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1

Large aperture high accuracy satellite laser tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A satellite laser ranging station has been established in order to range both low and high earth-orbiting satellites with a few-mm accuracy; this entails precision pointing of a 15-ton, azimuth-elevation-mounted coude telescope. Because tracking is performed under open loop computer control with no feedback from laser returns, the initial acquisition data and the algorithms for orbit computation must be accurate enough to maintain the satellite within the narrow laser beam width. The system is currently being used to track the LAGEOS and STARLETTE satellites.

Mcgarry, Jan L. F.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Degnan, John J.

1987-01-01

2

Enhancement of laser interaction with vacuum for a large angular aperture.  

PubMed

We study the nonlinear interaction of laser light with vacuum for a large angular aperture at electromagnetic field strengths far below the Schwinger limit. The polarization and magnetization in vacuum irradiated by a focused laser beam clearly differ from those in matter. This is due to the dependence on the Lorentz invariant, which results in a ring-shaped radiation distribution in vacuum. The number of the radiated photons increases nonlinearly with increasing angular aperture. PMID:21902393

Monden, Y; Kodama, R

2011-08-12

3

The role of the solvent viscosity on the spatiotemporal instabilities of large aperture dye lasers  

E-print Network

The role of the solvent viscosity on the spatiotemporal instabilities of large aperture dye lasers for several solvent viscosities. A decrease on the relative fluctuations amplitude as the solvent viscosity, the achieved orientation during the time of radia- tion of the laser pulse will depend on the solvent viscosity

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

4

Fabrication of large-aperture random phase plate for uniform illumination on laser fusion target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated a large aperture random phase plate (RPP) in Chinese K9 glass substrate for target-plane laser beam smoothing at 1.06 micrometer wavelength, by using large aperture photolithography and dilute HF etching processes. The RPP's clear aperture is (phi) 250 mm. The measured average step height is 1.060 micrometer, which has a relative standard deviation of 1.24% at 5 locations on the RPP to the theoretical value. A focal spot with very sharp edges and nearly flat-top overall envelope intensity distribution is obtained at the focal-plane of a focusing lens. These results show that our fabrication techniques for RPP is effective, and is easily scaleable to even larger apertures.

Huang, Huijie; Lu, Dunwu; Wang, Runwen; Zhao, Yongkai; Liu, Zengshui

2000-04-01

5

Finite aperture waveguide laser resonators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general theory of finite aperture waveguide laser resonators is developed which represents the external reflectors by matrices which couple linearly polarized waveguide modes having the same azimuthal symmetry. The theory allows the determination of resonator efficiency, resonator frequencies, and laser near and far field patterns. Computations of the coupling loss for the fundamental waveguide mode as a function of mirror curvature, separation, and aperture are in agreement with recent infinite aperture calculations in the limit of large apertures and indicate three low-loss configurations: large radius of curvature mirrors close to the guide; large radius of curvature mirrors centered at the guide entrance; and generally smaller curvature mirrors separated by half their curvature from the guide entrance. Design guidelines for construction of high efficiency CO2, CO and He-Ne waveguide laser resonators are summarized in tabular form.

Degnan, J. J.; Hall, D. R.

1973-01-01

6

Novel large aperture EBCCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel large aperture electron bombardment charge coupled device (EBCCD) has been developed. The diameter of its photocathode is 10 cm and it is the first EBCCD with such a large aperture. Its gain shows good linearity as a function of applied voltage up to -12 kV, where the gain is 2400. The spatial resolution was measured using ladder pattern charts. It is better than 2 line pairs/mm, which corresponds to 3.5 times the CCD pixel size. The spatial resolution was also measured with a copper foil pattern on a fluorescent screen irradiated with X-rays (14 and 18 keV) and a 60 keV gamma-ray from an americium source. The result was consistent with the measurement using ladder pattern charts. The output signal as a function of input light intensity shows better linearity than that of image intensifier tubes (IIT) as expected. We could detect cosmic rays passing through a scintillating fiber block and a plastic scintillator as a demonstration for a practical use in particle physics experiments. This kind of large aperture EBCCD can, for example, be used as an image sensor for a detector with a large number of readout channels and is expected to be additionally applied to other physics experiments.

Suzuki, Atsumu; Aoki, Shigeki; Haba, Junji; Sakuda, Makoto; Suyama, Motohiro

2011-02-01

7

Repetitively pulsed regime of Nd : glass large-aperture laser amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

A repetitively pulsed operation regime of neodymium glass rod laser amplifiers with apertures of 4.5, 6, 8.5, and 10 cm is analysed using experimental data. The limits of an increase in the pulse repetition rates are determined. Universal dependences are obtained, which help finding a compromise between increasing the repetition rate and enhancing the gain for each particular case. In particular, it is shown that an amplifier 4.5-cm in diameter exhibits a five-fold safety factor with respect to a thermo-mechanical breakdown at a repetition rate of 1 pulse min{sup -1} and stored energy of above 100 J. A strong thermally induced birefringence in two such amplifiers is experimentally reduced to a 'cold' level by employing a 90 Degree-Sign optical rotator.

Kuzmin, A A; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaykin, A A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2012-04-30

8

A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is experimentally demonstrated. The VCSEL has a circular output-beam which makes it easier for it to be directly coupled to a Nd:GdVO4 microcrystal. In our research, a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL, with a multi-ring-shaped aperture (MRSA) and an almost Gaussian-shaped far-field profile, is used as the pumping source. Experimental results for the Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by the VCSEL are presented. The maximum output peak power of 0.754 W is obtained under a pump peak power of 1.3 W, and the corresponding opto-optic conversion efficiency is 58.1%. The average slope efficiency is 65.8% from the threshold pump power of 0.2 W to the pump power of 1.3 W. The laser beam quality factors are measured to be {M}x2=1.2 0 and {M}y2=1.1 5.

Hao, Y. Q.; Ma, J. L.; Yan, C. L.; Liu, G. J.; Ma, X. H.; Gong, J. F.; Feng, Y.; Wei, Z. P.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. J.

2013-05-01

9

Developing magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology for the manufacture of large-aperture optics in megajoule class laser systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm2 at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm2 at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm2 at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture largeaperture damage resistant optics.

Menapace, Joseph A.

2010-11-01

10

Large-aperture CsLiB6O10 frequency doubler for high-energy Nd:glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the demonstration of the high pulse energy and high efficiency second-harmonic generation (SHG) at 532-nm using large aperture CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals for the first time to our knowledge. A pulsed green energy of 25 J has been generated with 34 J of input 1064-nm Nd:glass laser radiation using a two-stage crystal architecture. High conversion efficiency of 74 % has been attained at fundamental laser intensity of only 370 MW/cm2. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals. We discuss in detail the design and performance of SHG using CLBO crystals.

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Norihiro; Yamakawa, Koichi

2002-09-01

11

Laser damage performance of large-aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power laser facility for ICF will routinely operate at high fluence level. The damage on the large-area FOA optics is a key lifetime limiter. The optics should be checked after each laser shot for damage initiation and growth. On-line monitoring equipments are installed for this purpose. Damage pictures of a fused silica component are successfully taken and the luminance of the pictures could reflect the deterioration of the operational environment. Damage initiation and growth behaviors at 351nm high-fluence laser were observed. Damage density and damage growth are exponential with the shot number and some conclusions could be drawn. These results bring forward demands for future monitoring equipments and more experiments to establish a lifetime model.

Huang, Wanqing; Han, Wei; Wang, Fang; Xiang, Yong; Li, Fuquan; Feng, Bin; Jing, Feng; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Wanguo; Zhang, Xiaomin

2008-12-01

12

Freeform corrector for laser with large aperture YAG:ND active element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of transmitted wavefront distortion correction are presented for a YAG:Nd active element with a diameter 45 mm. Halftone mask and proximity printing were used for fabrication of the freeform corrector. Experimental results show a three-fold decrease of the wavefront distortion. Because the corrector presented a high damage threshold, it can be used with high power laser systems.

Korolkov, Victor P.; Nasyrov, Ruslan K.; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Arapov, Yuriy D.; Ivanov, Alexander F.

2014-07-01

13

Effects of the injection current profile shape on sidelobes in large-aperture semiconductor laser amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sharply peaked near-field sidelobes are formed when the input optical field pattern interacts with the edges of the current stripe in a semiconductor laser amplifier. The strength of this interaction is shown theoretically to depend principally on the first and second derivatives of the transverse current profile, and hence one can suppress the sidelobes by smoothing the sharp edges in the current injection.

White, J. K.; McInerney, J. G.; Moloney, J. V.

1995-03-01

14

Large aperture diffractive space telescope  

DOEpatents

A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

Hyde, Roderick A. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

15

HI-CLASS on AEOS: a large-aperture laser radar for space surveillance\\/situational awareness investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory\\/Directed Energy Directorate (AFRL\\/DE) via the ALVA (Applications of Lidars for Vehicles with Analysis) program installed in late 2000 a wideband, 12 J 15 Hz CO2 laser radar (ladar) on the 3.67 meter aperture AEOS (Advanced Electro-Optics System) telescope. This system is part of the Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS), on the summit of Haleakala, Maui,

Mark A. Kovacs; Gordon L. Dryden; Richard H. Pohle; Kirstie Ayers; Richard A. Carreras; Linda L. Crawford; Russell Taft

2001-01-01

16

High energy second-harmonic generation of Nd:glass laser radiation with large aperture CsLiB6O10 crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated the generation of a high-energy green laser pulse using large aperture CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals for the first time to our knowledge. A pulsed energy of 25 J at 532-nm was generated using the 1064-nm incident Nd:glass laser radiation with an energy of 34 J. High conversion efficiency of 74 % at intensities of only 370 MW/cm2 was obtained using a two-stage crystal architecture. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals.

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Norihiro; Yamakawa, Koichi

2002-09-01

17

High energy second-harmonic generation of Nd:glass laser radiation with large aperture CsLiB6O10 crystals.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated the generation of a high-energy green laser pulse using large aperture CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals for the first time to our knowledge. A pulsed energy of 25 J at 532-nm was generated using the 1064-nm incident Nd:glass laser radiation with an energy of 34 J. High conversion efficiency of 74 % at intensities of only 370 MW/cm2 was obtained using a two-stage crystal architecture. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals. PMID:19451960

Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Norihiro; Yamakawa, Koichi

2002-09-23

18

High efficiency, high energy second-harmonic generation of Nd glass laser radiation in large aperture CsLiB sub 6 O sub 1 sub 0 crystals  

E-print Network

We have demonstrated the generation of a high-energy green laser pulse using large aperture CsLiB sub 6 O sub 1 sub 0 (CLBO) crystals. A pulsed energy of 25 J at 532-nm was generated using the 1064-nm incident Nd:glass laser radiation with an energy of 34 J. High conversion efficiency of 74% at intensities of only 370 MW/cm sup 2 was obtained using a two-stage crystal architecture. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals. We discuss in detail the design and performance of SHG using CLBO crystals.

Kiriyama, H; Yamakawa, K

2002-01-01

19

the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

Bertou, Xavier [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

2009-04-30

20

the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Mérida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

Bertou, Xavier

2009-04-01

21

HI-CLASS on AEOS: a large-aperture laser radar for space surveillance/situational awareness investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory/Directed Energy Directorate (AFRL/DE) via the ALVA (Applications of Lidars for Vehicles with Analysis) program installed in late 2000 a wideband, 12 J 15 Hz CO2 laser radar (ladar) on the 3.67 meter aperture AEOS (Advanced Electro-Optics System) telescope. This system is part of the Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS), on the summit of Haleakala, Maui, HI. This ladar adopts the technology successfully demonstrated by the first generation HI-CLASS (High Performance CO2) Ladar Surveillance Sensor) operating on the nearby 0.6 meter aperture Laser Beam Director (LBD) and developed under the Field Ladar Demonstration program, jointly sponsored by AFRL/DE and the Army's Space and Missile Defense Command. The moderate power (approximately 180 watts) HI-CLASS/AEOS system generates multiple, coherent waveforms for precision satellite tracking and characterization of space objects for 1 m2 targets at ranges out to 10,000 km. This system also will be used to track space objects smaller than30 cm at ranges to 2,000 km. A third application of this system is to provide data for developing satellite identification, characterization, health and status techniques. This paper will discuss the operating characteristics and innovative features of the new system. The paper will also review recent results in support of AF needs, demonstrations, experiments, as well as planned activities that directly support applications in the DoD, scientific, and commercial arenas.

Kovacs, Mark A.; Dryden, Gordon L.; Pohle, Richard H.; Ayers, Kirstie; Carreras, Richard A.; Crawford, Linda L.; Taft, Russell

2001-12-01

22

Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

2015-01-01

23

Low-Cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost, 0.5-1 meter ground apertures are required for near-Earth laser communications. Low-cost ground apertures with equivalent diameters greater than 10 meters are desired for deep-space communications. This presentation focuses on identifying schemes to lower the cost of constructing networks of large apertures while continuing to meet the requirements for laser communications. The primary emphasis here is on the primary mirror. A slumped glass spherical mirror, along with passive secondary mirror corrector and active adaptive optic corrector show promise as a low-cost alternative to large diameter monolithic apertures. To verify the technical performance and cost estimate, development of a 1.5-meter telescope equipped with gimbal and dome is underway.

Hemmati, Hamid

2006-01-01

24

Note: A large aperture four-mirror reflective wave-plate for high-intensity short-pulse laser experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a four-mirror reflective wave-plate system based on a phase-shifting mirror (PSM) for a continuous variation of elliptical polarization without changing the beam position and direction. The system presented and characterized here can replace a conventional retardation plate providing all advantages of a PSM, such as high damage-threshold, large scalability, and low dispersion. This makes reflective wave-plates an ideal tool for ultra-high power laser applications.

Aurand, B.; Rödel, C.; Zhao, H.; Kuschel, S.; Wünsche, M.; Jäckel, O.; Heyer, M.; Wunderlich, F.; Kaluza, M. C.; Paulus, G. G.; Kuehl, T.

2012-03-01

25

Note: A large aperture four-mirror reflective wave-plate for high-intensity short-pulse laser experiments.  

PubMed

We report on a four-mirror reflective wave-plate system based on a phase-shifting mirror (PSM) for a continuous variation of elliptical polarization without changing the beam position and direction. The system presented and characterized here can replace a conventional retardation plate providing all advantages of a PSM, such as high damage-threshold, large scalability, and low dispersion. This makes reflective wave-plates an ideal tool for ultra-high power laser applications. PMID:22462970

Aurand, B; Rödel, C; Zhao, H; Kuschel, S; Wünsche, M; Jäckel, O; Heyer, M; Wunderlich, F; Kaluza, M C; Paulus, G G; Kuehl, T

2012-03-01

26

Intracavity frequency doubling in a wide-aperture argon laser  

SciTech Connect

The four-mirror cavity with a BBO crystal for frequency doubling in a wide-aperture argon laser is optimised. The dependences of the second-harmonic power on the displacement of a focusing mirror, the displacement of the crystal, and the discharge current are measured. These dependences are in good agreement with calculations. After optimisation, {approx}1 W of UV laser radiation at 244 nm was obtained with the conversion efficiency twice as large as that for the known similar lasers. It is shown that the increase in the efficiency was achieved mainly due to the increase in the discharge-tube aperture. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

Abdullina, S R; Babin, S A; Vlasov, Aleksandr A; Kablukov, S I [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2005-09-30

27

Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope  

SciTech Connect

A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

Hyde, Roderick Allen

1998-04-20

28

Thin-Film-Optics Design and Manufacturing Challenges for Large-Aperture High-Peak-Power, Short-Pulse Lasers  

SciTech Connect

High-peak-power, short-pulse laser systems require specialized thin-film coatings, primarily due to laser damage thresholds and increased spectral bandwidth. The influence of these effects is evident in wavefront performance, coating thickness, and design complexity.

Oliver,J.B.

2004-12-17

29

Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ? has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

2007-10-09

30

Intracavity Herriott-cell testbed for large-aperture femtosecond optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a versatile test method of large-aperture femtosecond mirrors inside a long-cavity Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. The Herriott-cell inside the cavity is utilized for the purpose of carrying out full-aperture testing. The method is highly sensitive to the homogeneity of mirror reflectivity and group delay dispersion over the whole mirror surface and it is suitable for testing both high reflector and chirped mirrors starting from 2” size up to arbitrarily large apertures.

Rácz, Péter; Nagy, Benedek J.; Ferencz, Kárpát; Dombi, Péter

2014-12-01

31

Belt-MRF for large aperture mirrors.  

PubMed

With high-determinacy and no subsurface damage, Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) has become an important tool in fabricating high-precision optics. But for large mirrors, the application of MRF is restricted by its small removal function and low material removal rate. In order to improve the material removal rate, shorten the processing cycle, we proposed a new MRF concept, named Belt-MRF to expand the application of MRF to large mirrors and made a prototype with a large remove function, using a belt instead of a very large polishing wheel to expand the polishing length. A series of experimental results on Silicon carbide (SiC) and BK 7 specimens and fabrication simulation verified that the Belt-MRF has high material removal rates, stable removal function and high convergence efficiency which makes it a promising technology for processing large aperture optical elements. PMID:25321011

Ren, Kai; Luo, Xiao; Zheng, Ligong; Bai, Yang; Li, Longxiang; Hu, Haixiang; Zhang, Xuejun

2014-08-11

32

Precise measurement of transmittance and reflectance for large aperture optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uniformity measurement, transmittance and reflectance of the optics in other words, is one of the essential specifications for those large optics of high power laser facilities. Both high reproducibility for large-size and precision with wide dynamic range make such testing a real challenge to take. In this paper, a transmittance and reflectance measurement system with large aperture is demonstrated. With a laser source at 1053nm, three kinds of large aperture optics are tested by conventional direct detection. The results show that this system can realize high measuring precision (0.05% and 0.01% for transmittance and reflectance respectively) when tested parameter is small in value. In addition, the measurements precision with 532nm and 351nm laser sources are also tested compared, and the factors of measurement uncertainty with shorter wavelength are analyzed. To further promote accuracy and signal-noise ratio, coherent heterodyne detection and optical demodulation technique is proposed especially for high transmittance measurement. A demonstrative experiment of transmittance detection by balanced heterodyne and optical demodulation is performed, and a SD=0.052%, which is more than two order precision is achieved. It results that it is valid compared with conventional direct detection, and gives a promising method for higher precision during further practical applications.

Miao, Jie; Liu, De'an; Xie, Yujiang; Hui, Hongchao; Yang, Lin; Chen, Dongxian; Yang, Pengqian; Zhu, Baoqiang; Zhu, Jianqiang

2014-11-01

33

Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

Hemmati, Hamid

2006-01-01

34

Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.  

PubMed

A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

1978-12-15

35

High power 808 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser with multi-ring-shaped-aperture structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carrier conglomeration effect has been one of the main problems in developing electrically pumped high power vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with large aperture. We demonstrate a high power 808 nm VCSEL with multi-ring-shaped-aperture (MRSA) to weaken the carrier conglomeration effect. Compared with typical VCSEL with single large aperture (SLA), the 300-?m-diameter VCSEL with MRSA has more uniform near field and far field patterns. Moreover, MRSA laser exhibits maximal CW light output power 0.3 W which is about 3 times that of SLA laser. And the maximal wall-plug efficiency of 17.4% is achieved, higher than that of SLA laser by 10%.

Hao, Y. Q.; Shang, C. Y.; Feng, Y.; Yan, C. L.; Zhao, Y. J.; Wang, Y. X.; Wang, X. H.; Liu, G. J.

2011-02-01

36

Stitching interferometry for cylindrical optics with large angular aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stitching interferometry is an attractive method for measuring optics with large apertures. However, existing stitching algorithms are not suitable for measuring cylindrical optics, because the misalignment aberrations in cylindrical interferometry are more complicated than those in plane, spherical and aspherical measurements. This paper presents a stitching algorithm for measuring cylindrical optics with large angular apertures. With it, we use five aberrations (i.e. piston, tilt, tip, defocus and twist) to describe the possible misalignments of the tested cylindrical surface and to build the cylindrical stitching model. Using this model allows us to calculate the relative misalignment aberrations of subapertures from their overlapped areas, so that the full aperture map of a cylindrical surface is obtained by compensating for these misalignment aberrations. In experiment, a cylindrical lens with an angular aperture over 150° is measured, thus demonstrating the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.

Peng, Junzheng; Xu, Haifeng; Yu, Yingjie; Chen, Mingyi

2015-02-01

37

Achieving Large Dynamic Aperture in the ILC Damping Rings  

SciTech Connect

The Damping Rings for the International Linear Collider have challenging requirements for the acceptance, because of the high average injected beam power and the large beam produced from the positron source. At the same time, the luminosity goals mean that the natural emittance must be very small, and this makes it particularly difficult to achieve a good dynamic aperture. We describe design approaches and lattice designs that meet the emittance specification and have very promising dynamic aperture.

Wolski, A.; Cai, Y; /LBL, Berkeley /SLAC

2005-05-27

38

Large diffractive/refractive apertures for space and airborne telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work, specifically the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Eyeglass and the DARPA MOIRE programs, have evaluated lightweight, easily packaged and deployed, diffractive/refractive membrane transmissive lenses as entrance apertures for large space and airborne telescopes. This presentation describes a new, innovative approach to the theory of diffractive and refractive effects in lenses used as telescope entrance apertures and the fabrication of the necessary large membrane optics. Analyses are presented to indicate how a broadband, highly transmissive diffractive / refractive membrane lens can be developed and fabricated, and potential applications in defense and astronomy are briefly discussed.

MacEwen, Howard A.; Breckinridge, James B.

2013-05-01

39

Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen

2013-09-01

40

Expected Performance of Adaptive Optics in Large Aperture Solar Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar adaptive optics has become an indispensable tool for high resolution solar observations. New generation solar telescopes, such as the 4 m aperture Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, introduce a new set of challenges to solar adaptive optics correction. Larger aperture sizes are more susceptible to the effects on AO correction performance of the extended field-of-view of the cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Observations at large zenith angles further enhance these field-of-view effects and can introduce more performance reductions due to atmospheric dispersion. We study the expected correction performance of solar adaptive optics systems in large aperture solar telescopes using an end-to-end adaptive optics simulation package.

Marino, J.; Rimmele, T. R.

2012-12-01

41

Generation and Detection of Terahertz Radiation with Large-Aperture Photoconducting Antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-aperture photoconducting antennas produce and detect in a phase-sensitive manner optically steerable, directional, ultrashort pulsed electrical transients extending from d. c. to beyond 1 THz in frequency. The coherent nature of the detection technique gives rise to the obtainment of spectral information from a time domain waveform of the radiated electric field. A theory describing the behavior of these antennas excited by femtosecond optical pulses is presented. Experiments performed to study the properties of these devices involve the use of a multikilohertz repetition rate stable train of femtosecond pulses amplified by a dye amplifier pumped by copper vapor laser pulses of a rectified polarization. A receiver based on a large-aperture design is optimized with respect to different photoconductors and dimensions both to be as sensitive and to have the best time resolution as possible. The measured spatial and temporal properties of this radiation are discussed with reference to the model describing it. Saturation of the radiated field generated from a large-aperture transmitter is predicted and observed from antennas incorporating GaAs, InP and radiation damaged silicon-on-sapphire. From the saturation experiments, information about the high-speed response (i.e., the transient carrier mobility in the first few picoseconds after optical excitation) of the photoconductors incorporated in the antenna can be obtained under conditions of high applied electric fields and high optical fluences. A large-aperture photoconducting transmitter is designed to produce terahertz radiation as efficiently as possible. The choice of photoconductor and gap spacing depend on the optical excitation pulse energy and the previously studied transient response of photoconductors used in large -aperture emitters. This large-aperture transmitter produces high-amplitude terahertz radiation that is detected with a high dynamic range of sensitivity. Such radiation can be used in the nonlinear spectroscopy of semiconductors, semiconductor devices and dielectrics and pulsed radar.

Darrow, Justin Thomas

1992-01-01

42

Terahertz near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures and a quantum cascade laser source.  

PubMed

The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures with a terahertz quantum cascade laser source is presented. "Bull's-eye" apertures, featuring subwavelength circular apertures flanked by periodic annular corrugations were created using a novel fabrication method. A fivefold increase in intensity was observed for plasmonic apertures over plain apertures of the same diameter. Detailed studies of the transmitted beam profiles were undertaken for apertures with both planarized and corrugated exit facets, with the former producing spatially uniform intensity profiles and subwavelength spatial resolution. Finally, a proof-of-concept imaging experiment is presented, where an inhomogeneous pharmaceutical drug coating is investigated. PMID:21725422

Baragwanath, Adam J; Freeman, Joshua R; Gallant, Andrew J; Zeitler, J Axel; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Chamberlain, J Martyn

2011-07-01

43

Silicon Powder Filters for Large-Aperture Cryogenic Receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upcoming experiments probing for the existence of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will require large arrays of background-limited detectors. This will necessitate the use of cryogenic receivers with large-aperture vacuum windows and correspondingly large low-pass infrared-blocking filters to minimize thermal load. Large-diameter filters composed of absorptive dielectrics are difficult to conductively cool adequately, and thus tend to heat up and re-radiate towards the focal plane. Reflective metal-mesh filters are challenging to manufacture at such large apertures and with feature sizes small enough to effectively block 300K thermal radiation. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have developed a novel type of thermal filter that scatters, rather than reflects or absorbs, unwanted infrared radiation. Comprised of ultra-pure silicon powder distributed within a polymethylpentene (PMP) substrate, these filters are not absorptive in the infrared while being transparent to microwaves, and are comparatively straightforward to produce. By adjusting the size of the silicon particles, the frequency cut-off of these low-pass filters is fully tunable. Small scale (70mm diameter, 3mm thickness) prototypes have exhibited <10% transmission throughout the infrared spectrum and <1% transmission at the peak of the 300K blackbody spectrum, while maintaining an estimated 97% transmission in the microwave regime.

