythms in LL and DD, suggesting the presence of a functional circadian clock. Mean periods in LL (22.86 h) were significantly shorter than those in DD (23.5 h), in accordance with Aschoff's rule. No birds entrained to diel changes in light intensity, color temperature, or both. To examine endogenous molecular clock function, the Per2 gene was partially cloned in longspurs (llPer2) and transcripts were measured in hypothalamic tissue punches, eye, and liver using competitive polymerase chain reaction. Ocular llPer2 gene expression was periodic in LL and elevated at ZT24 (CT24) for LD or constant conditions (LL and DD), but llPer2 rhythmicity was not detected in hypothalamus or liver. Plasma melatonin was significantly lower in LL compared with LD or DD. In conclusion, rhythmic ocular Per2 expression and melatonin secretion may maintain the circadian activity rhythm across the polar day. PMID:25326246

  18. Airborne LiDAR detection of postglacial faults and Pulju moraine in Palojärvi, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutinen, Raimo; Hyvönen, Eija; Middleton, Maarit; Ruskeeniemi, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Postglacial faults (PGFs) are indicative of young tectonic activity providing crucial information for nuclear repository studies. Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data revealed three previously unrecognized late- or postglacial faults in northernmost Finnish Lapland. Under the canopies of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) we also found clusters of the Pulju moraine, typically found on the ice-divide zone of the former Fennoscandian ice sheet (FIS), to be spatially associated with the fault-scarps. Tilt derivative (TDR) filtered LiDAR data revealed the previously unknown Palojärvi fault that, by the NE-SW orientation parallels with the well documented Lainio-Suijavaara PGF in northern Sweden. This suggests that PGFs are more extensive features than previously recognized. Two inclined diamond drill holes verified the fractured system of the Palojärvi fault and revealed clear signs of postglacial reactivation. Two other previously unrecognized PGFs, the W-E trending Paatsikkajoki fault and the SE-NW trending Kultima fault, differ from the Palojärvi faulting in orientation and possibly also with regard to age. The Pulju moraine, a morphological feature showing transitions from shallow (< 2-m-high) circular/arcuate ridges to sinusoidal/anastomosing esker networks was found to be concentrated within 6 km from the Kultima fault-scarp. We advocate that some of the past seismic events took place under the retreating wet-base ice sheet and the increased pore-water pressure triggered the sediment mass flows and formation of the Pulju moraine-esker landscape.

  19. How different sources of climate databases influence assessment of growth response in dendroclimatic analyses - case study from Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, R.; Vido, J.; Škvarenina, J.; Pichler, V.; Scheer, L.; Škvareninová, J.; Nalevanková, P.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the comparison of the time series from different climate databases. We compared the measured data with the modelled data of monthly and seasonal temperature means and precipitation totals. Reliable and as long as possible time series of such data represent the basic starting point of dendroclimatic analyses. We evaluated the differences in the growth response of spruce derived using different databases of the stated climatic characteristics. The stem cores used to derive the cross-correlation function were taken from Hårås locality situated in the boreal zone of the Swedish part of Lapland. We compared the measured records from the nearest meteorological stations situated 18 and 40 km away from the locality with the interpolated values from CRU TS 3.21 climate database and with the reconstructed 502-year-long database. The spatial resolution of the modelled databases was 0.5° × 0.5° of latitude and longitude. We found a systematic error of different magnitudes in the modelled values, and we also quantified a random error and the overall accuracy of the data. The temperature model underestimated the data in comparison with the measured values, while the precipitation model overestimated the data. We also found that the radial increments of spruce correlated more strongly with the temperature than with the precipitation. Hence, in the conditions of the boreal zone, temperature is a more important factor affecting tree-ring formation. We found significantly higher correlations between the radial increment and the modelled precipitation data than with the data measured at the precipitation station situated 18 km from the locality of interest.

  20. Investigating the spatial expression of millennial-scale Holocene climate changes: a multi-proxy lake sediment approach, Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fower, D.; Wilson, G. P.; Pepin, N. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has identified global Holocene climate instability. Oscillations at c. 2500 year intervals, identified in ocean and ice core records, are thought to be driven by solar variation. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC), a regulator of climate, oscillates with quasi-periodicities of c. 1500 years, the cause and spatial expression of which is uncertain. This project investigates how these subtle oscillations influenced the climate of northern Scandinavia through high-resolution, multi-proxy analysis (diatoms, isotope geochemistry, organic content, particle size, biogenic silica) of a lacustrine sediment sequence in Northern Finland. The resulting high-resolution, multi-proxy climate record clarifies the role of the THC in driving terrestrial climate change in this region. A 1.99m sediment core was extracted from Sirrajärvi, Northern Finnish Lapland in March 2012. Lake Sirrajävri (69.761619oN, 26.892815oE) is located 208 m.a.s.l. and lies at the boreal forest-alpine tundra ecotone. It is surrounded by low alpine heaths and isolated stands of birch (Betula pubescens spp. tortuosa). The lake is situated within a nature reserve, and <4km to Kevo subarctic research station, which houses a meteorological station with >50 yrs. of observations. The lake, which is 0.182 km2 in area and 11.2m deep at the centre, is ice covered between Sept. and May. The duration of lake ice cover is the main influencing factor on lake physio- chemistry and thus diatom ecology. The lake is hydrologically open and δ18O analysis of its waters (-11.2‰) predominantly reflects the mean annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation. The core has been dated at 11160 yrs BP at 195cm and 2810 yrs BP at 69cm. In addition, sediment was collected from 30 lakes along a north-south transect in Finland in July 2012 to form the basis of a diatom-based transfer function, used to identify the major influencing variable(s) on diatom species assemblages which, in turn, is

  1. Denitrification Activity of a Remarkably Diverse Fen Denitrifier Community in Finnish Lapland Is N-Oxide Limited

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A.

    2015-01-01

    Peatlands cover more than 30% of the Finnish land area and impact N2O fluxes. Denitrifiers release N2O as an intermediate or end product. In situ N2O emissions of a near pH neutral pristine fen soil in Finnish Lapland were marginal during gas chamber measurements. However, nitrate and ammonium fertilization significantly stimulated in situ N2O emissions. Stimulation with nitrate was stronger than with ammonium. N2O was produced and subsequently consumed in gas chambers. In unsupplemented anoxic microcosms, fen soil produced N2O only when acetylene was added to block nitrous oxide reductase, suggesting complete denitrification. Nitrate and nitrite stimulated denitrification in fen soil, and maximal reaction velocities (vmax) of nitrate or nitrite dependent denitrification where 18 and 52 nmol N2O h-1 gDW-1, respectively. N2O was below 30% of total produced N gases in fen soil when concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were <500 μM. vmax for N2O consumption was up to 36 nmol N2O h-1 gDW-1. Denitrifier diversity was assessed by analyses of narG, nirK/nirS, and nosZ (encoding nitrate-, nitrite-, and nitrous oxide reductases, respectively) by barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing. Analyses of ~14,000 quality filtered sequences indicated up to 25 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and up to 359 OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, suggesting diverse denitrifiers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clusters distantly related to publicly available sequences, suggesting hitherto unknown denitrifiers. Representatives of species-level OTUs were affiliated with sequences of unknown soil bacteria and Actinobacterial, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Proteobacterial sequences. Comparison of the 4 gene markers at 97% similarity indicated a higher diversity of narG than for the other gene markers based on Shannon indices and observed number of OTUs. The collective data indicate (i) a high denitrification and N2O consumption potential, and (ii) a highly diverse, nitrate limited

  2. Denitrification activity of a remarkably diverse fen denitrifier community in finnish lapland is N-oxide limited.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    Peatlands cover more than 30% of the Finnish land area and impact N2O fluxes. Denitrifiers release N2O as an intermediate or end product. In situ N2O emissions of a near pH neutral pristine fen soil in Finnish Lapland were marginal during gas chamber measurements. However, nitrate and ammonium fertilization significantly stimulated in situ N2O emissions. Stimulation with nitrate was stronger than with ammonium. N2O was produced and subsequently consumed in gas chambers. In unsupplemented anoxic microcosms, fen soil produced N2O only when acetylene was added to block nitrous oxide reductase, suggesting complete denitrification. Nitrate and nitrite stimulated denitrification in fen soil, and maximal reaction velocities (vmax) of nitrate or nitrite dependent denitrification where 18 and 52 nmol N2O h-1 gDW-1, respectively. N2O was below 30% of total produced N gases in fen soil when concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were <500 μM. vmax for N2O consumption was up to 36 nmol N2O h-1 gDW-1. Denitrifier diversity was assessed by analyses of narG, nirK/nirS, and nosZ (encoding nitrate-, nitrite-, and nitrous oxide reductases, respectively) by barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing. Analyses of ~14,000 quality filtered sequences indicated up to 25 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and up to 359 OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, suggesting diverse denitrifiers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed clusters distantly related to publicly available sequences, suggesting hitherto unknown denitrifiers. Representatives of species-level OTUs were affiliated with sequences of unknown soil bacteria and Actinobacterial, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-Proteobacterial sequences. Comparison of the 4 gene markers at 97% similarity indicated a higher diversity of narG than for the other gene markers based on Shannon indices and observed number of OTUs. The collective data indicate (i) a high denitrification and N2O consumption potential, and (ii) a highly diverse, nitrate limited

  3. High Latitude Forest Dynamics - CO2 EXCHANGE Measurements and Forest Growth at the Altitudinal Forest Line in High Subarctic Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengel, S.; Siivola, E.; Aakala, T.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Back, J. K.; Grace, J.; Vesala, T.

    2015-12-01

    Forests in high subarctic fell regions of Fennoscandia belong to the most northern forests in the world, a dynamic ecosystem vulnerable under a changing climate with treelines moving further north and also higher up slopes. An ecosystem is characterised by the interaction between micrometeorology, macroecology and the underlying terrain and topography. The current study is carried out at 68° North (Värriö strict nature reserve), the most sensitive zone of the high subarctic in Finnish Lapland. As the treeline is climbing up the slopes trees and eventually forests establish along the slopes leading to a greening of the area ("Greening of the Arctic" effect) and to an increase in CO2 uptake, also as a result of rising air temperatures and Nitrogen fertilization effects. Such developments and the little grazing (in this area) are leading to an increase in photosynthesising biomass. In order to fully understand the atmosphere - forest interaction in the fell region of Finnish Lapland, several important aspects are taken in consideration: its high latitudinal location, on-going climate change, polar day, its topographic characteristic and the dynamic of the progressing tree line. All these physiognomies cumulate in the capacity and efficiency of high latitude biomes in converting energy into photosynthate and contributing to removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. Carrying out CO2 and energy exchange measurements at ecosystem level in such extreme environments are challenging in particular when trying to follow and fulfil established assumptions set out by the application of the eddy covariance technique. Results from the first four consecutive snow free growing seasons show this site to act as a sink for atmospheric CO2. We are investigating the orographic effect on the observed fluxes and evaluate the performance of the flux setup determining if the topography has any systematic effects on fluxes or whether its external properties bias the carbon balance.

  4. Disturbances (fire and grazing by reindeer) and soil methane fluxes -- case studies from the subarctic boreal forest of Finish Lapland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    In aerobic, well-drained environments such as boreal upland forest soils, methane (CH4) is oxidized by microbes, resulting into the soils acting as a sink of atmospheric CH4. The emission of CH4 is controlled primarily by soil moisture and temperature, but also by the availability of organic carbon. Forest fires are one of the predominant natural disturbances in subarctic boreal forests that strongly influence soil moisture and soil temperature values and carbon dynamics of the soils. At the same time also the effect of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) grazing on soil moisture and temperature regimes in the lichen-dominated Arctic ecosystems has been found to be considerable. By removing the lichen carpet and damaging the secondary vegetation mat, reindeer make patches of bare soil common, and these factors in combination with trampling allow for soil to warm up faster, reach higher temperatures, and reduce the soil moisture content. We studied the effect of reindeer grazing and forest fire on fluxes of CH4 in northern boreal subarctic Scots pine forest stands. The study areas are in eastern Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve, Finland (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E). The sites are situated north of the Arctic Circle, near to the northern timberline at an average of 300 m altitude. For studing the effect of fire we have established sample areas (with three replicate plots in each) in a chronosequence of 4 age classes (2 to 152 years since the last fire). The fire chronosequence consisted of four types of areas with different time since the last forest fire: i) 5 years, ii) 45 years, iii) 70 years and iv) 155 years after fire. For studing the effect of reindeer grazing (comparison of grazed and non-grazed areas) we have established the study areas (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) along the borderline between Finland and Russia. The ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the

  5. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the

  6. The stress response is attenuated during inclement weather in parental, but not in pre-parental, Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) breeding in the Low Arctic.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jesse S; Pérez, Jonathan H; Chmura, Helen E; Meddle, Simone L; Hunt, Kathleen E; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie; Wingfield, John C

    2016-07-01

    Birds breeding at high latitudes can be faced with extreme weather events throughout the breeding season. In response to environmental perturbations, vertebrates activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and synthesize corticosterone, which promotes changes in behavior and physiology to help the animal survive. The parental care hypothesis suggests that the HPA axis activity should be downregulated during the parental stage of breeding to prevent nest abandonment. However, it is unknown what happens to HPA axis activity in response to severe weather at the transition from the pre-parental to parental stages of breeding. We sampled baseline corticosterone levels and the time course of corticosterone elevation over 60min of restraint stress and assessed body condition and fat stores in Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) breeding in the Low Arctic in the presence and absence of snowstorms. The results showed that during the pre-parental stage, HPA axis activity was up-regulated in response to snowstorms, with corticosterone levels continuing to increase through 60min of restraint. However, once birds were parental, HPA axis activity was unaffected by snowstorms and levels peaked at 10min. Fat levels and body condition did not change in response to snowstorms but fat levels declined in males during the pre-parental stage. These data suggest that the parental care hypothesis can be applied to severe storm events; parental birds restrained the activity of the HPA axis, likely to focus on the reproductive effort that is already underway, while pre-parental birds greatly upregulated HPA axis activity in response to snowstorms to maximize self-preservation. PMID:27215934

  7. Does numerical modelling of apparent partial loss Ar/Ar age spectra of hornblende give the correct thermal history of terranes? Insights from the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola orogen (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, K.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of numerical modelling of hornblende 40Ar/39Ar age spectra obtained from the same sample by step-heating with: 1) a defocused laser on 1.5 mm diameter discs micro-sampled from polished petrographic thin sections with a microscope-mounted drill, and 2) a resistance-heated furnace using handpicked mineral separate. Micro-sampling enables to obtain parts of mineral grains without zoning or included phases from targeted sites. Three samples were analysed: a tonalitic gneiss and a biotite-bearing amphibolite, from the same outcrop-1, and a biotite-free amphibolite from neighbouring outcrop-2. The material is from the Neoarchaean Murmansk terrane in the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. Hornblendes from the biotite-bearing gneiss and amphibolite (outcrop-1) yielded 40Ar/39Ar age spectra with progressively increasing step ages, whereas the biotite-free amphibole (outcrop-2) gave flat age spectra for both drilled disc and separate. These so-called staircase-type age spectra have been classically interpreted by partial loss of radiogenic argon by diffusion processes during younger thermal reworking. We applied numerical modelling tools (Double-Pulse, MacArgon) based on diffusion theory and that assume thermally activated loss of radiogenic Ar from so-called lower retentive lattice sites by solid-state volume diffusion. Modelling results suggest that staircase-shaped age spectra of our Neoarchaean hornblende are due to argon losses of 40-50% during reheating to 450 ± 25° C in Palaeoproterozoic time, and that flat spectra imply a thermally undisturbed Neoarchaean isotope system. These results would imply that neighbouring samples would have experienced sharply contrasting thermal histories. Hornblende with apparent partial loss age spectra is exclusively obtained from samples in which

  8. A descent of the aurora over Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiter, D.; Partamies, N.

    2014-04-01

    A very large statistical study (~400000 measurements) into the peak emission height of the aurora has shown that the aurora over Laplanddescended significantly between 1996 and 2007. The study was performed using images from a network of ground-based all-sky cameras, which form part of the MIRACLE (Magnetometers-Ionospheric Radar-All-sky Cameras Large Experiment) network, and are located at various observation stations across northern Finland and Sweden.