Boone, Fletcher; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Bennett, C. L.; Marriage, T.; Xu, Z.

2014-01-01

44

Large-aperture interferometer using local reference beam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large-aperture interferometer was devised by adding a local-reference-beam-generating optical system to a schlieren system. Two versions of the interferometer are demonstrated, one employing 12.7 cm (5 in.) diameter schlieren optics, the other employing 30.48 cm (12 in.) diameter parabolic mirrors in an off-axis system. In the latter configuration a cylindrical lens is introduced near the light source to correct for astigmatism. A zone plate is a satisfactory decollimating element in the reference-beam arm of the interferometer. Attempts to increase the flux and uniformity of irradiance in the reference beam by using a diffuser are discussed.

Howes, W. L.

1982-01-01

45

Kaleidoscope modes in large aperture Porro prism resonators.  

PubMed

We apply a new method of modeling Porro prism resonators, using the concept of rotating loss screens, to study stable and unstable Porro prism resonator. We show that the previously observed petal--like modal output is in fact only the lowest order mode, and reveal that a variety of kaleidoscope beam modes will be produced by these resonators when the intra--cavity apertures are sufficiently large to allow higher order modes to oscillate. We also show that only stable resonators will produce these modes. PMID:18711509

Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

2008-08-18

46

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Sub-millimetre Telescope  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimetre Telescope (BLAST) will operate on a Long Duration Balloon platform with large format bolometer arrays at 250, 350 and 500 microns, initially using a 2m mirror, with plans to increase to 2.5m. BLAST is a collaboration between scientists in the USA, Canada, UK, Italy and Mexico. Funding has been approved and it is now in its building phase. The test flight is scheduled for 2002, with the first long duration flight the following year. The scientific goals are to learn about the nature of distant extragalactic star forming galaxies and cold pre-stellar sources by making deep maps both at high and low galactic latitudes. BLAST will be useful for planning Herschel key projects which use SPIRE.

Douglas Scott; the BLAST Team

2001-04-03

47

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Sub-millimetre Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimetre Telescope (BLAST) will operate on a Long Duration Balloon platform with large format bolometer arrays at 250, 350 and 500 microns, initially using a 2.0 m mirror, with plans to increase to 2.5 m. BLAST is a collaboration between scientists in the USA, Canada, UK, Italy and Mexico. Funding has been approved and it is now in its building phase. The test flight is scheduled for 2002, with the first long duration flight the following year. The scientific goals are to learn about the nature of distant extragalactic star forming galaxies and cold pre-stellar sources by making deep maps both at high and low galactic latitudes. BLAST will be useful for planning Herschel key projects which use SPIRE.

Scott, D.; Ade, P.; Bock, J. J.; Debernardis, P.; Devlin, M.; Griffin, M. J.; Gundersen, J.; Halpern, M.; Hughes, D.; Klein, J.; Masi, S.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, B.; Olmi, L.; Page, L.; Tucker, G.

2001-07-01

48

Development of an efficient large-aperture high damage-threshold sol-gel diffraction grating.  

SciTech Connect

In order to develop the next generation of high peak intensity lasers, new grating technology providing higher damage thresholds and large apertures is required. The current assumption is that this technical innovation will be multilayer dielectric gratings, wherein the uppermost layer of a thin film mirror is etched to create the desired binary phase grating. A variant of this is explored with the upper grating layer being a lower density gelatin-based volume phase grating in either sol-gel or dichromated gelatin. One key benefit is the elimination of the etching step.

Ashley, Carol S.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Branson, Eric D.; Smith, Ian Craig; Johnson, William Arthur; Reed, Scott T.; Cook, Adam W.

2005-03-01

49

Analysis of temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In extremely intense laser system used for plasma physics experiments, temporal contrast is an important property of the ultra-short pulse. In this paper, we theoretically study the temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system. Two-step focusing fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the coordinate transform based on Fresnel approximation in space domain and Fourier integral transform method in time domain were used to simulate the focusing process spatially and temporally, in which the spatial distribution of ultra-short pulse temporal contrast characteristics at the focal spot is related to the wave front in large aperture off-axis parabolic mirror focusing optical system. Firstly, temporal contrast degradation due to wave front noise with higher spatial frequency is analyzed and appropriate evaluation parameter for large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system is put forward from the perspective of temporal contrast. Secondly, the influence of wave front distortion with lower spatial frequency on temporal contrast is revealed comparing different degradation characteristics of various aberrations. At last, a method by controlling and optimizing the wave front to prevent temporal contrast degradation in large aperture ultra-short laser system is proposed, which is of great significance for high temporal contrast petawatt laser facilities.

Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xinglong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Haidong; Yang, Qingwei; Kang, Jun; Guo, Ailin; Gao, Qi

2014-11-01

50

A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

2015-01-01

51

Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for this article, an 8 16 passive array (not including T/R modules) and a 2 4 active array (including T/R modules) had been demonstrated, and it was planned to fabricate and test larger arrays.

Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

2009-01-01

52

A large aperture magnification lens for velocity map imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and implemented a large aperture electrostatic Einzel lens that magnifies the images of low energy ions or electrons in a standard velocity map imaging apparatus by up to a factor of 5 while allowing the normal use of the apparatus (without blocking any part of the detector). The field strength in the interaction region remains reasonably constant with or without magnification, and the lens can be used in the normal "crush" mode or with any of the different variants of the "slicing" mode. We have characterized the performance of the lens by imaging ion recoil due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization [(2+1) REMPI] of O(3P2) atoms and by imaging slow NO molecules from the near-threshold photodissociation of the NO-Ar van der Waals complex.

Zhang, Yongwei; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Wu, Shiou-Min; van Roij, Andre; van der Zande, Wim J.; Parker, David H.; Yang, Xueming

2011-01-01

53

Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupolemagnet  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed.

Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich,Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman,Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

2005-04-14

54

Large-aperture interferometer with local reference beam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large-aperture interferometer was devised by adding a local-reference-beam-generating optical system to a schlieren system. Two versions of the interferometer are demonstrated, one employing 12.7 cm (5 in.) diameter schlieren optics, the other employing 30.48 cm (12 in.) diameter parabolic mirrors in an off-axis system. In the latter configuration a cylindrical lens is introduced near the light source to correct for astigmatism. A zone plate is a satisfactory decollimating element in the reference-beam arm of the interferometer. Attempts to increase the flux and uniformity of irradiance in the reference beam by using a diffuser are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13979

Howes, W. L.

1984-01-01

55

A large aperture blackbody bath for calibration of thermal imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imagers are becoming widely used instruments for noncontact absolute temperature measurements as opposed to previous practice when they were mostly used to measure temperature differences. To assure accurate and reliable absolute temperature measurements, a calibration procedure including evaluation of the thermal imager entire field of view (FOV) is needed. The challenge was to construct a large aperture blackbody, covering the complete FOV of the thermal imager and having better stability and non-uniformity than the thermal sensitivity of the imager. The blackbody calibration bath was designed on hypothesis analogous to the multi zone furnace, where the role of electrical heaters was superseded by electrically controlled valves. The experimental work showed that the designed system enables traceable calibration of thermal imagers in the temperature range from 10 to 70 °C with the expanded uncertainty of 0.2 °C, while further investigations are needed to cover ranges beyond that.

Miklavec, A.; Pušnik, I.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.

2013-02-01

56

Analysis and optimization of mounting configuration of large aperture optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim to decrease the gravitational distortion and stress for the large aperture optics, a novel mounting configuration was proposed, analyzed and optimized. The effects of the design factors of external load, supporting surface topography and supporting width were studied by using the Finite Element Method (FEM), the changing trends of the distortion and stress with these varying factors were obtained, respectively. More over, orthogonal tests of the influence of these factors were carried out, consequently, the regression analysis of the test results were processed, and the mathematical models for comprehensively considering the coupling effects of these factors were received. Further more, the optimization of the mounting configuration, based on the mathematical models and additionally considered the engineering specifications, was performed, and the optimal configuration was figured out. The numerical results showed the feasibility of the mounting configuration in the aspects of decreasing the gravitational distortion and stress.

Feng, Bin; Lu, Lihua; Liu, Haitao; Su, Ruifeng; Lv, Zhiwei

2014-09-01

57

BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

2004-01-01

58

Application of Large Aperture Emats to Weld Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90° to 90°. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60° beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45° to 70° beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W.

2008-02-01

59

APPLICATION OF LARGE APERTURE EMATS TO WELD INSPECTION  

SciTech Connect

One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90 deg. to 90 deg. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60 deg. beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45 deg. to 70 deg. beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W. [NDE and IS Group, BWXT Services, Lynchburg, VA 24502 (United States)

2008-02-28

60

MOIRE: ground demonstration of a large aperture diffractive transmissive telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desire to field space-based telescopes with apertures in excess of 10 meter diameter is forcing the development of extreme lightweighted large optomechanical structures. Sparse apertures, shell optics, and membrane optics are a few of the approaches that have been investigated and demonstrated. Membrane optics in particular have been investigated for many years. The MOIRE approach in which the membrane is used as a transmissive diffractive optical element (DOE) offers a significant relaxation in the control requirements on the membrane surface figure, supports extreme lightweighting of the primary collecting optic, and provides a path for rapid low cost production of the primary optical elements. Successful development of a powered meter-scale transmissive membrane DOE was reported in 2012. This paper presents initial imaging results from integrating meter-scale transmissive DOEs into the primary element of a 5- meter diameter telescope architecture. The brassboard telescope successfully demonstrates the ability to collect polychromatic high resolution imagery over a representative object using the transmissive DOE technology. The telescope includes multiple segments of a 5-meter diameter telescope primary with an overall length of 27 meters. The object scene used for the demonstration represents a 1.5 km square complex ground scene. Imaging is accomplished in a standard laboratory environment using a 40 nm spectral bandwidth centered on 650 nm. Theoretical imaging quality for the tested configuration is NIIRS 2.8, with the demonstration achieving NIIRS 2.3 under laboratory seeing conditions. Design characteristics, hardware implementation, laboratory environmental impacts on imagery, image quality metrics, and ongoing developments will be presented.

Atcheson, Paul; Domber, Jeanette; Whiteaker, Kevin; Britten, Jerald A.; Dixit, Shamasundar N.; Farmer, Brandon

2014-08-01

61

Design considerations for a large aperture high field superconducting dipole  

SciTech Connect

The final phase of the Fermilab upgrade proposal calls for a new ring of superconducting magnets to be placed in the existing Main Accelerator tunnel. The goal of this design study is to specify a high field dipole (HFD) that is capable of supporting fixed target operation (ramping, resonant extraction) at a field of 6.6T (1.5 Tev) and colliding beam physics at 8.0T (1.8 Tev). The magnetic field quality at high field is set by the large amplitude orbits associated with resonant extraction. The field quality must therefore be at least as good as the existing Tevatron magnets which fulfill these criteria. The high fields and large aperture of this magnet result in large forces on the coil and collar assemblies. Therefore, the cold mass design must be able to sustain these forces while providing sufficient cooling to the coils during 4.2 K fixed target operation, and a minimum heat load during 1.8 K collider operation. The design work is still in progress but a cosine-theta, cold-iron dipole with a 70mm inner diameter coil has been tentatively adopted. This report presents details on the conductor and cable parameters, coil cross-section, projected manufacturing tolerances, iron yoke design, and cold mass assembly. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Harfoush, F.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Harrison, M.; Kerby, J.; Koepke, K.; Mantsch, P.; Nicol, T.; Riddiford, A.; Theilacker, J.

1989-03-01

62

A large-angle high speed scanner based on electro-optic crystal for Fresnel telescope synthetic aperture imaging ladar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross-orbit scanning is very important for Fresnel telescope synthetic aperture imaging ladar system. This paper presents a design of large-angle high speed scanner based on electro-optic crystal for the cross-orbit scanning in Fresnel telescope synthetic aperture imaging ladar system. The designed scanner is based on the space-charge-controlled EO effect in KTN. In the experiment the crystal temperature should be kept a little higher above Tc to obtain a large EO effect and the polarization of the laser beam should be parallel to the direction of the driving electric field. Compared with other conventional EO crystal scanner, the new scanner can greatly improve the scanner angle by several times when maintains high speed and accuracy, which will have a great potential for cross-orbit scanning applications in Fresnel telescope synthetic aperture imaging ladar system.

Xu, Jun; Zhi, Ya'nan; Wang, Xuping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yu; Dai, Enwen; Liu, Liren

2012-10-01

63

A proposed large deployable space structures experiment for high power, large aperture missions in MEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate has developed the deployable structures experiment (DSX) to research the technologies needed for large space structures and apertures, high-power generation, and survivability in the high radiation environment of a medium earth orbit (MEO). The proposed DSX concept is a combination of four research experiments that coupled together provides DoD with: a)

James Winter; Greg Spanjers; D. Cohen; A. Adler; G. Ginet; B. Dichter; J. Granata; K. Denoyer; T. Murphey; P. Wegner; L. Underwood; P. Hausgen; D. Senft

2004-01-01

64

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30"; post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~5" rms is achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual override. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test-flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100-hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in June 2005; and a 250-hour, circumpolar-flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in December 2006.

E. Pascale; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; J. Chung; M. J. Devlin; S Dicker; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; C. J. MacTavish; G. Marsden; P. G. Martin; T. G. Martin; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. V. Wiebe

2007-11-21

65

Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems  

SciTech Connect

Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry.

Simmons, W.W.

1981-01-01

66

Large field-of-view synthetic aperture holography using rotation stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, digital holography means a technology to measure an object wave by using a focal plane array (FPA) sensor. Since the limitation of the dimension of the FPA sensor, the field of view obtained by the FPA sensor is usually very narrow. Many methods have been proposed to increase the field of view of measurement. One simple solution is the synthesis of the holograms with small apertures, where each of them is measured by the FPA sensor respectively. If we imagine specific applications such as 360-degree table-top digital holographic display, the large field of view of the object is required to present the three-dimensional contents to the observer who may change his position dynamically. In this paper, we use two-axis rotation stage for acquisition of the object wave with large field of view. In our system, the optics including a laser and a CCD sensor are fixed and the object is mounted on the rotation stage. During the rotation of the object, the holograms are taken sequentially and the object wave over the hemispherical surface in k-space is obtained. The increase of solid angle of the measured hologram means the increase of acquired angular spectrum of interested objects. The resolution of the measurement is closely related with the numerical aperture and the data with fine resolution is expectable. But since it is not easy to match the relative phases of the each hologram, unfortunately the enhancement of the resolution in the reconstructed object wave is negligible.

Kim, Sungmin; Im, Yeonsu; Hahn, Joonku

2014-02-01

67

Experimental instrumentation system for the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive optics are used in telescopes for both viewing objects with minimum distortion and for transmitting laser beams with minimum beam divergence and dance. In order to test concepts on a smaller scale, NASA MSFC is in the process of setting up an adaptive optics test facility with precision (fraction of wavelengths) measurement equipment. The initial system under test is the adaptive optical telescope called PAMELA (Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture). Goals of this test are: assessment of test hardware specifications for PAMELA application and the determination of the sensitivities of instruments for measuring PAMELA (and other adaptive optical telescopes) imperfections; evaluation of the PAMELA system integration effort and test progress and recommended actions to enhance these activities; and development of concepts and prototypes of experimental apparatuses for PAMELA.

Boykin, William H., Jr.

1993-01-01

68

The balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is designed to produce large (1-100 deg 2 ) maps of the sky at 250, 350, and 500 pm. The balloon platform lifts BLAST above most of the atmosphere, which is nearly opaque in the submillimeter, making BLAST significantly more sensitive than existing ground-based submillimeter telescopes. BLAST has had three successful flights on a high-altitude balloon. This thesis is in three parts. In the first part, the design, construction, and operation of BLAST is described in detail. Specifically, the submillimeter telescope and receiver, the cryogenic system, the various pointing sensors, and the command and control systems are covered. The processes of launching and landing the gondola are also discussed. In the second part, the analysis of BLAST data is discussed, and specifically data from the BLAST05 flight. The process of cleaning and preparing bolometer time-streams for map-making is discussed. The process of calibrating the data, flat-fielding the bolometer responsivity, removing time-varying changes in bolometer responsivity, and absolute flux calibration based on the fluxes of a known astronomical submillimeter source is detailed. Reconstructing the pointing solution from the data from the in-flight pointing sensors is discussed. Finally, combining the calibrated bolometer data with the reconstructed pointing solution to generate maps is described. In the third part, BLAST05 flight data and results are presented. Several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets. These included Pallas and Saturn in the solar system, K3-50, W 75N, IRAS 20126+4104, CRL 2688, IRAS 21078+5211, LDN 1014, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, and IRAS 23011+6126 in the Galaxy, and the galaxies NGC 4565, Mrk 231, and Arp 220. Fluxes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each of these sources at the BLAST wavelengths are presented, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. These results could be useful for the calibration of other submillimeter instruments. Finally, there is brief discussion of larger maps of Galactic regions.

Truch, Matthew David Patey

69

Synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging using a translational scanning with galvanometric mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an experimental setup based on Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI) and on Synthetic Aperture (SA) with translational scanning by galvanometric mirrors for the purpose of making deep and resolved images through scattering media. We provide real 2D optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed scattering target with a moving aperture and an isotropic resolution. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that we can keep microscope resolution beyond the working distance. A photometric balance is made and we show that the number of photons participating in the final image decreases with the square of the reconstruction distance. This degradation is partially compensated by the high sensitivity of LOFI.

Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Lacot, Eric

2012-08-01

70

Sub-aperture coherence method to realize ultra-high resolution laser beam deflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new phase controlled method is proposed to realize ultra-high resolution laser beam deflection on the physics of coherence between sub-apertures on one device of liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA). Sub-apertures are electronically switchable and divided from a uniform device of LC-OPA. In the approach of sub-aperture coherence (SAC), numerical simulation results show the characteristics of far field including SAC steering step and angular width. Meanwhile, the method of SAC has also been verified by experiments showing a good agreement with the simulation results of ultra-high resolution beam deflection.

Tang, Zhenhui; Wang, Xiangru; Huang, Ziqiang; Tan, Qinggui; Duan, Yingying; Suo, Guoguo; Du, Jing; Qiu, Qi

2015-01-01

71

Characterisation of a large aperture steep concave parabolic mirror using SASI based on auto-collimation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterise a large aperture steep concave parabolic mirror, a new sub-aperture stitching interferometry measurement technology (SASI) based on auto-collimation is proposed. The principle of the stitching process is analysed, and the sub-aperture partitioning for a full aperture of a paraboloid is discussed. Next, the overlapped sampled points between sub-apertures are rectified through sampled points realigned in mesh grids. Finally, two experiments, the SASI based on auto-collimation and the full aperture test, were implemented for a parabolic mirror. The stitching result exhibits good agreement with the full-aperture result.

Liu, Bingcai; Li, Bing; Tian, Ailing; Yang, Haoyu; Gao, Fen; Chen, Lei

2015-01-01

72

Direct measurement of laser power through a high numerical aperture oil immersion objective lens using a solid immersion lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many laser applications, information on irradiated laser power is important. However, direct measurement of laser power through a high numerical aperture objective lens is difficult in a laser microscope. In this article, we propose a method which use a solid immersion lens (SIL) for such measurements. A laser beam focused by an objective lens is introduced to the flat

Shigeki Matsuo; Hiroaki Misawa

2002-01-01

73

Large aperture adaptive doublet polymer lens for imaging applications.  

PubMed

We report a full design process-finite element modeling, fabrication, and characterization-of adaptive doublet polymer lenses. A first-order model was developed and used to design fluidic doublets, analogous to their glass counterparts. Two constant-volume fluidic chambers were enclosed by three flexible membranes, resulting in a variable focal length doublet with a clear aperture of 19.0 mm. Chromatic focal shift was then used to compare numerical modeling to experimentally measured results over a positive focal length range of 55-200 mm (f/2.89 to f/10.5). PMID:25121541

Santiago, Freddie; Bagwell, Brett; Martinez, Ty; Restaino, Sergio; Krishna, Sanjay

2014-08-01

74

In situ measurement of laser power at the focus of a high numerical aperture objective using a microbolometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We built a simple mercury-based microbolometer to measure “in situ” laser power at the focus of high numerical aperture objectives used in optical microscopy and optical tweezers. With an optical microscope equipped with a high numerical aperture objective, we visualize a mercury droplet immersed in water that is heated by an infrared laser, whose power we want to determine. For

N. B. Viana; O. N. Mesquita; A. Mazolli

2002-01-01

75

Theoretical model to suppress parasitic lasing in large-aperture Ti:sapphire amplifiers using a temporal dual-pulse pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transverse parasitic lasing (PL) in large-aperture Ti:sapphire (Ti:S) crystals is a critical factor that limits the energy achievable with the chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique. We propose a method to suppress PL effects in large-aperture Ti:S amplifiers by using a temporal dual-pulse pump. Theoretical simulations based on the experimental parameters in 2.0 PW Ti:S laser system are performed to predict the transverse gain as a function of pumping time and output energy. By optimizing the temporal profile of the pump beam as well as the time delay between the input seed and pump pulses, we can minimize PL effects in Ti:S crystals. This method is applicable to larger-aperture Ti:S crystals pumped at higher pump fluence and energy, and is potential to develop a ~10 PW laser system.

Chu, Yuxi; Liang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lianghong; Xu, Lu; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

2014-05-01

76

Large-aperture high-accuracy phase-shifting digital flat interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-aperture high-accuracy phase-shifting digital flat interferometer that is a combination of optics, mechanics, electricity, and algorithm is described. The aperture size is 250 mm and a liquid surface is used as an absolute flat to eliminate system error. The accuracy is better than (lambda) /50 ((lambda) equals 0.6328 micrometers , peak-to-valley value). The tested aperture can be enlarged to 500 mm. This interferometer has been used as an optical flat standard instrument for China. The optical interferometer, phase shifter, and calibration of precision are described.

Chen, Jinbang; Song, Dezhen; Zhu, Rihong; Wang, Qing; Chen, Lei; Chen, Daojiong

1996-07-01

77

Large-aperture, tapered fiber-coupled, 10-kHz particle-image velocimetry.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the design and implementation of a fiber-optic beam-delivery system using a large-aperture, tapered step-index fiber for high-speed particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent combustion flows. The tapered fiber in conjunction with a diffractive-optical-element (DOE) fiber-optic coupler significantly increases the damage threshold of the fiber, enabling fiber-optic beam delivery of sufficient nanosecond, 532-nm, laser pulse energy for high-speed PIV measurements. The fiber successfully transmits 1-kHz and 10-kHz laser pulses with energies of 5.3 mJ and 2 mJ, respectively, for more than 25 min without any indication of damage. It is experimentally demonstrated that the tapered fiber possesses the high coupling efficiency (~80%) and moderate beam quality for PIV. Additionally, the nearly uniform output-beam profile exiting the fiber is ideal for PIV applications. Comparative PIV measurements are made using a conventionally (bulk-optic) delivered light sheet, and a similar order of measurement accuracy is obtained with and without fiber coupling. Effective use of fiber-coupled, 10-kHz PIV is demonstrated for instantaneous 2D velocity-field measurements in turbulent reacting flows. Proof-of-concept measurements show significant promise for the performance of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV using a tapered optical fiber in harsh laser-diagnostic environments such as those encountered in gas-turbine test beds and the cylinder of a combustion engine. PMID:23481818

Hsu, Paul S; Roy, Sukesh; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, James R

2013-02-11

78

Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

2005-01-01

79

The measurement and analysis of wavefront structure from large aperture ICF optics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the techniques, developed over the past year, for high spatial resolution measurement and analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wavefront of large aperture ICF optical components. Parts up to 400 mm {times} 750 mm have been measured and include: laser slabs, windows, KDP crystals and lenses. The measurements were performed using state-of-the-art commercial phase shifting interferometers at a wavelength of 633 {mu}m. Both 1 and 2-D Fourier analysis have been used to characterize the wavefront; specifically the Power Spectral Density, (PSD), function was calculated. The PSDs of several precision optical components will be shown. The PSD(V) is proportional to the (amplitude){sup 2} of components of the Fourier frequency spectrum. The PSD describes the scattered intensity and direction as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront. The capability of commercial software is limited to 1-D Fourier analysis only. We are developing our own 2-D analysis capability in support of work to revise specifications for NIF optics. 2-D analysis uses the entire wavefront phase map to construct 2D PSD functions. We have been able to increase the signal-to-noise relative to 1-D and can observe very subtle wavefront structure.

Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.

1995-05-30

80

Synthesis of a large communications aperture using small antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report we compare the cost of an array of small antennas to that of a single large antenna assuming both the array and single large antenna have equal performance and availability. The single large antenna is taken to be one of the 70-m antennas of the Deep Space Network. The cost of the array is estimated as a function of the array element diameter for three different values of system noise temperature corresponding to three different packaging schemes for the first amplifier. Array elements are taken to be fully steerable paraboloids and their cost estimates were obtained from commercial vendors. Array loss mechanisms and calibration problems are discussed. For array elements in the range 3 - 35 m there is no minimum in the cost versus diameter curve for the three system temperatures that were studied.

Resch, George M.; Cwik, T. W.; Jamnejad, V.; Logan, R. T.; Miller, R. B.; Rogstad, Dave H.

1994-01-01

81

Annular sub-aperture stitching interferometry for testing of large aspherical surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annular subaperture stitching interferometric technology can test large-aperture, high numerical aperture aspheric surfaces with high resolution, low cost and high efficiency without auxiliary null optics. In this paper, the basic principle and theory of the stitching method are introduced, the reasonable mathematical model and effective splicing algorithm are established based on simultaneous least-squares method and Zernike polynomial fitting. The translation errors are eliminated from each subaperture through the synthetical optimization stitching mode, it keeps the error from transmitting and accumulating. The numerical simulations have been carried on by this method. As results, the surface map of the full aperture after stitching is consistent to the input surface map, the difference of PV error and RMS error between them is -0.0074 ? and -0.00052 ? (? is 632.8nm), respectively; the relative error of PV and RMS is -0.53% and -0.31%; and the PV and RMS of residual error of the full aperture phase distribution is 0.027 ? and 0.0023 ?, respectively. The results conclude that this splicing model and algorithm are accurate and feasible. So it provides another quantitive measurement for test aspheric surfaces especially for large aperture aspheres besides null-compensation.

Wang, Xiao-kun; Wang, Li-hui; Zheng, Li-gong; Deng, Wei-jie; Zhang, Xue-jun

2008-03-01

82

Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser.  

PubMed

We propose a terahertz (THz)-frequency synthetic aperture radar imaging technique based on self-mixing (SM) interferometry, using a quantum cascade laser. A signal processing method is employed which extracts and exploits the radar-related information contained in the SM signals, enabling the creation of THz images with improved spatial resolution. We demonstrate this by imaging a standard resolution test target, achieving resolution beyond the diffraction limit. PMID:24784063

Lui, H S; Taimre, T; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Lachab, M; Valavanis, A; Indjin, D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Raki?, A D

2014-05-01

83

A Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope  

E-print Network

A new generation of sub-orbital platforms will be operational in the next few years. These new telescopes will operate from airborne and balloon-borne platforms where the atmosphere is transparent enough to allow sensitive measurements to be made in the submillimeter bands. The telescopes will take advantage of state-of-the-art instrumentation including large format bolometer arrays and spectrometers. Other papers in this volume will deal specifically with the potential of these bands. In this paper will review the capabilities the BLAST balloon-borne telescope.

Mark J. Devlin

2000-12-14

84

Analysis of curvature sensing for large-aperture adaptive optics systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analysis of the curvature sensing method and the associated wavefront r(xxmstruction problem for adaptive optics applications to telescopes with large aperture. The analysis includes characteri- zations of the nonlinear, diffraction, and noise effects for curvature sensing. A comparison of reconstructio n performance for curvature and slope sensing is also presented. Simulations based on the optical prescription of

Mark Milman; David Redding; Laura Needels

1996-01-01

85

Recent enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed at MSFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, and mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures. This report

John M. Rakoczy; Edward E. Montgomery; Jeffrey L. Lindner

2000-01-01

86

Mutual admittance between circular waveguide-fed apertures for large spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-form asymptotic expression for the mutual admittance between two circular waveguide-fed apertures is developed for large element spacings. A comparison with calculations obtained by a numerical integration method indicated that the present analysis gives good results for spacings greater than two wavelengths.

Bailey, M. C.

1977-01-01

87

Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building, and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 34 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers, and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

88

Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 3 - 4 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.

2004-01-01

89

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope Peter Adea, Itziar Aretxagab, James Bockc, Jaspaul Chungd, Mark Devline, Simon Dickere,  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) Peter Adea, Itziar Aretxagab with unprecedented image fidelity. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) will be one of the first experiments to make full use of this new capability. The high altitude ( 35 km) of the balloon

Aretxaga, Itziar

90

Laboratory experiments on synthetic-aperture laser radar with acousto-optic modulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffraction limit of laser is smaller than microwave's for its shorter wavelength. Higher spatial resolution will be achieved when laser is applied to the synthetic-aperture radar, called synthetic-aperture laser radar (SAL). Just because of many advantages, in recent years the research on SAL is becoming a hotspot. One of key techniques of SAL is heterodyne detection of signals by means of linear frequency modulation pulse compression (LFM-PC); this paper introduces an experiment based on heterodyne detection with an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS) in our laboratory. Detailed discussion about AOFS is presented. We find that the acousto-optic modulator can considerably influence the transmitted light beam. In particular, when the width of laser beam is larger than the effective width of acousto-optic cell, the transverse distribution of scattering light intensity is inhomogeneous, which will decrease the signal-to-noise ratio of the heterodyne detection. This paper discusses the coupled partial difference equations

Liu, HuanHuan; Zeng, XiaoDong; Cao, ChangQing; Feng, ZheJun; Fu, Chao

2009-07-01

91

A Large Aperture Lidar Observatory for Exploring the Interaction of Our Atmosphere with Space (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mesopause region has been the subject of intensive study during the past decade because it is recognized as a critical region connecting our sensible atmosphere to the near-space environment. Processes in this region include a host of wave dynamics, heat and constituent transport, turbulence, polar mesospheric cloud formation, and the influx of meteoric material. Moreover, the neutral gas properties above the mesopause from 100 - 200 km altitude are poorly characterized and are influenced by additional processes that include solar EUV absorption / ionization, eddy to molecular diffusion, neutral wind dynamo action, and geomagnetic activity. Thus, this altitude region is a complex confluence of space and atmosphere processes that ultimately determine its properties. Fundamentally these processes are operating in any planetary atmosphere and must be understood in order to advance understanding of habitability and sustainability of a planetary system. While observational and modeling capabilities are evolving, progress in characterizing neutral properties and related processes in the mesopause region and above has been inhibited because they cannot be observed in sufficient detail and at high enough altitudes with existing instrumentation. This is especially true of the neutral atmosphere from 50 - 1000 km, where observations of its properties, dynamics and thermal structure are either sparse or nonexistent. A Large-Aperture Lidar Observatory (LALO) would enable significant progress by providing critical measurements of atmospheric constituents and parameters at greatly enhanced resolution and at much higher altitudes than is possible today. A large telescope in combination with modern high-power lasers, would enable observations of the neutral atmosphere to 1000 km altitude with a sensitivity and resolution approximately 1000 times better than can be achieved with the most powerful lidar systems in operation today. There are no technology barriers to realizing this goal. The knowledge obtained would improve our ability to understand the Earth's atmosphere to its fullest extent and would have a transformational effect on upper atmosphere research in a manner similar to that experienced by ionosphere research with the implementation of large-scale incoherent scatter radars. It would also have direct applications to studies of other planets in our solar system and to the exploration of nearby exoplanets within our galaxy.

Thayer, J. P.; Gardner, C. S.; Swenson, G. R.

2013-12-01

92

The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

2011-01-01

93

Large aperture and polarizer-free liquid crystal lenses for ophthalmic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large aperture and polarizer-free liquid crystal lenses (LC lenses) based on a double-layered structure for ophthalmic applications are demonstrated. The polarizer-free LC lens functions as both of a positive lens and a negative lens with large aperture size of 10mm. The lens power is electrically and continuously tunable ranging from -1.32 Diopter to 1.83 Diopter. To demonstrate the polarization independency, the wavefronts of the LC lenses under different polarized light were measured and discussed. The detail operations of the applied voltage and frequency are also discussed. The imaging performance of the LC lens is also evaluated. This study provide a detail understanding of the polarizer-free LC lenses based on a double-layered structure.

Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hung-Shan; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wang, Yu-Jen

2014-10-01

94

Cryogenics for a 5 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid with Large Aperture at DESY  

SciTech Connect

A large aperture superconducting solenoid-magnet with fields up to 5.25 Tesla is being set up as high field test facility at DESY. It is used to measure prototype time projection chambers foreseen as detectors for a future high energy physics collider experiment. The new cryogenic supply of this magnet within the existing HERA cryogenic helium system is described. The cryogenic control, operation and results are outlined.

Gadwinkel, E.; Lierl, H.; Notz, D.; Schaffran, J.; Schoeneburg, B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg, 22607 (Germany); Herzog, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg, 22607 (Germany); Linde Kryotechnik A.G., plant operation section at DESY, Pfungen, 8422 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23

95

Fabrication of large aperture kinoform phase plates in fused silica for smoothing focal plane intensity profiles  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated large aperture (40-cm) kinoform phase plates for producing super-Gaussian focal plane intensity profiles. The continuous phase screen, designed using a new iterative procedure, was fabricated in fused silica as a 16-level, one-wave deep rewrapped phase profile using a lithographic process and wet etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid. The observed far-field contains 94% of the incident energy inside the desired spot.

Rushford, M.; Dixit, S.; Thomas, I.; Perry, M.

1996-04-26

96

Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

Rakoczy, John; Montgomery, Edward E.; Lindner, Jeff

2000-01-01

97

Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include in improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

Rakoczy, John; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

98

Laser Power Meter Large, bright, backlit LCD  

E-print Network

and IR laser output from the nanowatt to the kilowatt range, and to work with CW and pulsed lasers. FieldLaser Power Meter FEATURES · Large, bright, backlit LCD display · Digital accuracy with analog-like movement for laser tuning · Works with thermopile and optical sensors · Intuitive button-driven user

Woodall, Jerry M.

99

ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

100

Simulation analysis of on-orbit adjustment and compensation for large aperture optical system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the uprating requirements of space remote sensing, the aperture of the optical remote sensor is getting larger and larger. The influences of both the support of optical elements and gravity deformation on the optical system are difficult to conquer. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate the descending optical performance which is caused by the surface error of primary mirror by means of adjusting the position parameters of the optical elements on-orbit. A large aperture coaxial three-mirror optical system is introduced in the paper. Matlab and MetroPro are used to simulate the surface error of the primary mirror. The surface error of the primary mirror is compensated by adjusting the position freedoms of the secondary mirror. The results show that the adjustment of the position freedoms of the secondary mirror can compensate both the coma and some astigmatism of the primary mirror, but not the spherical aberration.

Liu, Jianfeng; Li, Bo; Sun, Dewei; Ruan, Ningjuan; Zhou, Feng

2014-09-01

101

Polarimetric calibration of large-aperture telescopes. I. Beam-expansion method.  

PubMed

A concept is described for the high-accuracy absolute calibration of the instrumental polarization introduced by the primary mirror of a large-aperture telescope. This procedure requires a small aperture with polarization-calibration optics (e.g., mounted on the dome) followed by a lens that opens the beam to illuminate the entire surface of the mirror. The Jones matrix corresponding to this calibration setup (with a diverging incident beam) is related to that of the normal observing setup (with a collimated incident beam) by an approximate correction term. Numerical models of parabolic on-axis and off-axis mirrors with surface imperfections are used to explore the accuracy of the procedure. PMID:15770992

Socas-Navarro, Hector

2005-03-01

102

Current Aperture III-Nitride Edge-emitting Blue Laser Diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the first Nitride non polar Current Aperture Edge Emitting Blue Laser Diode (CA-LD) fabricated using the Photo-Electro-Chemical Etching (PECE) technique. The main features of this design are represented by the deep etching of the laser diode ridge through the active region, the controlled etching of the active region by PECE and the increase of the p-contact area with respect to the active region area. Preliminary experiments manifest that CA-LD has similar threshold current density, slope efficiency and peak output power of the more commonly used shallow etch ridge design and it has also shown a reduction in the series resistance down to ˜40% with respect to the shallow-etch LDs indicating the potential of the CA-LD design in high-efficient, high-power, high-frequency LD applications.

Megalini, Ludovico

103

Large-Optics white light interferometer for laser wavefront test: apparatus and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is transmitting optics of 250mm aperture with about 8 microradians in SILEX system. This is often large aperture and diffraction-limited laser beam in the laser communications. Large-Optics white light interferometer using double-shearing structure has been submitted to analysis the laser wavefront before. Six optical plates of 490 millimeters apertures are manufactured now one of which is also aperture-divided so that the precision of measured wave front is higher than the full aperture design. It is suitable for measurement of minimum diffraction-limited laser wave front and any wavelength. The interference is happened between equal optical path of the reflection and the other. The plates are the basic structures which are precisely parallel or perpendicular needed for either two plates. There are several tools equipped with the interferometer including white light test source and collimators and so on to confirm the precision of several seconds angle. The apparatus and application is explained in detail in this paper. The adjustment is important for the realization of white light test.

Luan, Zhu; Liu, Liren; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, De'an

2008-08-01

104

Design of a projection objective with high numeric aperture and large view field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the primary facility for the manufacturing of integrated circuit(IC), and MEMS devices [1], the lithographic equipment's improvement is restricted by the projection objective which can decide the capacity of the image transmission of the facility and make the facility be capable of reaching the higher precision or beyond. On the basis of the function, increasing the numeric aperture is coupled with the raising of resolution of the projection objective. In this paper, a design of a projection objective with high numeric aperture and large view field for I-line lithography is proposed. Owning a dual-telecentric structure this optical system owns an angular magnification of -1.25, an effective image field of 90×90mm and an image numeric aperture of 0.2. Two aspheric surfaces are adopted in this projection objective to enhance the quality of imaging that will insure the field curvature lower than a half of the DOF, restrict the distortion lower than+/-?/5 and make the MTF approximate the diffraction limits.

Liu, Junbo; Hu, Song; Gao, Hongtao; Zhao, Lixin; Zhu, Xianchang

2014-08-01

105

Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

2010-01-01

106

Finite element analysis on mounting configurations for large-aperture optical element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-aperture optical element is widely used in optical engineering and reasonable mounting results in higher performance. In order to reduce the gravitational sag induced by its own weight, three types of mounting configurations were proposed and simulated by finite element method, and the effects of axial loads and non-uniformity and asymmetry were analyzed in the same time. The results showed that full periphery mounting configuration was the optimal mounting configuration and the optimal axial load was 0.085MPa with the corresponding maximum distortion was 2.32?m, and the effects of non-uniformity and asymmetry on distortion were small.

Su, R. F.; Lu, L. H.; Liang, Y. C.; Cao, Y. Z.

2012-01-01

107

System architecture of MMIC-based large aperture arrays for space application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The persistent trend to use millimeter-wave frequencies for satellite communications presents the challenge to design large-aperture phased arrays for space applications. These arrays, which comprise 100 to 10,000 elements, are now possible due to the advent of lightwave technology and the availability of monolithic microwave integrated circuits. In this paper, system aspects of optically controlled array design are studied. In particular, two architectures for a 40 GHz array are outlined, and the main system-related issues are examined: power budget, synchronization in frequency and phase, and stochastic effects.

Herczfeld, P. R.; Kam, M.; Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.; Laprade, N.

1987-01-01

108

Large aperture transducer designed for MR-HIFU treatment of breast tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel large aperture transducer design is proposed for MR-HIFU treatment of breast tumors. The phased array is composed of 384 elements placed on a circular structure with a lateral beam direction. This beam path orientation considerably reduces the risk of damaging nearby vital organs. In addition, this transducer shape induces a well delineated sharp focal point with low energy density in the near and far field for safe, accurate and efficient treatment. The performance of the transducer is demonstrated with acoustic field measurements and temperature maps of a phantom sonication.

Mougenot, C.; Köhler, M.; Tillander, M.; Moonen, C.; Bartels, L. W.; Ehnholm, G.

2012-10-01

109

Compact large-aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer modules for gas spectroscopy at mid-IR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VTT has developed Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for visible and infrared wavelengths since 90's. Here we present two new platforms for mid-infrared gas spectroscopy having a large optical aperture to provide high optical throughput but still enabling miniaturized instrument size. First platform is a tunable filter that replaces a traditional filter wheel, which operates between wavelengths of 4-5 um. Second platform is for correlation spectroscopy where the interferometer provides a comb-like transmission pattern mimicking absorption of diatomic molecules at the wavelength range of 4.7-4.8 um. The Bragg mirrors have 2-4 thin layers of polysilicon and silicon oxide.

Kantojärvi, Uula; Varpula, Aapo; Antila, Tapani; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Rissanen, Anna; Antila, Jarkko; Disch, Rolf J.; Waldmann, Torsten A.

2014-03-01

110

Oxide aperture scaling effect on high-speed (>16 GHz) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed, oxide-confined, polyimide-planarized 850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with oxide aperture diameters of 9, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30 ?m have been fabricated and characterized. For a 9 ?m oxide aperture diameter, the lasers exhibit a resonance frequency, a 3-dB modulation frequency, and a modulation current efficiency factor (MCEF) up to 12.4, 16.5 GHz, and 10.9 GHz/mA 1/2, respectively, at only 7.9 kA/cm 2. Threshold voltage and current were 1.45 V and 0.7 mA, respectively. It is demonstrated that increasing the resonance frequency with bias does not guarantee a higher modulation bandwidth. The influence of oxide aperture scaling effect on VCSEL performance is presented.

AL-Omari, A. N.

2008-03-01

111

A conceptual design of a large aperture microwave radiometer geostationary platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual design of a Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Platform has been developed and technology areas essential to the design and on-orbit viability of the platform have been defined. Those technologies that must be developed to the requirement stated here for the LAMR mission to be viable include: advanced radiation resistant solar cells, integrated complex structures, large segmented reflector panels, sub 3 kg/m(exp 2) areal density large antennas, and electric propulsion systems. Technology areas that require further development to enhance the capabilities of the LAMR platform (but are not essential for viability) include: electrical power storage, on-orbit assembly, and on-orbit systems checkout and correction.

Garn, Paul A.; Garrison, James L.; Jasinski, Rachel

1992-01-01

112

Construction and Characterization of a Large Aperture Blackbody for Infrared Radiometer Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large aperture blackbody (LABB) with a diameter of 1 m has been successfully constructed for calibrating radiation thermometers and infrared radiometers with a wide field of view in the temperature range between 10 °C and 90 °C. The blackbody is a 1 m long cylindro-conical cavity with a diameter of 1.1 m. Its conical bottom has an apex angle of 120°. To achieve good temperature stability and uniformity, the cavity is integrated to a water-bath to which the pressurized water is supplied from a reservoir. To reduce the convection heat loss from the cavity to the ambient, the cavity is purged of the dried air that passes through a coiled tube immersed in the reservoir. For an uncertainty evaluation of the LABB, its temperature stability was measured by using a reference radiation thermometer (RRT) and a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT), and its radiance temperature distributions on the aperture plane were measured by using a thermal camera. Measuring the spectral emissivity of the coating material, the effective emissivity of the blackbody was calculated to be 0.9955 from 1 ?m to 15 ?m. The expanded uncertainty of the radiance temperature scale was evaluated based on the PRT readings, which vary from 0.3 °C to 0.5 °C ( k = 2) in the temperature range. The temperature scale is validated by comparing with the RRT of which the temperature scale is realized by a multiple fixed-point calibration.

Park, Chul-Woung; Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Bong-Hak; Chun, Sejong; Park, Seung-Nam

2011-08-01

113

Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator  

SciTech Connect

Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29

114

Recent enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed at MSFC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, and mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the PAMELA telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

Rakoczy, John M.; Montgomery, Edward E.; Lindner, Jeffrey L.

2000-08-01

115

Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technology Developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near Infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 micron wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 sq m, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 micron, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Glavallsco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

2012-01-01

116

THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Martin, Peter G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Netterfield, C. Barth [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Patanchon, Guillaume, E-mail: matthew@truch.ne [Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

2009-12-20

117

Thermal design and performance of the balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry BLASTPol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the thermal model of the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol). This instrument was successfully own in two circumpolar flights from McMurdo, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. During these two flights, BLASTPol obtained unprecedented information about the magnetic field in molecular clouds through the measurement of the polarized thermal emission of interstellar dust grains. The thermal design of the experiment addresses the stability and control of the payload necessary for this kind of measurement. We describe the thermal modeling of the payload including the sun-shielding strategy. We present the in-flight thermal performance of the instrument and compare the predictions of the model with the temperatures registered during the flight. We describe the difficulties of modeling the thermal behavior of the balloon-borne platform and establish landmarks that can be used in the design of future balloon-borne instruments.

Soler, J. D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Angilè, F. E.; Benton, S. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Fissel, L. M.; Fukui, Y.; Galitzki, N.; Gandilo, N. N.; Klein, J.; Korotkov, A. L.; Matthews, T. G.; Moncelsi, L.; Mroczkowski, A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novak, G.; Nutter, D.; Pascale, E.; Poidevin, F.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shariff, Jamil A.; Thomas, N. E.; Truch, M. D.; Tucker, C. E.; Tucker, G. S.; Ward-Thompson, D.

2014-07-01

118

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) and BLASTPol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Balloon observations from Antarctica have proven an effective and efficient way to address open Cosmological questions as well as problems in Galactic astronomy. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital mapping experiment which uses 270 bolometric detectors to image the sky in three wavebands centred at 250, 350 and 500 ?m with a 1.8 m telescope. In the years before Herschel launched, BLAST provided data of unprecedented angular and spectral coverage in frequency bands close to the peak of dust emission in star forming regions in our Galaxy, and in galaxies at cosmological distances. More recently, BLASTPol was obtained by reconfiguring the BLAST focal plane as a submillimetric polarimeter to study the role that Galactic magnetic fields have in regulating the processes of star-formation. The first and successful BLASTPol flight from Antarctica in 2010 is followed by a second flight, currently scheduled for the end of 2012.

Pascale, Enzo; Pascale

2013-01-01

119

Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope: science drivers and technology developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8- to 16-m ultraviolet optical near infrared space observatory for launch in the 2025 to 2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8- to 16-marcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5-?m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 m2, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 to 2.4 ?m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to that of current generation observatory-class space missions.

Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Michael Rich, R.; Phillip Stahl, H.; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Rémi; Hyde, Tupper

2012-01-01

120

Analysis of the Systematic Errors Found in the Kipp & Zonen Large-Aperture Scintillometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have shown a systematic error in the Kipp & Zonen large-aperture scintillometer (K&ZLAS) measurements of the sensible heat flux, H. We improved on these studies and compared four K&ZLASs with a Wageningen large-aperture scintillometer at the Chilbolton Observatory. The scintillometers were installed such that their footprints were the same and independent flux measurements were made along the measurement path. This allowed us to compare H and the direct scintillometer output, the refractive index structure parameter, {Cn2} . Furthermore, spectral analysis was performed on the raw scintillometer signal to investigate the characteristics of the error. Firstly, correlation coefficients ? 0.99 confirm the robustness of the scintillometer method, and secondly we discovered two systematic errors: the low-{Cn2} error and the high-{Cn2} error. The low-{Cn2} error is a non-linear error that is caused by high-frequency noise, and we suspect the error to be caused by the calibration circuit in the receiver. It varies between each K&ZLAS, is significant for H ? 50 W m-2, and we propose a solution to remove this error using the demodulated signal. The high-{Cn2} error identified by us is the systematic error found in previous studies. We suspect this error to be caused by poor focal alignment of the receiver detector and the transmitter light-emitting diode that causes ineffective use of the Fresnel lens in the current Kipp & Zonen design. It varies between each K&ZLAS (35% up to 240%) and can only be removed by comparing with a reference scintillometer in the field.

van Kesteren, B.; Hartogensis, O. K.

2011-03-01

121

Horizon: A Proposal for Large Aperture, Active Optics in Geosynchronous Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1999, NASA's New Millennium Program called for proposals to validate new technology in high-earth orbit for the Earth Observing-3 (NMP EO3) mission to fly in 2003. In response, we proposed to test a large aperture, active optics telescope in geosynchronous orbit. This would flight-qualify new technologies for both Earth and Space science: 1) a future instrument with LANDSAT image resolution and radiometric quality watching continuously from geosynchronous station, and 2) the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for deep space imaging. Six enabling technologies were to be flight-qualified: 1) a 3-meter, lightweight segmented primary mirror, 2) mirror actuators and mechanisms, 3) a deformable mirror, 4) coarse phasing techniques, 5) phase retrieval for wavefront control during stellar viewing, and 6) phase diversity for wavefront control during Earth viewing. Three enhancing technologies were to be flight- validated: 1) mirror deployment and latching mechanisms, 2) an advanced microcontroller, and 3) GPS at GEO. In particular, two wavefront sensing algorithms, phase retrieval by JPL and phase diversity by ERIM International, were to sense optical system alignment and focus errors, and to correct them using high-precision mirror mechanisms. Active corrections based on Earth scenes are challenging because phase diversity images must be collected from extended, dynamically changing scenes. In addition, an Earth-facing telescope in GEO orbit is subject to a powerful diurnal thermal and radiometric cycle not experienced by deep-space astronomy. The Horizon proposal was a bare-bones design for a lightweight large-aperture, active optical system that is a practical blend of science requirements, emerging technologies, budget constraints, launch vehicle considerations, orbital mechanics, optical hardware, phase-determination algorithms, communication strategy, computational burdens, and first-rate cooperation among earth and space scientists, engineers and managers. This manuscript presents excerpts from the Horizon proposal's sections that describe the Earth science requirements, the structural -thermal-optical design, the wavefront sensing and control, and the on-orbit validation.