  9. Representing the Earth's shape: the polemics surrounding Maupertuis's expedition to Lapland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrall, M.

    1992-06-01

    Historical accounts of quantification in the physical sciences in the eighteenth century have often been described as a straightforward series of steps in a process of maturation, as instruments and standards advanced in precision. This paper calls into question the self-evidence nature of precision by investigating the production and uses of measurements. In the case of the dispute over the shape of the Earth, centered in Paris in the 1730s, the precision of measurements was a matter to be interpreted, attacked, defended, and represented. The whole messy business, undertaken by the participants to win consensus from their contemporaries, took place in the context of academic politics and the intellectual fashions of the salons and the court. All parties to the dispute claimed to be drawing on precision measurements; evaluating precision turned out to require the use of a range of intellectual, mathematical, instrumental, political, and textual resources. The alleged precision was then used to construct and defend rival scientific programs and practices.

  10. Geologic nitrogen and climate change in the geochemical budget of Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, John C.; Campbell, Sean W.; Durham, Bill

    2012-09-01

    While nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth in the terrestrial environment and generally fixed by biological processes in soils, in Arctic and alpine environments N is a severely limited nutrient because of both climatic and soil constraints. It is widely believed that geologic nitrogen is such a small component of the nitrogen cycle that this source is generally not viewed as being a significant component. However, it has been estimated that in fact as much as 20% of the total nitrogen budget may be stored in geological materials and where N is severely limited such as in Arctic and alpine environments geologic N may in fact be a dominant source of N for biological processes. Nitrogen saturation may therefore have substantial impacts on geochemical cycles involving both soil and water chemistry. In order to determine the potential for the rocks and soils of Kärkevagge to be significant sources of N samples of the principal rock units of the valley along with soil developed on a variety of rock types were sampled. Ammonia/ammonium contents were determined using ion chromatography. Ammonia/ammonium contents of the sampled rock materials display a wide range of abundances with marble containing a mean NH4 abundance of 4300 mg N kg, quartz schist 1600 mg N kg, biotite schist 4300 mg N kg, and garnet mica schist 4500 mg N kg. Soil ammonia/ammonium abundances were found to be 1600 mg N kg. N-pool abundances range from 2.5 kg m3 for marble to 8.7 for garnet mica schist. Soil N-pools were found to be 3.0 kg m3. The inorganic N present as ammonia/ammonium measured in bedrock represents substantial N-input into the geochemical budget. The N in bedrock originates from organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment or geothermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle and meteoric sources. Nitrogen in the soil originates from the weathering of N-rich rocks, the presence of unweathered nitrate minerals or fluid inclusions released to the soil and ultimately to plants by assimilation by biota or nitrification. Geologic nitrogen in Kärkevagge rocks and soils may represent a large and reactive pool with the potential for considerable impact on the geochemical system. To investigate the potential responses of nitrogen release, as well as other nutrients to increasing CO2 concentration scenarios, flow-through leaching experiments were conducted on crushed rock samples and soils from the study area. Leaching experiments revealed two to three fold increases in both N and K release with a tripling of carbon dioxide concentrations. Ammonium shows more rapid release than potassium which suggests substantial changes in nitrogen cycling with increasing CO2 enrichment of the atmosphere.

  11. Bacterially-Mediated Formation of Rock Coatings in Karkevagge, Swedish Lapland: A Mineralogical and Micro-Environmental Analog for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, Cassandra L.

    The search for past or present life on Mars is, for now, limited to surface environments. An often neglected surface environment that could have served as an abode for life and could presently preserve evidence of that life is that of rock coatings. Rock coatings are mineral accretions on rock surfaces. On Earth, they are widespread and occur with considerable chemical diversity. There is growing evidence for a biotic role in their formation on Earth, particularly with respect to rock varnish. As a result, rock varnish has become a target of astrobiological interest on Mars, where varnish-like coatings have been observed. However, a number of coating types compatible with martian mineralogy exist but have yet to be investigated thoroughly. In this dissertation, I present a study of three principle rock coating types from a glacially eroded valley, Karkevagge, in northern Sweden. The coatings consist of iron films, sulfate crusts, and aluminum glazes, all with primary mineralogies that are compatible with those minerals that have been identified on Mars. To examine the role of microbiology in these terrestrial rock coatings and what the biotic formation of coatings might tell us about observed coatings on Mars, we asked three basic questions: 1) What microbes inhabit the coatings, 2) What are those microbes contributing to the geochemistry of the coatings, and 3) How are the microbes contributing to the overall formation of the rock coating? To answer these questions, we undertook two bacterial diversity surveys - Sanger sequencing and 454 pyrosequencing. Using the results of these surveys, we were able to assess diversity, richness, and metabolic potential of the communities. Microscopy and spectroscopy were used in order to visualize microbial communities inhabiting the coatings and to observe evidence of biomineralization. Using the answers to those questions - who, what, and how - a conceptual model of coating formation was developed to relate the terrestrial process of biological rock-coating formation to what may have occurred in the martian past.

  12. How Do Early Childhood Education Teachers Perceive Their Expertise? A Qualitative Study of Child Care Providers in Lapland, Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happo, Iiris; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to child care. Well-educated staff consists of all-round experts who work in versatile contexts with various children in a multi-professional collaboration. This staff is one of the strengths of the Finnish child care system. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early…

  13. News and Views: Gemini hits 1000 papers; Comet Elenin? Forget it! Sellers launches course; Merry Christmas from 18th-century Lapland; ET: where are they all hiding? SETI in the city; Complex organic molecules may not mean life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    No-one has yet found artefacts from an alien civilization, but have we looked hard enough? Astronomers seeking signs of extraterrestrial intelligence have suggested a novel approach: look for alien cities. The search for signs of life in the universe has included the detection of complex organic molecules, seen as a step on the way to living things. But now analysis of spectral signatures known as Unidentified Infrared Emission features found in stars, interstellar space and galaxies suggest that complex organic molecules can be made in stars in a matter of weeks without the presence of life.

  14. New records of Paraleptophlebia werneri Ulmer, 1920 and Paraleptophlebia strandii (Eaton, 1901) from Finland (Ephemeroptera, Leptophlebiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mayfly species Paraleptophlebia werneri has been rediscovered from Finland. The species was classified as RE (regionally extinct) in the most recent national red-list assessment. The new locality is close to the Russian border in NE Lapland, Savukoski. Adult males were collected with a sweep net around a pond. Paraleptophlebia strandii is a rather poorly known but widespread Finnish species. The adults of this species occurred in great numbers in aapamires of central Lapland (Sodankylä). We hypothesize that these leptophlebid species are not dependent on running water but may instead thrive in small lentic water bodies. PMID:24723765

  15. Reindeer Diode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattila, Jukka O.

    2013-01-01

    In Finnish Lapland, like in other Northern European regions by the Arctic Sea, aboriginal Sami people still base much of their daily income on reindeer. Earlier the Sami people followed their reindeer herds more or less all the year round, in nomadic fashion. Moving to fixed dwellings has created a problem in herding and guarding the property of…

  16. Designing Culturally Inclusive Affordance Networks into the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasi, Päivi; Hautakangas, Mikko; Väyrynen, Sai

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the challenges concerning the internationalisation of higher education, with a particular focus on designing new international programmes. It presents a case study of a novel international study programme: the MA in Media Education at the Faculty of Education at the University of Lapland, Finland. The study looks into its…

  17. Winter Art Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how the Department of Art Education at the University of Lapland in Finland has developed winter art as a method of environmental and community-based art education. I will focus on the Snow Show Winter Art Education Project, a training project funded by the European Union and the State Provincial Office…

  18. Designing and Implementing a PBL Course on Educational Digital Video Production: Lessons Learned from a Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Paivi

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a design-based research (DBR) process for designing, implementing, and refining a problem-based learning (PBL) course on educational digital video (DV) use and production at the University of Lapland's Faculty of Education. The study focuses on the students' learning processes and outcomes from the viewpoint of meaningful…

  19. Promoting Meaningful Learning through Video Production-Supported PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a design-based research for designing, implementing, and refining a problem-based learning (PBL) course on educational digital video at the University of Lapland's Faculty of Education. The course builds on a combination of problem solving in small group tutorial sessions and realizing a practical hands-on project during…

  20. Antioxidants, infections and environmental factors in health and disease in northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Luoma, P

    1998-07-01

    Recent studies have identified several factors which may affect human health and life expectancy in northern Finland. They have shown that antioxidants, infections, genetic or environmental factors may affect the development of and morbidity/mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus and other diseases in the northern provinces of this country. Both the occurrence and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) is low in the northernmost part of the country, i.e. Mountain Lapland or the Saami area, compared with that in whole country or a neighbouring region to the south in central Lapland. The mortality from all diseases is also low in communities in Mountain Lapland, and high in central Lapland in communities such as Kittilä and Kolari. High scrum antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), albumin and selenium levels have been measured in men living in the northernmost part of the country, where the death rate from CHD is low. Low serum alpha-tocopherol and albumin levels were typical of men living in rural communities with high CHD mortality, e.g. Kittilä community. Serum antioxidant levels were related to the diet; alpha-tocopherol increased with the consumption of reindeer meat and selenium with fish consumption. Our earlier studies have also identified a low Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA antibody titer in men living in Mountain Lapland compared with men in the neighboring region to the south in central Lapland with high CHD mortality. An elevated Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA antibody titer was associated with low serum alpha-tocopherol level. The people of Saami origin, an ethnic minority living in northernmost Finland, have a high apolipoprotein (apo) E e4 allele frequency and high serum cholesterol. They also have more apo A-IV-2 allele than most of the studied populations, and their HDL cholesterol levels are higher in apo A-IV-2/1 than in apo A-IV-1/1 phenotypes. Our earlier studies indicate that people living in northeastern Finland

  1. Heavy metals in muscle, liver, and kidney from Finnish reindeer in 1990-91 and 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Rintala, R.; Venaelaeinen, E.R.; Hirvi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals were analyzed from reindeer by the Finnish National Veterinary and Food Research Institute. The analyses were part of a larger project during the period 1990-1993, in which residues in vegetables, milk, berries, fish and reindeer were monitored. The main aim of the reindeer study was to investigate possible differences between the heavy metal contents of reindeer samples from northern, eastern, western and southern Lapland. Another objective of the study was also to clarify the environmental effects of industrial activities in the Kola Peninsula and in Tornio on the food products of Finnish Lapland. Analyses of organochlorine compounds from reindeer samples were also performed, but these results will be published later after a larger number of samples has been studied. Results of the reindeer analyses were also compared with previous reindeer and elk studies of the Finnish National Veterinary Institute (1980) and Neimi (1993) and with two Norwegian studies (roslie 1984 and 1986). 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Hell [Höll], Maximilian [Miksa] (1720-92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Schemnitz, Hungary, became a Jesuit, and worked in Leutschau, Klausenburg and in Vienna where he set up and directed an observatory for Maria Theresa of Austria and Hungary. Somewhat to his own surprise, Hell was invited by Christian VII, king of Denmark, to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from the then Danish island Vardø within the Arctic Circle off the coast of Lapland, all expenses ...

  3. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat

  4. The Amateur Astronomer Anders Hellant and the Plight of his Observations of the Transits of Venus in Tornio, 1761 and 1769

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekonen, Osmo

    2013-05-01

    Anders Hellant was a versatile Swedish amateur scientist whose figure dominated eighteenth century intellectual life in Tornio, his little home town of some 500 inhabitants at the mouth of the Tornio river. My study is mainly based on the biographies published in Finnish (Bostroem 1918) and in Swedish (Tobe 1991) but I have also consulted some original sources in Paris and in Stockholm. Hellant incarnated almost all by himself the inquiring scientific spirit of the Age of Enlightenment in Swedish Lapland. There is much to be said about his life and works, but here I focus on his observations of the Venus passages in 1761 and 1769.

  5. Additions to the list of Finnish Bibionomorpha (Diptera, Nematocera)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 12 gnat species are reported for the first time from Finland (3 Cecidomyiidae, 1 Keroplatidae, 8 Mycetophilidae), and the occurrence of Macrocera nigropicea Lundström in Finland is verified. All material was collected from the Finnish Lapland, mainly from the north boreal ecoregion. Two of the recorded species are likely to be pyrophilous, associated with forest fire sites. A photo of the ventral appendage of the gonocoxite of Brevicornu setigerum Zaitzev is provided for the first time. The male hypopygium of Mycetophila haruspica Plassmann is redescribed. PMID:26175613

  6. Environmental monitoring and research in the Abisko area-an overview.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Christer; Sonesson, Mats; Christensen, Torben R; Callaghan, Terry V

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the studies on the environment surrounding the Abisko Scientific Research Station in Swedish Lapland. The long-term monitoring of the Station on processes related to the climate, and to the physical, biotic, and chemical environmental conditions is particularly addressed. Some variables are recorded since more than 100 years. The obtained data in combination with results from short-term studies and manipulation experiments are important to understand past and future conditions of the ecosystems. This has practical applications for the planning of tourism, transports, reindeer herding, and for societal purposes. PMID:22864692

  7. Quaternary vertebrates from Greenland: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennike, Ole

    Remains of fishes, birds and mammals are rarely reported from Quaternary deposits in Greenland. The oldest remains come from Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene deposits and comprise Atlantic cod, hare, rabbit and ringed seal. Interglacial and interstadial deposits have yielded remains of cod, little auk, collared lemming, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. Early and Mid-Holocene finds include capelin, polar cod, red fish, sculpin, three-spined stickleback, Lapland longspur, Arctic hare, collared lemming, wolf, walrus, ringed seal, reindeer and bowhead whale. It is considered unlikely that vertebrates could survive in Greenland during the peak of the last glaciation, but many species had probably already immigrated in the Early Holocene.

  8. Observations of biomass burning smoke from Russian wild fire episodes in Finland 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, K.; Nieminen, T.; Väänänen, R.; Petäjä, T.; Järvi, L.; Keronen, P.; Laurila, T.; Virkkula, A.; Pohja, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forest and peat bog fires occur almost every summer in several parts of Russian boreal forests due to long rainless and heat periods at summertime. Particulate matter and different gases (CO, CO2, NOx, O3, SO2) in air can be transported thousands of kilometers away from the fire areas. Increased concentrations of the different parameters, like carbon monoxide and aerosol particles were observed on certain days in Southern Finland and even Finnish Lapland during Russian wild fire episodes in summer 2010. During these days the wind direction was from East or Southeast to Finland.

  9. Impact of acid and trace metals deposition on freshwater invertebrates in north-eastern Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.

    1996-12-31

    Freshwater invertebrate communities in a total 400 lakes and streams in northeastern Norway, Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, subjected to the atmospheric deposition were studied. The severe influence of toxic heavy metals, dusts from smelters and mineral enrichment factories were found in the Kola Peninsula. The negative acidification effects on benthic communities were found in the Jarfjord (Norway), Enontekio, Ranua-Posio and Kittila-Kolari (Finnish Lapland) areas and in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Taxa groups, known to be sensitive to acidification, such as gammarids, snails, mayflies, stone flies, were represented with few species and in a low abundance. Heavy metals accumulation in biota is recorded in areas surrounding nickel smelters in the Kola Peninsula. The metal concentration invertebrates in remote areas is rather wide and depend on an air deposition, characteristics of lake catchment areas, as well as water acidity. The environmental variables, such as lake hydrological type, altitude of lakes, dominant substratum type, abundance of macrophytes and mosses in sampling area, content of pollutants in water also show significant relationships with metal concentration in invertebrates. The most severe negative effects on biota were found in waters with low pH and simultaneously contaminated by heavy metals. The biological method for estimation of simultaneously water acidification and contamination is suggested.