Chesters, Dennis; Jenstrom, Del

2000-01-01

122

ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, N.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

2010-01-01

123

Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Mirror for Lightweight, Large-Aperture, and Cryogenic Space Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, cryogenically capable, scalable, deformable mirror has been developed for space telescopes. This innovation makes use of polymer-based membrane mirror technology to enable large-aperture mirrors that can be easily launched and deployed. The key component of this innovation is a lightweight, large-stroke, cryogenic actuator array that combines the high degree of mirror figure control needed with a large actuator influence function. The latter aspect of the innovation allows membrane mirror figure correction with a relatively low actuator density, preserving the lightweight attributes of the system. The principal components of this technology are lightweight, low-profile, high-stroke, cryogenic-capable piezoelectric actuators based on PMN-PT (piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) single-crystal configured in a flextensional actuator format; high-quality, low-thermal-expansion polymer membrane mirror materials developed by NeXolve; and electrostatic coupling between the membrane mirror and the piezoelectric actuator assembly to minimize problems such as actuator print-through.

Patrick, Brian; Moore, James; Hackenberger, Wesley; Jiang, Xiaoning

2013-01-01

124

Large-Aperture Grating Tiling by Interferometry for Petawatt Chirped-Pulse--Amplification Systems  

SciTech Connect

A tiled-grating assembly with three large-scale gratings is developed with real-time interferometric tiling control for the OMEGA EP Laser Facility. An automatic tiling method is achieved and used to tile a three-tile grating assembly with the overall wavefront reconstructed. Tiling parameters sensitivity and focal-spot degradation from all combined tiling errors are analyzed for a pulse compressor composed of four such assemblies.

Qiao, J.; Kalb, A.; Guardalben, M.J.; King, G.; Canning. D.; Kelly, J.H.

2007-08-01

125

Large-aperture Wide-bandwidth Antireflection-coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for submillimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n 3.4, low loss, and high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three-axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating.We have fabricated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with micromachined layers optimized for use between 125 and 165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30deg with low cross polarization.We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

2013-01-01

126

Key technology of data registration for large aperture aspheric surface measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large measuring range and high resolution are always contradictories in practical measurement for large aperture aspheric surface. They must be met simultaneously in high precision measurement. Stitching method based on data registration is an effective way to resolve this contradiction. Aiming at the problem of rapid searching corresponding points, a key problem in offset sampling point set registration under rectangular coordinate system, a complete and effective approach is described in this paper. The original and destination point sets are registered roughly according to initial transformation and then projected to x-y plane. The intersection of two planar point sets' minimal bounding rectangle is solved to reduce the original points to be matched. The convex boundary of destination point set is solved and then principle of connected graphs is employed to judge whether one original point lies in destination point set. Strategy of space separating is employed to accelerate the neighboring points searching process. For each original point, its neighboring points belonging to a small area are solved. Subsequently, quadratic surface fitting is performed based on these neighboring points. Then method of Point-to-(Tangent) Plane is used to calculate its corresponding point. An emulation experiment is performed and experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed methods. It can realize rapid corresponding points searching effectively and meet the high precision registration under the situation of offset sampling.

Ren, Tongqun; Guo, Yinbiao; Ke, Xiaolong

2010-10-01

127

A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley A.

2015-01-01

128

Large-aperture wide-bandwidth antireflection-coated silicon lenses for millimeter wavelengths.  

PubMed

The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for submillimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n=3.4, low loss, and high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three-axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating. We have fabricated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with micromachined layers optimized for use between 125 and 165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30° with low cross polarization. We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth. PMID:24513939

Datta, R; Munson, C D; Niemack, M D; McMahon, J J; Britton, J; Wollack, E J; Beall, J; Devlin, M J; Fowler, J; Gallardo, P; Hubmayr, J; Irwin, K; Newburgh, L; Nibarger, J P; Page, L; Quijada, M A; Schmitt, B L; Staggs, S T; Thornton, R; Zhang, L

2013-12-20

129

The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarization: BLAST-pol  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital experiment designed to study the process of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and in galaxies at cosmological distances. Using a 2-m Cassegrain telescope, BLAST images the sky onto a focal plane, which consists of 270 bolometric detectors split between three arrays, observing simultaneously in 30% wide bands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The diffraction-limited optical system provides a resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The pointing system enables raster-like scans with a positional accuracy of ~30", reconstructed to better than 5" rms in post-flight analysis. BLAST had two successful flights, from the Arctic in 2005, and from Antarctica in 2006, which provided the first high-resolution and large-area (~0.8-200 deg^2) submillimeter surveys at these wavelengths. As a pathfinder for the SPIRE instrument on Herschel, BLAST shares with the ESA satellite similar focal plane technology and scientific motivation. A third flight in 2009 will see the instrument modified to be polarization-sensitive (BLAST-Pol). With its unprecedented mapping speed and resolution, BLAST-Pol will provide insights into Galactic star-forming nurseries, and give the necessary link between the larger, coarse resolution surveys and the narrow, resolved observations of star-forming structures from space and ground based instruments being commissioned in the next 5 years.

G. Marsden; P. A. R. Ade; S. Benton; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; J. Chung; M. J. Devlin; S. Dicker; L. Fissel; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; A. Korotkov; C. J. MacTavish; P. G. Martin; T. G. Martin; T. G. Matthews; P. Mauskopf; L. Moncelsi; C. B. Netterfield; G. Novak; E. Pascale; L. Olmi; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; G. Savini; D. Scott; C. Semisch; N. Thomas; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. Ward-Thompson; D. V. Wiebe

2008-05-28

130

A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of ~5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity (> 90%), high uniformity (< 1%) and low polarization (< 1%) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

Stahle, Carl; Clampin, Mark; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; Mosier, Gary; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley A.

2015-01-01

131

The Large Aperture Gamma Ray Observatory as an Observational Alternative at High Altitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although satellite observations have revealed some mysteries about the origin and location of cosmic rays at low energies, questions remain to be resolved in higher energy ranges (>1 GeV). However, the flow of particles at high energies is very low, large sensitive areas are necessary, so that the detection of secondary particles from observatories on the surface of the earth is a technically viable solution. While the Pierre Auger Observatory has such capacity given its 16000 m^2 of detectors, low height above sea level greatly reduces its detection capability. The Large Aperture Gamma Ray Observatory (LAGO) is an observational alternative that attempts to overcome this limitation. This project was started in 2005, placing water Cherenkov Detectors at high altitude. Observation sites have been selected with some basic requirements: altitude, academic and technical infrastructure, existence of a research group responsible for assembly and maintenance of the detectors and the analysis, visualization, divulgation and data storage. This paper presents the general status of the observatories of Sierra Negra-México, Chacaltaya-Bolívia, Marcapomacocha-Perú, Mérida-Venezuela and Bucaramanga-Colombia.

Rosales, M.

2011-10-01

132

Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

133

A New Type of X-ray Condenser Lenses with Large Apertures Fabricated by Rolling of Structured Films  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet the demand for X-ray lenses with large apertures and, hence, photon flux, a new type of X-ray lenses has been developed: Rolled prismatic X-ray lenses feature a vast number of refracting surfaces to increase transparency and aperture, respectively. Prototypes of such lenses have been fabricated by molding and rolling of a structured polyimide film. In this work, rolled prismatic X-ray lenses are pictured, and results of first tests performed at the ANKA storage ring in Karlsruhe are presented.

Simon, M.; Reznikova, E.; Nazmov, V.; Grund, T. [Institut fuer Mikrostrukturtechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Last, A. [Institut fuer Mikrostrukturtechnik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-04-06

134

The pre-research of the deploy technology for the large aperture space astronomical telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spherical primary mirror (Mb) of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is segmented and composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors, and segmented active optics method is successfully developed in it. LAMOST project has passed through the project acceptance in 2009. The success of LAMOST makes deployable primary mirror possible. The deployable large aperture space astronomical telescope is one of the most development potential space observation spacecrafts in the future. This paper is targeted at the reflecting Schmidt telescope LAMOST, which has a 6.67X6.05m primary mirror. The feasibility of the deployable structure of the large reflecting space telescope's primary mirror has been mainly researched. The analysis of the design scheme for the deployable primary mirror has been carried out, and according to the feature and the design of LAMOST, a subdivision type deployment scheme has been given; The locating principle of the both side wings and the locking device after deployment has been analyzed; In addition the problems in the process of deployment is also preliminary discussed. This paper is targeted at the reflecting Schmidt telescope LAMOST, which has a 6.67X6.05 primary mirror. The feasibility of the deployable structure of the large reflecting telescope's primary mirror has been mainly researched. The analysis of the design scheme for the deployable primary mirror has been carried out, and according to the feature and the design of LAMOST, a subdivision type deployment scheme has been given; The locating principle of the both side wings and the locking device after deployment has been analyzed; In addition the problems in the process of deployment have been preliminary discussed.

Jiang, Fanghua; Zuo, Heng; Li, Guoping

2012-09-01

135

Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

1994-01-01

136

Large coherent arrays for laser radars, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bistatic laser radar with a large-sparse, phased array, receive aperture has been previously proposed for various critical strategic defense applications such as discrimination, target tracking, pointing, and fire control. The same concept could also be applied to the difficult problem of theater missile defense (TMD) using an airborne platform (above any cloud cover). The basic problem is to ensure that the outputs of the receive subapertures are coherently combined in order to obtain the desired phased array performance. The general approach previously taken relaxes the tolerances on the locations of array elements and tries to compensate for the resulting phase errors adaptively, by phase conjugating returns from a 'phase-up' source of opportunity found within the target area. We recognized this procedure as the simplest among the class of 'self-cohering' techniques that Interspec has developed in the past decade for the purpose of obtaining diffraction-limited performance from distorted apertures for radar applications. In this effort, we adapted and applied a powerful self cohering technique to this problem.

Attia, E. H.

1991-11-01

137

8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

Stahl, H. Philip

2010-01-01

138

The sensible heat fluxes over irrigated areas in western Turkey determined with a large aperture scintillometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an international experiment in which several methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration were compared, two large aperture scintillometers (LAS) and a small micrometeorological station were installed in the Gediz Basin near Menemen, Turkey during the summer of 1998 by the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Wageningen Agricultural University. The instruments will be used to provide "ground-truth" sensible heat fluxes. At the first site, a LAS was set up over a transect of the valley from Belen to Suluklu with a path length of 2700 m. The second LAS (a path length of 670 m) together with a small micrometeorological station was installed in an irrigated cotton field west of the first site. However, due to experimental problems the scintillation method for the second site could not be applied. Instead the variance method, which just as the scintilliation method is based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, was used. The 24 h average sensible heat fluxes of the valley for the entire growing season are presented and special attention is given to the LANDSAT overpass dates June 26 and August 29. The results presented in this paper show that the scintillometer is a robust and reliable "stand-alone" system that is able to provide operational estimates of areal averaged sensible heat fluxes.

Meijninger, W. M. L.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

2000-03-01

139

[Manufacture tolerance analysis of solid Mach-Zehnder interferometer in large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS)].  

PubMed

The principle and instrumental structure of large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS) were briefly described in the present paper, the principle of the Mach-Zehnder imaging spectrometer was introduced, and the Mach-Zehnder interferometers' working way in the imaging spectrometer was illustrated. The structure of solid Mach-Zehnder interferometer was analyzed, and discussion was made based on the requirements of field of view (FOV) in image space and single sided interferogram with a small portion around zero path difference (ZPD). The additional optical path difference (OPD) created by manufacturing and matching tolerance of two asymmetrical pentagonal prisms will lead to the displacement of shearing and OPD nonlinearity. It was showed that the additional OPD from non-common optical path structure of solid Mach-Zehnder spectrometer implies more requirements on the manufacture of this element, compared with Sagnac interferometer, for the matching tolerance of two asymmetrical pentagonal prisms to br lower than 0.02 mm. The recovery spectrum error caused by the OPD nonlinearity is lower than 0.2% and can be ignored. PMID:25269324

Liu, Qing; Zhou, Jin-Song; Nie, Yun-Feng; Lü, Qun-Bo

2014-07-01

140

A High-Emissivity Blackbody with Large Aperture for Radiometric Calibration at Low-Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly designed high-emissivity cylindrical blackbody source with a large diameter aperture (54 mm), an internal triangular-grooved surface, and concentric grooves on the bottom surface was immersed in a temperature-controlled, stirred-liquid bath. The stirred-liquid bath can be stabilized to better than 0.05°C at temperatures between 30 °C and 70 °C, with traceability to the ITS-90 through a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) calibrated at the fixed points of indium, gallium, and the water triple point. The temperature uniformity of the blackbody from the bottom to the front of the cavity is better than 0.05 % of the operating temperature (in °C). The heat loss of the cavity is less than 0.03 % of the operating temperature as determined with a radiation thermometer by removing an insulating lid without the gas purge operating. Optical ray tracing with a Monte Carlo method (STEEP 3) indicated that the effective emissivity of this blackbody cavity is very close to unity. The size-of-source effect (SSE) of the radiation thermometer and the effective emissivity of the blackbody were considered in evaluating the uncertainty of the blackbody. The blackbody uncertainty budget and performance are described in this paper.

Ko, Hsin-Yi; Wen, Bor-Jiunn; Tsa, Shu-Fei; Li, Guo-Wei

2009-02-01

141

Subwavelength grating reflectors in MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot infrared filters with large aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel tunable infrared filter applying a subwavelength grating that substitutes the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filters to reduce cost and fabrication effort. It consists of uniformly arranged disc resonators which are made of 100 nm thick aluminum at a 200 nm Si3N4 membrane carrier that stands freely after fabrication. The dimensions of the subwavelength structures were optimized based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis. The fabrication sequence consists of silicon MEMS technology steps like deposition and patterning of electrodes and of isolation layers, silicon etching, and wafer bonding, and it includes nano imprint lithography for forming the subwavelength structures at wafer level. The samples have an aperture of 2 mm and are mechanically tuned by electrostatic forces with tuning voltages up to 80 V. They show the typical characteristics of FP filters but with high peak transmittance within a remarkably large wavelength range (T < 50% @ 2.5 ?m … 6.5 ?m) spanning over 5 interference orders of the optical resonator. The optical performance was measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and compared to the simulation results. It shows a widely good agreement between calculation and measurement.

Kurth, Steffen; Hiller, Karla; Meinig, Marco; Besser, Jan; Seifert, Mario; Ebermann, Martin; Neumann, Norbert; Schlachter, Florian; Gessner, Thomas

2014-02-01

142

A large area reconfigurable MOEMS microshutter array for coded aperture imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously we reported on the early feasibility of realising such a mask based on polysilicon micr-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and early results in the visible and near IR bands. This employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage whilst a hysteretic row/column addressing scheme is used to control the state of individual elements. In this paper we present transmission results from the target mid-IR band (3-5?m), compare them with theory and describe the scale up from a 3x3 proof-of-concept MOEMS microshutter array to a 560 x 560 element array (2cm x 2cm chip) with the associated driver electronics and embedded control - including aspects of electronic design, addressing control and integration. The resultant microsystem represents a core building block to realise much larger reconfigurable masks using a tiled approach with further integration challenges in the future.

McNie, Mark E.; King, David O.; Price, Nicola; Combes, David J.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Brown, Alan G.; Gordon, Neil T.; Stone, Steven M.; Brunson, Kevin M.; Lewis, Keith L.; Slinger, Christopher W.; Rogers, Stanley

2008-08-01

143

Infrasonic interferometry applied to microbaroms observed at the Large Aperture Infrasound Array in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of infrasonic interferometry applied to microbaroms, obtained from ambient noise. For this purpose the "Large Aperture Infrasound Array" (LAIA) was used, which has been installed in the Netherlands. Preprocessing appeared to be an essential step in enhancing the microbarom signals from ambient noise that strongly influences the results of the interferometry. Both the state of the atmosphere and the noise characteristics are taken into account to assess the strength of the cross correlation. The delay time of the microbaroms between two stations is determined through cross correlating the recordings. By calculating the cross correlations between all 55 station pairs of LAIA, we are able to find the delay time of microbaroms up to a interstation distance of 40.6 km. Using the strength of the cross correlations, we are able to show that the coherence of the microbaroms along the direction of arrival is higher than orthogonal to it. A comparison of the atmospheric state, with a cross correlation, over a period of 10 days, reveals that the infrasound propagation over the array is correlated with the tropospheric temperature and wind. Based on the cross correlations between the three closest stations, we are able to passively estimate the effective sound speed and the wind speed as a function of time.

Fricke, J. T.; Evers, L. G.; Smets, P. S. M.; Wapenaar, K.; Simons, D. G.

2014-08-01

144

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, and Mrk 231. One additional source, Arp 220, was observed and used as our primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST05 calibration procedure are discussed here. The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. The 250, 350, and 500 um BLAST data can provide useful constraints to the amplitude and slope of the submillimeter continuum, which in turn may be useful for the improved calibration of other submillimeter instruments.

M. D. P. Truch; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; E. L. Chapin; M. J. Devlin; S. Dicker; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; G. Marsden; P. G. Martin; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; E. Pascale; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. V. Wiebe

2008-03-31

145

Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30°. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72 MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong

2014-03-01

146

Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture  

SciTech Connect

Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1?MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30°. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72?MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Province Institute for Medical Equipment Testing, Nanjing 210012 (China); Zhang, Wei [Jiangsu Province Institute for Medical Equipment Testing, Nanjing 210012 (China); Qiu, Yuanyuan [Department of electronic information, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 (China); Tu, Juan, E-mail: juantu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Guo, Xiasheng [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Dong, E-mail: juantu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of Acoustics, State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-03-21

147

Imaging the midcontinent rift beneath Lake Superior using large aperture seismic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a detailed velocity model across the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in central Lake Superior. The model was derived primarily from onshore-offshore large-aperture seismic and gravity data. High velocities obtained within a highly reflective half-graben that was imaged on coincident seismic reflection data demonstrate the dominantly mafic composition of the graben fill and constrain its total thickness to be at least 30km. Strong wide-angle reflections are observed from the lower crust and Moho, indicating that the crust is thickest (55–60km) beneath the axis of the graben. The total crustal thickness decreases rapidly to about 40 km beneath the south shore of the lake and decreases more gradually to the north. Above the Moho is a high-velocity lower crust interpreted to result from syn-rift basaltic intrusion into and/or underplating beneath the Archean lower crust. The lower crust is thickest beneath the axis of the main rift half-graben. A second region of thick lower crust is found approximately 100km north of the axis of the rift beneath a smaller half graben that is interpreted to reflect an earlier stage of rifting. The crustal model presented here resembles recent models of some passive continental margins and is in marked contrast to many models of both active and extinct Phanerozoic continental rift zones. It demonstrates that the Moho is a dynamic feature, since the pre-rift Moho is probably within or above the high-velocity lower crust, whereas the post-rift Moho is defined as the base of this layer. In the absence of major tectonic activity, however, the Moho is very stable, since the large, abrupt variations in crustal thickness beneath the MRS have been preserved for at least a billion years.

Trehu, Anne M.; Morel-a-l'Huissier, Patrick; Meyer, R.; Hajnal, Z.; Karl, J.; Mereu, R. F.; Sexton, J.; Shay, J.; Chan, W. K.; Epili, D.; Jefferson, T.; Shih, X. R.; Wendling, S.; Milkereit, B.; Green, A.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

1991-01-01

148

Tracking Characteristics of a Triangular-Aperture Mounted Optical Head Slider to Which a Polarized Violet Laser Source Is Applied  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In near-field optical recording, the combination of a triangular aperture and a polarized illuminating light is thought to be one of the most promising breakthroughs for improving both spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. In light of this, we have already fabricated a triangular-aperture mounted optical head slider and demonstrated its superior performance while clarifying the influence of the polarization direction on the spatial resolution in the circumferential direction. When the polarization direction was perpendicular to the bottom side (which is parallel to the slider trailing edge) of the aperture, the highest spatial resolution and signal contrast were obtained, in spite of the usage of a fairly large aperture, indicating the presence of clear readout signal waveforms corresponding down to 100 nm line-and-space (L/S) patterns. In this study, we tried to experimentally clarify the influence of the polarization direction of the illuminating light on an aperture's field spread in the radial direction. In order to concretely evaluate the field spread, we prepared 1-mm-long linearly arranged (in the circumferential direction) L/S patterns on a metal-layered medium, and a piezo-electric actuator combined positioner. Intersecting the aperture at two portions of the tracks, directly acquired signal waveforms could be successfully transformed into the waveforms that would be obtained if the aperture had crossed the track at right angles. The field spreads in the radial direction were estimated to be approximately 250 nm when the polarization direction was perpendicular to the bottom side. In contrast, when the polarization direction was 45 degrees, the stationary field spread in the radial direction was estimated to be approximately 350 - 370 nm. It could be confirmed experimentally that both the highest spatial resolution in the circumferential direction and the smallest field spread in the radial direction were realized with the combination of the triangular aperture and the illuminating polarized light whose direction was perpendicular to the bottom side. Based on these results, the signal-to-noise ratio will be evaluated and discussed in the future with respect to the above-mentioned optimum aperture structure and conditions.

Ohkubo, Toshifumi; Park, Majung; Hirata, Masakazu; Oumi, Manabu; Nakajima, Kunio

149

Study on the sensitivity of temperature gradient for large aperture SiC lightweight mirror based on active optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aperture of large ground-based telescopes increasing, thermal issues appear more evidently. As a relatively large thermal expansion coefficient SiC (about 2.5x10-6 /K), it makes large aperture SiC lightweight primary mirror more sensitive to temperature gradient. Firstly, discuss thermal issue of the mirror seeing induced by the temperature difference between the mirror surface and ambient theoretically. Then analyze the mirror surface deformation under seven different steady-state temperature fields with a unit temperature load. A uniform axial gradient can cause a mirror surface deflection RMS which can reach 438.4 nm. According to the simulation results, it shows that the primary is most sensitive to a uniform axial gradient and least to uniform change. Lastly, the parameter of thermal control is determined through the above analysis with the error budget to get a better image quality.

Liu, Xiangyi; Zhang, Jingxu; Wu, Xiaoxia; Li, Jianfeng; Guo, Peng; An, Qichang

2014-09-01

150

Determining suitability of Large Aperture Scintillometer for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillation method is a relatively new technique for measuring the sensible heat and water fluxes over land surfaces. Path integrating capabilities of scintillometer over heterogeneous landscapes make it a potential tool for comparing the energy fluxes derived from remote sensing based energy balance algorithms. For this reason, scintillometer-derived evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes are being used to evaluate remote sensing based energy balance algorithms for their ability to estimate ET fluxes. However, LAS' (Large Aperture Scintillometer) ability to derive ET fluxes is not thoroughly tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate LAS- and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)-derived fluxes against lysimetric data to determine LAS' suitability for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) maps. The study was conducted during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment - 2008 (BEAREX-08) at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL), Bushland, Texas. SEBS was coded in a GIS environment to retrieve ET fluxes from the high resolution imageries acquired using airborne multispectral sensors. The CPRL has four large weighing lysimeters (3 m long x 3 m wide x 2.4 m deep), each located in the middle of approximately 5 ha fields, arranged in a block pattern. The two lysimeter fields located on the east (NE and SE) were managed under irrigated conditions, and the other two lysimeters on the west (NW and SW) were under dryland management. Each lysimeter field was equipped with an automated weather station that provided measurements for net radiation (Rn), Ts, soil heat flux (Go), Ta, relative humidity, and wind speed. During BEAREX08, the NE and SE fields were planted to cotton on May 21, and the NW and SW dryland lysimeters fields were planted to cotton on June 5. One LAS each was deployed across two large dryland lysimeter fields (NW and SW) and two large irrigated lysimeter fields (NE and SE). The structural parameter of refractive index of air was measured at 1-min interval and averaged at 15-min, and synchronized with weather station. The source area (footprint) of the surface energy fluxes were computed using a footprint model. ET fluxes were derived using LAS-estimated H as a residual from the energy balance equation. Comparison of SEBS- and LAS-derived ET fluxes were made against lysimetric data and performance of each method was discussed to determine the suitability of LAS for evaluating accuracy of remote sensing based ET maps.

Paul, G.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Basu, S.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Marek, T.

2013-12-01

151

Assessing Inter-Sensor Variability and Sensible Heat Flux Derivation Accuracy for a Large Aperture Scintillometer  

PubMed Central

The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies. PMID:24473285

Rambikur, Evan H.; Chávez, José L.

2014-01-01

152

Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

2010-01-01

153

Assessing inter-sensor variability and sensible heat flux derivation accuracy for a large aperture scintillometer.  

PubMed

The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies. PMID:24473285

Rambikur, Evan H; Chávez, José L

2014-01-01

154

ExoEarth Yield Estimates for a Future Large Aperture Direct Imaging Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric that will constrain the required aperture of a future exoplanet-imaging mission. I will present a numerically efficient method for maximizing the yield of exoEarth candidates by simultaneously optimizing the exposure time of every star, number of visits per star, and delay time between visits, while maximally adapting the target list to the mission's capabilities. This method can potentially double the exoEarth candidate yield compared to previous methods. I will show how the yield scales with mission parameters, including aperture size and high level coronagraph parameters, and address the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on exoEarth yield.

Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Robinson, Tyler

2015-01-01

155

Small feature sizes and high aperture ratio organic light-emitting diodes by using laser-patterned polyimide shadow masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shadow mask technique capable of realizing high resolution (>330 pixel-per-inch) and ˜100% aperture ratio Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) full color displays is demonstrated. The technique utilizes polyimide contact shadow masks, patterned by laser ablation. Red, green, and blue OLEDs with very small feature sizes (<25 ?m) are fabricated side by side on one substrate. OLEDs fabricated via this technique have the same performance as those made by established technology. This technique has a strong potential to achieve high resolution OLED displays via standard vacuum deposition processes even on flexible substrates.

Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Joseph, Kevin; Kajiyama, Koichi; Kudo, Shuji; Aziz, Hany

2014-02-01

156

Surface accuracy analysis and mathematical modeling of deployable large aperture elastic antenna reflectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One class of deployable large aperture antenna consists of thin light-weight parabolic reflectors. A reflector of this type is a deployable structure that consists of an inflatable elastic membrane that is supported about its perimeter by a set of elastic tendons and is subjected to a constant hydrostatic pressure. A design may not hold the parabolic shape to within a desired tolerance due to an elastic deformation of the surface, particularly near the rim. We can compute the equilibrium configuration of the reflector system using an optimization-based solution procedure that calculates the total system energy and determines a configuration of minimum energy. Analysis of the equilibrium configuration reveals the behavior of the reflector shape under various loading conditions. The pressure, film strain energy, tendon strain energy, and gravitational energy are all considered in this analysis. The surface accuracy of the antenna reflector is measured by an RMS calculation while the reflector phase error component of the efficiency is determined by computing the power density at boresight. Our error computation methods are tailored for the faceted surface of our model and they are more accurate for this particular problem than the commonly applied Ruze Equation. Previous analytical work on parabolic antennas focused on axisymmetric geometries and loads. Symmetric equilibria are not assumed in our analysis. In addition, this dissertation contains two principle original findings: (1) the typical supporting tendon system tends to flatten a parabolic reflector near its edge. We find that surface accuracy can be significantly improved by fixing the edge of the inflated reflector to a rigid structure; (2) for large membranes assembled from flat sheets of thin material, we demonstrate that the surface accuracy of the resulting inflated membrane reflector can be improved by altering the cutting pattern of the flat components. Our findings demonstrate that the proper choice of design parameters can increase the performance of inflatable antennas, opening up new antenna applications where higher resolution and greater sensitivity are desired. These include space applications involving high data rates and high bandwidths, such as lunar surface wireless local networks and orbiting relay satellites. A light-weight inflatable antenna is also an ideal component in aerostat, airship and free balloon systems that supports communication, surveillance and remote sensing applications.

Coleman, Michael J.

157

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 67 (2005) 11711177 Modelling high-power large-aperture radar meteor trails  

E-print Network

-aperture radar meteor trails Lars P. Dyrud�, Licia Ray, Meers Oppenheim, Sigrid Close, Kelly Denney Center see high-power large-aperture (HPLA) radar observations of meteor phenomena called head echoes and non demonstrating that meteor trails are unstable to growth of Farley­Buneman gradient-drift (FBGD) waves

Oppenheim, Meers

158

Defining A Risk Analysis Strategy for Exo-Earth Yields from a Future Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars using high-contrast imaging is a critical science metric for constraining the requirements on the next-generation large UVOIR space telescope. The dominant driver for the observatory architecture, cost and schedule is the telescope aperture size. Therefore it is important to provide as much constraint as possible on the required aperture size early in the design and planning process.An estimate of the detection yield for Earth-like planets can be calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation of a design reference mission (DRM), allowing the exploration of a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We have developed such a code (Stark et al. 2014); it optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield for a specific set of mission parameters. However, many of the important astrophysical quantities and future technical capabilities that feed into these parameters are not well constrained. This leads to a large uncertainty in the final mission architecture needed to achieve a specific exo-Earth yield.In this presentation we discuss the various physical and technological parameters that go into the DRM simulations, and the associated uncertainties based on the current state of research. We then present a strategy for a three-tiered risk assessment using these uncertainties, and conclude with a discussion of the current range in telescope aperture size associated with each risk level.

Mandell, Avi; Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Robinson, Tyler

2015-01-01

159

Simulation studies of space-charge-dominated beam transport in large aperture ratio quadrupoles  

SciTech Connect

For many cases of interest in the design of heavy-ion fusion accelerators, the maximum transportable current in a magnetic quadrupole lattice scales as ({alpha}/L){sup 2} where {alpha} is the useful dynamic aperture and L is the half-lattice period. There are many cost benefits to maximizing the usable aperture which must be balanced against unwanted effects such as possible emittance growth and particle loss from anharmonic fringe fields. We have used two independent simulation codes to model space-charge dominated beam transport both in an azimuthally-pure quadrupole FODO lattice design and in a more conventional design. Our results indicate that careful matching will be necessary to minimize emittance growth and that ({alpha}/L) ratios of 0.2 or larger are possible for particular parameters.

Fawley, W.M.; Laslett, L.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Haber, I. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1993-05-01

160

Design and construction of a large aperture quadrupole electromagnet for ILSE  

SciTech Connect

We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBNL. ILSE will address many physics and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient of 28 T/m, wi a usable aperture of 6 cm. It operates at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.

Fawley, W.M.; Vella, M.C.; Peters, C.; Stuart, M.; Faltens, A.

1995-08-01

161

Damage and fracture in large aperture, fused silica, vacuum spatial filter lenses  

SciTech Connect

Optical damage that results in large scale fracture has been observed in the large, high-fluence, fused-silica, spatial filter lenses on the Nova and Beamlet lasers. In nearly all cases damage occurs on the vacuum side of the lenses and because the vacuum side of the lens is under tensile stress this damage can lead to catastrophic crack growth if the flaw (damage) size exceeds the critical flaw size for SiO{sub 2}. The damaged 52 cm Nova lenses fracture into two and sometimes three large pieces. Although under full vacuum load at the time they fracture, the Nova lenses do not implode. Rather the authors have observed that the pieces lock together and air slowly leaks into the vacuum spatial filter housing through the lens cracks. The Beamlet lenses have a larger aspect ratio and peak tensile stress than Nova. The peak tensile stress at the center of the output surface of the Beamlet lens is 1,490 psi versus 810 psi for Nova. During a recent Beamlet high energy shot, a damage spot on the lens grew to the critical flaw size and the lens imploded. Post shot data indicate the lens probably fractured into 5 to 7 pieces, however, unlike Nova, these pieces did not lock together. Analysis shows that the likely source of damage is contamination from pinhole blow-off or out-gassing of volatile materials within the spatial filter. Contamination degrades the antireflection properties of the sol-gel coating and reduces its damage threshold. By changing the design of the Beamlet lens it may be possible to insure that it fails safe by locking up in much that same manner as the Nova lens.

Campbell, J.H.; Edwards, G.J.; Marion, J.E.

1995-07-07

162

Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Mérida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Alvarez, C.; Asorey, H.; Barros, H.; Bertou, X.; Burgoa, O.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Martínez, O.; Miranda Loza, P.; Murrieta, T.; Perez, G.; Rivera, H.; Rovero, A.; Saavedra, O.; Salazar, H.; Tello, J. C.; Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A.; Villaseñor, L.; LAGO Collaboration

2008-09-01

163

1030nm Yb-fiber-MOPA-based, multi-aperture high power, high energy uplink laser beacon for deep space communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Yb LMA fiber amplifier based laser transmitter capable of operating with high average power and high energy (~500W, 1mJ) is presented. The prototype, all-fiber, high TRL level laser transmitter is designed to meet all the single aperture requirements of an eight aperture deep space laser beacon system. The high speed FPGA controlled transmitter supports a directly modulated DFB laser and two acousto-optic modulators which are used to implement an open loop pattern dependent -pulse pre-shaping algorithm. Ultra-fast high power diode drivers are used for generating outer nested PPM modulation with Binary PPM (67usec, 33mJ pulses) and for implementing <1usec loss of signal (LOS) protection. Optical performance to be presented will include diffraction limited (M2~1.2) nested PPM optical outputs with >300W average and 9kW peak power with >70% o-o efficiency for the final power stage.

Engin, Doruk; Burton, John; Darab, Ibraheem; Kimpel, Frank; Mathason, Brian; Gupta, Shantanu

2014-03-01

164

11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens  

PubMed Central

The focusing performance of a multilayer Laue lens (MLL) with 43.4??m aperture, 4?nm finest zone width and 4.2?mm focal length at 12?keV was characterized with X-rays using ptychography method. The reconstructed probe shows a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) peak size of 11.2?nm. The obtained X-ray wavefront shows excellent agreement with the dynamical calculations, exhibiting aberrations less than 0.3 wave period, which ensures the MLL capable of producing a diffraction-limited focus while offering a sufficient working distance. This achievement opens up opportunities of incorporating a variety of in-situ experiments into ultra high-resolution X-ray microscopy studies. PMID:24356395

Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Lauer, Kenneth; Li, Li; Eom, Daejin; Legnini, Daniel; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

2013-01-01

165

11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focusing performance of a multilayer Laue lens (MLL) with 43.4 ?m aperture, 4 nm finest zone width and 4.2 mm focal length at 12 keV was characterized with X-rays using ptychography method. The reconstructed probe shows a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) peak size of 11.2 nm. The obtained X-ray wavefront shows excellent agreement with the dynamical calculations, exhibiting aberrations less than 0.3 wave period, which ensures the MLL capable of producing a diffraction-limited focus while offering a sufficient working distance. This achievement opens up opportunities of incorporating a variety of in-situ experiments into ultra high-resolution X-ray microscopy studies.

Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Lauer, Kenneth; Li, Li; Eom, Daejin; Legnini, Daniel; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

2013-12-01

166

Astrometric plates obtained at the primary focus of large aperture reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coma, astigmatism, and great differences in stellar magnitudes between photographed object and reference stars constitute the main sources of errors in measuring positional plates. These three sources of error can easily be eliminated by the method used at the Klet Observatory for obtaining precise observations of faint objects. The astrometric plates are taken by the method of two diaphragms. The first diaphragm, with a small central aperture; is located in front of the photographic plate. The second diaphragm is situated in front of the mirror. By a very short (of the order of tens of seconds) exposure a sufficient number of reference stars can be obtained throughout the entire plate. The stars are very well defined to the very edge of the plate and are easy to measure. Moreover, this method makes it possible to use plates of larger dimensions than usual so that it is always possible to find the necessary reference stars.

Markos, A.

1984-01-01

167

Large-Aperture Deformable Mirror Correction of Tiled-Grating Wavefront Error  

SciTech Connect

When tiling three gratings, with each individually exhibiting astigmatism and power due to holographic errors and coating stress, the resulting wavefront aberrations contain high-frequency components as well as the fundamental frequency, which is nearly three cycles across the aperture in the tiling direction. A deformable mirror (DM) that was designed to compensate for much slower errors (e.g., those arising from distortion in amplifier disks) is being used to compensate for this tiling-induced error. This investigation studies the effectiveness of compensating only the fundamental frequency of the tiled aberration, and shows that this provides a significant improvement that is adequate for a range of expected aberrations. Limitations of the DM correction technique are also studied.

Kruschwitz, B.E.; Jungquist, R.; Qiao, J.; Abbey, S.; Dean, S.E.; Maywar, D.N.; Moore, M.D.; Waxer, L.J.; Wilson, M. E.

2006-07-13

168

Design and construction of a large aperture, quadrupole electromagnet prototype for ILSE  

SciTech Connect

We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBL. ILSE will address many physi and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient exceeding 25 T/m at a repetition rate of 1 Hz steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.

Stuart, M.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.M.; Peters, C.; Vella, M.C.

1995-04-01

169

Comparison of Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance Measurements: Can Thermal Infrared Data Be Used to Capture Footprint-Induced Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS) measurements were collected over an irrigated olive orchard near Marrakech, Morocco. The tall, sparse vegetation in the experimental site was relatively homogeneous, but during irrigation events spatial variability in soil humidity was large. This heterogeneity caused large differences between the source area characteristics of the EC system and the LAS, resulting in

J. C. B. Hoedjes; A. Chehbouni; J. Ezzahar; R. Escadafal; H. A. R. de Bruin

2007-01-01

170

Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting.  

PubMed

For the first time, single-crystal diamond planar refractive lenses have been fabricated by laser micromachining in 300?µm-thick diamond plates which were grown by chemical vapour deposition. Linear lenses with apertures up to 1?mm and parabola apex radii up to 500?µm were manufactured and tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline. The large acceptance of these lenses allows them to be used as beam-conditioning elements. Owing to the unsurpassed thermal properties of single-crystal diamond, these lenses should be suitable to withstand the extreme flux densities expected at the planned fourth-generation X-ray sources. PMID:25537584

Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Morse, John; Yunkin, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Snigirev, Anatoly

2015-01-01

171

Potential of a Future Large Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory for Breakthrough Observations of Star and Planet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future large aperture space observatory operating from the UV to the near-infrared with a diameter between 10 and 15 meters will provide a unique opportunity for observations of star and planet formation, from nearby moving groups and associations to star formation in galaxies in the local universe. Our newly formed working group will examine the unique opportunities that such a telescope will give observers in a post-JWST/WFIRST-AFTA era that includes extremely large ground-based observatories such as the TMT, E-ELT, ALMA, and the VLTI. Given a potential suite of instruments for this observatory we will discuss some of the key areas of star and planet formation science where breakthroughs might occur.

Danchi, William C.; Grady, Carol A.; Padgett, Deborah

2015-01-01

172

Multilayer coated grazing incidence condenser for large numerical aperture objective at wavelength of 4.5 nm.  

PubMed

A grazing incidence condenser is developed for objectives with large numerical aperture working in Carbon-window wavelength region (?=4.4-5.0??nm) with the use of a point light source. The condenser is composed of four pieces of toroidal mirrors and a piece of the mirror was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the mirror. The radii of the toroidal mirror are determined by ray-trace calculation, and each radius of the mirror substrate and the roughness of the polished surface were evaluated to satisfy the designed parameter. A Co/C reflection multilayer is also designed to reflect soft x-ray light at 4.5 nm wavelength, and the reflection multilayer was deposited on the mirror surface. Measured reflectance of the toroidal mirror with the reflection multilayer is higher than 0.32 at 4.5 nm wavelength. PMID:25322392

Ejima, T; Hatano, T; Ohno, K; Fukayama, T; Aihara, S; Yanagihara, M; Tsuru, T

2014-10-10

173

Sensible Heat Flux Derived From A Satellite Images and A Large Aperture Scintillometer. Results From The Gediz-experimen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 1998 a field experiment was carried out in the Gediz river basin near Menemen, Turkey. The main objective of this experiment, initiated by joint IWMI (International Water Management Institute)/GDRS (General Directorate of Rural Ser- vices, Government of Turkey) was to estimate the evaporation (E) using several dif- ferent methods, to compare the results and to assess the utility of each method for different applications. The Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Wageningen University installed a large aperture scintillometers (LAS) in order to provide 'ground- truth' measurements of the sensible heat flux (H). It is the objective of this paper to present comparisons for H derived from satellites images and the LAS. Estimates of evaporation will be shown also.

Meijninger, W. M. L.; Gieske, A.; Bastiaanssen, W.; de Bruin, H. A. R.

174

The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers, Technology Developments, and Synergies with Other Future Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

2011-01-01

175

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol): Instrument and 2010 Science Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol) is a 1.8-m telescope that observes polarized dust emission with a resolution of 1'. BLAST-Pol images the sky onto a focal plane that consists of 270 feed-horn coupled bolometers at 250, 350, and 500 microns. In January 2011, BLAST-Pol completed a successful 9.5-day flight over Antarctica. Eight science targets were observed, and a second flight is planned for December 2012. I will give an overview of the instrument performance during the first science campaign and present preliminary maps. BLAST-Pol maps will provide an excellent dataset for studying the role of magnetic fields in star formation.

Gandilo, Natalie; BLAST-Pol Collaboration

2012-01-01

176

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry-BLASTPol: Performance and results from the 2012 Antarctic flight  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment, designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLASTPol observes polarized light using a total power instrument, photolithographic polarizing grids, and an achromatic half-wave plate to modulate the polarization signal. During its second flight from Antarctica in December 2012, BLASTPol made degree scale maps of linearly polarized dust emission from molecular clouds in three wavebands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The instrumental performance was an improvement over the 2010 BLASTPol flight, with decreased systematics resulting in a higher number of confirmed polarization vectors. The resultant dataset allows BLASTPol to trace magnetic fields in star-forming regions at scales ranging from cores to entire molecular cloud complexes.

Galitzki, N; Angilé, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

2014-01-01

177

Research on precision grinding processing and compensation finishing experiment for mid-large- aperture square aspheric optical element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes dot-line envelope grinding principle, which is applicable to mid-large- aperture square aspheric optical element, determines the mathematical process control model based on X/Y/C three-axis aspheric grinding machine, We develop the appropriate high-precision aspheric grinding manufacturing and measurement systems software, using the plane grinding wheel to do the grinding experiments and the repeated compensation processing experiment. The experiments show that: high-precision aspheric grinding manufacturing and measurement systems software can be realized axisymmetric aspheric high-precision machining control and measurement; using compensation processing of the X/Y/C three-axis aspheric grinding machine which can effectively improve the precision PV value, surface error from the initial processing of the PV value :12 ?m to the compensation processing of the PV value :3 ?m .

Nie, Fengming; Li, Zhanguo; Wang, Dasen; Zhang, Guangping; Guo, Chengjun; Pei, Ning; Li, Yupeng

2014-08-01

178

Decoherence of Atomic Gases in Largely Detuned Laser Fields  

E-print Network

We study theoretically the decoherence of a gas of bosonic atoms induced by the interaction with a largely detuned laser beam. It is shown that for a standing laser beam decoherence coincides with the single-particle result. For a running laser beam many-particle effects lead to significant modifications.

Karl-Peter Marzlin

2001-02-02

179

Measurement of wavefront structure from large aperture optical components by phase shifting interferometry  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the results of high spatial resolution measurement of the transmitted or reflected wavefront of optical components using phase shifting interferometry with a wavelength of 6328 {angstrom}. The optical components studied range in size from approximately 50 mm {times} 100 mm to 400 mm {times} 750 mm. Wavefront data, in the form of 3-D phase maps, have been obtained for three regimes of scale length: ``micro roughness``, ``mid-spatial scale``, and ``optical figure/curvature.`` Repetitive wavefront structure has been observed with scale lengths from 10 mm to 100 mm. The amplitude of this structure is typically {lambda}/100 to {lambda}/20. Previously unobserved structure has been detected in optical materials and on the surfaces of components. We are using this data to assist in optimizing laser system design, to qualify optical components and fabrication processes under study in our component development program.

Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Kellam, M.; Maney, R.T.; Demiris, A.

1995-05-12

180

Development of large aperture cooled telescopes for the space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics (SPICA) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) mission is the third Japanese astronomical infrared satellite project of a 3.5m cooled telescope optimized for mid- to far-infrared observations, following the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) and the ASTRO-F missions. It will employ mechanical coolers and an efficient radiative cooling system, which allow us to have a cooled (4.5K) telescope of the aperture much larger than previous missions in space. The SPICA will attack a number of key problems in present-day astrophysics, ranging from the origin of the universe to the formation of planetary systems, owing to its high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity in the mid- to far-infrared. The large aperture size for cryogenically use is, however, a great challenge and demands substantial technology developments for the telescope system. We adopt monolithic mirror design in the baseline model because of the technical feasibility and reliability. We set the optical performance requirement as being diffraction limited at 5?m at the operating temperature of 4.5K. The total weight attributed to the telescope system is 700kg, which requires a very light 3.5m primary mirror together with the mirror support structure. At present we are working on two candidate materials for the SPICA telescope: silicon carbide (SiC) and carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC). This presentation gives a general overview of the SPICA mission and reports the current design and status of the SPICA telescope system, including recent progress of the development of C/SiC mirrors.

Onaka, Takashi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakiami, Hiroshi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kataza, Hirokazu

2005-09-01

181

New technologies for the actuation and controls of large aperture lightweight quality mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a set of candidate components: MEMS based large stroke (>100 microns) ultra lightweight (0.01 gm) discrete inch worm actuator technology, and a distributed actuator technology, in the context of a novel lightweight active flexure-hinged substrate concept that uses the nanolaminate face sheet.

Lih, S. S.; Yang, E. H.; Gullapalli, S. N.; Flood, R.

2003-01-01

182

High-energy laser experiments on the Large Plasma Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of a laser-plasma with a large magnetized plasma was studied with a high-energy laser at the Large Plasma Device. We will compare the magnetohydrodynamic response of the ambient plasma for a variety of plasma blow-off conditions as measured with an array of magnetic pickup and Langmuir probes.

Carmen Constantin; Andrew Collette; Shreekrishna Tripathi; Patrick Pribyl; Erik Everson; Alexandre Gigliotti; Steve Vincena; Nathan Kugland; Radu Presura; Stefan Neff; Christopher Plechaty; Walter Gekelman; Christoph Niemann

2008-01-01

183

Study on the Stressed Mirror Polishing with a Continuous Polishing Machine for Large Aperture Off-axis Aspheric Mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special stressed annular polishing technique is proposed to mill the off-axis aspheric sub-mirrors of a large segmented mirror with an annular polishing machine. Based on the basic principle of stressed annular polishing technique, a set of special stressing mechanisms are designed to convert milling the aspheric surfaces of sub-mirrors with different off-axis distances into milling the spherical surfaces with identical radii of curvature, so that they can be pol- ished simultaneously on a continuous polishing machine. It took about contin- uous 40 hours to polish a scaled-down mirror of the planning Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT) using this technique. This mirror has the 330 mm di- ameter, 3.6 m off-axis distance, and the 21.6 m radius of curvature, and its max- imum asphericity is 16 micron. The experiment shows that this method has a high effciency, suits batch manufacturing, especially the batch manufacturing of aspheric sub-mirrors of the segmented primary mirror of an extremely large aperture telescope.

Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Hai-ying; Cui, Xiang-qun; Jiang, Zi-bo; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Xing-tao; Ni, Hou-kun

2012-10-01

184

Multi-Scale Sensible Heat Fluxes in the Suburban Environment from Large-Aperture Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensible heat fluxes () are determined using scintillometry and eddy covariance over a suburban area. Two large-aperture scintillometers provide spatially integrated fluxes across path lengths of 2.8 and 5.5 km over Swindon, UK. The shorter scintillometer path spans newly built residential areas and has an approximate source area of 2-4 , whilst the long path extends from the rural outskirts to the town centre and has a source area of around 5-10 . These large-scale heat fluxes are compared with local-scale eddy-covariance measurements. Clear seasonal trends are revealed by the long duration of this dataset and variability in monthly is related to the meteorological conditions. At shorter time scales the response of to solar radiation often gives rise to close agreement between the measurements, but during times of rapidly changing cloud cover spatial differences in the net radiation () coincide with greater differences between heat fluxes. For clear days lags , thus the ratio of to increases throughout the day. In summer the observed energy partitioning is related to the vegetation fraction through use of a footprint model. The results demonstrate the value of scintillometry for integrating surface heterogeneity and offer improved understanding of the influence of anthropogenic materials on surface-atmosphere interactions.

Ward, H. C.; Evans, J. G.; Grimmond, C. S. B.

2014-07-01

185

Combining a large aperture scintillometer and estimates of available energy to derive evapotranspiration over several agricultural fields in a semi-arid region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) combined with a simple available energy model to estimate area-averaged latent heat flux in difficult environmental conditions. The difficulties are related to the sparseness of the vegetation, the heterogeneity of the soil characteristics, and, most importantly, the heterogeneity in terms of soil moisture

JAMAL EZZAHAR; ABDELGHANI CHEHBOUNI; SALAH ER-RAKI; LAHOUCINE HANICH

2009-01-01

186

Research of active panel technology for large aperture millimeter-wave/sub-millimeter-wave telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) project was completed successfully, indicating the key technology of active optics has been mastered by the Chinese astronomical community, experts of Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT), builders of this project, started to consider how to use the technology developed in large optical telescope such as LAMOST to improve the performance of millimeterwave / sub-millimeter-wave telescope. In order to do more research work about active optics of millimeter submillimeter band and improve the performance of Delingha 13.7m millimeter-wave telescope, researchers of NIAOT intend to upgrade the reflect panel accuracy of this telescope. This paper will introduce the preliminary work of the accuracy-upgrading task, numerical simulation of the 13.7m telescope. In this presentation, the primary reflector finite element model (FEM) construction, gravity and thermal deformation, and modal analyze are described. The result shows that the gravity and thermal distortion of the reflector are contributed mostly by the back-structure and the active support for the panels is very necessary to restrain this kind of distortion.

Wu, Xuhao; Cui, Xiangqun

2010-05-01

187

Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry  

E-print Network

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 {\\mu}m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.). The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I,...

Matthews, Tristan G; Angilè, Francesco E; Benton, Steven J; Chapin, Edward L; Chapman, Nicholas L; Devlin, Mark J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N; Gundersen, Joshua O; Hargrave, Peter C; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Netterfield, Calvin B; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek

2013-01-01

188

A scalable multi-chip architecture to realise large-format microshutter arrays for coded aperture applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously we reported on the realization of a 2x2cm single chip mask in the mid-IR based on polysilicon micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and its integration with ASIC drive electronics using conventional wire bonding. The MOEMS architecture employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage and uses a hysteretic row/column scheme for addressing. In this paper we present the latest transmission results in the mid-IR band (3-5?m) and report on progress in developing a scalable architecture based on a tiled approach using multiple 2 x 2cm MOEMS chips with associated control ASICs integrated using flip chip technology. Initial work has focused on a 2 x 2 tiled array as a stepping stone towards an 8 x 8 array.