  10. Open Dialogue Approach - about the phenomenon of Scandinavian Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kłapciński, Michał M; Rymaszewska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    After twenty years of transformation of Finnish mental health care, in the late 80s and early 90s of the last century, incidence of schizophrenia in Western Lapland dropped from 35/100,000 to 7/100,000. This phenomenon is linked with Yrjo O. Alanen et al. who investigated schizophrenia treatment outcomes and psychosocial rehabilitation of people with schizophrenia. Investigators focused on an individually tailored psychotherapeutic recovery plan during patient's hospitalization, including care for patients' families. Within the "Finnish National Schizophrenia Project" the principles of the Need-Adapted Treatment were created and 50% of Finland's country gained access to mobile crisis intervention teams. Further studies were continued within "Acute PsychosisIntegrated Treatment Project" (1992-1993) which locally, in Western Lapland, proceeded into "Open Dialogue in Acute Psychosis Project" (ODAP) (1994-1997). In this approach, all important decisions regarding the patient, including hospitalization or pharmacotherapy, are discussed not only with the entire therapeutic team, but also with the patient and his family members. Two - and five-year follow-ups demonstrated high treatment efficacy as well as important cost reduction in mental health care spending. First two"Open Dialogue Method" training courses for representatives of the medical, psychological, nursing and social care have been completed in Poland in October 2014. Studies evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness of the described approach are being planned. PMID:26909395

  11. Temporal trends in the levels of polychlorinated dioxins, -furans, -biphenyls and polybrominated diethyl ethers in bank voles in Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Murtomaa-Hautala, Mari; Viluksela, Matti; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Rautio, Arja

    2015-09-01

    Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to increase again in 2007. The peak levels of the most abundant PBDE congeners (PBDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153) were measured in 1998 and 2003. These results reveal that the levels of dioxin-like chemicals remain high also in rural areas in Lapland, whereas the concentrations of brominated flame retardants decreased and follow the current restriction prohibitions. PMID:25918894

  12. Geochemical characteristics of charnockite and high grade gneisses from Southern Peninsular Shield and their significance in crustal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

    1988-01-01

    Presented here are the results of detailed investigations encompassing externsive structural mapping in the charnockite-high grade gneiss terrain of North Arcot district and the type area in Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu supported by petrography, mineral chemistry, major, minor and REE distribution patterns in various lithounits. This has helped in understanding the evolutionary history of the southern peninsular shield. A possible tectonic model is also suggested. The results of these studies are compared with similar rock types from parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Sri Lanka, Lapland and Nigeria which has brought about a well defined correlation in geochemical characteristics. The area investigated has an interbanded sequence of thick pile of charnockite and a supracrustal succession of shelf type sediments, layered igneous complex, basic and ultrabasic rocks involved in a complex structural, tectonic, igneous and metamorphic events.

  13. Reindeer Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, Jukka O.

    2013-01-01

    In Finnish Lapland, like in other Northern European regions by the Arctic Sea, aboriginal Sami people still base much of their daily income on reindeer. Earlier the Sami people followed their reindeer herds more or less all the year round, in nomadic fashion. Moving to fixed dwellings has created a problem in herding and guarding the property of the moving wild packs of hundreds or thousands of reindeer, which Sami families usually possess. Already for decades the mobility provided by Ski-Doos—along with herding dogs—has helped with the job. However, the era of limitless wilderness in reindeer herding is over. Nowadays hundreds of kilometers of reindeer fence separate Sami herding districts from each other.

  14. Changes in the quality of dissolved organic matter in soil water with time since last fire in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Jun'ichiro; Ohashi, Mizue; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Miura, Ikumi; Makita, Naoki; Yamase, Keitaro; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires strongly influence carbon stocks in boreal forests by inducing combustion of the aboveground and ground biomass. Simultaneously, they greatly influence the quality of dissolved organic matter in the soils, which in turn can alter water and carbon cycles in the forest. However, little information is available on how the quality of dissolved organic matter in boreal forest soils changes with time after forest fire occurred. To examine this, we collected soil water samples in Pinus sylvestris stands located in Finnish Lapland, where fire occurred 6, 46, and 156 years ago, analyzed dissolved organic carbon and inorganic elements concentrations, and then compared them among those three stands. In the assembly, we are going to report the results.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of charnockite and high grade gneisses from Southern Peninsular Shield and their significance in crustal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugavanam, E. B.; Vidyadharan, K. T.

    Presented here are the results of detailed investigations encompassing externsive structural mapping in the charnockite-high grade gneiss terrain of North Arcot district and the type area in Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu supported by petrography, mineral chemistry, major, minor and REE distribution patterns in various lithounits. This has helped in understanding the evolutionary history of the southern peninsular shield. A possible tectonic model is also suggested. The results of these studies are compared with similar rock types from parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Sri Lanka, Lapland and Nigeria which has brought about a well defined correlation in geochemical characteristics. The area investigated has an interbanded sequence of thick pile of charnockite and a supracrustal succession of shelf type sediments, layered igneous complex, basic and ultrabasic rocks involved in a complex structural, tectonic, igneous and metamorphic events.

  16. Atmospheric sulfur deposition and streamwater quality in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahermo, P. W.; Tarvainen, T.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

    1994-10-01

    The correlation between sulfate concentrations in Finnish headwater streams and atmospheric sulfate deposition has been studied by using data from the streamwater chemistry in August September 1990 and computed S deposition from the anthropogenic emissions. The sulfate concentrations and acidity in water are interpolated and smoothed into a deposition model grid. These data are compared with geological and pedogeochemical (glacial till) background information. The areas where the streamwater SO4 concentrations are mainly controlled by either anthropogenic S deposition or sulfur in till is estimated by applying the fuzzy Gustafsson-Kessel algorithm, which provides a soft clustering suitable for overlapping control factors. Residual areas can be well explained by the SO4-rich Littorina clay deposits. The higher overall background SO4 concentrations in streams in south Finland compared with central and northern Finland are an indisputable consequence of the heavier S deposition load in the south. However, anthropogenic sulfur deposition has a clear correlation with the sulfates in streamwaters only in northeastern Lapland impacted by the large industrial emissions in the Kola Peninsula. The secondary sulfide and sulfate minerals of marine Littorina sediments are dominating sources in the broad coastal belts, as are the primary sulfide minerals locally in the Pori-Vammala area, at the eastern end of the main sulfide ore belt between Lake Ladoga and the Gulf of Bothnia, in the Outokumpu area, and in the Peräpohja and central Lapland schist belts. Consequently, in addition to the anthropogenic deposition, there are natural sources of sulfur which cause acidity of streamwaters.

  17. Down-regulation of miR-503 expression predicate advanced mythological features and poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Weiqing; Zhong, Zhaokun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what impact miR-503 has on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Cancer and matched non-malignant lung tissue specimens were collected from 109 patients who underwent surgery in Tanisha Hospital from Jun 2006 to July 2013. Overall survival (OS) curves were analyzed using the Lapland-Meier method, and the differences were examined using log-rank tests. Cox proportional- hazards regression analysis was applied in order to estimate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for OS. Results: The relative expression of miR-503 in NSCLC tissues (0.366 ± 0.130) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous lung tissues (1.667 ± 1.047, P < 0.01). Statistically significant association was observed between miR-503 expression and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and tumor grade (P = 0.043). Lapland Meier analysis clearly illustrated that the patients with the lower expression of miR-503 had a worse outcome compared to patients with higher miR-503 expression (P = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-503 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.992, 95% CI: 2.276-9.872; P = 0.018) in NSCLC. Conclusion: In patients with NSCLC, low miR-503 expression is an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26191272

  18. Paleoproterozoic accretionary growth of Fennoscandia and the formation of a supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, R.; Korja, A.; Nironen, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Fennoscandian Shield, a part of the East European Craton, is mainly composed of Archean and Paleoproterozoic crust. The Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Archean Karelian craton, nucleus for the Fennoscandian Shield, exemplified a long period of rifting between 2.5 and 2.1 Ga leading finally to a continental break-up at 2.06 Ga. We reject the concept of a semi-continuous Svecokarelian/Svecofennian orogeny for the accretion of Paleoproterozoic crust in this nucleus and define five orogenies for the time period 1.92-1.79 Ga instead. The Lapland-Kola, Lapland-Savo, Svecofennian, Svecobaltic and Nordic orogenies overlap partly in time and space, and have different structural grains. This multiple orogenic evolution is divided into a microcontinent accretion stage (1.92-1.88 Ga), large-scale extension of the accreted crust (1.87-1.84 Ga) and a continent-continent collision stage (1.87-1.79 Ga). Orogenic collapse and the stabilization of the Fennoscandian between 1.79 and 1.77 Ga were followed by Gothian evolution at the southwestern margin of the newly formed continent at 1.73-1.55 Ga. The key issue in our model for the growth of Fennoscandia is the amalgamation of several microcontinents and island arcs. The following pre-1.92 Ga components are identified: Karelian, Kola and Norrbotten Archean age cratons; Keitele, Bergslagen and Bothnia >2.0 Ga age microcontinents; Kittilä ~2.0 Ga island arc; and Savo, Knaften, Inari and Tersk ~1.95 Ga island arcs. The continent-continent collision stage led to the final amalgamation of a supercontinent (Hudsonia) at c. 1.8 Ga. Fennoscandia (Baltica) formed the core of this supercontinent with Laurentia in the NE, Amazonia in the NW-W, an unknown microcontinent in the SW, and possibly Sarmatia in the SE and Volgo-Uralia in the E.

  19. Breeding on the extreme edge: Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines

    PubMed Central

    Meddle, Simone L.; Romero, L. Michael; Landys, Meta M.; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic‐breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migratory birds. Adjustments to coping strategies are therefore crucial, so here we examined the plasticity of the adrenocorticotropic stress response in two Arctic songbird species—the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) and Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)—breeding in northwest Greenland. Across the breeding season, the stress response was strongest at arrival and least robust during molt in male snow buntings. Snow bunting females had higher baseline but similar stress‐induced corticosterone levels compared to males. Modification of the stress response was not due to adrenal insensitivity, but likely regulated at the anterior pituitary gland. Compared to independent nestlings and adult snow buntings, parental‐dependent chicks had a more robust stress response. For Lapland longspurs, baseline corticosterone was highest at arrival in both male and females, and arriving males displayed a higher stress response compared to arriving females. Comparison of male corticosterone profiles collected at arrival in Greenland (76°N) and Alaska (67–71°N;) reveal that both species have higher stress responses at the more northern location. Flexibility in the stress response may be typical for birds nesting at the leading edges of their range and this ability will become more relevant as global climate change results in major shifts of breeding habitat and phenology for migratory birds. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 266–275, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. J. Exp. Zool. published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25757443

  20. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight. PMID:2814447

  1. Patterns of cold-air drainage and microclimate in mid-latitude versus high-latitude mountains: contrasts and implications for climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.

    2009-12-01

    Predictions of current spatial patterns of climate are difficult in areas of complex relief in all parts of the world, because of the interweaving influences of topography, elevation and aspect. These influences vary temporally as a result of the seasonal and diurnal cycles in radiation balance. In periods of negative energy balance, surface decoupling can occur as cold air drainage develops low-level temperature inversions, and the surface temperature regime beneath the inversion becomes divorced from free atmospheric forcing. Both the spatial scale and temporal persistence of this decoupling vary according to latitude, and although the physical processes that influence inversion formation are similar in polar areas and mid-latitude mountains, the contrasting seasonal and diurnal forcings make the end results very different. Examples are contrasted from detailed field temperature measurements (~50 sites per field area) taken over several years in areas of complex relief in the eastern Pyrenees (~42.5 deg N), the Oregon Cascades (also ~42.5 deg N) and Finnish Lapland (70 deg N and above the Arctic circle). In the former two locations decoupling is mostly diurnally driven, and small-scale topography is important in mediating the effects. Summer decoupling is brief and spatially limited, whereas winter decoupling can be more spatially extensive. There are strong relationships between synoptic conditions, as measured by objective flow indices at the 700 mb level (derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis fields) and the patterns of decoupling, which allow us to assess the effects of past and potential future circulation change on spatial patterns of future climate warming. In Finnish Lapland the decoupling regime most clearly approaches the mid-latitude pattern around the equinoxes when there are clear day and night periods. In winter and summer however (the polar night and polar day) with the muting of the diurnal cycle, processes are more poorly understood. Winter cold

  2. Lower precambrian of the Keivy Terrane, Northeastern Baltic Shield: A stratigraphic succession or a collage of tectonic sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagansky, V. V.; Raevsky, A. B.; Mudruk, S. V.

    2011-03-01

    The Keivy Terrane in the northeastern Baltic Shield appreciably differs from the adjacent tectonic blocks. In the northwestern part of this terrane (the Serpovidny Range), an outlier of Paleoproterozoic supracrustal rocks called the Serpovidny structure is surrounded by Archean (?) Keivy high-alumina paraschists. As follows from structural and magnetic data, the Paleoproterozoic rocks are deformed into a tight sheath fold 8 × 2 km in size at the surface and 5 km in length along the sheath axis. Faults parallel to the boundaries of the layers and locally cutting them off at an acute angle are involved in folding as well. The outer boundaries of the Serpovidny structure are tectonic. This structure is complementary to a larger tectonic lens composed of the Keivy mica schists. It is concluded that all of the supracrustal rocks of the Serpovidny Range are in fact tectonic sheets and lenses deformed into sheath folds. The literature data show that kilometer-scale sheath folds occur throughout the Keivy paraschist belt and most likely were formed owing to thrusting of the Murmansk Craton onto the Keivy Terrane in the south-southwestern direction. Foliation and lineation related to thrusting have been established in the Archean silicic metavolcanics and peralkaline granites occupying the most part of the terrane. In contrast, the granitoids and gabbroanorthosites of the Archean basement, which form a block 90 × 20 km in the southwestern Keivy Terrane, were not affected by Paleoproterozoic deformation. In other words, a detached assembly of tectonic sheets composed of the upper and middle crustal rocks that underwent deformation at the initial stage of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogeny and the Archean basement, which is free of this deformation, are distinguished. The depth of detachment is estimated at 20-25 km. The detachment of the upper and middle crust in the Keivy Terrane and its position in the structure of the Baltic Shield are consistent with a

  3. The Moho and the LAB under central Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Oreshin, Sergey; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Piiponen, Katja

    2015-04-01

    P- and S-wave velocity profiles of the crust and upper mantle are obtained from P- and S-wave receiver functions (PRFs and SRFs) for 20 seismograph stations of the POLENET/LAPNET array in Lapland and a few stations in southern Finland. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath cratons is often described as 'elusive'. Nevertheless, beneath Lapland we detect a clear low S-wave velocity zone with the top (LAB) at a depth of 160 km. This depth corresponds to the wet solidus of peridotite (~1100 degrees C).The bottom of the LVZ (the Lehmann discontinuity) is at a depth of 240-250 km. Seismic anisotropy within the LVZ is distinctly different from the rest of the upper mantle. As shown previously by controlled-source experiments, the Moho in southern Finland is anomalously deep (up to ~60 km versus the normal depth of ~40 km), but the depression of ~20 km has practically no effect in the gravity field. Vp in the lower crust is high (7.3 - 7.5 km/s) and can be explained by eclogitization (Kukkonen et al. 2008). In our Vs profiles the crust/mantle boundary in this region is found at a depth of only ~47 km. The strong dependence of the estimated depth on frequency (0.1 Hz for the receiver functions and 10 Hz for controlled-source seismology) suggests that the crust/mantle boundary in this region is a transition zone rather than a sharp interface. Another possible reason for the discrepancy in the Moho depths is the difference in the wave types (P waves in the controlled source experiments and S waves in receiver functions) and the presence of a layer with a low Vp/Vs ratio: P- and S-wave velocities can be in the crust and mantle ranges, respectively. This interpretation is supported by the extremely low Vp/Vs ratio (1.65) in a depth range from 47 to 75 km in our mantle models. This ratio is the likely effect of a large fraction of orthopyroxene (enstatite).

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in the chlorophyll content of three co-existing Sphagnum species exceeds the effect of solar UV reduction in a subarctic peatland.