McNie, Mark E.; King, David O.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Stone, Steven M.; Brown, Alan G.; Gordon, Neil T.; Slinger, Christopher W.; Cannon, Kevin; Riches, Stephen; Rogers, Stanley

2009-08-01

189

Determination of Area-Averaged Sensible Heat Fluxes with a Large Aperture Scintillometer over a Heterogeneous Surface Flevoland Field Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the applicability of the scintillation method over a heterogeneous area an experiment was carried out in the summer of 1998 in Flevoland (The Netherlands). In the patchy area only four crops were grown namely sugar beet, potatoes, wheat and onions. From eddy covariance measurements it was found that the heterogeneity was mainly caused by differences in thermal properties. No variations in the aerodynamics roughness length were observed. Two large aperture scintillometers were installed at a height of 11.6 and 20.4 m. A good resemblance was found between the sensible heat fluxes derived from both LAS instruments and the area-averaged fluxes obtained from the in-situ eddy covariance measurements. The slight underestimation of the lower LAS could be assessed using a blending height model and an analytical footprint model. The results also indicated that when scintillometer measurements are made below the blending height the violation to Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory is small and that reasonable fluxes can be obtained from path-averaged structure parameters.

Meijninger, W. M. L.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Kohsiek, W.; et al.

190

The ExaVolt Antenna: A large-aperture, balloon-embedded antenna for ultra-high energy particle detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the scientific motivation, experimental basis, design methodology, and simulated performance of the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) mission, and planned ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. EVA will improve over ANITA's integrated totals - the current state-of-the-art in UHE suborbital payloads - by 1-2 orders of magnitude in a single flight. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics which utilizes a super-pressure balloon surface, along with a feed-array mounted on an inner membrane, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. Radio impulses arise via the Askaryan effect when UHE neutrinos interact within the ice, or via geosynchrotron emission when UHE cosmic rays interact in the atmosphere above the continent. EVA's instantaneous antenna aperture is estimated to be several hundred m 2 for detection of these events within a 150-600 MHz band. For standard cosmogenic UHE neutrino models, EVA should detect of order 30 events per flight in the EeV energy regime. For UHE cosmic rays, of order 15,000 geosynchrotron events would be detected in total, several hundred above 10 EeV, and of order 60 above the GZK cutoff energy.

Gorham, P. W.; Baginski, F. E.; Allison, P.; Liewer, K. M.; Miki, C.; Hill, B.; Varner, G. S.

2011-12-01

191

The ExaVolt Antenna: A Large-Aperture, Balloon-embedded Antenna for Ultra-high Energy Particle Detection  

E-print Network

We describe the scientific motivation, experimental basis, design methodology, and simulated performance of the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) mission, and planned ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. EVA will improve over ANITA's integrated totals - the current state-of-the-art in UHE suborbital payloads - by 1-2 orders of magnitude in a single flight. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics which utilizes a super-pressure balloon surface, along with a feed-array mounted on an inner membrane, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. Radio impulses arise via the Askaryan effect when UHE neutrinos interact within the ice, or via geosynchrotron emission when UHE cosmic rays interact in the atmosphere above the continent. EVA's instantaneous antenna aperture is estimated to be several hundred square meters for detection of these events...

Gorham, P W; Allison, P; Liewer, K M; Miki, C; Hill, B; Varner, G S

2011-01-01

192

Performance of large aperture tapered fiber phase conjugate mirror with high pulse energy and 1-kHz repetition rate.  

PubMed

A large aperture fused silica tapered fiber phase conjugate mirror is presented with a maximum 70% stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) reflectivity, which is obtained with 1 kHz repetition rate, 15 ns pulse width and 38 mJ input pulse energy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest SBS reflectivity ever reported by using optical fiber as a phase conjugate mirror for such high pulse repetition rate (1 kHz) and several tens of millijoule (mJ) input pulse energy. The influences of fiber end surface quality and pump pulse widths on SBS reflectivity are investigated experimentally. The results show that finer fiber end surface quality and longer input pulse widths are preferred for obtaining higher SBS reflectivity with higher input pulse energy. Double passing amplification experiments are also performed. 52 mJ pulse energy is achieved at 1 kHz repetition rate, with a reflected SBS pulse width of 1.5 ns and a M(2) factor of 2.3. The corresponding peak power reaches 34.6 MW. Obvious beam quality improvement is observed. PMID:22274534

Zhao, Zhigang; Dong, Yantao; Pan, Sunqiang; Liu, Chong; Chen, Jun; Tong, Lixin; Gao, Qingsong; Tang, Chun

2012-01-16

193

A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

Hult, J.; Mayer, S.

2013-04-01

194

Large volume multiple-path nuclear pumped laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large volumes of gas are excited by using internal high reflectance mirrors that are arranged so that the optical path crosses back and forth through the excited gaseous medium. By adjusting the external dielectric mirrors of the laser, the number of paths through the laser cavity can be varied. Output powers were obtained that are substantially higher than the output powers of previous nuclear laser systems.

Hohl, F.; Deyoung, R. J. (inventors)

1981-01-01

195

Resolving the Effects of Aperture and Volume Restriction of the Flow by Semi-Porous Barriers Using Large-Eddy Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) model is used to simulate the effects of large rectangular prism-shaped semi-porous barriers of varying densities under neutrally buoyant conditions. RAFLES model resolves flows inside and above forested canopies and other semi-porous barriers, and it accounts for barrier-induced drag on the flow and surface flux exchange between the barrier and the air. Unlike most other models, RAFLES model also accounts for the barrier-induced volume and aperture restriction via a modified version of the cut-cell coordinate system. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the drag, by comparing drag-only simulations (where we prescribed neither volume nor aperture restrictions to the flow), restriction-only simulations (where we prescribed no drag), and control simulations where both drag and volume plus aperture restrictions were included. Previous modelling and empirical work have revealed the development of important areas of increased uplift upwind of forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones downwind of backward-facing steps. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to the presence of semi-porous barriers leads to differences in the strengths and locations of increased-updraft and recirculation zones, and the length and strength of impact and adjustment zones when compared to simulation solutions with a drag-only representation. These are mostly driven by differences to the momentum budget of the streamwise wind velocity by resolved turbulence and pressure gradient fields around the front and back edges of the barrier. We propose that volume plus aperture restriction is an important component of the flow system in semi-porous environments such as forests and cities and should be considered by large-eddy simulation (LES).

Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Velissariou, Vasilia; Bohrer, Gil

2014-09-01

196

MULTISPECTRAL LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM FOR LARGE BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Presented is a detailed description of a common aperture, multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system developed to allow detection of fecal matter on agricultural products. With an expanded, 355 nm, Nd:YAG laser beam as the excitation source, fluorescence emission images in the blue, gr...

197

Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator  

SciTech Connect

We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)

2014-12-15

198

Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar  

DOEpatents

A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

Stappaerts, Eddy A. (San Ramon, CA)

2005-04-12

199

A conceptual design for a Cassegrain-mounted high-resolution optical spectrograph for large-aperture telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a conceptual design for a high-resolution optical spectrograph appropriate for mounting at Cassegrain on a large aperture telescope. The design is based on our work for the Gemini High Resolution Optical Spectrograph (CUGHOS) project. Our design places the spectrograph at Cassegrain focus to maximize throughput and blue wavelength coverage, delivering R=40,000 resolving power over a continuous 320-1050 nm waveband with throughputs twice those of current instruments. The optical design uses a two-arm, cross-dispersed echelle format with each arm optimized to maximize efficiency. A fixed image slicer is used to minimize optics sizes. The principal challenge for the instrument design is to minimize flexure and degradation of the optical image. To ensure image stability, our opto-mechanical design combines a cost-effective, passively stable bench employing a honeycomb aluminum structure with active flexure control. The active flexure compensation consists of hexapod mounts for each focal plane with full 6-axis range of motion capability to correct for focus and beam displacement. We verified instrument performance using an integrated model that couples the optical and mechanical design to image performance. The full end-to-end modeling of the system under gravitational, thermal, and vibrational perturbations shows that deflections of the optical beam at the focal plane are <29 ?m per exposure under the worst case scenario (<10 ?m for most orientations), with final correction to 5 ?m or better using open-loop active control to meet the stability requirement. The design elements and high fidelity modeling process are generally applicable to instruments requiring high stability under a varying gravity vector.

Froning, Cynthia S.; Osterman, Steven; Burgh, Eric; Beasley, Matthew; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Jordan, Steven; Ebbets, Dennis; Lieber, Michael; deCino, James; Castilho, Bruno Vaz; Gneiding, Clemens; César de Oliveira, Antonio

2013-09-01

200

Design and prototype tests of a large-aperture 37-53 MHz ferrite-tuned booster synchrotron cavity  

SciTech Connect

The Booster synchrotron at Fermilab employs eighteen 37-53 MHz ferrite-tuned double-gap coaxial radiofrequency cavities for acceleration of protons from 400 MeV to 8 GeV. The cavities have an aperture of 2.25 inches and operate at 55 kV per cavity. Future high duty factor operation of the Booster will be problematic due to unavoidable beam loss at the cavities resulting in excessive activation. The power amplifiers, high maintenance items, are mounted directly to the cavities in the tunnel. A proposed replacement for the Booster, the Proton Driver, will utilize the Booster radiofrequency cavities and requires not only a larger aperture, but also higher voltage. A research and development program is underway at Fermilab to modify the Booster cavities to provide a 5-inch aperture and a 20% voltage increase. A prototype has been constructed and high power tests have bee completed. The cavity design and test results is presented.

Mark S. Champion et al.

2001-07-12

201

Soft-lithography-enabled fabrication of large numerical aperture refractive microlens array in hybrid SiO2-TiO2 sol-gel glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a low-cost soft-lithography method for building large-numerical-aperture microlenses in hybrid sol-gel glass. The fabrication processes comprise three steps, namely fabrication of large numerical aperture microlens array in photoresist as a master, replication of the master in poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as elastomeric molds and reproduction of the PDMS replica onto the hybrid sol-gel glass as an end structure. Comparing with the direct UV fabrication in the photosensitive sol-gel glass, the proposed method provides a unique advantage in terms of fabrication freedom in shape and thickness of micro-optical elements in the sol-gel glass. This eliminates the difficulties in direct photolithography in sol-gel glass for arbitrary shapes and great thickness due to ever increasing demands.

Yuan, X.-C.; Yu, W. X.; He, M.; Bu, J.; Cheong, W. C.; Niu, H. B.; Peng, X.

2005-03-01

202

Planarization of amorphous silicon thin film transistors for high-aperture-ratio and large-area active-matrix liquid crystal displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of the backlight power consumption and the improvement of the display image uniformity for future large-area and high-resolution active-matrix liquid- crystal displays (AM-LCDs) are very important. One possible method to achieve the former goal is to increase the pixel electrode aperture-ratio. This can be realized by overlapping the pixel electrode with both gate\\/data buslines. While for the latter,

Je-Hsiung Lan

1998-01-01

203

High power 1060-nm super large vertical cavity semiconductor lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power single-mode ridge waveguide 1060-nm semiconductor lasers are reported. The lasers consist of compressively strained double InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and a GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement vertical structure. A super large vertical optical cavity is employed to have a low internal loss, large optical spot size and low vertical optical divergence angle. The material composition and thickness of waveguide layers and claddings layer are optimized systematically. The active layer is detuned from center of the waveguide and thickness of cladding layers is optimized to guaranty single mode lasing of the large optical cavity. The large vertical cavity laser structure with thickness of 4 ?m allows the lasers have a low internal loss of less than 0.6 /cm, a large optical spot size about 1?m and a vertical divergence angle about 20 degree. For lateral optical confinement, a double trench ridge waveguide is employed to maintain single-lateral-mode operation. Based on the optimization, 1.5 W continue wave optical power is achieved for broad area lasers with 1mm longitude cavity length. Narrow stripe ridge waveguide lasers of 1mm cavity length with single mode current and optical power of 700 mA and 340 mW is obtained. Suggestions for further improvements in terms of single mode power and applications of the high power semiconductors are discussed.

Tan, Shaoyang; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruikang; Lu, Dan; Ji, Chen

2014-11-01

204

INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Optical surface breakdown of alkali halide crystals by microsecond pulses from a wide-aperture CO2 laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was made of the dynamics of temporal and spatial changes in the spectral characteristics of plasmas. A three-stage mechanism of the damage to surfaces of alkali halide crystals by microsecond pulses from a TEA CO2 laser was proposed: breakdown initiation (at a distance of 3-5 mm from the surface with a time delay up to 1 ?s relative to the leading edge of a laser pulse), evaporation (after a further delay of 3-5 ?s), and interaction of the adsorbates with a plasma jet and with the laser radiation, as well as heating and cracking of a crystal by the UV plasma radiation.

Kazantsev, S. G.

1998-04-01

205

APT: Aperture Photometry Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) is software for astronomers and students interested in manually exploring the photometric qualities of astronomical images. It has a graphical user interface (GUI) which allows the image data associated with aperture photometry calculations for point and extended sources to be visualized and, therefore, more effectively analyzed. Mouse-clicking on a source in the displayed image draws a circular or elliptical aperture and sky annulus around the source and computes the source intensity and its uncertainty, along with several commonly used measures of the local sky background and its variability. The results are displayed and can be optionally saved to an aperture-photometry-table file and plotted on graphs in various ways using functions available in the software. APT is geared toward processing sources in a small number of images and is not suitable for bulk processing a large number of images, unlike other aperture photometry packages (e.g., SExtractor). However, APT does have a convenient source-list tool that enables calculations for a large number of detections in a given image. The source-list tool can be run either in automatic mode to generate an aperture photometry table quickly or in manual mode to permit inspection and adjustment of the calculation for each individual detection. APT displays a variety of useful graphs, including image histogram, and aperture slices, source scatter plot, sky scatter plot, sky histogram, radial profile, curve of growth, and aperture-photometry-table scatter plots and histograms. APT has functions for customizing calculations, including outlier rejection, pixel “picking” and “zapping,” and a selection of source and sky models. The radial-profile-interpolation source model, accessed via the radial-profile-plot panel, allows recovery of source intensity from pixels with missing data and can be especially beneficial in crowded fields.

Laher, Russ

2012-08-01

206

Laser processing system development of large area and high precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

2013-03-01

207

Large aperture multi-pass amplifiers for high peak power lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the optimal conditions whereby amplification using the Extraction During Pumping (EDP) technique can deliver up to four times more energy than a conventional amplifier. The existence of an optimal combination of incident pump fluence and pump area is shown. This allows kJ level energy extraction with existing technology.

Chvykov, Vladimir; Krushelnick, Karl

2012-04-01

208

Optical delay control of large-spectral-bandwidth laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

In this Rapid Communication we report an experimental observation of temporal delay control of large-spectral-bandwidth multimode laser pulses by means of electromagnetically induced transparency. We achieved optically controllable retardation of laser pulses with an input spectral bandwidth of 3.3 GHz with limited temporal distortion and excellent values of the delay-bandwidth product. The experimental results compare favorably with a theoretical analysis.

Ignesti, E.; Tognetti, M. V.; Buffa, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Siena, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Cavalieri, S.; Fini, L.; Sali, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Firenze (Italy); European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Universita di Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Firenze (Italy); Eramo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Firenze (Italy); European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), Universita di Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Firenze (Italy); INFM-CRS-Soft Matter (CNR) c/o Universita la Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

2009-07-15

209

Scale-factor corrections in large ring lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report on fluctuations of the geometric scale factor of a very large ring laser situated 30m underground in the Cashmere Cavern in Christchurch (New Zealand). Variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure cause thermoelastic deformations to the cavern, which lead to changes of the area and perimeter of the ring laser structure. In situ beam monitoring has been used to partially correct for these effects.

Pritsch, B.; Schreiber, K. U.; Velikoseltsev, A.; Wells, J.-P. R.

2007-08-01

210

Large-Area Laser-Lift-Off Processing in Microelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser lift-off is an enabling technology for microelectronics growth markets such as light emitting diodes, densely packaged semiconductor devices, and flexible displays. For example, thin film transistor structures fabricated on top of polymer layers spun on glass carriers must be delaminated from rigid substrates to create lightweight and rugged flexible displays on polymers. Low-thermal-budget processes are generically required to protect adjacent functional films. Excimer lasers provide short UV wavelength and short pulse duration required for highly-localized energy coupling. The high output power of excimer lasers enables a large processing footprint and the high-throughput rates needed in mass manufacturing.

Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, R.; Brune, J.

211

A new look at Fresnel field computation using the Jacobi-Bessel series. [large aperture antenna design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational procedures that would be useful in finding the Fresnel field from a knowledge of the Jacobi-Bessel expansion of the far field are considered. The range of validity of the Fresnel approximation is carefully examined by comparing it with the exact closed form solution for the uniform circular aperture. Also investigated numerically, and in great detail, is the range of validity (over theta) of the Fresnel small angle (FSA) approximation. For moderate sized apertures as small as 10 wavelengths, it is found that the FSA approximation is very accurate to angles as wide as four or more sidelobes (as seen in the far zone). A very efficient computational method is shown to exist for the radiation integral in the form of a single series expansion that is analytically continuous and convergent for a wide range of observation points in three-dimensional space.

Galindo-Israel, V.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

1981-01-01

212

Large spectral blue shifts in intense laser irradiation of microdroplets.  

PubMed

When methanol microdroplets of 15 mum size are irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses of moderate intensities (<2x10(16)W cm(-2)), we observe a 'red-light flash' from the microplasma. We report on the presence of a large 'blue shoulder' (that extends to about 200 nm from the incident laser wavelength) in the scattered spectra that corresponds to the red-light flash. A prepulse is found to be essential for producing the large blue shift, which is attributed to the rapid subsequent ionization of a near-critical density preplasma when the main pulse is incident. PMID:19516717

Anand, M; Gibbon, P; Krishnamurthy, M

2006-06-12

213

INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Optical strength of window materials in wide-aperture repetitively pulsed CO2 lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was established experimentally that irradiation of ionic single crystals by a series of microsecond pulses from a TEA CO2 laser, of 1 — 15 s duration at a repetition rate in excess of 100 Hz, caused damage at subthreshold intensities as a result of gradual accumulation of thermally induced internal stresses. When the series of pulses were shortened, the dominant damage mechanism was that typical of pulsed irradiation: breakdown at absorbing microinhomogeneities.

Kazantsev, S. G.

1998-06-01

214

A study program on large aperture electronic scanning phased array antennas for the shuttle imaging microwave system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental phased array theory and performance parameters are discussed in terms of their application to microwave radiometry, and four scanning phased arrays representing current examples of state-of-the-art phased array technology are evaluated for potential use as components of the multispectral antenna system for the space shuttle imaging microwave system (SIMS). A discussion of problem areas, both in performance and fabrication is included, with extrapolations of performance characteristics for phased array antennas of increased sizes up to 20 m by 20 m. The possibility of interlacing two or more phased arrays to achieve a multifrequency aperture is considered, and, finally, a specific antenna system is recommended for use with SIMS.

1974-01-01

215

Laser-Induced Production of Large Carbon-Based Toriods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report on the production of large carbon-based toroids (CBTs) from fullerencs. The process involves two step laser irradiation of a mixed fullcrene target (76% C-60, 22% C-70). Transmission electron microscopy (11M) clearly identifies toroidal-shaped structures as well as Q-shaped constructs. ...

216

Laser Desorption of Large Molecules: Mechanisms and Models  

E-print Network

Ions from Large Molecules Edited by K.G. Standing and W. Ens, Plenum Press, New York, 1991 275 #12;One of the special features of laser light is, that it is able to excite a well defined degree of freedom-equilibrium situation, where certain degrees of freedom are highly excited, while others retain their equilibrium

Vertes, Akos

217

Plane-polar Fresnel and far-field computations using the Fresnel-Wilcox and Jacobi-Bessel expansions. [for large aperture antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the computation of the Fresnel fields for large aperture antennas is significant for many applications. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for the effective utilization of the coefficients of the Jacobi-Bessel series for the far-field to obtain an analytically continuous representation of the antenna field which is valid from the Fresnel region into the far field. Attention is given to exact formulations and closed form solutions, Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, aspects of field expansion, the accuracy of the Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, and the Jacobi-Bessel expansion applied to the Fresnel small angle approximation.

Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

1981-01-01

218

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristic of the surface. By exploiting the phase of the coherent radar signal, interferometry has transformed radar remote sensing from a largely interpretive science to a quantitative tool, with applications in cartography, geodesy, land cover

PAUL A. ROSEN; SCOTT HENSLEY; IAN R. JOUGHIN; FUK K. LI; SØREN N. MADSEN; ERNESTO RODRÍGUEZ; RICHARD M. GOLDSTEIN

2000-01-01

219

Growth of large KDP crystals for laser fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth of huge KDP crystals which have a 40 cm × 40 cm cross section for a frequency converter for high power laser system for nuclear fusion experiments is described. The main factor limiting the growth rate is spontaneous nucleation. We could successfully grow a crystal by a three-vessel method (TVM) at the rate of 2.9 mm/day over half a year without nucleation by setting the temperature of the crystallizer lower than room temperature. The TVM proved to be superior to a conventional temperature reduction method. The bulk laser damage threshold was improved two to three times that of conventionally grown crystals by reducing organic impurities in the growth solution. These techniques are very important for the growth of large KDP crystals of good quality for high power lasers.

Sasaki, Takatomo; Yokotani, Atsushi

1990-01-01

220

Invited review article: Large ring lasers for rotation sensing.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades a series of large ring laser gyroscopes have been built having an unparalleled scale factor. These upscaled devices have improved the sensitivity and stability for rotation rate measurements by six orders of magnitude when compared to previous commercial developments. This progress has made possible entirely new applications of ring laser gyroscopes in the fields of geophysics, geodesy, and seismology. Ring lasers are currently the only viable measurement technology, which is directly referenced to the instantaneous rotation axis of the Earth. The sensor technology is rapidly developing. This is evidenced by the first experimentally viable proposals to make terrestrial tests of general relativistic effects such as the frame dragging of the rotating Earth. PMID:23635174

Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

2013-04-01

221

Large aperture at low cost three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor using scanning micromirrors and synchronous detector switching.  

PubMed

In this article the problem of achieving fast scanning of a time-of-flight range sensor with a large optical receiver aperture at low system cost is targeted. The presented approach to solve this problem consists of a micromirror-based transmitter unit and a receiver unit consisting of a large aperture lens system with a small field of view and a detector array. A concept, which is called synchronous detector switching, is applied to the detector array. Thereby electronic steering of the small receiver field of view is possible. The overall approach is compared to alternative approaches, and the underlying concept of synchronous detector switching is demonstrated experimentally in an implementation of a three-dimensional time-of-flight range sensor. It is theoretically shown that the presented concept is potentially cheaper than the alternative approaches for applications with a field of view of less than 60×60°. After a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the approach, its effect on broader scientific issues is outlined. PMID:24663413

Bogatscher, Siegwart; Streck, Andreas; Fox, Maik; Meinzer, Sebastian; Heussner, Nico; Stork, Wilhelm

2014-03-10

222

Aperture Photometry Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aperture Photometry Tool (APT) is software for astronomers and students interested in manually exploring the photometric qualities of astronomical images. It is a graphical user interface (GUI) designed to allow the image data associated with aperture photometry calculations for point and extended sources to be visualized and, therefore, more effectively analyzed. The finely tuned layout of the GUI, along with judicious use of color-coding and alerting, is intended to give maximal user utility and convenience. Simply mouse-clicking on a source in the displayed image will instantly draw a circular or elliptical aperture and sky annulus around the source and will compute the source intensity and its uncertainty, along with several commonly used measures of the local sky background and its variability. The results are displayed and can be optionally saved to an aperture-photometry-table file and plotted on graphs in various ways using functions available in the software. APT is geared toward processing sources in a small number of images and is not suitable for bulk processing a large number of images, unlike other aperture photometry packages (e.g., SExtractor). However, APT does have a convenient source-list tool that enables calculations for a large number of detections in a given image. The source-list tool can be run either in automatic mode to generate an aperture photometry table quickly or in manual mode to permit inspection and adjustment of the calculation for each individual detection. APT displays a variety of useful graphs with just the push of a button, including image histogram, x and y aperture slices, source scatter plot, sky scatter plot, sky histogram, radial profile, curve of growth, and aperture-photometry-table scatter plots and histograms. APT has many functions for customizing the calculations, including outlier rejection, pixel ""picking"" and ""zapping,"" and a selection of source and sky models. The radial-profile-interpolation source model, which is accessed via the radial-profile-plot panel, allows recovery of source intensity from pixels with missing data and can be especially beneficial in crowded fields.

Laher, Russ R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Rebull, Luisa M.; Masci, Frank J.; Fowler, John W.; Helou, George; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.

2012-07-01

223

Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers.  