    PubMed

    Hyyryläinen, Anna; Rautio, Pasi; Turunen, Minna; Huttunen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    We measured chlorophyll (chl) concentration and chl a/b ratio in Sphagnum balticum, S. jensenii, and S. lindbergii, sampled after 7 and 8 years of ultraviolet-B (UVB) and temperature manipulation in an open field experiment in Finnish Lapland (68°N). We used plastic filters with different transmittance of UVB radiation to manipulate the environmental conditions. The plants were exposed to (1) attenuated UVB and increased temperature, (2) ambient UVB and increased temperature and (3) ambient conditions. Chlorophyll was extracted from the capitula of the mosses and the content and a/b ratio were measured spectrophotometrically. Seasonal variation of chlorophyll concentration in the mosses was species specific. Temperature increase to 0.5-1 °C and/or attenuation of solar UVB radiation to ca. one fifth of the ambient (on average 12 vs. 59 uW/cm(2)) had little effect on the chlorophyll concentration or its seasonal variation. In the dominant S. lindbergii, UVB attenuation under increased temperature led to a transient decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Altogether, species-specific patterns of seasonal chlorophyll variation in the studied Sphagna were more pronounced than temperature and UVB treatment effects. PMID:26361579

  5. Terrestrial Analog Studies for Martian Patterned Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A recurring problem in understanding Martian patterned ground is explaining its large size. Terrestrial patterned ground in Swedish Lapland offers an analog that may help explain this. In cold, arid regions with strong winds, polygonal features are accentuated paralled to the dominant wind direction. Preliminary results of a comparison between Martian polygonal troughs and dominant wind directions suggests a good correlation. This evolutionary model involving aeolian modification of Martian polygonal ground helps explain the large size features without requiring multiple, deep freeze-thaw cycles. A well-established geographical technique, nearest neighbor analysis, can be modified and applied to the distribution of patterned ground on Earth and Mars. The procedure determines the R-statistic, which reflects the degree to which on observation departs from an expected random pattern. The R-statistic is independent of scale, and therefore it can be applied to any size of type of pattern. Preliminary results indicate that there may be a correlation between the R-statistic and the process that create the polygons.

  6. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  7. Variability of water vapour in the Arctic stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thölix, Laura; Backman, Leif; Kivi, Rigel; Karpechko, Alexey Yu.

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the stratospheric water vapour distribution and variability in the Arctic. A FinROSE chemistry transport model simulation covering the years 1990-2014 is compared to observations (satellite and frost point hygrometer soundings), and the sources of stratospheric water vapour are studied. In the simulations, the Arctic water vapour shows decadal variability with a magnitude of 0.8 ppm. Both observations and the simulations show an increase in the water vapour concentration in the Arctic stratosphere after the year 2006, but around 2012 the concentration started to decrease. Model calculations suggest that this increase in water vapour is mostly explained by transport-related processes, while the photochemically produced water vapour plays a relatively smaller role. The increase in water vapour in the presence of the low winter temperatures in the Arctic stratosphere led to more frequent occurrence of ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the Arctic vortex. We perform a case study of ice PSC formation focusing on January 2010 when the polar vortex was unusually cold and allowed large-scale formation of PSCs. At the same time a large-scale persistent dehydration was observed. Ice PSCs and dehydration observed at Sodankylä with accurate water vapour soundings in January and February 2010 during the LAPBIAT (Lapland Atmosphere-Biosphere facility) atmospheric measurement campaign were well reproduced by the model. In particular, both the observed and simulated decrease in water vapour in the dehydration layer was up to 1.5 ppm.

  8. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-07-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55–25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted.

  9. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3

    PubMed Central

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-01-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55–25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted. PMID:27363905

  10. Distribution and behaviour of passerines around peregrine Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meese, R.J.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution and behavior of passerine birds within 1 km of Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus eyries in western Greenland. Passerine populations were censused in 1983 around six cliffs occupied by nesting Peregrines and at six sites on the open tundra, and in 1984 at two unoccupied sites suitable for Peregrine nesting. Four passerine species accounted for over 90% of birds seen. Within 400 m of Peregrine occupied cliffs, three species, Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus. Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe, and Common Redpoll Carduelisflammea, were found in lower than average abundance while the fourth, Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis, was found in increased abundance. Our indirect tests suggest that Peregrine presence, rather than direct predation, was responsible for the distributions of the first three species. The Snow Bunting, however, behaviourally adapts to Peregrine presence in order to exploit nesting habitat available at the cliff base. These results contrast strongly with those reported by other Arctic workers, where increased abundances of potential prey were observed in close proximity to nesting Peregrines.

  11. First physical evidence for forested environment in the Arctic during MIS 3.

    PubMed

    Sarala, Pertti; Väliranta, Minna; Eskola, Tiina; Vaikutiené, Giedré

    2016-01-01

    Old sedimentological and geochronological records can be preserved underneath the central parts of the continental ice sheets under non-erosive, cold-based subglacial conditions. Organic deposits that predate the last deglaciation are of particular value for the information held on glacial-time climate and environmental conditions. In this study, we present multiproxy data derived from a well-preserved MIS 3 interstadial (55-25 ka ago) organic layer from inside the Arctic Circle in the Finnish Lapland. Biological proxy evidence, namely coming from aquatic plant species, indicates July temperatures as high as 14.4 °C, i.e. higher than those of today for the study site. Macrofossil evidence demonstrates for the first time the presence of pines accompanied by tree birch during the MIS 3 interstadial in northern Fennoscandia. These results concur with contemporary insolation model outcomes but contradict with the previous proxy-based view of open tundra conditions during the MIS 3. The data suggest that there are highly dynamic interstadial continental ice-sheet dynamics following changes in orbital forcing. Warm climate enabled the establishment of forests on exposed landscape. Moreover, we suggest that in the light of these new data, previous MIS 3 pollen data could be re-interpreted. PMID:27363905

  12. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in Arctic soil profiles polluted by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Puhakainen, M; Heikkinen, T; Steinnes, E; Thørring, H; Outola, I

    2005-01-01

    Effects of industrial pollution on the behaviour of radionuclides in spruce forest ecosystems were studied along a gradient from of a copper-nickel smelter in Monchegorsk, NW Russia. A reference site was situated in Lapland, Finland, 152 km west of Monchegorsk. Most of the total 137Cs activity in soil was in mineral (E and B) horizons, except at the reference site where the major part was still in the organic surface layer. Most of the total 90Sr activity still remaining in the soil profile was found in the surface layer, but the relative amount decreased with increasing level of industrial pollution. Pollutants from the smelter clearly affected the chemical speciation of radionuclides. Smaller amounts of exchangeable radionuclides were present in the organic surface layer at the most polluted sites. The decline of 137Cs with decreasing distance from the smelter correlated strongly with a similar depletion in exchangeable K and Mg. Total concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr showed high correlations with exchangeable cations, particularly in the E and upper B horizon. A sudden change in behaviour of 137Cs in the lower B horizon may be associated with changes in clay mineralogy along the soil profile caused by weathering. PMID:15795041

  13. Chemical weathering and landscape development in mid-latitude alpine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, John C.; Thorn, Colin E.

    2005-04-01

    This paper attempts to assess the role of chemical processes in the weathering, erosion, and denudation of periglacial alpine environments. It draws primarily from detailed chemical studies in the alpine zones of the Colorado Rocky Mountains, the Jotunheimen of Norway, and northwest Swedish Lapland. The nature or kind of chemical weathering processes has been found to be the same in periglacial environments as elsewhere. Comparison of weathering rates among various environments reveals periglacial chemical weathering to be generally slower than that in the tropical and temperate latitudes, but overlapping with the lower values reported from such environments. In broad terms, this statement is valid whether assessment is based on bedrock or regolith weathering estimates. Chemical weathering is found to be a substantial, sometimes the dominant, agent of mass removal in periglacial environments. Assessment of the role of chemical processes in denudation is complicated by the differing, sometimes conflicting, definitions of the term. It is important to view chemical processes primarily as a component of geomorphic work, rather than as an important land-forming agent, in periglacial environments. Given the intrinsic attribute of long distance transport out of a drainage basin implicit to denudation, chemical solute loads in periglacial river systems must be ranked highly in comparison to the, often dramatic, but nearly always highly localized contribution from alpine mass wasting.

  14. Noise directivity and group velocity tomography in a region with small velocity contrasts: the northern Baltic shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, P.; Pedersen, H. A.; Campillo; , M.; Polenet/Lapnet Working Group

    2013-01-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) is widely used to image strong velocity variations within the upper crust. Using careful processing, we obtained a 3-D model of shear velocities in the upper crust beneath northern Finland, where the lateral velocity variations are less than 3 per cent. As part of the tomography, the noise field is analysed. It is strongly heterogeneous but the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficient to obtain stable dispersion curves for all profile azimuths. Our results show that the directions of dominant noise sources of Rayleigh and Love waves are the same, but the amplitude distribution with azimuth is different for the two types of waves. More intriguingly, the high frequency Love waves are dominated by a mixture of higher modes rather than the fundamental mode. The reconstructed 3-D model shows the Lapland Granulite Belt as a high velocity body with a limit at surface in excellent agreement with geological observations at surface. Following this interface at depth, our results are compatible with previous studies suggesting an Archean north oriented subduction.

  15. Complex lithospheric structure under the central Baltic Shield from surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneton, Marianne; Pedersen, Helle A.; Farra, VéRonique; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Vacher, Pierre; Achauer, U.; Alinaghi, A.; Ansorge, J.; Bock, G.; Friederich, W.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Heikkinen, P.; Hjelt, S.-E.; HyvöNen, T. L.; Ikonen, J.-P.; Kissling, E.; Komminaho, K.; Korja, A.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Nevsky, M. V.; Paulssen, H.; Pavlenkova, N. I.; Plomerová, J.; Raita, T.; Riznichenko, O. Y.; Roberts, R. G.; Sandoval, S.; Sanina, I. A.; Sharov, N. V.; Shomali, Z. H.; Tiikkainen, J.; Wielandt, E.; Wilegalla, K.; Yliniemi, J.; Yurov, Y. G.

    2004-10-01

    Regional seismic tomography provides valuable information on the structure of shields, thereby gaining insight to the formation and stabilization of old continents. Fennoscandia (known as the Baltic Shield for its exposed part) is a composite shield for which the last recorded tectonic event is the intrusion of the Rapakivi granitoids around 1.6 Ga. A seismic experiment carried out as part of the European project Svecofennian-Karelia-Lapland-Kola (SVEKALAPKO) was designed to study the upper mantle of the Finnish part of the Baltic Shield, especially the boundary between Archean and Proterozoic domains. We invert the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves to obtain a three-dimensional shear wave velocity model using a ray-based method accounting for the curvature of wave fronts. The experiment geometry allows an evaluation of lateral variations in velocities down to 150 km depth. The obtained model exhibits variations of up to ±3% in S wave velocities. As the thermal variations beneath Finland are very small, these lateral variations must be caused by different rock compositions. The lithospheres beneath the Archean and Proterozoic domains are not noticeably different in the S wave velocity maps. A classification of the velocity profiles with depth yields four main families and five intermediate regions that can be correlated with surface features. The comparison of these profiles with composition-based shear wave velocities implies both lateral and vertical variations of the mineralogy.

  16. Quantitative analysis of scale of aeromagnetic data raises questions about geologic-map scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nykanen, V.; Raines, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    A recently published study has shown that small-scale geologic map data can reproduce mineral assessments made with considerably larger scale data. This result contradicts conventional wisdom about the importance of scale in mineral exploration, at least for regional studies. In order to formally investigate aspects of scale, a weights-of-evidence analysis using known gold occurrences and deposits in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt of Finland as training sites provided a test of the predictive power of the aeromagnetic data. These orogenic-mesothermal-type gold occurrences and deposits have strong lithologic and structural controls associated with long (up to several kilometers), narrow (up to hundreds of meters) hydrothermal alteration zones with associated magnetic lows. The aeromagnetic data were processed using conventional geophysical methods of successive upward continuation simulating terrane clearance or 'flight height' from the original 30 m to an artificial 2000 m. The analyses show, as expected, that the predictive power of aeromagnetic data, as measured by the weights-of-evidence contrast, decreases with increasing flight height. Interestingly, the Moran autocorrelation of aeromagnetic data representing differing flight height, that is spatial scales, decreases with decreasing resolution of source data. The Moran autocorrelation coefficient scems to be another measure of the quality of the aeromagnetic data for predicting exploration targets. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  17. Northern Finland Seismological Network: a tool to analyse long-period seismological signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Elena; Hurskainen, Riitta

    2014-05-01

    Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory of Oulu University (SGO) is located at 67° 22' N, 26° 38' E in the middle of Finnish Lapland. It was established in 1913 and since then has gained a long experience in carrying out multidisciplinary geophysical observations in Arctic environment. Seismological observations at the University of Oulu and SGO have been carried out since 1965. During 2005-2008 the SGO modernized own sort-period permanent seismic network, enhanced the number of stations and equipped them with the VBB seismic sensors. The stations are located at latitudes from 650 N to 680 N. They form the Northern Finland Seismological Network (NFSN) that will be the part of Finnish EPOS research infrastructure in the future. The continuous seismic data of the NFSN are archived in the GFZ Seismological Data Archive of the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany) and in the own backup archive of the SGO. At the moment, the data of the NFSN are routinely used for monitoring of seismic activity in Northern Europe and world-wide and information about seismic events is published in several on-line bulletins. Due to the recent mineral exploration and mining boom in northern Finland, a new task for the NFSN will be recording and analysis of mining-induced seismicity and estimating of seismic hazard associated with it. During installation of instruments of the NFSN, particular measures were taken in order to improve instruments performance at long periods. In Arctic conditions the performance of broadband seismic instruments is affected by large ambient temperature variations and geomagnetic field disturbances (geomagnetic pulsations). In 2007-2009 the NFSN was a part of the POLENET/LAPNET IPY project. In addition to lithosphere structure studies, the project aimed at registration of long-period glacial seismic events originating from Greenland Ice Sheet. Analysis of data recorded by the NFSN during the IPY demonstrated that the network is capable to record not only long

  18. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  19. Solar cycle and diurnal dependence of auroral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Syrjäsuo, M.; Kauristie, K.

    2014-10-01

    In order to facilitate usage of optical data in space climate studies, we have developed an automated algorithm to quantify the complexity of auroral structures as they appear in ground-based all-sky images. The image analysis is based on a computationally determined "arciness" value, which describes how arc like the auroral structures in the image are. With this new automatic method we have analyzed the type of aurora in about 1 million images of green aurora (λ = 557.7nm) captured at five camera stations in Finnish and Swedish Lapland in 1996-2007. We found that highly arc like structures can be observed in any time sector and their portion of the auroral structures varies much less than the fraction of more complex forms. The diurnal distribution of arciness is in agreement with an earlier study with high arc occurrence rate in the evening hours and steadily decreasing toward the late morning hours. The evolution of less arc-like auroral structures is more dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity and solar cycle than the occurrence of arcs. The median arciness is higher during the years close to the solar minimum than during the rest of the solar cycle. Unlike earlier proposed, the occurrence rate of both arcs and more complex auroral structures increases toward the solar maximum and decreases toward the solar minimum. The cyclic behavior of auroral structures seen in our data is much more systematic and clear than previously reported visual studies suggest. The continuous arciness index describing the complexity of auroral structures can improve our understanding on auroral morphology beyond the few commonly accepted structure classes, such as arcs, patches, and omega bands. Arciness can further be used to study the relationship of auroral structures at different complexity levels and magnetospheric dynamics.

  20. Modeling of bud break of Scots pine in northern Finland in 1908-2014.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Hannu; Jalkanen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Bud break and height-growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northern boreal zone in Lapland, Finland, was followed through the entire growing seasons in the periods 2001-2003 and 2008-2010 in sapling stands in two different locations in northern Finland set some 250 km apart along a latitudinal transect. Field measurements continued at the southern site also in 2011-2013. Air temperature was recorded hourly at the sites. A simple optimization algorithm (GA) was used to adjust parameters of the models predicting the timing of bud break of Scots pine in order to minimize the difference between observed and predicted dates. The models giving the best performance and century-long daily temperatures were used to reconstruct bud-break time series. The temperature observations were recorded for the period 1908-2014 in Sodankylä, which is located in-between the sapling stands in the north-south direction and for the period 1877-2014 in Karasjok, which is in Norway about 145 km north-west from the northernmost stand of this study. On average buds began to extend in the beginning of May in the southernmost stand and in mid-May in the northernmost stands, and the variation between years was in the range of 3 weeks. A simple day-length-triggered (fixed date) model predicted most accurately the date of bud break; root mean square error (RMSE) was 2 and 4 days in the northern and southern site, respectively. The reconstructed bud-break series indicated that based on temperature observations from Sodankylä, growth onset of Scots pine has clearly advanced since the 1960s, though it currently matches that of the early 1920s and early 1950s. The temperature record from Karasjok indicated a similar variation, though there was a weak linear trend advancing bud break by about 3-4 days over a 100-year period. PMID:25798141

  1. Behavioural plasticity in wintering Mediterranean ospreys revealed by stable isotopes analyses and GPS tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Flavio; Robert, Aloïs; Dominici, Jean-Marie; Sforzi, Andrea; Triay Bagur, Rafel; Muñoz Navarro, Antoni; Guillou, Gaël; Bentaleb, Ilham; Duriez, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    To infer wintering ecology in Mediterranean ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) we relied on a dual and complementary approach, using both GPS tracking and multi stable isotope tracer approaches. A control sample of feathers from 80 individuals (mostly chicks) was collected over a large latitudinal gradient (from Lapland to Africa) to assess the variability of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios between breeding sites and habitat types across the Western Palearctic. Then, C, N and S isotopic compositions from an experimental set of 18 Mediterranean adults were examined to infer wintering ground locations and habitat types used during the inter-breeding period. Additionally, 12 adult ospreys were fitted with GPS devices and tracked during migration and the wintering season. By combining the two techniques we evidenced a partial migratory population with 41.7% of tagged individuals being resident and 58.3% that actually migrated. Ospreys spent the winter at temperate latitudes and showed a high plasticity in habitat selection. They made use of marine bays, coastal lagoons/marshland and inland freshwater sites. Movements and home range areas were reduced during the season. Wintering grounds were largely spread over the coasts of different countries of the basin, rather than concentrated in one single area. Such behavioural plasticity in the choice of location and habitat type suggests the implementing of broad-scale approaches for the protection of important areas for ospreys in winter. To contribute at assuring a right level of conservation of the osprey populations in the Mediterranean basin, a harmonization of the management protocols of wetland sites among countries is necessary.

  2. Phenological adjustment in arctic bird species: relative importance of snow melt and ecological factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebezeit, Joseph R.; Gurney, K. E. B.; Budde, Michael E.; Zack, Steve; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have documented advancement in clutch initiation dates (CIDs) in response to climate change, most notably for temperate-breeding passerines. Despite accelerated climate change in the Arctic, few studies have examined nest phenology shifts in arctic breeding species. We investigated whether CIDs have advanced for the most abundant breeding shorebird and passerine species at a long-term monitoring site in arctic Alaska. We pooled data from three additional nearby sites to determine the explanatory power of snow melt and ecological variables (predator abundance, green-up) on changes in breeding phenology. As predicted, all species (semipalmated sandpiper, Calidris pusilla, pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos, red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus, red phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius, Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus) exhibited advanced CIDs ranging from 0.40 to 0.80 days/year over 9 years. Timing of snow melt was the most important variable in explaining clutch initiation advancement (“climate/snow hypothesis”) for four of the five species, while green-up was a much less important explanatory factor. We found no evidence that high predator abundances led to earlier laying dates (“predator/re-nest hypothesis”). Our results support previous arctic studies in that climate change in the cryosphere will have a strong impact on nesting phenology although factors explaining changes in nest phenology are not necessarily uniform across the entire Arctic. Our results suggest some arctic-breeding shorebird and passerine species are altering their breeding phenology to initiate nesting earlier enabling them to, at least temporarily, avoid the negative consequences of a trophic mismatch.

  3. Focal Mechanisms of Three Finnish Earthquakes and Their Connection To Surface Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uski, M.; Hyvönen, T.; Korja, A.; Airo, M.-L.

    Focal mechanisms of three recent earthquakes in Finland were determined using P wave polarities as well as SV/P and SH/P phase amplitude ratios. The events occurred on May 11th, 2000 in Toivakka, central Finland (ML=2.4), on September 15th, 2000 in Kuusamo, northeastern Finland (ML=3.5), and on May 2nd, 2001 in Kolari, western Lapland (ML=2.9). In order to obtain reliable estimates of the source parameters, local crust and upper mantle velocity models were derived for the epicenter areas. The events were relocated using P- and S-phase arrival times from the nearest stations and the new velocity models. Synthetic waveforms calculated with the reflectivity method were used to further constrain and verify the source and structural parameters. The well-constrained fault plane solution of the Toivakka earthquake indicates reverse faulting trending 358/42 or 196/50. By comparing the focal planes with magnetic and topographic data of the epicenter area, we suggest the eastward dipping plane to be the actual fault plane. Both the location procedure and synthetic waveform modelling place the focus at the depth of 6 km. The hypocenter parameters of the Kuusamo earthquake are not as well constrained as in the other events, due to lack of seismic stations at distances less than 175 km. The best fitting solution indicates normal-faulting mechanism striking 133/47 or 284/47. Both fault directions are found as pairs of topographic and weak, discontinuous mag- netic lineaments. The focus is located between 12 km and 14 km. The best fitting fault plane solution of the Kolari earthquake suggests pure thrust- faulting mechanism at a shallow depth, 4 km. The strike and dip (030/30) correlates well with the surface observations of postglacial faults in the area.

  4. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colby A.; Sundh, Martin; Mikko, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    In Sweden, knowledge of the location and timing of glacially induced faulting and seismicity is critical to effective engineering of a long-term nuclear disposal facility. To improve understanding and modeling of the complex ice-induced and tectonic stresses associated with glacially induced faulting, field studies detailing the location and timing of movement of such structures are required. Although the fault has not been confirmed in the bedrock, multi-proxy surficial geologic evidence indicates that the recently discovered scarp in Bollnäs is such a structure. Machine-excavated trenches across the scarp reveal landsliding down the scarp and, in one location, faulted and vertically offset fine-grained glacial sediments. The presence of water-escape structures in trenches excavated on a topographic high strongly suggests a co-seismic origin derived from earthquake magnitudes >5.5. Numerous landslides in till exist in the region as well. Four slopes with landslides were examined in detail, and the factors of safety for these slopes indicate stable conditions and suggest a seismic trigger. Basal radiocarbon dates from peat bogs located stratigraphically above the landslides provide minimum limiting ages for the co-seismic landslides. The oldest date indicates sliding prior to 10,180 calendar years before the present. The proposed Bollnäs Fault is 400 km south of the so called Lapland Fault Province. To date, it is the southernmost confirmed glacially induced fault in Sweden. The results of this study are consistent with existing modeling results that indicate fault instability in this region of central Sweden following deglaciation.

  5. Plant community responses to 5 years of simulated climate change in meadow and heath ecosystems at a subarctic-alpine site.

    PubMed

    Jägerbrand, Annika K; Alatalo, Juha M; Chrimes, Dillon; Molau, Ulf

    2009-09-01

    Climate change was simulated by increasing temperature and nutrient availability in an alpine landscape. We conducted a field experiment of BACI-design (before/after control/impact) running for five seasons in two alpine communities (heath and meadow) with the factors temperature (increase of ca. 1.5-3.0 degrees C) and nutrients (5 g N, 5 g P per m(2)) in a fully factorial design in northern Swedish Lapland. The response variables were abundances of plant species and functional types. Plant community responses to the experimental perturbations were investigated, and the responses of plant functional types were examined in comparison to responses at the species level. Nutrient addition, exclusively and in combination with enhanced temperature increase, exerted the most pronounced responses at the species-specific and community levels. The main responses to nutrient addition were increases in graminoids and forbs, whereas deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, bryophytes, and lichens decreased. The two plant communities of heath or meadow showed different vegetation responses to the environmental treatments despite the fact that both communities were located on the same subarctic-alpine site. Furthermore, we showed that the abundance of forbs increased in response to the combined treatment of temperature and nutrient addition in the meadow plant community. Within a single-plant functional type, most species responded similarly to the enhanced treatments although there were exceptions, particularly in the moss and lichen functional types. Plant community structure showed BACI responses in that vegetation dominance relationships in the existing plant functional types changed to varying degrees in all plots, including control plots. Betula nana and lichens increased in the temperature-increased enhancements and in control plots in the heath plant community during the treatment period. The increases in control plots were probably a response to the observed warming during

  6. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline.

    PubMed

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a 'space-for-time' approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg ) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m(-2) ) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m(-2) ) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m(-2) ). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system. PMID:25367088

  7. Effect of various climate databases on the results of dendroclimatic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, Roman; Vido, Jaroslav; Škvarenina, Jaroslav; Pichler, Viliam; Scheer, Ĺubomír; Škvareninová, Jana; Nalevanková, Paulína

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the comparison of the time series drawn from different climate databases. We compared the observed data with the modeled data of monthly and seasonal temperature means and precipitation totals. Reliable and longest available time series of such data represent the basic starting point of dendroclimatic analyses. We evaluated the differences in the growth response of spruce derived using different databases of the considered climatic variables. The stem cores used to derive the cross-correlation function were taken from Hårås locality situated in the boreal zone of the Swedish part of Lapland. We compared the observed records from the nearest weather stations situated 18, 40, 70 and 110 km away from the locality with the interpolated data from four modeled temperature databases and four modeled precipitation databases generated by KNMI Climate Explorer. The spatial resolution of the modeled databases was 0.5° × 0.5° of latitude and longitude or 1° × 1° respectively. The evaluation revealed that in all modeled databases systematic errors of different magnitudes occurred. We also found that the radial increments of spruce correlated more tightly with the temperature than with the precipitation in the area of interest. Hence, in the conditions of the boreal zone, temperature could be a more important factor with regard to tree-ring formation. Because of higher spatial variability seen in precipitation data when compared to temperature data, we conclude that the nearest weather station is the most suitable for dendroclimatic analysis leaning on precipitation. Drawing on these results we recommend that the modeled precipitation and temperature databases examined in our study are used for dendroclimatic analyses within areas featuring a sparse network of weather stations.

  8. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  9. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a ‘space-for-time’ approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m−2) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m−2) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m−2). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system. PMID:25367088

  10. ESSenCe 2011 GLORIA Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenmoser, T.

    2012-04-01

    The ESA Sounder Campaign (ESSenCe) was conducted in November and December of 2011 in Kiruna (Swedish Lapland). Its main focus has been on observation of the UT/LS region using the new Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), an infrared remote sensing instrument developed jointly by Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). Arena Arctica served as the campaign's base of operations and the Myasishchev Design Bureau's M-55 Geophysica high-altitude research aircraft as the instrument carrier. GLORIA, the successor to the MIPAS and CRISTA instruments, is a limb-sounding Fourier transform spectrometer that can capture several thousand interferograms at once on a two-dimensional detector array. The instrument is mounted on a frame that provides high-precision attitude control and stabilization. GLORIA is designed to run in either of two operation modes, emphasizing spatial (Dynamics Mode) or spectral resolution (Chemistry Mode) as desired. The chemistry mode makes the retrieval of profiles for a multitude of trace species feasible while dynamics mode data is optimized for resolving spatial structures like tropospheric intrusions and gravity (bouyancy) waves. Studies performed at FZJ have shown that, given the right conditions, dynamics mode measurements can serve as the input for 3-dimensional tomographic retrievals. GLORIA data processing is performed jointly by FZJ (IEK-7) and KIT (IMK-ASF), where the focus is on the dynamics mode and the chemistry mode, respectively. During the ESSenCe campaign, two flights were performed on December 11th and 16th. GLORIA provided measurements during both flights and the data is as of now being processed and evaluated. This presentation aims to give an overview of GLORIA campaign operations as well as the status of the ongoing data analysis, with an outlook on future activities.

  11. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  12. Handling glacially induced faults in the assessment of the long term safety of a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munier, R.

    2011-12-01

    Located deep into the Baltic shield, far from active plate boundaries and volcanism, Swedish bedrock is characterised by a low frequency of earthquakes of small magnitudes. Yet, faults, predominantly in the Lapland region, offsetting the quarternary regolith ten meters or more, reveal that Swedish bedrock suffered from substantial earthquake activity in connection to the retreat of the latest continental glacier, Weichsel. Storage of nuclear wastes, hazardous for hundreds of thousand years, requires, firstly, isolation of radionuclides and, secondly, retardation of the nuclides should the barriers fail. Swedish regulations require that safety is demonstrated for a period of a million years. Consequently, the repository must be designed to resist the impact of several continental glaciers. Large, glacially induced, earthquakes near the repository have the potential of triggering slip along fractures across the canisters containing the nuclear wastes, thereby simultaneously jeopardising isolation, retardation and, hence, long term safety. It has therefore been crucial to assess the impact of such intraplate earthquake upon the primary functions of the repository. We conclude that, by appropriate design of the repository, the negative impact of earthquakes on long term safety can be considerably lessened. We were, additionally, able to demonstrate compliance with Swedish regulations in our safety assessment, SR-Site, submitted to the authorities earlier this year. However, the assessment required a number of critical assumptions, e.g. concerning the strain rate and the fracture properties of the rock, many of which are subject of current research in the geoscientific community. By a conservative approach, though, we judge to have adequately propagated critical uncertainties through the assessment and bound the uncertainty space.

  13. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  14. Seismic response of ore deposits in Kevitsa and Outokumpu mining areas: new insights from data mining and seismic forward modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellqvist, Niina; Koivisto, Emilia; Komminaho, Kari; Tuomi, Hilkka; Malehmir, Alireza; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Heikkinen, Pekka; Voipio, Teemu; Wijns, Chris

    2015-04-01

    The Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE disseminated sulfide deposit is hosted by the Kevitsa mafic to ultramafic intrusion located within the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in northern Finland. The Outokumpu semi-massive to massive polymetallic (Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au) sulfide deposits are hosted by ophiolite-derived altered ultramafic rocks within the Raahe-Ladoga Belt in eastern Finland. Extensive, excellent quality 2D reflection seismic data have been collected at both sites in the 2000s. In addition, there is a 3D seismic data set available from Kevitsa. The ore deposits of Kevitsa and Outokumpu have different mineralization styles, grades and scales and thus have different kinds of seismic responses as well. Imaging disseminated ore deposits with the reflection seismic method is complicated, as, for example, the Kevitsa disseminated ore itself does not have dimensions detectable with the method. However, it has been suggested that subtle localised magmatic layering within the Kevitsa intrusion controls the sub-horizontal layering and spatial extent of the disseminated sulfides, and that this magmatic layering is detectable with the reflection seismic method. Initial results from data mining via SOM (Self-Organizing Maps) analysis and seismic forward modeling of the magmatic layering within the Kevitsa intrusion are used to test these hypotheses. In the case of Outokumpu-type deposits seismic forward modeling results confirm that the semi-massive to massive ore could potentially be seen directly in the seismic data, if the deposits meet the size, thickness, and presentation constraints required for reflection or diffraction.