PubMed

We report performance characteristics of a thulium doped ZBLAN waveguide laser that supports the largest fundamental modes reported in a rare-earth doped planar waveguide laser (to the best of our knowledge). The high mode quality of waveguides up to 45 um diameter (~1075 ?m(2) mode-field area) is validated by a measured beam quality of M(2)~1.1 ± 0.1. Benefits of these large mode-areas are demonstrated by achieving 1.9 kW peak-power output Q-switched pulses. The 1.89 ?m free-running cw laser produces 205 mW and achieves a 67% internal slope efficiency corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 161%. The 9 mm long planar chip developed for concept demonstration is rapidly fabricated by single-step optical processing, contains 15 depressed-cladding waveguides, and can operate in semi-monolithic or external cavity laser configurations. PMID:23262700

Lancaster, D G; Gross, S; Fuerbach, A; Heidepriem, H Ebendorff; Monro, T M; Withford, M J

2012-12-01

224

Electrooptic switch for unpolarized radiation in a laser with intracavity second harmonic generation in crystals exhibiting the aperture effect  

SciTech Connect

The average output power of the second harmonic can be increased and the construction of a laser can be simplified by using a nonlinear crystal not only for second harmonic generation, but also as an electrooptic switch for the separation of rays with different polarizations at the fundamental frequency. By way of example, the results are given of a continuously pumped YAG laser in which a switch for unpolarized radiation is in the form of a Pockels cell and a nonlinear lithium iodate crystal cut at an angle of 29/sup 0/ to the optic axis. It was found that such a laser configuration could ensure 77% conversion of the fundamental frequency radiation to the second harmonic at the wavelength of 0.53 ..mu.. and with an average power of 2.4 W.

Andreyanov, Y.P.; Minaev, V.P.; Semenov, A.V.

1983-10-01

225

Early laser operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARGOS is the GLAO (Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics) Rayleigh-based LGS (Laser Guide Star) facility for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO). It is dedicated for observations with LUCI1 and LUCI2, LBTO's pair of NIR imagers and multi-object spectrographs. The system projects three laser beams from the back of each of the two secondary mirror units, which create two constellations circumscribed on circles of 2 arcmin radius with 120 degree spacing. Each of the six Nd:YAG lasers provides a beam of green (532nm) pulses at a rate of 10kHz with a power of 14W to 18W. We achieved first on-sky propagation on the night of November 5, 2013, and commissioning of the full system will take place during 2014. We present the initial results of laser operations at the observatory, including safety procedures and the required coordination with external agencies (FAA, Space Command, and Military Airspace Manager). We also describe our operational procedures and report on our experiences with aircraft spotters. Future plans for safer and more efficient aircraft monitoring and detection are discussed.

Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian; Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Ziegleder, Julian; Borelli, José L.; Gässler, Wolfgang

2014-08-01

226

Development and Testing of a Power Trough System Using a Structurally-Efficient, High-Performance, Large-Aperture Concentrator with Thin Glass Reflector and Focal Point Rotation  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Solar Technology has assembled a team of experts to develop a large-aperture parabolic trough for the electric power market that moves beyond cost and operating limitations of 1980's designs based on sagged glass reflectors. IST's structurally efficient space frame design will require nearly 50% less material per square meter than a Solel LS-2 concentrator and the new trough will rotate around the focal point. This feature eliminates flexhoses that increase pump power, installation and maintenance costs. IST aims to deliver a concentrator module costing less than $100 per square meter that can produce temperatures up to 400 C. The IST concentrator is ideally suited for application of front surface film reflectors and ensures that US corporations will manufacture major components, except for the high temperature receivers.

May, E. K.; Forristall, R.

2005-11-01

227

Science drivers and requirements for an Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): implications for technology development and synergies with other future facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astronphysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 ?m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 ?m to 2.4 ?m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Rémi; Hyde, Tupper

2010-07-01

228

LASER SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND DEVICES: Single-mode laser operation in a wide-aperture unstable cavity with a semitransparent output coupler and intracavity astigmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility and conditions of attaining single-mode operation of a CO2 laser with Fresnel numbers of the order of 10 and considerable intracavity astigmatism were investigated experimentally employing an unstable cavity with a homogenous output coupler. The condition for single-mode laser output was an instability of the cavity in at least one of the symmetry planes imposed by astigmatism.

Kupryaev, Nikolai V.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Shepelenko, A. A.

1996-04-01

229

Effect of the photon lifetime on the characteristics of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with fully doped distributed Bragg reflectors and an oxide current aperture  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the photon lifetime in an optical microcavity on the characteristics of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with fully doped distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and an oxide current aperture is studied. The photon lifetime in the microcavity is controlled by varying the upper DBR reflectance. It is found that the speed of VCSELs with a current-aperture diameter of 10 ?m is mainly limited by the self-heating effect, despite an increase in the relaxation-oscillation damping coefficient with increasing photon lifetime in the microcavity. At the same time, the higher level of internal optical loss in lasers with a current-aperture diameter of 1.5 ?m leads to dominance of the effect of relaxation-oscillation damping independently of the radiation output loss. In the case of devices with a current-aperture diameter of 5.5 ?m, both mechanisms limiting the speed operate, which allow an increase in the VCSEL effective modulation frequency from 21 to 24 GHz as the photon lifetime decreases from 3.7 to 0.8 ps.

Bobrov, M. A.; Blokhin, S. A., E-mail: blokh@mail.ioffe.ru; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Maleev, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Blokhin, A. A. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Zadiranov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Nikitina, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15

230

Scaling of dissipative soliton fiber lasers to megawatt peak powers by use of large-area  

E-print Network

from high-beam-quality solid-state pump lasers. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers, both in crystal [2 power. Cladding-pumped fiber lasers with performance matching those of solid-state oscillators have beenScaling of dissipative soliton fiber lasers to megawatt peak powers by use of large-area photonic

Kieu, Khanh

231

Planarization of amorphous silicon thin film transistors for high-aperture-ratio and large-area active-matrix liquid crystal displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the backlight power consumption and the improvement of the display image uniformity for future large-area and high-resolution active-matrix liquid- crystal displays (AM-LCDs) are very important. One possible method to achieve the former goal is to increase the pixel electrode aperture-ratio. This can be realized by overlapping the pixel electrode with both gate/data buslines. While for the latter, reduction of the RC-delay by using a low resistance gate metal line is the key. Both of these approaches can be realized by using planarization technology. In this dissertation, the planarization technology based on low dielectric constant organic polymer, benzocyclobutene (BCB), is demonstrated, and this technology has been successfully applied to hydrogenated amorphous-silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays and thick metal gate buslines/electrodes. Through the planarization technology, a high-aperture-ratio (HAR) pixel electrode structure has been fabricated. The parasitic capacitance and crosstalk issues in the HAR pixel electrode have been studied through interconnect analysis and circuit simulation. The impact of the parasitic capacitance on display performances, such as feedthrough voltage, vertical crosstalk, pixel electrode aperture-ratio, pixel charging behavior, and gate busline RC-delay issues, has been thoroughly discussed. Some key issues during the process integration of the HAR pixel electrode structure have been addressed. These include the BCB contact via formation, the patterning of the ITO pixel electrodes on BCB layer, the selection of Ar plasma treatment conditions for BCB surface, and the optical transmittance evaluation of the ITO/BCB double-layer structure. In addition, the BCB passivation effects on back-channel etched type a-Si:H TFTs have been investigated. It is found that there is no degradation in the TFT electrical performance and reliability after the BCB passivation. Finally, the planarization technology is applied to a- Si:H TFTs incorporating a very thick Cr gate electrode and a Cu gate electrode. It is found that the gate- planarized (GP) TFTs have an electrical performance comparable to the conventional TFTs without gate planarization. However, an abnormal behavior, hole injection into the nitride/BCB double-layer gate insulator at a high positive voltage stress, was found for the GP-TFTs.

Lan, Je-Hsiung

232

A 2x2 multi-chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask: a stepping stone to large format microshutter arrays for coded aperture applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously reported work focused on realising a 2x2cm single chip mask in the mid-IR based on polysilicon micro-optoelectro- mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and its integration with ASIC drive electronics using conventional wire bonding. It employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage and uses a hysteretic row/column scheme for addressing. In this paper we report on the latest results in the mid-IR for the single chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask, trials in scaling up to a mask based on a 2x2 multi-chip array and report on progress towards realising a large format mask comprising 44 MOEMS chips. We also explore the potential of such large, transmissive IR spatial light modulator arrays for other applications and in the current and alternative architectures.

McNie, Mark E.; Brown, Alan G.; King, David O.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Gordon, Neil T.; Riches, Stephen; Rogers, Stanley

2010-08-01

233

Study on Stressed Mirror Polishing with Continoues Polishing Machine for Large Aperture Off-axis Aspheric Mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a special technique is proposed to polish the off-axis aspherical mirror for a large segmented mirror. It is based on a process of stressed mirror polishing with the continoues polishing machine. During the polishing procedure, a stressing fixture attached to the mirror segment was designed to transform the surface shape of aspheric mirror to a destined sphere. So segments can be polished into same sphere on an contineous polishing machine (CPM). It took about 40 hours to continuously polish a scaled-down sub-mirror of CFGT using the technique.The mirror is 330 mm in diameter, 3.6 m in off-axis distance and 21.6 m in radius of curverture. The maximum asphericity is about 16 microns. High polishing efficiency was shown and it might met the needs of manufacturing of a large segmented telescope mirror.

Li, X. N.; Zhang, H. Y.; Cui, X. Q.; Jiang, Z. B.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, X. T.; Ni, H. K.

2012-03-01

234

Goldstone: A Search for Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Interactions in the Moon Using Large-Aperture Radio Antennas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Goldstone Lunar Ultra-high Energy neutrino experiment (GLUE), a joint project of NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab and UCLA, searches for 10ns microwave pulses from a lunar regolith (meteor ejecta believed to have struck the moon) using two large telescopes. Visitors to this Website can download a detailed, scientific description of the experiment entitled "New Limits on a Diffuse Flux of > 100 EeV Cosmic Neutrinos" (.pdf or .ps), read abstracts and download data (.ps, .pdf, .dvi, HTML), and follow links to photo galleries of experiments in action. Interesting!

235

Precision large field scanning system for high numerical aperture lenses and application to femtosecond micromachining of ophthalmic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precision, large stroke (nearly 1 cm) scanning system was designed, built, and calibrated for micromachining of ophthalmic materials including hydrogels and cornea (excised and in vivo). This system comprises a flexure stage with an attached objective on stacked vertical and horizontal translation stages. This paper outlines the design process leading to our most current version including the specifications that were used in the design and the drawbacks of other methods that were previously used. Initial measurements of the current version are also given. The current flexure was measured to have a 27 Hz natural frequency with no load.

Brooks, D. R.; Brown, N. S.; Savage, D. E.; Wang, C.; Knox, W. H.; Ellis, J. D.

2014-06-01

236

Numerical aperture dependence of damage and supercontinuum generation from femtosecond  

E-print Network

Numerical aperture dependence of damage and supercontinuum generation from femtosecond laser pulses laser pulses with transpar- ent dielectrics: supercontinuum generation and multiphoton-induced bulk damage. We measured the threshold energy for supercontinuum generation and bulk damage in fused silica

Schaffer, Chris B.

237

A laser tomography test bed for extremely large telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Instrumentation and Technology Center at the Australian National University is building a Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics Test Bed for Extremely Large Telescopes. The optical test bench is using three Laser Guide Stars (LGS) propagating through three phase screens. The LGS wavefronts are sampled with a 16 × 16 Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH-WFS). Cone effect, spot elongation and Sodium layer density fluctuations are reproduced on the bench. Two Natural Guide Stars (NGS), on-axis and off-axis, are also added to the bench. The wavefront of the on-axis NGS is corrected with a DM located in the optical path of both the LGSs and the on-axis NGS. The DM commands are derived from the tomographic estimate of the on-axis NGS wavefront using the measurements of the 3 LGS WFSs. The off-axis NGS wavefront is sampled with a 6 × 6 SH-WFS and is emulating tip-tilt, focus and truth sensing. A DM located in front of the off-axis NGS WFS is correcting the off-axis NGS wavefront. The commands of this DM are also derived from the tomographic reconstructor. In the paper, the design of the LTAO test bed is presented.

Conan, R.; Piatrou, P.; Rigaut, F.; Uhlendorf, K.

2014-08-01

238

Large Deformation Change in Iridium Isotopes from Laser Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron-deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields}5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} have been studied for the {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 191,193}Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the hyperfine splitting measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the isotope shift measurements. A large deformation change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir and between {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} has been observed.

D. Verney; L. Cabaret; J. Crawford; H.T. Duong; J. Genevey; G. Hubert; F. Ibrahim; M. Krieg; F. Le Blanc; J.K.P. Lee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; J. Obert; J. Oms; J. Pinard; J.C. Putaux; B. Roussiere; J. Sauvage; V. Sebastian

1999-12-31

239

Large deformation change in iridium isotopes from laser spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron-deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} have been studied for the {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 180}Ir{sup m} and {sup 191,193}Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the hyperfine splitting measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the isotope shift measurements. A large deformation change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir and between {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and {sup 186}Ir{sup g} has been observed.

Verney, D.; Le Blanc, F.; Obert, J.; Oms, J.; Putaux, J. C.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Cabaret, L.; Duong, H. T.; Pinard, J. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Crawford, J.; Lee, J. K. P. [Physics Department, Mc Gill University, H3A2T8 Montreal (Canada); Genevey, J.; Ibrahim, F. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Hubert, G.; Krieg, M.; Sebastian, V. [Institut fuer Physik der Univeristaet Mainz (Germany); Le Scornet, G.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM, IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

1999-11-16

240

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: A 4 sq. deg Galactic Plane Survey in Vulpecula (l=59)  

E-print Network

We present the first results from a new 250, 350, and 500 micron Galactic Plane survey taken with the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) in 2005. This survey's primary goal is to identify and characterize high-mass proto-stellar objects (HMPOs). The region studied here covers 4 sq. deg near the open cluster NGC 6823 in the constellation Vulpecula (l=59). We find 60 compact sources (0) velocities combined with a variety of other velocity and morphological data in the literature. In total, 49 sources are associated with a molecular cloud complex encompassing NGC 6823 (distance ~2.3kpc), 10 objects with the Perseus Arm (~8.5kpc) and one object is probably in the outer Galaxy (~14kpc). Near NGC 6823, the inferred luminosities and masses of BLAST sources span ~40-10^4 L_\\odot, and ~15-700 M_\\odot, respectively. The mass spectrum is compatible with molecular gas masses in other high-mass star forming regions. Several luminous sources appear to be Ultra Compact HII regions powered by early B stars. However, many of the objects are cool, massive gravitationally-bound clumps with no obvious internal radiation from a protostar, and hence excellent HMPO candidates.

E. L. Chapin; P. A. R. Ade; J. J. Bock; C. Brunt; M. J. Devlin; S. Dicker; M. Griffin; J. O. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. C. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; J. Klein; G. Marsden; P. G. Martin; P. Mauskopf; C. B. Netterfield; L. Olmi; E. Pascale; G. Patanchon; M. Rex; D. Scott; C. Semisch; M. D. P. Truch; C. Tucker; G. S. Tucker; M. P. Viero; D. V. Wiebe

2007-11-21

241

Laser microprocessing and nanoengineering of large-area functional micro/nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser microprocessing and nanoengineering are of great interest to both scientists and engineers, since the inspired properties of functional micro/nanostructures over large areas can lead to numerous unique applications. Currently laser processing systems combined with high speed automation ensure the focused laser beam to process various materials at a high throughput and a high accuracy over large working areas. UV lasers are widely used in both laser microprocessing and nanoengineering. However by improving the processing methods, green pulsed laser is capable of replacing UV lasers to make high aspect ratio micro-grooves on fragile and transparent sapphire substrates. Laser micro-texturing can also tune the wetting property of metal surfaces from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic at a contact angle of 161° without chemical coating. Laser microlens array (MLA) can split a laser beam into multiple laser beams and reduce the laser spot size down to sub-microns. It can be applied to fabricate split ring resonator (SRR) meta-materials for THz sensing, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) structures for NIR and molding tools for soft lithography. Furthermore, laser interference lithography combined with thermal annealing can obtain a large area of sub-50nm nano-dot clusters used for SPR applications.

Tang, M.; Xie, X. Z.; Yang, J.; Chen, Z. C.; Xu, L.; Choo, Y. S.; Hong, M. H.

2011-12-01

242

Processing and Application of ICESat Large Footprint Full Waveform Laser Range Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, laser scanning systems made the transition from scientific research to the commercial market. Laser scanning has a large variety of applications such as digital elevation models, forest inventory and man-made object reconstruction, and became the most required input data for flood plain and hydraulic models. This system is generally called as a discrete laser scanning

V. H. Duong

2010-01-01

243

A large scale 3D positioning method based on a network of rotating laser automatic theodolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new 3D positioning method of setting up a network of rotating laser automatic theodolites (RLAT) for the large scale metrology. In this system, each RLAT consists of two laser fans rotating about its own Z axis at constant speed and an optical sensor is used to detect the pulse signals of sweeping laser fans. Instead of

Zhigang Liu; Yaozhong Xu; Zhongzheng Liu; Jianwei Wu

2010-01-01

244

The chaotic dynamical aperture  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear magnetic forces become more important for particles in the modern large accelerators. These nonlinear elements are introduced either intentionally to control beam dynamics or by uncontrollable random errors. Equations of motion in the nonlinear Hamiltonian are usually non-integrable. Because of the nonlinear part of the Hamiltonian, the tune diagram of accelerators is a jungle. Nonlinear magnet multipoles are important in keeping the accelerator operation point in the safe quarter of the hostile jungle of resonant tunes. Indeed, all the modern accelerator design have taken advantages of nonlinear mechanics. On the other hand, the effect of the uncontrollable random multipoles should be evaluated carefully. A powerful method of studying the effect of these nonlinear multipoles is using a particle tracking calculation, where a group of test particles are tracing through these magnetic multipoles in the accelerator hundreds to millions of turns in order to test the dynamical aperture of the machine. These methods are extremely useful in the design of a large accelerator such as SSC, LEP, HERA and RHIC. These calculations unfortunately take tremendous amount of computing time. In this paper, we try to apply the existing method in the nonlinear dynamics to study the possible alternative solution. When the Hamiltonian motion becomes chaotic, the tune of the machine becomes undefined. The aperture related to the chaotic orbit can be identified as chaotic dynamical aperture. We review the method of determining chaotic orbit and apply the method to nonlinear problems in accelerator physics. We then discuss the scaling properties and effect of random sextupoles.

Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.

1985-10-01

245

Beaming matter waves from a subwavelength aperture  

SciTech Connect

We show theoretically that the shape of a beam of matter waves (cold atoms) emerging from one subwavelength aperture pierced in a film can be collimated within a few degrees. By means of an external laser field, a potential well for the atoms in the direction perpendicular to the surface is created. In this way, a running surface matter wave can be excited when atoms diffract from the aperture. If the aperture is surrounded with a finite array of indentations, coherent scattering of the surface matter wave with these indentations molds the angular distribution of the matter wave in the far field.

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.; Moreno, Esteban; Garcia-Vidal, F. J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Moreno, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

2006-08-15

246

Performance of a simplified slit spatial filter for large laser systems.  

PubMed

A new-type slit spatial filter system with three lenses was proposed, in which the focal spot was turned into focal line by adding cylindrical lenses to increase focal area and then lower the focal intensity. Its performances on image relay, aperture matching and spatial filtering are comprehended by detailed theoretical calculations and numerical simulation. According to transmission spatial filter in national ignition facility, we present a replaceable slit spatial filter, which can reduce the overall length of laser system, improve the beam quality and suppress or even avoid the pinhole (slit) closure in the spatial filter. PMID:25321597

Xiong, Han; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiang; Zou, Kuaisheng

2014-09-01

247

Large area avalanche photodiode detector array upgrade for a ruby-laser Thomson scattering system  

E-print Network

Large area avalanche photodiode detector array upgrade for a ruby-laser Thomson scattering system T microchannel plate MCP detector was replaced with an array of modular large area avalanche photodiode detectors-laser head, collection optics, a Jarrell-Ash MonoSpec-27 Model 82-499 spectrometer, and avalanche photodiode

Biewer, Theodore

248

Electron microscope aperture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electron microscope including an electron source, a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen, and an objective lens having an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane are described. The invention also entails a method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques.

Heinemann, K. (inventor)

1976-01-01

249

Tracking Multiple Laser Pointers for Large Screen Interaction  

E-print Network

. We use an asynchronous serial bit stream created by blinking the laser light to encode the identity. While most of these proposed solutions allow precise in- teraction with any on-screen object, most of the prototypes developed only provide support to use one laser pointer at Permission to make digital or hard

British Columbia, University of

250

Laser-cooling Brings Large Object Near Absolute Zero  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page showcases research conducted at Massachusetts Institute of Technology on the laser-cooling of macroscopic materials, in order to observe quantum effects. The material--a dime-sized mirror--was suspended with laser beams and cooled to temperatures near 0.8 degrees Kelvin. The site also provides images of the experimental apparatus and the researchers.

Trafton, Anne

2009-12-09

251

Laser conditioning study of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beams  

SciTech Connect

Considerable attention has been paid over the years to the problem of growing high purity KDP and KD*P to meet threshold requirements on succeeding generations of inertial confinement fusion lasers at LLNL. While damage thresholds for these materials have increased over time, the current National Ignition Facility (NIF) maximum fluence requirement (redline) for KD*P frequency triplers of 14.3 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm, 3 ns has not been reached without laser (pre)conditioning. It is reasonable to assume that, despite the rapid increase in damage thresholds for rapidly grown crystals, -a program of large scale conditioning of the 192 NIF triplers will be required. Small area ramp (R/1) tests on single sites indicate that KDP damage thresholds can be raised on average up to 1.5X the unconditioned values. Unpublished LLNL 3{omega} raster conditioning studies on KDP, however, have not conclusively shown that off-line conditioning is feasible for KD*P. Consequently, investigating the feasibility of on-line conditioning of NIF triplers at 3{omega} has become a high priority for the KDP damage group at LLNL. To investigate the feasibility of on-line conditioning we performed a series of experiments using the Optical Sciences Laser (OSL) on numerous samples of conventional and rapid growth KDP and KD*P. The experiment entailed exposing sites on each sample to a range of ramped shot (N/l) sequences starting at average fluences of -2 J/cm{sup 2} (in a 7 mm ``top hat`` beam @ 351 nm, 3 ns) up to peak fluences of approximately 13 J/cm{sup 2}. Test results indicated that the most effective conditioning procedure entailed a 7-8 shot ramp starting at 2 J/cm{sup 2} and ending at 12-13 J/cm{sup 2}. The pinpoint onset fluence for the 8/1 tests was 1.4 times that of the unconditioned site. Damage evolution appears to be exponential as a function of increasing fluence. When damage occurs after conditioning however, pinpoint density evolution exhibits a greater slope than less conditioned sites. The overall reduction in the total pinpoint number can be as high as 30OX. Despite laser conditioning , the pinpoint onset for the samples considered is below the NIF redline fluence of 14.3 J/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the exponential pinpoint evolution curves indicate that damage levels at NIF redline fluences will be on the order of 10{sup 4} pinpoints/mm{sup 2}. This suggests that there will be significant damage in NIP triplers, however, substantial damage has not been observed in the large Beamlet tripler (conventionally grown KD*P) under similar exposure conditions. By applying the OSL damage evolution curves to model NIF THG output spatial profiles it is possible to show damage in NIF triplers will be slight, consisting of isolated clusters with a few pinpoints at high fluence portions of the beam. This prediction has been verified by scatter mapping the 37 cm Beamlet tripler crystal. These results will be discussed in a future memo. These results indicate the feasibility of on-line conditioning for the NIF laser.

Runkel, M.; DeYoreo, J.; Sell, W.; Milam, D.

1997-12-20

252

Measurement system for large size laser beam intensity distribution based on CCD diffuse transmission imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a measurement system to measure large size laser beam intensity distribution based on CCD diffuse transmission imaging. The measurement principle is presented. The configuration of the system is introduced. An emphasis is placed on the design of diffuse transmission target. The methods of spot geometry distortion correction and intensity distortion correction are described in detail. After laser spot correction, we can get the real laser beam intensity profile. The test results are given, which validate the correctness of the method. The paper provides a new way to measure quantitatively the profile of large size laser beam with high accuracy.

Pang, Miao; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Xuewen; Gao, Xueyan; Zhou, Shan

2013-12-01

253

Dual aperture measurements of 2-km (round-trip) intensity and phase perturbations 1-?m laser speckle propagating through a turbulent atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of recent measurements of the intensity and phase fluctuations of one micron speckle propagating through a two kilometer (round-trip) turbulent path are presented. The data was collected at BMDO's Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (ISTEF) at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida using a dual-aperture Nd:YAG coherent array transceiver developed at CREOL. The dual-aperture measurement technique allowed for the discrimination of atmospheric turbulence induced phase perturbations from relative target/platform motion induced phase modulation, since the target motion produces common phase modulation in both receivers. The phase and intensity were found to be Gaussian and K- distributed respectively.

Gatt, Philip; Costello, Thomas P.; Gantala, Dhinakarraj H.