  15. 3D modeling of soil structure in urban groundwater areas: case studies in Kolpene, Rovaniemi, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupila, Juho

    2015-04-01

    3D modeling of groundwater areas is an important research method in groundwater surveys. Model of geological soil structure improves the knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as base information when developing the water supply services and anticipating and performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, collected information is utilized when creating the groundwater flow model. In Finland, structure studies have been conducted in cooperation (among others) with the municipalities and local water suppliers and with the authorities from the Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. Geological Survey of Finland carries out project "Structure studies in Kolpene groundwater area" in Rovaniemi, Finnish Lapland. Study site is located in northern Finland, in the vicinity of the city center of Rovaniemi. Extent of the area is about 13 square kilometers and there are lots of urban residential areas and other human activities. The objective of this project is to determine the geological structure of the Kolpene groundwater area so that the results can be used to estimate the validity of the present exclusion area and possible risks to the groundwater caused by the land use. Soil layers of the groundwater area are studied by means of collecting information by heavy drilling, geophysical surveying (ground penetrating radar and gravimeter measurements) and water sampling from the installed observation pipes. Also the general geological and hydrological mappings are carried out. Main results which will be produced are: 1) the model of the bedrock surface, 2) the model of the surface of the ground water and flow directions, 3) the thickness of ground water saturated soil layers and 4) location and main characteristics of the soil layers which are significant to the ground water conditions. The preparing studies have been started at the end of 2013 and the results will be

  16. BepiColombo MMO status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Hajime; Maejima, Hironori

    2013-04-01

    BepiColombo is a ESA-JAXA joint mission to Mercury with the aim to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution as well as to understand similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and Earth. The baseline mission consists of two spacecraft, i.e. the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The two orbiters will be launched in 2015 by an Ariane-5 and arrive at Mercury in 2022. JAXA is responsible for the development and operation of MMO, while ESA is responsible for the development and operation of MPO as well as the launch, transport, and the insertion of two spacecraft into their dedicated orbits. The main objectives of MMO are to study Mercury's magnetic field and plasma environment around Mercury. MMO is designed as a spin-stabilized spacecraft to be placed in a 400 km x 12,000 km polar orbit. The spacecraft will accommodate instruments mostly dedicated to the study of the magnetic field, waves, and particles near Mercury. MMO Mechanical Test Model (MMO-MTM) was transported to ESA/ESTEC and stack level (MCS: Mercury Cruise System) mechanical environmental test was finished last September. MMO EM electrical model was transported to Astrium Friedrichshafen and electrical interface test was performed on Octorber. MMO stand alone Flight Model (FM) AIV was started from last October and continues until early next year. After standalone AIV, MMO will be trasported to ESA/ESTEC to attend stack level final AIV. 10th BepiColombo science working team (SWT) meeting, which discusses BepiColombo science related matters, will be held on Sep. 2013 at Lapland. In this paper, we will report the latest information of MMO project status.

  17. A descriptive qualitative study of adolescent girls’ well-being in Northern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that girls present welfare-related symptoms differently than boys and that the severity of their symptoms increases with age. Girls living in Northern Finland experience reduced well-being in some aspects of their lives. However, the opinions of girls on these matters have not previously been studied. Objective The aim of this study was to describe girls’ well-being in Northern Finland. Method This is a descriptive qualitative study. The participants were 117 girls aged between 13 and 16 who were living in the province of Lapland in Finland and attending primary school. Data were collected electronically; the girls were asked to respond to a set of open-ended questions using a computer during a school day. The responses were evaluated by using inductive content analysis. Results Four main categories of girls’ well-being were identified: health as a resource, a beneficial lifestyle, positive experience of life course, and favourable social relationships. Health as a resource was about feeling healthy and the ability to enjoy life. A beneficial lifestyle was about healthy habits and meaningful hobbies. Positive experience of life course is related to high self-esteem and feeling good, safe, and optimistic. Favourable social relationships meant having good relationships with family and friends. Conclusions To the participating girls, well-being was a positive experience and feeling which was revealed when they interact between their relationships, living conditions, lifestyle, and environment. Knowledge about girls’ description of their well-being can be used to understand how the girls themselves and their environment influence their well-being and what can be done to promote it. PMID:25317384

  18. The chemical weathering regime of Kärkevagge, arctic-alpine Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Colin E.; Darmody, Robert G.; Dixon, John C.; Schlyter, Peter

    2001-11-01

    Kärkevagge is a valley located in Swedish Lapland at approximately 68°N and represents an arctic-alpine landscape. It is a presently periglacial, glaciated trough incised into essentially horizontal metamorphic rocks, some of which are presumably pyrite-rich. A set of coordinated studies was undertaken to investigate the nature of chemical weathering and pedogenesis in the valley and upon the abutting ridges. August 1996 water quality measures reveal considerable spatial variation in solute totals with the highest Total Dissolved Solute abundances being correlated with high sulfate abundances. Ridge-crest soils exhibited poor horizonation, but more extensive development of secondary clay minerals developed in situ than was found in valley-flank and valley-bottom soils. Valley soils exhibited multiple thin horizons, many of which were buried, and are taken to reflect great paraglacial and periglacial instability. Favorable microenvironments in the valley permit significant development of Spodosols. Coarse debris along and across the valley bears both weathering rinds and rock coatings. Rock coatings in the valley include several types of iron films, sulfate crusts, carbonate skins, and heavy metal skins. Kärkevagge represents a mild arctic environment, which does not preclude substantial chemical weathering in locations where abundant pyrite-rich bedrock and water coincide. This weathering follows pathways which are eminently expectable given that weathering of the pyrite-rich rock permits generation of sulfuric acid which, in turn, weathers muscovite mica and calcite in local schists and marble, respectively. Zones of intense chemical weathering also generate clearly visible deposits of gypsum and iron sulfate deposits such as jarosite. Not all arctic and/or alpine environments are likely to be so active chemically, but the results from Kärkevagge clearly show that dismissal of chemical weathering in cold regions on the basis of presumed first principles is

  19. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  20. Invasion genetics of vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) in the Inari-Pasvik watercourse: revealing the origin and expansion pattern of a rapid colonization event

    PubMed Central

    Præbel, Kim; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Salonen, Erno; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2013-01-01

    Species invasions can have wide-ranging biological and socio-economic effects and are generally unwanted by legislation. Identification of the source population as well as the ecology and genetics of both the invader population and the receiving community is of crucial importance. The rapid invasion of a small coregonid fish vendace (Coregonus albula) in a major northern European subarctic watercourse has resulted in a labile ecological situation in the receiving community. The ecological impact of the invasion has been thoroughly documented, but the genetics of the invasion remains to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and divergence patterns among the two possible source populations from southern Finnish Lapland and three colonists populations within the Inari-Pasvik watercourse using ten microsatellite loci in order to (i) identify the most likely source of the invasion, (ii) reveal the dispersal pattern and genetic structure of the secondary expansion, and (iii) to investigate whether the initial introduction and the secondary expansion were associated with founder effects. We revealed that repeated translocation of vendace from Lake Sinettäjärvi into a tributary lake of L. Inari in 1964–1966 is the most plausible source for the invasion. Both the initial introduction and the secondary expansion were found not to be associated with significant founder effects. The secondary expansion followed a stepping stone pattern and the source and colonist populations of this expansion have undergone rapid genetic divergence within a period of 15–35 years (ca. 8–17 generations). The rapid divergence may be contributed to lack of gene flow among the source and colonist populations due to the extensive hydroelectric damming in the watercourse. Multiple introductions and substantial genetic variation in combination with the boom-and-bust population development of the species thus likely counteracted the founder effects as well as fueled the rapid

  1. Geochronology of an archaean tonalitic gneiss dome in Northern Finland and its relation with an unusual overlying volcanic conglomerate and komatiitic greenstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Puustinen, K.; Hickman, M.

    1981-04-01

    Archaean gneiss-greenstone relationships are still unresolved in many ancient cratonic terrains although there is growing evidence that most of the late Archaean greenstone assemblages were deposited on older tonalitic crust. We report here well defined basement-cover relationships from a late Archaean greenstone belt in Lapland, north of the Polar Circle. The basal greenstone sequence contains quartzite, schist, komatiitic volcanics and an unusual volcanic conglomerate with well preserved granite pebbles of an older basement. These rocks surround a gneiss dome composed of foliated tonalite which shows a polyphase deformation pattern not seen in the neighbouring greenstones. Zircon fractions of the gneisses plot on two discordia lines and give upper intercept ages with concordia at 3,069±16 Ma and 3,110±17 Ma respectively. One fraction contains metamict zircons with components at least 3,135 Ma old. These are the oldest reliable ages yet reported from the Archaean of the Baltic Shield. Rb-Sr whole-rock dating of the tonalitic gneiss yielded an isochron age of 2,729±122 Ma and an ISr of 0.703±0.001. This is interpreted to reflect a resetting event during which the gneisses may have acquired their present tectonic fabric. Rb-Sr model age calculations yield mantle values for ISr at about 2,950±115 Ma and suggest that the tonalite was intruded into the crust as juvenile material at about 3.1 Ga ago as reflected by the zircon ages. It was subsequently deformed and isotopically reset at about 2.7 Ga ago, prior to greenstone deposition. Comparison with tonalitic gneisses of eastern Karelia displays significant differences and suggests that the Archaean of Finland may contain several generations of pre-greenstone granitoid rocks.

  2. Optical properties and climate forcing of Icelandic dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Hladil, Jindrich; Skala, Roman; Navratil, Tomas; Chadimova, Leona; Gritsevich, Maria; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Hakala, Teemu

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is an active source of dust originating from glaciogenic and volcanic sediments. The frequency of days with dust suspension exceeded 34 dust days annually in 1949-2011. This figure represents a minimum value as many dust storms occur without the dust passing the weather stations recording the events. Comparison of meteorological synoptic codes for dust observation and direct particulate matter mass concentration measurements in 2005-2013 showed that the mean number of dust days in Iceland can increase up to135 dust days annually. Dust events in NE Iceland occur mostly in May-September, while almost half of all dust events in SW Iceland were at sub-zero temperatures or in winter. Icelandic dust is different from the crustal dust; it is of volcanic origin and dark in colour. It contains sharp-tipped shards and is often with bubbles. Such physical properties allow large particle suspension and transport to long distances, e.g. towards the Arctic. To estimate the further impacts of dust transport, both laboratory and snow spectropolarimetric measurements were done using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer FIGIFIGO (http://www.polarisation.eu/index.php/list-of-instruments/view-submission/172), an automated portable instrument for multiangular reflectance measurements. The albedo, hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF), polarization, and other snow properties were monitored on the snow and areas affected by the dust deposition through the following melting period in spring 2013 in Lapland during the Soot on Snow (SoS) 2013 campaign. Glaciogenic silt deposited on snow made the snow optically darker. The melting, metamorphose and diffusion processes were fast during the measurement time while the sun heated the particles, snow melted around, and the particles diffused inside the snow. Smaller particles diffused faster than the larger. Fine silt particles tended to form larger grains. Larger volcanic sand particles had lower

  3. Long term effects of fire on the carbon balance in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berninger, Frank; Köster, Kaja; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2013-04-01

    Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon and nitrogen cycle. We established a forest fire chronosequence in the northern boreal forest in Lapland (Värriö Strict Nature Reserve), Finland (67°46' N, 29°35' E) that spans 160 years. Soil organic matter and its turnover were measured in and ex situ, as well as biomass of trees. The fungal biomass was assessed using soil ergosterol contents. The results indicate that fires slow down the turnover of soil organic matter for a period of at least 50 years. The turnover rate in recently burnt sites was only half of the turnover of the old forest site. Decreases in the turnover where still substantial 50 years after fire. The slow recovery of fungal biomass after fires seems to be the cause of the decrease since sites with a higher concentration of fungal biomass in the soils had shorter soil organic matter turnover rates. Increases in stand foliar biomass were less important for the turnover of soil organic matter. We tried to explore the potential importance of our finding using a simple data driven simulation model that estimates soil carbon dynamic from litter input and the measured soil carbon turnover times. The results indicate the initial post-fire slowdown of soil carbon turnover is an important component of the boreal carbon cycle. Using our fire intervals the simulated soil carbon stocks with a lower post-fire soil organic matter turnover were up to 15 % larger than simulations assuming a constant carbon turnover rate. Our sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects will be larger in areas with frequent fires. We do not know which environmental factors cause the delay in the turnover time and the effects of fires on post fire soil organic matter turnover could be considerably smaller or larger. Altogether our results fit well to published results from laboratory studies

  4. Snow-vegetation interactions across the tundra-taiga interface: stabilising feedbacks or drivers of rapid environmental change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, R.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain Birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, forest in the Abisko area, Swedish Lapland, becomes increasingly patchy towards the tree limit. Where these patches occur mature individuals give way to dwarf shrub tundra in the space of a few meters. Further north, or uphill, of this patchy region the landscape is void of mature trees. Whilst broadly accepted that treeline position is correlated with a particular air temperature, temperature alone cannot explain the observed patchiness of the forest, as it varies little on this scale. Winter snow regime is likely to be an important controlling factor of the position of forest-patch edges. Snow cover protects delicate seedlings from blowing snow and ice particles, as well as providing insulation from freeze-thaw cycles capable of damaging fine roots, however, too great a depth of snow is likely to shorten the growing season to a point where seedlings cannot maintain a positive carbon balance. An insulating layer of snow also ensures that soils stay warmer through the winter months, therefore soil processes continue for longer, resulting in enhanced nutrient availability during the spring, compared to soils experiencing a thin layer of snow cover. Soil moisture, soil disturbance and vegetation cover may also be important controlling factors and these may depend to some extent upon winter snow regimen. Trees are able to trap wind-blown snow by decreasing local wind speed. Presence of trees will result in areas experiencing greater snow cover than a tree-free landscape. Once trees establish they may be able to modify the local environment, in terms of snow depth, creating further areas suitable for forest establishment. This is likely to be particularly true of areas downwind of existing tree patches. Where a sudden change is observed it is likely that a 'switch' is operating, allowing a sudden future change to occur if the system is perturbed. Investigating processes that control the switch between forest and

  5. Climatic factors and reindeer grazing -- the effects on soil carbon dynamics in subarctic boreal pine forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Kajar; Köster, Egle; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2016-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems, affecting plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil carbon dynamics. In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we investigated how the reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest combined with climate (air temperature and precipitation) affects soil temperature, soil water content, and ultimately the CO2 efflux from forest soils. The study was carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013 and 2014, where 2013 was an extremely dry year (specially the summer), and the year 2014 was a "normal" year in means of precipitations. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. We established the experiment as a split plot experiment with 2 blocks and 5 sub-plots per treatment that were divided into grazed and non-grazed parts, separated with a fence. The sample plots are located along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from reindeer already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. Our study showed that in subarctic mature pine forests, soil temperatures were higher, and soil water content was fluctuating more on grazed areas compared to non-grazed areas in both years. In both years, the soil water content on the grazed area was highest in June. The situation changed somewhere in the second half of July when the moisture content in the non-grazed area was higher. We found

  6. Actinobacterial Nitrate Reducers and Proteobacterial Denitrifiers Are Abundant in N2O-Metabolizing Palsa Peat

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Palsa peats are characterized by elevated, circular frost heaves (peat soil on top of a permanently frozen ice lens) and are strong to moderate sources or even temporary sinks for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Palsa peats are predicted to react sensitively to global warming. The acidic palsa peat Skalluvaara (approximate pH 4.4) is located in the discontinuous permafrost zone in northwestern Finnish Lapland. In situ N2O fluxes were spatially variable, ranging from 0.01 to −0.02 μmol of N2O m−2 h−1. Fertilization with nitrate stimulated in situ N2O emissions and N2O production in anoxic microcosms without apparent delay. N2O was subsequently consumed in microcosms. Maximal reaction velocities (vmax) of nitrate-dependent denitrification approximated 3 and 1 nmol of N2O per h per gram (dry weight [gDW]) in soil from 0 to 20 cm and below 20 cm of depth, respectively. vmax values of nitrite-dependent denitrification were 2- to 5-fold higher than the vmax nitrate-dependent denitrification, and vmax of N2O consumption was 1- to 6-fold higher than that of nitrite-dependent denitrification, highlighting a high N2O consumption potential. Up to 12 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of narG, nirK and nirS, and nosZ were retrieved. Detected OTUs suggested the presence of diverse uncultured soil denitrifiers and dissimilatory nitrate reducers, hitherto undetected species, as well as Actino-, Alpha-, and Betaproteobacteria. Copy numbers of nirS always outnumbered those of nirK by 2 orders of magnitude. Copy numbers of nirS tended to be higher, while copy numbers of narG and nosZ tended to be lower in 0- to 20-cm soil than in soil below 20 cm. The collective data suggest that (i) the source and sink functions of palsa peat soils for N2O are associated with denitrification, (ii) actinobacterial nitrate reducers and nirS-type and nosZ-harboring proteobacterial denitrifiers are important players, and (iii) acidic soils like palsa peats represent

  7. The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roaldset, E.

    2012-04-01

    The postglacial Stuoragurra Fault, North Norway - A textural and mineralogical study Elen Roaldset(1), Mari Åm (2), and Oddleiv Olesen(3) 1) Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1172 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway 2) Statoil R &D, P. O. Box 2470, 7005 Trondheim, Norway 3) Norwegian Geological Survey, P.O.Box 6315 Sluppen, 7491 Trondheim, Norway The Stuoragurra Fault is part of the Lapland province of postglacial faults and was identified in 1983 during a colloborative project between the Geological Surveys of Finland Norway and Sweden. The Stuoragurra Fault is an 80 km long fault zone which contains three main segments of eastward dipping faults (30-55 deg.) with up to 10 m of reverse displacement and a 7 m high escarpment. It cross-cuts glaciofluvial deposits and consequently being younger than 10.000 years. The postglacial fault segments follow to a large extent older fault zones represented by lithified breccias and diabases of Proterozoic age. In this paper we will present textural and mineralogical study of a 135 m continous core drilled across the fault zone. The investigation methods include quality assessments by rock quality designation methods (RQD and Q- methods), textural and petrological descriptions visually and by thin section microscopy, and mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction. Special attention is drawn to neoformed and/or degraded minerals like clay minerals and iron oxides/hydroxides. The quality assessments of the cored material reflect the degree of rock deformation and fragmentation and show the quality of the bedrock generally to be of very poor (about 60%) to poor quality" (25%) The main minerals in the fresh rock are quarts, feldspar, mica and iron oxides (magnetite and ilmenite). Throughout the cored borehole products of weathering have formed on fissures, fractures and in strongly deformed, gravelly, zones. The neoformed minerals include kaolinite, smectite, and vermiculite, as well as goethite. The mineralogical

  8. Regional Scale Variability in Background and Source δ13C of Methane in the Atlantic, Europe and the Arctic: Cautionary Tales for Isotopic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Zazzeri, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling studies of methane δ13C, both of modern atmosphere and glacial palaeoclimates have used a global isotopic signature for each of the main source categories, whereas detailed studies of source fluxes, such as boreal wetlands, suggest that on the centimeter to meter scale there is very great variability. In recent years we have been reassessing the usefulness of using a generic source value from source up to regional scale through sampling campaigns in the European Arctic, the UK and onboard ships sailing the Atlantic up to the Arctic Ocean. Currently the boreal wetland source of methane dominates above 60°N. Within Finland this source varies at the wetland scale from -74 to -66‰ depending on wetland type and seasonal variability in temperature and water table. Lapland road trips and ship sampling suggest that these emissions are homogenized to -70 to -67‰ in the well-mixed regional atmosphere. An infrequent boreal forest fire emission adds a -30 to -26‰ component into the mix, and such inputs have been observed in the Mace Head (Ireland) isotopic record of 2002. The story is much more complex once the latitudes of heavily urbanized and agricultural areas of Northern Europe are reached. Isotopic signatures applied to UK and EC inventories suggest that national emissions can vary from -42 to -60‰ depending on source mix, but even this is too simplified. Fugitive emissions from gas distribution systems vary based on the source of the gas, with biogenic-dominated supplies from west Siberia at -50‰ to thermogenic gas of the Southern North Sea fields at -32‰. Coal emissions are also source-dependent and have a similar range to gas, but unlike pipeline-homogenized gas can vary from one mine to the next. Emissions from ruminants vary due to C3 and C4 plant diets, with C4 closer to -50‰ while C3 emissions are in the low -60's. A recent whole barn experiment in the UK recorded -66‰. Landfill signatures also vary. Sites engineered in the last decade

  9. Substorm evolution of auroral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partamies, N.; Juusola, L.; Whiter, D.; Kauristie, K.

    2015-07-01

    Auroral arcs are often associated with magnetically quiet time and substorm growth phases. We have studied the evolution of auroral structures during global and local magnetic activity to investigate the occurrence rate of auroral arcs during different levels of magnetic activity. The ground-magnetic and auroral conditions are described by the magnetometer and auroral camera data from five Magnetometers — Ionospheric radars — All-sky cameras Large Experiment stations in Finnish and Swedish Lapland. We identified substorm growth, expansion, and recovery phases from the local electrojet index (IL) in 1996-2007 and analyzed the auroral structures during the different phases. Auroral structures were also analyzed during different global magnetic activity levels, as described by the planetary Kp index. The distribution of auroral structures for all substorm phases and Kp levels is of similar shape. About one third of all detected structures are auroral arcs. This suggests that auroral arcs occur in all conditions as the main element of the aurora. The most arc-dominated substorm phases occur in the premidnight sector, while the least arc-dominated substorm phases take place in the dawn sector. Arc event lifetimes and expectation times calculated for different substorm phases show that the longest arc-dominated periods are found during growth phases, while the longest arc waiting times occur during expansion phases. Most of the arc events end when arcs evolve to more complex structures. This is true for all substorm phases. Based on the number of images of auroral arcs and the durations of substorm phases, we conclude that a randomly selected auroral arc most likely belongs to a substorm expansion phase. A small time delay, of the order of a minute, is observed between the magnetic signature of the substorm onset (i.e., the beginning of the negative bay) and the auroral breakup (i.e., the growth phase arc changing into a dynamic display). The magnetic onset was

  10. Methane Suppression: The Impacts of Fe(III) and Humic Acids on Net Methane Flux from Arctic Tundra Wetlands in Alaska and Finland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, D.; Miller, K.; Lai, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils contain large reservoirs of carbon (C) that are vulnerable to loss from climatic warming. However the potential global impacts of this C depend on whether it is lost primarily in the form of methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2), two gases with very different greenhouse warming potentials. In anaerobic environments, the relative production of CH4 vs. CO2 may be controlled by the presence of alternative terminal electron acceptors, which allow more thermodynamically favorable anaerobic respiratory pathways to dominate over methanogenesis. This work investigated how the addition of terminal electron acceptors, ferric iron (Fe(III)) and humic acids, affected net CH4 fluxes from high-latitude wetland ecosystems. We conducted two manipulative field experiments in Barrow, Alaska (71° N) and Finnish Lapland (69° N). The ecosystem in Barrow was known from previous studies to be rich in Fe(III) and to harbor a microbial community that is dominated by Fe(III)- and humic acid-reducing microorganisms. The role of these alternative electron acceptors had not previously been studied at the Finnish site. CH4 and CO2 fluxes were measured using a portable trace gas analyzer from experimental plots, before and after amendments with Fe(III) (in the chelated form, ferric nitrilotriacetic acid), humic acids, or water as a control. Both in the ecosystem with permafrost and naturally high levels of soil Fe (Barrow, AK) and in the ecosystem with no permafrost and naturally low levels of soil Fe (Petsikko, Finland), the addition of the alternative electron acceptors Fe(III) and humic acids significantly reduced net CH4 flux. CO2 fluxes were not significantly altered by the treatments. The reduction in CH4 flux persisted for at least several weeks post-treatment. There was no significant difference between the reduction caused by humic acids versus that from Fe(III). These results show that the suppression of CH4 flux by Fe(III) and humic acids is a widespread phenomenon that

  11. Improving the modeling of the seasonal carbon cycle of the boreal forest with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum, Tea; Aalto, Tuula; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Zaehle, Sönke

    2014-05-01

    The boreal ecosystems are characterized a very strong seasonal cycle and they are very sensitive to the climatic variables. The vegetation's deep wintertime dormancy requires a long recovery time during spring before the plants reach their full photosynthetic capacity. During this recovery time the plants are highly susceptible the night frosts. The transition period is different during spring and autumn for the evergreen plants. During spring there is plenty of light, but cold air temperatures inhibit the photosynthesis. The plants therefore experience to high stress levels, as they need to protect their photosynthetic apparatus from intense light. In autumn the air temperature and light level decrease more concurrently. To have a realistic presentation of the carbon cycle in boreal forests it is important to have these characteristics properly modeled, so that also the implications of changing seasonality under climate change can be more reliably predicted. In this study, we focus on the CO2 exchange of a Scots pine forest Sodankylä located in Finnish Lapland, 100 km north from the Arctic Circle. Micrometeorological flux measurements provide information about the exchanges of carbon, energy and water between atmosphere and vegetation. To complement these fluxes, we use dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) measurements, which is an optical measurement and tracks the development of the photosynthetic capacity. These two approaches combined together are very useful when we want to improve the modeling of the forest's CO2 exchange. We used two models that describe the photosynthesis with the biochemical model of Farquhar et al. The FMI-CANOPY is a canopy level model that is feasible to use in parameter estimation. We used the CF measurements of Fv/Fm, that is a measure of the maximum photosynthetic capacity, to include a seasonal development in the base rate of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) in FMI-CANOPY. The simulation results matched the

  12. Nitrogen balance along a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions. Because boreal forests comprise 30% of the global forest area, increases in the annual area burned may have significant implications for global carbon and nitrogen (N) cycles. The productivity of boreal forests is limited by low N availability. Fires cause N loss from ecosystems through oxidation and volatilization of N stored in biomass and soil. N balance may be poorly buffered against forest fires especially in sub-arctic ecosystems where atmospheric N deposition is low. Although forest fires alter N dynamics, there are little quantitative data available on N pools and fluxes through post-fire succession in sub-arctic boreal forests. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year forest fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve situated in Finnish Lapland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). Soil was the largest N pool in all forest age classes and comprised 69-82% of the total ecosystem N pool. The total ecosystem N pool varied from 622 kg ha-1 in the recently burned forest to 960 kg ha-1 in the 155-year-old forest. The forests were N sinks in all age classes the annual N accumulation rate being 2.28 kg ha-1 yr-1 which was distributed almost equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in ecosystem N pools were consistent with the computed N balance 2.10 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period (Balance= (atmospheric deposition + N fixation) - (leaching + N2O emissions)). The results indicated that N deposition is an important component of the N balance and the N outputs are small (13% of the inputs) in the studied ecosystems. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other N fluxes. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N

  13. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens

    1986-06-01

    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  14. Complexity of the Fennoscandian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Oreshin, Sergey; Kosarev, Grigoriy; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Vaganova, Natalia; Kiselev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    P and S receiver functions are calculated for a few tens of broadband seismograph stations in eastern Fennoscandia and are inverted for P and S-wave velocity models up to a depth of 300 km. The dataset includes the data of the POLNET/LAPNET temporary array and selected permanent stations in southern Finland and northwestern Russia. Most of the stations of the POLENET/LAPNET array are located in the Lapland-Kola collisional belt of Fennoscandia, in which the Archaean litosphere has been significantly reworked in the Palaeoproterozoic. The converted Ps phases from the transition zone at those stations arrive about 1 - 1.5 s earlier than predicted by global models. The latest arrivals with the residuals of -0.5 s are found at the northernmost stations of the POLNET/LAPNET array close to the shield margin. The earliest arrivals with the residuals of around -2.0 s are observed at southern Finland stations located in the Palaeoproterozoic domain of the Fennoscandian Shield. The observed trend in arrival times of phases converted from the transition zone is indication of different upper mantle velocities beneath major tectonic domains of the Shield. The residual of the Ps phase is the difference between the teleseismic S and P travel-time residuals in the upper mantle of Fennoscandia. At most of the stations the S-wave residuals by absolute values are larger than the values of the P-wave residuals by an order of magnitude. The large S-wave residuals and relatively low P-wave residuals present an effect of low Vp/Vs ratio in the upper mantle compared to the global velocity models. In the obtained velocity models there are regional variations of the Vs and Vp as functions of depth. At the Russian stations in a depth range from 100 to 200 km there is a pronounced low- P-velocity layer, without a comparable counterpart in the S- velocity model. The P-wave velocity model for the Russian stations reveals interesting correlations with the data from the QUARTZ nuclear

  15. The Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia: Depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy and palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Schovsbo, Niels Hemmingsen

    2011-08-01

    Lower Cambrian successions described from Scandinavia are reviewed and subjected to sequence stratigraphical analysis; comparisons are also made with successions described from northeast Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The treated stratigraphic interval is bounded upwards by a regional unconformity ascribed to the Hawke Bay Event. The East European regional stage classification, comprising the Rovnian, Lontovan, Dominopolian, Ljubomlian, Vergalian, Rausvian and Kibartian, is adopted for the Lower Cambrian of Scandinavia. These units are approximately equivalent to the Terreneuvian and Cambrian provisional series 2. The Rovnian and Lontovan stages are pre-trilobitic. The Dominopolian and 'Ljubomlian' stages encompass the ' Rusophycus' and Schmidtiellus mickwitzi zones; whether the former zone is of pre-trilobitic age is uncertain but possible. The 'Ljubomlian' is treated informally because the definition adopted in this paper does not correspond to the original concept of the stage. The Vergalian and Rausvian are for the time being classified as one combined stage. The lower main part of the Vergalian-Rausvian corresponds to the new informal Holmia kjerulfi- 'Ornamentaspis' linnarssoni zone, whereas the upper part is separated as the new informal Comluella?-Ellipsocephalus lunatus zone. This zone also includes the Kibartian Stage. Volborthella and poorly known olenellid trilobites range into the Kibartian and the stage is considered of Early Cambrian age. The Holmia inusitata Zone is abandoned; it is contemporaneous with the traditional ' O.' linnarssoni Zone. The autochthonous strata underlying the Hawke Bay unconformity in the Laisvall sector, Swedish Lapland, are assigned to the Laisberg and Grammajukku formations and it is proposed to abandon the Laisvall and Såvvare formations. The Laisberg Fm can locally be divided into the Ackerselet, Saivatj, Maiva, Kautsky Ore, Tjalek, Nadok Ore and Assjatj members. The Vakkejokk Breccia near Luopakte is likely

  16. Ar/Ar age data of muscovite from the Keivy Terrane (central Kola Peninsula, arctic European Russia) imply a prolonged fluid-assisted recrystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, K.; Ruffet, G.; Marker, M.

    2012-04-01

    Single grain muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age data from metasediments of the Keivy Terrane point to a prolonged recrystallisation, and imply that the younger age set in metamorphic terranes with a long history cannot always be simply interpreted as due to late and slow cooling. The Keivy terrane is an element of the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt developed along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. It comprises a lower series of late Archaean meta-volcanic rocks, intruded by earliest Palaeoproterozoic alkali granites that are covered by strongly deformed quartz-rich kyanite-staurolite-garnet-micaschists of the Keivy unit that have yielded magmatic zircons as young as ~2.35 Ga, which were derived from the substratum's alkaline granite. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating with a defocussed laser beam of muscovite grains from seven metasediments of the Keivy unit yielded saddle-shaped age spectra in most experiments. In five out of seven cases the base of the saddle corresponded to a plateau age in the range of 1667 to 1593 Ma (60-90% of the gas release; 1 sigma errors: 1.0-1.2 Ma). We do not simply interpret these 40Ar/39Ar ages in the classical way as due to cooling, because the saddle shape of the spectra enables a more complete and detailed interpretation. Saddle-shaped age spectra may result from the presence of different argon reservoirs in partially recrystallised and chemically distinct micas that degas over a different energy interval: a primary, not recrystallised or inherited domain (low and high temperature steps) and a newly formed or recrystallised one (saddle minimum in the intermediate steps). The younger subdomains formed by growth or recrystallisation could characterise the last isotopic record during an extended (re)crystallisation history. It is striking that 1612 and 1615 Ma saddle minimum ages in two samples correspond to a plateau age of 1612 Ma in another sample. Also elevated high and/or low temperature apparent ages of

  17. Resetting of Neoarchaean hornblendes from the Murmansk Terrane (Kola Peninsula, Russia) revealed by a combined 40Ar/39Ar and Rb-Sr analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, K.; Timmerman, M. J.; Cliff, R. A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Daly, J. S.; Balagansky, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    We present isotope data from amphiboles from the 2.6--2.8 Ga Murmansk Terrane in the northern foreland of the 1.9 Ga Lapland-Kola Orogen of northern Fennoscandia. Most amphiboles are zoned with tschermakitic cores that progressively change to actinolite in 5--10 μm wide areas in rims, defect zones or adjacent to biotite. Biotite chiefly occurs along cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries of amphibole, showing that its hydration and fluid ingress are confined to lattice imperfections. Furnace step heating of hornblende separate MT-11 gave spectra with increasing apparent ages and Ca/K ratios (a proxy for 37ArCa/39Ar_K). Hornblende is intergrown with biotite that also occurs in the matrix. Yet, laser step heating of single hornblende grain MT-11 yielded flat spectra with Neoarchaean apparent ages and constant Ca/K ratios. This suggests that the hornblende grain that was drilled from a thin section and which was not affected by biotite growth retained its Neoarchaean age. In contrast, the hornblende separate with intergrown biotite from this sample has a partially reset Neoarchaean isotope system. Hornblende MT-27 has Neoarchaean apparent ages and lacks low Ca/K ratios in both single grain and mineral separate spectra; it is not affected by biotite growth and this mineral is also absent from the matrix. Age spectra of other hornblende separates have increasing apparent ages to 2.56--2.65 Ga during final 39Ar release; their Ca/K ratio spectra similarly increase. Low Ca/K ratios for gas release below 950^oC imply degassing of included biotite. Apparent ages of the first heating increments may be as young as 1.8 Ga, comparable to the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the youngest biotites. Hornblende-plagioclase pairs from aliquots used for 40Ar/39Ar furnace step heating yielded sharply discordant Rb-Sr ages. MT-11 yielded an 1881 ± 23 Ma Rb-Sr age that compares well with the K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of biotite in the sample. In contrast, hornblende of sample MT-27 has a

  18. U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from FAR-DEEP cores, Fennoscandian Shield - age constraints for events of the Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic transition and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, C.; Martin, A.; Bahlburg, H.; Lepland, A.; Melezhik, V.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Berndt, J.; Kooijman, E.; Far-Deep Scientists

    2010-12-01

    associated with the formation of a mylonitic thrust fault cutting the top of the Kolasjoki sedimentary units. We verified the youngest ages (1.92 Ga) from this unit by ID-TIMS analysis, which confirmed the LA ICP-MS data. Additional geochronologic work, integrated with new field observations, will be undertaken to assess the origin and significance of the 1.92 Ga population in the Kolasjoki Sedimentary Fm. Provenance areas for zircons with ages of 2.9-2.6 Ga, likely reflect derivation from the surrounding exposed Archaean basement in the Kola and Karelian Province and the Murmansk Craton. From 2.5-2.4 Ga rifting of Archaean crust and accretion of terranes to Fennoscandia started, generating layered mafic intrusions, and continued until 2.1 Ga. These intrusions as well as those surrounding terranes might also be a source for detrital zircons of such ages. The provenance area of the zircons from the Kuetsjärvi and Kolasjoki Sedimentary fms (2.1-1.92 Ga) is possibly in the southern Svecofennian domain and the western Lapland Granulite Belt.

  19. The spring and autumn phenophases of the broadleaves trees indicate the extension of growing season in the boreal forest environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubin, Eero; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Karhu, Jouni; Tolvanen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The long-term historical data since 1752 shows an advancement in the timing of flowering by five days per century in Prunus padus. The onset of flowering in Sorbus aucuparia has become correspondingly earlier in Finland at the rate of three days per century. The results of the Finnish National Phenological Network fit well in the historical data. The Finnish National Phenological Network was established in 1996 in collaboration with research institutes and universities. The phenomena being studied by trained observers using a standardized manner are flowering and flushing of trees, yellowing and shedding of leaves, height growth and flowering of conifers, flowering of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus and the ripening of berries. The monitoring covers eight tree species: Betula pubescens, Betula pendula, Pinus silvestris, Picea abies, Populus tremula, Juniperus communis, Prunus padus and Sorbus aucuparia. The observations are made repeatedly of the same tree individuals at least twice per week. The real time results are visible in the form of animations and charts (http://www.metla.fi/metinfo/fenologia/index-en.htm). The green wave from south to north and yellowishing from north to south will be presented in the conference. The onset of downy birch leaves occurred in northernmost Lapland about a month later compared with southern Finland and began to turn yellow already at the beginning of September. The onset and progress of growth are primarily dependeing on air temperature. The results of the network confirm that spring phenophases have especially in northern Finland advanced with respect to climatic conditions. For autumn phenopases we found in several sites delaying trend, but not as strong as in spring phenopases. Downy birch, Betula pubescens, has been found to leaf on average when the effective temperature sum has reached 54 dd. in the southern part of the country, but in the north only 38 dd. is needed. The less temperature sum requirement

  20. Long term implications of fire to soil C content and soil CO2 efflux in northern boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon (C) cycle. Especially the soil organic matter pool in boreal forests is an important C storage with a long C turnover time, but fire frequencies that are expected to increase with changing climate, can change that. We compared the initial recovery of C pools and CO2 efflux following fire disturbance in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris) stands in the northern boreal forests, of eastern Lapland, Värriö Strict Nature Reserve, Finland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). The sites are situated north of the Arctic Circle, near to the northern timberline at an average of 300 m altitude. We have established 8 sample areas (with two replicate plots in each) in a chronosequence of 4 age classes (2 to 152 years since the last fire). The chronosequence consisted of four types of areas: (i) fire 2 years ago old areas, (ii) fire 42 years ago, (iii) fire around 60 years ago, (iv) fire 152years ago. The total C contents in the first 10 cm of the topsoil were highest on old areas (fire 150 years ago) and lowest on new areas (fire 2-40 years ago). The total C pool at the old site was 2411 g m-2. The area where the fire was 2 years ago had the lowest total C pools, 1474 g m-2 respectively. The lowest C pools were measured from area where the fire was 60 years ago, and from B horizon. The highest C pools were measured on old areas from top soil horizons (consisting of decomposing litter). When we compared the total C pools, the newly burned areas (areas where the fire was 2 - 40 years ago) formed one group (had similar values of total C) and old areas (areas where the fire was 60-150 years ago) formed another group with similar values. These results are also correlating to the soil respiration measurements. Soil CO2 efflux was lowest straight after the fire (0.042 mg CO2 m-2 s-1) and it reached a stable level of around

  1. Long-term mountain tundra composition's responses to grazing pressure in the context of environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, Patrick; Pyykkonen, Tuija; Eskelinen, Anu; Virtanen, Risto

    2013-04-01

    Strong changes in northern tundra in response to climate changes are expected and in particular an increasing shrubiness. However, global changes contain not only warming or shifts in snow-cover but also changes in land-use, e.g. for arctic low productive ecosystems changes in grazing pressure. Grazing could also represent an important driver of future Arctic tundra communities. However, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers of plant communities' composition remains largely unknown, in particular because short-term experiments provided to conflicting evidences. Here, we present the results from a long-term (23 years) experiment set up in 1989 at Kilpisjärvi in the north-western Finnish Lapland. The experiment consisted in the transplantation of twenty 40x50 cm blocks of Vaccinium myrtillus heath including 5-10 cm thick soil layer from a 660 m.a.s.l. dry slope to a snowbed 150m higher in elevation containing dry and wet sites. We considered the transplantation at higher altitude in snowbed conditions an increase in harsher conditions (shorter growing season, lower productivity). Half of the transplanted blocks were protected from herbivores and the percentage cover of each plant species was estimated in mid-august 2012 from a central 12.5 x12.5 cm area in each block. Our results showed that the dominance of the shrub V. myrtillus was strongly reduced as response to transplantation to snowbed. Consequently the competitive pressure also decreased and allowed an increase of the species richness. Soil moisture differences between installation locations induced divergence in plant communities' composition allowing the increase in abundance of subordinate species as bryophytes and graminoids in wet and dry sites respectively. Excluding herbivory, some species assumed high dominance reducing the community diversity. In the wet exclosures, quarter of the surface was covered by a moss and V. myrtillus co-dominated. The strongest changes occurred in dry

  2. Microsatellite Digital Magnetometer SMILE - Present State and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2010-05-01

    The fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) are probably the most widespread instruments used onboard spacecrafts for both scientific and service purposes. The recent trend to decrease the weight and size of the spacecrafts requires creating as small as possible but enough sensitive FGM. A joint Swedish-Ukrainian team made the development of such a magnetometer and as the result the Small Magnetometer In Low mass Experiment (SMILE) - a digital fluxgate microsatellite magnetometer - was created [1]. Majority of electronic units of this FGM were combined in a digital integrated circuit - a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA provides full processing (determined by a digital correlation algorithm) of amplified and digitized fluxgate sensor output signals and provides both FGM output data and feedback signals. Such digital design makes the instrument very flexible, reduces power consumption and opens possibilities for customization of the operation modes. It allows miniaturizing the electronic unit and, together with the smallest in the world low noise three-component fluxgate sensor with the side dimension of 20 mm and weight about 20 grams only, the small but enough sensitive space qualified FGM is created. SMILE magnetometer was successfully flown onboard the NASA Cascades-2 sounding rocket, and is to fly in the LAPLander package onboard the ESA REXUS-8 student sounding rocket [2]. Unfortunately, such a design of electronic circuit does not allow us to realize all possibilities of the miniature sensor. The separate tests of the sensor with highest-class analog electronics showed that its noise level may be reduced to as low value as 10…15 picoTesla at 1 Hz. Also the use of volume compensation in the sensor provides high geometrical stability of the axes and improved performance compared to component compensated sensors. The measured parameters appear to be comparable or even better than these of best stationary FGM and, if realized in small enough volume and

  3. How to distinguish natural and anthropogenic arsenic emissions? - A case study of Kittilä Suurikuusikko gold mine in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backnäs, Soile; Turunen, Kaisa; Pasanen, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Areas with bedrock abundant in ore minerals have naturally high amount of harmful elements in soil as well as in ground and in surface waters. After the beginning of the mining also the anthropogenic contamination tends to increase. Thus it is important to compare this load to the natural background when assessing the contamination of mine area and surrounding environment. Arsenic is common element in extractive and industrial minerals, and due to its relatively high mobility and toxicity, one of the most important local scale pollutants in the environments of mine areas in Finland. In this study natural and anthropogenic arsenic geochemisty in Suurikuusikko gold mine at Kittilä, Finland was characterized by using hot aqua regia, ammonium acetate and oxalate extractions. In total 35 samples of humus, peat, glacial till and bedrock were analyzed. In addition 11 water samples were analyzed for total and soluble metal and metalloid concentrations, anions, DOC, TOC, pH, redox and alkalinity. The metal speciation in surface and ground waters was modeled by PHREEQC. Due to gold bearing arsenopyrite ore, the arsenic concentrations in the Kittilä municipality and Central Lapland are naturally high. According to the geochemical analysis the percentage of oxalate and especially acetate extractable arsenic fractions in soil and bedrock samples indicates an increase in anthropogenic arsenic pollution. The results show higher aqua regia extractable arsenic concentrations and percentage of oxalate and acetate extractable fractions (30-97 %; 10-30 %) in glacial till and humus near the tailings and waste rock areas, but above all in samples taken from wetlands receiving tailings seepage waters. The background samples of humus and glacial till contained only 0-3 % of acetate and 17-77 % of oxalate extractable arsenic. The weathered bedrock samples in the mine area contained higher aqua regia extractable arsenic concentrations and acetate extractable arsenic fractions (14

  4. Reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest - influences on the soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Köster, Egle; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2015-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems , which have many effects on plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil C dynamics. Earlier, the role of reindeer grazing in ground vegetation dynamics and in soil carbon (C) dynamics has been mostly investigated in open tundra heaths. The objectives of this study were to examine if and how the reindeer grazing (and the possible temperature changes in soil caused by heavy grazing) is affecting the soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux from the soil, C storage in soil, microbial biomass in the soil). In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we have assessed the changes occurring in above- and belowground biomasses, and soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux, soil C content, soil microbial biomass C) among areas grazed and ungrazed by reindeer. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. The sample plots located in the Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) are situated along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. To characterize the stands we have established circular sample plots on areas with a radius of 11.28 m, where different tree characteristics were measured (diameter at 1.3 m, height, height of a tree, crown height, crown diameter, stand age, etc.). On every sample plot

  5. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    Finland, 2.2 (7.2) in Lapland, and 1.4 (2.9) mg/m2 in Oulu provinces of Finland. For urban population living in the central and northern territories of the Kola Peninsula the yearly loading due to deposition of sulfates could be more than 40 kg/person. For bordering territories with the Murmansk region such loadings are less than 5 kg/person for the Eastern Finland, Karelia, and Arkhangelsk regions; and up to 15 kg/person - for the Northern Norway.

  6. Reactive hydro- end chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere : sources, distributions, and chemical impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeren, H. A.

    2003-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on measurements of chemical reactive C2 C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and C1 C2 chlorocarbons with atmospheric lifetimes of a few hours up to about a year. The group of reactive chlorocarbons includes the most abundant atmospheric species with large natural sources, which are chloromethane (CH3Cl), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and trichloromethane (CHCl3), and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) with mainly anthropogenic sources. The NMHC and chlorocarbons are present at relatively low quantities in our atmosphere (10-12 10-9 mol mol-1 of air). Nevertheless, they play a key role in atmospheric photochemistry. For example, the oxidation of NMHC plays a dominant role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere, while the photolysis of chlorocarbons contributes to enhanced ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In spite of their important role, however, their global source and sinks budgets are still poorly understood. Hence, this study aims at improving our understanding of the sources, distribution, and chemical role of reactive NMHC and chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. To meet this aim, a comprehensive data set of selected C2 C7 NMHC and chlorocarbons has been analyzed, derived from six aircraft measurement campaigns with two different jet aircrafts (the Dutch TUD/NLR Cessna Citation PH-LAB, and the German DLR Falcon) conducted between 1995 and 2001 (STREAM 1995 and 1997 and 1998, LBA-CLAIRE 1998, INDOEX 1999, MINOS 2001). The NMHC and chlorocarbons have been detected by gas-chromatography (GC-FID/ECD) in pre-concentrated whole air samples collected in stainless steel canister on-board the measurement aircrafts. The measurement locations include tropical (Maldives/Indian Ocean and Surinam), midlatitude (Western Europe and Canada) and polar regions (Lapland/northern Sweden) between the equator to about 70ºN, covering different seasons and pollution levels in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Of

  7. Reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest - influences on the soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Köster, Egle; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2015-04-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems , which have many effects on plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil C dynamics. Earlier, the role of reindeer grazing in ground vegetation dynamics and in soil carbon (C) dynamics has been mostly investigated in open tundra heaths. The objectives of this study were to examine if and how the reindeer grazing (and the possible temperature changes in soil caused by heavy grazing) is affecting the soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux from the soil, C storage in soil, microbial biomass in the soil). In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we have assessed the changes occurring in above- and belowground biomasses, and soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux, soil C content, soil microbial biomass C) among areas grazed and ungrazed by reindeer. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. The sample plots located in the Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) are situated along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. To characterize the stands we have established circular sample plots on areas with a radius of 11.28 m, where different tree characteristics were measured (diameter at 1.3 m, height, height of a tree, crown height, crown diameter, stand age, etc.). On every sample plot

  8. Impact of mine wastewaters on greenhouse gas emissions from northern peatlands used for mine water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn; Hynynen, Jenna; Maljanen, Marja

    2015-04-01

    The amount of wastewaters generated during mining operations is increasing along with the increasing number of operation mines, which poses great challenges for mine water management and purification. Mine wastewaters contain high concentrations of nitrogen compounds such as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) originating from remnant explosives as well as sulfate (SO42-) originating from the oxidation of sulfidic ores. At a mine site in Finnish Lapland, two natural peatlands have been used for cost-effective passive wastewater treatment. One peatland have been used for the treatment of drainage waters (TP 1), while the other has been used for the treatment of process-based wastewaters (TP 4). In this study, the impact of mine water derived nitrogen compounds as well as SO42- on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from those treatment peatlands was investigated. Contaminant concentrations in the input and output waters of the treatment peatlands were monitored which allowed for the calculation of contaminant-specific retention efficiencies. Treatment peatlands showed generally good retention efficiencies for metals and metalloids (e.g. nickel, arsenic, antimony, up to 98% reduction in concentration) with rather low input-concentrations (i.e., in the μg/l-range). On the other hand, retention of contaminants with high input-concentrations (i.e., in mg/l-range) such as NO3-, NH4+ and SO42- was much lower (4-41%, 30-60% and -42-30%, respectively), indicating the limited capability of the treatment peatlands to cope with such high input concentrations. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were determined in surface and pore water from TP 4 in July 2013 as well as in surface water from TP 1 and TP 4 in October 2013. Up to 720 μM NO3- and up to 600 μM NH4+ were detected in surface water of TP 4 in July 2013. NO3- and NH4+ concentrations in surface waters were highest near the mine wastewater distribution ditch and decreased with