1995-06-01

254

Effects of large-area irradiated laser phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration across a large gap in a biomaterial conduit.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel biodegradable nerve conduit comprising 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linked gelatin, annexed with ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic particles (EDC-Gelatin-TCP, EGT). In this study, the EGT-implant site in rats was irradiated using a large-area 660 nm AlGaInP diode laser (50 mW) to investigate the feasibility of laser stimulation in the regeneration of a 15-mm transected sciatic nerve. The animals were divided into three groups: a sham-irradiated group (EGT/sham); an experimental group undergoing low-level laser (LLL) therapy (EGT/laser); a control group undergoing autologous nerve grafts (autografts). Twelve weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic functional index (p < 0.05) and improved toe spreading development in the EGT/laser and autograft groups than in the EGT/sham group. In electrophysiological measurement, both the mean peak amplitude and the area under the compound muscle action potential curves in the EGT/laser and autograft groups showed significantly improved functional recovery than the EGT/sham group (p < 0.05). Compared with the EGT/sham group, the EGT/laser and autograft groups displayed a reduction in muscular atrophy. Histomorphometric assessments revealed that the EGT/laser group had undergone more rapid nerve regeneration than the EGT/sham group. The laser-treated group also presented greater neural tissue area as well as larger axon diameter and thicker myelin sheath than the tube group without the laser treatment, indicating improved nerve regeneration. Thus, these assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate the repair of a transected peripheral nerve in rats after being bridged with EGT conduit. PMID:22887896

Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Yang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Bai-Shuan

2013-01-01

255

Large core single-mode chirally-coupled-core fibers for high power fiber lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel chirally-coupled-core (CCC) fibers enabled large-core laser systems operating robustly-singlemode, independently of fiber excitation, splicing and coiling conditions. A variety of high power continuous-wave, nanosecond-pulse and femtosecond-pulse fiber-laser systems have been demonstrated using CCC fibers.

Xiuquan Ma; Cheng Zhu; Matthew Rever; Shenghong Huang

2009-01-01

256

Laser safety training programs for a large and diverse research and development laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories is a large multiprogram Research and Development laboratory which is operated by a contractor for the US Department of Energy. In the Laboratories, lasers are both the subject of research and the tools that are used in other research, development, and testing activities. Since 1979, laser safety training has been the primary focus of the Laboratories' laser safety program. Approximately 1100 personnel have been trained in formal courses during that time period. The formal course, presented on site by a contractor, consists of two full days of instruction. The course contents include the following topics: Laser technology and safety overview; Federal and ANSI laser standards summaries; Biological effects of laser radiation; Classification of lasers; Laser hazard analysis; Review of ANSI Z136.1 control measures; Laser eye protection. Recent emphasis on regulatory requirements, conduct of operations, and quality management has revealed a need to change the laser safety training curriculum. A new course for users of low power lasers (Class 2 and 3a) is being developed. A refresher course, a management awareness (self-study) course, and major changes in the current course are planned.

Stocum, W. E.

257

Future trends for large-area pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has become a routine laboratory tool with which to grow a wide variety of complex chemical compounds. A recent review of the literature has shown that over 275 different compounds have been deposited with this unique Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process. Also, recent reports have shown that this process can be used

J. A. Greer; M. D. Tabat; C. Lu

1997-01-01

258

Future trends for large-area pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has become a routine laboratory tool with which to grow a wide variety of complex chemical compounds. A recent review of the literature has shown that over 275 different compounds have been deposited with this unique Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process [1]. Also, recent reports have shown that this process can be

J. A. Greer; M. D. Tabat; C. Lu

1997-01-01

259

A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

2012-09-01

260

Micro-scanning mirrors for high-power laser applications in laser surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two novel micro scanning mirrors with large aperture and HR dielectric coatings suitable for high power laser applications in a miniaturized laser-surgical instrument for neurosurgery to cut skull tissue. An electrostatic driven 2D-raster scanning mirror with 5x7.1mm aperture is used for dynamic steering of a ps-laser beam of the laser cutting process. A second magnetic 2D-beam steering mirror enables a static beam correction of a hand guided laser instrument. Optimizations of a magnetic gimbal micro mirror with 6 mm x 8 mm mirror plate are presented; here static deflections of 3° were reached. Both MEMS devices were successfully tested with a high power ps-laser at 532nm up to 20W average laser power.

Sandner, Thilo; Kimme, Simon; Grasshoff, Thomas; Todt, Ulrich; Graf, Alexander; Tulea, Cristian; Lenenbach, Achim; Schenk, Harald

2014-03-01

261

A laser velocimeter system for large-scale aerodynamic testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique laser velocimeter was developed that is capable of sensing two orthogonal velocity components from a variable remote distance of 2.6 to 10 m for use in the 40- by 80-Foot and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at Ames Research Center. The system hardware, positioning instrumentation, and data acquisition equipment are described in detail; system capabilities and limitations are discussed; and expressions for systematic and statistical accuracy are developed. Direct and coupled laboratory measurements taken with the system are compared with measurements taken with a laser velocimeter of higher spatial resolution, and sample data taken in the open circuit exhaust flow of a 1/50-scale model of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented.

Reinath, M. S.; Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.

1984-01-01

262

Variable-aperture screen  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

Savage, George M. (Richmond, CA)

1991-01-01

263

Rotating Aperture System  

DOEpatents

A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

Rusnak, Brian (Livermore, CA); Hall, James M. (Livermore, CA); Shen, Stewart (Danville, CA); Wood, Richard L. (Santa Fe, NM)

2005-01-18

264

Single-pulse driven, large-aperture 2×1 array plasma-electrodes optical switch for SG-II upgrading facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the design and performance of an optical switch that has been constructed for the SG-II upgrading facility. The device is a longitudinal, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP), 360 mm×360 mm aperture, and 2×1 array electro-optical switch driven by a 20 kV output switching-voltage pulse generator through two plasma electrodes produced at the rise edge of the switching-voltage pulse. The results show that the temporal responses and the spatial performance of the optical switch fulfill the operation requirements of the SG-II upgrading facility.

Zhang, Jun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Zhang, Xiongjun

2014-12-01

265

Chaotic dynamical aperture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear magnetic forces become more important for particles in the modern large accelerators. These nonlinear elements are introduced either intentionally to control beam dynamics or by uncontrollable random errors. Equations of motion in the nonlinear Hamiltonian are usually non-integrable. Because of the nonlinear part of the Hamiltonian, the tune diagram of accelerators is a jungle. Nonlinear magnet multipoles are important in keeping the accelerator operation point in the safe quarter of the hostile jungle of resonant tunes. Indeed, all the modern accelerator designs have taken advantages of nonlinear mechanics. On the other hand, the effect of the uncontrollable random multipoles should be evaluated carefully. A powerful method of studying the effect of these nonlinear multipoles is using a particle tracking calculations, where a group of test particles are tracing through these magnetic multipoles in the accelerator hundreds to millions of turns in order to test the dynamical aperture of the machine. These methods are extremely useful in the design of a large accelerator such as SSC, LEP, HERA and RHIC. These calculations unfortunately take a tremendous amount of computing time. In this review the method of determining chaotic orbit and applying the method to nonlinear problems in accelerator physics is discussed. We then discuss the scaling properties and effect of random sextupoles.

Lee, S. Y.; Tepikian, S.

266

Chaotic dynamical aperture  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear magnetic forces become more important for particles in the modern large accelerators. These nonlinear elements are introduced either intentionally to control beam dynamics or by uncontrollable random errors. Equations of motion in the nonlinear Hamiltonian are usually non-integrable. Because of the nonlinear part of the Hamiltonian, the tune diagram of accelerators is a jungle. Nonlinear magnet multipoles are important in keeping the accelerator operation point in the safe quarter of the hostile jungle of resonant tunes. Indeed, all the modern accelerator designs have taken advantages of nonlinear mechanics. On the other hand, the effect of the uncontrollable random multipoles should be evaluated carefully. A powerful method of studying the effect of these nonlinear multipoles is using a particle tracking calculation, where a group of test particles are tracing through these magnetic multipoles in the accelerator hundreds to millions of turns in order to test the dynamical aperture of the machine. These methods are extremely useful in the design of a large accelerator such as SSC, LEP, HERA and RHIC. These calculations unfortunately take a tremendous amount of computing time. In this review the method of determining chaotic orbit and applying the method to nonlinear problems in accelerator physics is discussed. We then discuss the scaling properties and effect of random sextupoles.

Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.

1985-01-01

267

The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser  

SciTech Connect

The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

2007-09-24

268

Large mode area waveguides with polarization functions by volume ultrafast laser photoinscription of fused silica.  

PubMed

We present optical designs allowing large mode area light guiding by ultrafast laser photoinscription of bulk fused silica. If usual concepts are based on large core and depressed cladding, evanescently coupled multicore waveguides with coherent mode superposition can be effective solutions, where the introduction of nanostructured defects determines additional polarization functions. PMID:23722791

Cheng, G; D'Amico, C; Liu, X; Stoian, R

2013-06-01

269

Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.  

PubMed

A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900?Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. PMID:23862809

Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

2013-07-01

270

Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion  

PubMed Central

We report a large normal dispersion erbium-doped fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution in the gain fiber. The cavity is stabilized by the local nonlinear attractor in the gain fiber through the use of a narrow filter. Experimental results are accounted for by numerical simulations. This laser produces 3.5 nJ pulses, which can be dechirped to 70 fs with an external grating pair. PMID:24562267

Liu, Hui; Liu, Zhanwei; Lamb, Erin S.; Wise, Frank

2014-01-01

271

Mobile large scale 3D coordinate measuring system based on network of rotating laser automatic theodolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mobile 3D coordinate measuring system for large scale metrology. This system is composed of a network of rotating laser automatic theodolites (N-RLATs) and a portable touch probe. In the N-RLAT system, each RLAT consists of two laser fans which rotate about its own Z axis at a constant speed and scan the whole metrology space. The

Zhigang Liu; Zhongzheng Liu; Jianwei Wu; Yaozhong Xu

2010-01-01

272

Treatment of large bulla formation after tattoo removal with a q-switched laser.  

PubMed

Widely considered the gold standard treatment option for tattoo removal, the use of Q-switched lasers may very rarely result in the formation of large bulla. While very disconcerting to patients, these lesions are easily managed and, with proper care, heal quickly with no long-term consequences. The authors present three cases of patients who had bullous reactions shortly after receiving Q-switched laser treatment of tattoo ink. Bullous formation in all three patients was treated successfully. PMID:20725537

Kirby, William; Kartono, Francisca; Desai, Alpesh; Kaur, Ravneet R; Desai, Tejas

2010-01-01

273

Femtosecond laser-induced asymmetric large scale waves on gold surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With femtosecond (fs) pulse irradiation, we investigate the morphological evolution of a unique type of fs laser-induced periodic surface structure, called nanostructure-covered large scale waves (NC-LSWs), covered by iterating stripe patterns of nanostructures and microstructures with a period of tens of microns. By monitoring the morphological profile of NC-LSWs following fs laser heating of Au, we show that the NC-LSWs are highly asymmetrically formed and propagate on a gold surface. We believe that the selective laser ablation of Au surface and the subsequent mass transfer of liquid Au following nonuniform energy deposition result in the asymmetric NC-LSW propagation on metals.

Yong Hwang, Taek; Guo, Chunlei

2012-07-01

274

Femtosecond laser-induced asymmetric large scale waves on gold surfaces  

SciTech Connect

With femtosecond (fs) pulse irradiation, we investigate the morphological evolution of a unique type of fs laser-induced periodic surface structure, called nanostructure-covered large scale waves (NC-LSWs), covered by iterating stripe patterns of nanostructures and microstructures with a period of tens of microns. By monitoring the morphological profile of NC-LSWs following fs laser heating of Au, we show that the NC-LSWs are highly asymmetrically formed and propagate on a gold surface. We believe that the selective laser ablation of Au surface and the subsequent mass transfer of liquid Au following nonuniform energy deposition result in the asymmetric NC-LSW propagation on metals.

Yong Hwang, Taek; Guo, Chunlei [Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

2012-07-09

275

Nearly flat-top laser beams from unstable resonators with internal spatial filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically show that negative branch confocal unstable resonators with an aperture at the confocal plane can be used to generate nearly flat-top laser beams at large Fresnel numbers. Such a behavior is due to the fact that these resonators can be viewed as image relay systems that provide magnified versions of the internal aperture. Modal discrimination increases with magnification and, for most conditions, should provide single transverse mode oscillation. Other unstable resonators with an internal aperture can be used to generate nearly flat-top laser beams provided they satisfy a simple analytical criterion.

Massudi, Reza; Piché, Michel

1997-02-01

276

Large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner based on voice coil actuators.  

PubMed

A large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner with an in-house ingenious deflection angle detecting system is developed based on voice coil actuators direct driving mechanism. The specially designed voice coil actuators make the steering mirror moving at a sufficiently large angle. Frequency sweep method based on virtual instruments is employed to achieve the natural frequency of the laser scanner. The response shows that the performance of the laser scanner is limited by the mechanical resonances. The closed-loop controller based on mathematical model is used to reduce the oscillation of the laser scanner at resonance frequency. To design a qualified controller, the model of the laser scanner is set up. The transfer function of the model is identified with MATLAB according to the tested data. After introducing of the controller, the nonlinearity decreases from 13.75% to 2.67% at 50 Hz. The laser scanner also has other advantages such as large deflection mirror, small mechanical structure, and high scanning speed. PMID:22047325

Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Yang, Minghui; Fu, Wen

2011-10-01

277

Shock wave absorber having apertured plate  

DOEpatents

The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

Shin, Yong W. (Western Springs, IL); Wiedermann, Arne H. (Chicago Heights, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA)

1985-01-01

278

Shock wave absorber having apertured plate  

DOEpatents

The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

1983-08-26

279

Placement of multiple apertures for imaging telescopes  

SciTech Connect

Two techniques we have used for determining mirror positions in multiple-aperture telescope arrays are described. Our design criteria is the maximization of the contiguous central core diameter of the optical transfer function for the telescope system. The first technique is applicable to arrays with a relatively small, O(10), number of apertures and is essentially an exhaustive search with a simple in-line test which allows the search space to be pruned'' by an order of magnitude. In the second technique, arrays of a large number of apertures are designed using a fractal approach by recursively combining the results from several array patterns with fewer apertures. Both techniques are demonstrated for one and two dimensional designs and can be extended for higher dimensions if needed. 1 ref., 13 figs.

Fitch, J.P.; Lawrence, T.W.

1990-01-01

280

Placement of multiple apertures for imaging telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two techniques we have used for determining mirror positions in multiple-aperture telescope arrays are described. Our design criteria is the maximization of the contiguous central core diameter of the optical transfer function for the telescope system. The first technique is applicable to arrays with a relatively small, O(10), number of apertures and is essentially an exhaustive search with a simple in-line test which allows the search space to be 'pruned' by an order of magnitude. In the second technique, arrays of a large number of apertures are designed using a fractal approach by recursively combining the results from several array patterns with fewer apertures. Both techniques are demonstrated for one and two dimensional designs and can be extended for higher dimensions if needed.

Fitch, J. P.; Lawrence, T. W.

1990-08-01

281

Dielectric loaded aperture antennas.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a primarily experimental study of the effect of placing dielectric obstacles having various geometries directly upon the aperture of circular and rectangular waveguide antennas. It is found that plexiglas spheres, and in some cases plexiglas cubes, one to four wavelengths in dimension, produce directive patterns with low sidelobes. The measured gain in some cases is 6 dB greater than the gain of an optimum horn having an equal aperture size.

Croswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.

1972-01-01

282

Recommendations for the design and the installation of large laser scanning microscopy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has since the inventions of the Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CLSM) and the Multi Photon Laser Scanning Microscope (MPLSM) developed into an essential tool in contemporary life science and material science. The market provides an increasing number of turn-key and hands-off commercial LSM systems, un-problematic to purchase, set up and integrate even into minor research groups. However, the successful definition, financing, acquisition, installation and effective use of one or more large laser scanning microscopy systems, possibly of core facility character, often requires major efforts by senior staff members of large academic or industrial units. Here, a set of recommendations is presented, which are helpful during the process of establishing large systems for confocal or non-linear laser scanning microscopy as an effective operational resource in the scientific or industrial production process. Besides the description of technical difficulties and possible pitfalls, the article also illuminates some seemingly "less scientific" processes, i.e. the definition of specific laboratory demands, advertisement of the intention to purchase one or more large systems, evaluation of quotations, establishment of contracts and preparation of the local environment and laboratory infrastructure.

Helm, P. Johannes

2012-03-01

283

Optical characterization of high energy laser components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for assessing the performance of optical components for infrared high energy laser systems are described. The techniques include photometry and interferometry of large aperture components, diffraction grating efficiency measurements, absorption calorimetry, and reflectometry. A brief summary of the methodology of each type of measurement is presented.

G. A. Willinski

1979-01-01

284

20W continuous wave reliable operation of 980nm broad-area single emitter diode lasers with an aperture of 96?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High power broad area diode lasers provide the optical energy for all high performance solid state and fiber laser systems. The maximum achievable power density from such systems is limited at source by the performance of the diode lasers. A crucial metric is the reliable continuous wave optical output power from a single broad area laser diode, typically for stripe widths in the 90-100 ?m range, which is especially important for users relying on fibered multi-mode pumps. We present the results of a study investigating the reliable power limits of such 980nm sources. We find that 96?m stripe single emitters lasers at 20°C operate under continuous wave power of 20W per emitter for over 4000 hours (to date) without failure, with 60?m stripe devices operating reliably at 10W per stripe. Maximum power testing under 10Hz, 200?s QCW drive conditions shows that 96?m stripes reach 30W and 60?m stripes 21W per emitter, significantly above the reliable operation point. Results are also presented on step-stress-studies, where the current is step-wise increased until failure is observed, in order to clarify the remaining reliability limits. Finally, we detail the barriers to increased peak power and discuss how these can be overcome.

Crump, P.; Blume, G.; Paschke, K.; Staske, R.; Pietrzak, A.; Zeimer, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Ginolas, A.; Bugge, F.; Häusler, K.; Ressel, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.

2009-02-01

285

Femtosecond laser-induced nanostructure-covered large-scale waves on metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through femtosecond (fs) laser pulse irradiation (pulse duration: 65 fs, central wavelength: 800 nm, and repetition rate: 250 Hz), we investigate the morphological evolution of fs laser-induced periodic surface structure on Au and Pt, called a nanostructure-covered large-scale wave (NC-LSW) with a period of tens of microns, densely covered by iterating stripe patterns of nanostructures and microstructures. We show that the surface morphology of NC-LSW crucially depends on the fluence of the laser, the number of irradiating pulses, and the incident beam angle. Our experimental observations allow us to establish a three-step model for the NC-LSW formation: the formation of laser-induced surface unevenness, inhomogeneous energy deposition due to the interference between the incident light and the scattered field, and nonuniform energy deposition due to shielding by the peaks of LSW.

Hwang, Taek Yong; Guo, Chunlei

2013-12-01

286

Confocal coded aperture imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

287

Breaking and Moving Hotspots in a Large Grain Nb Cavity with a Laser Beam  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic vortices pinned near the inner surface of SRF Nb cavities are a possible source of RF hotspots, frequently observed by temperature mapping of the cavities outer surface at RF surface magnetic fields of about 100 mT. Theoretically, we expect that the thermal gradient provided by a 10 W green laser shining on the inner cavity surface at the RF hotspot locations can move pinned vortices to different pinning locations. The experimental apparatus to send the beam onto the inner surface of a photoinjector-type large-grain Nb cavity is described. Preliminary results on the changes in thermal maps observed after applying the laser heating are also reported.

Ciovati, G.; Cheng, G.; Flood, R. J.; Jordan, K.; Kneisel, P.; Morrone, M. L.; Turlington, L.; Wilson, K. M.; Zhang, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Gurevich, A. V.; Nemes, G.; Baldwin, C.

2011-07-25

288

Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone.  

PubMed

When using ultrafast laser ablation in some orthopedic applications where precise cutting/drilling is required with minimal damage to collateral tissue, it is challenging to produce large-sized and deep holes using a tightly focused laser beam. The feasibility of producing deep, millimeter-size structures under different ablation strategies is investigated. X-ray computed microtomography was employed to analyze the morphology of these structures. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of producing holes with sizes required in clinical applications using concentric and helical ablation protocols. PMID:23884158

An, Ran; Khadar, Ghadeer W; Wilk, Emilia I; Emigh, Brent; Haugen, Harold K; Wohl, Gregory R; Dunlop, Brett; Anvari, Mehran; Hayward, Joseph E; Fang, Qiyin

2013-07-01

289

Sub-80 fs dissipative soliton large-mode-area fiber laser.  

PubMed

We report on high-energy ultrashort pulse generation from an all-normal-dispersion large-mode-area fiber laser by exploiting an efficient combination of nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) and a semiconductor-based saturable absorber mode-locking mechanism. The watt-level laser directly emits chirped pulses with a duration of 1 ps and 163 nJ of pulse energy. These can be compressed to 77 fs, generating megawatt-level peak power. Intracavity dynamics are discussed by numerical simulation, and the intracavity pulse evolution reveals that NPE plays a key role in pulse shaping. PMID:20596230

Baumgartl, Martin; Ortaç, Bülend; Lecaplain, Caroline; Hideur, Ammar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

2010-07-01

290

Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays.  

PubMed

We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6-25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples. PMID:24985824

Haboub, A; MacDowell, A A; Marchesini, S; Parkinson, D Y

2014-06-01

291

Piezoceramic actuated aperture antennae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been demonstrated that aperture antennae can have their performance improved by employing shape control on the antenna surface. The antennae previously studied were actuated utilizing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Since PVDF is a polymer with limited control authority, these antennae can only be employed in space based applications. This study examines more robust antenna structures devised of a

Hwan-Sik Yoon; Gregory Washington

1998-01-01

292

Piezoceramic actuated aperture antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been demonstrated that aperture antennas can have their performance improved by utilizing PVDF as a shape controlling actuator. Since PVDF is a polymer with limited control authority, these antennas can only be employed in space based applications. This study examines more robust antenna structures devised of a thick metalized substrate with surface bonded piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In

Hwan-Sik Yoon; Gregory Washington

1998-01-01

293

Off-axis field approximations for ion traps with apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent work (Int. J. Mass Spec., vol. 282, pp. 112-122) we have considered the effect of apertures on the fields inside rf traps at points on the trap axis. We now complement and complete that work by considering off-axis fields in axially symmetric (referred to as "3D") and in two dimensional ("2D") ion traps whose electrodes have apertures, i.e., holes in 3D and slits in 2D. Our approximation has two parts. The first, EnoAperture, is the field obtained numerically for the trap under study with apertures artificially closed. We have used the boundary element method (BEM) for obtaining this field. The second part, EdueToAperture, is an analytical expression for the field contribution of the aperture. In EdueToAperture, aperture size is a free parameter. A key element in our approximation is the electrostatic field near an infinite thin plate with an aperture, and with different constant-valued far field intensities on either side. Compact expressions for this field can be found using separation of variables, wherein the choice of coordinate system is crucial. This field is, in turn, used four times within our trap-specific approximation. The off-axis field expressions for the 3D geometries were tested on the quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and the cylindrical ion trap (CIT), and the corresponding expressions for the 2D geometries were tested on the linear ion trap (LIT) and the rectilinear ion trap (RIT). For each geometry, we have considered apertures which are 10%, 30%, and 50% of the trap dimension. We have found that our analytical correction term EdueToAperture, though based on a classical small-aperture approximation, gives good results even for relatively large apertures.

Chattopadhyay, Madhurima; Mohanty, Atanu K.

2009-12-01

294

Laser-assisted ionization-excitation of helium by electron impact at large momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionization of a helium atom by electron impact in the presence of laser radiation is studied theoretically. The kinematic regime of high impact energy and large momentum transfer is considered. The S-matrix of the process is treated within the first Born and binary-encounter approximations. Triple differential cross sections are calculated for the cases when the residual He+ ion is left both in the ground (n = 1) and in the first excited (n = 2) states in the presence of a laser field with frequency ? = 1.55 eV and intensity I = 5 × 1011 W/cm2. The laser-assisted cross sections corresponding to n = 2 are found to be more sensitive to the electron-electron correlations in helium than the field-free ones.

Bulychev, Andrey A.; Kouzakov, Konstantin A.

2014-11-01

295

Mobile large scale 3D coordinate measuring system based on network of rotating laser automatic theodolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a mobile 3D coordinate measuring system for large scale metrology. This system is composed of a network of rotating laser automatic theodolites (N-RLATs) and a portable touch probe. In the N-RLAT system, each RLAT consists of two laser fans which rotate about its own Z axis at a constant speed and scan the whole metrology space. The optical sensors mounted on the portable touch probe receive the sweeping laser fans and generate the corresponding pulse signals, which establish a relationship between rotating angle of laser fan and time, and then the space angle measurement is converted into the corresponding peak time precision measurement of pulse signal. The rotating laser fans are modeled mathematically as a time varying parametrical vector in its local framework. A two steps on-site calibration method for solving the parameters of each RLAT and coordinate transformation among the N-RLATs. The portable probe is composed of optical sensors array with specified geometrical features and a touch point, on which the coordinates of optical sensors is determined by the N-RLATs and the touch point is estimated by solving a non-linear system. A prototype mobile 3D coordinate measuring system is developed and experiment results show its validity.

Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Zhongzheng; Wu, Jianwei; Xu, Yaozhong

2010-08-01

296

Laser guide star wavefront sensing for ground-layer adaptive optics on extremely large telescopes.  

PubMed

We propose ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) to improve the seeing on the 42?m European Extremely Large Telescope. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFSs) with laser guide stars (LGSs) will experience significant spot elongation due to off-axis observation. This spot elongation influences the design of the laser launch location, laser power, WFS detector, and centroiding algorithm for LGS GLAO on an extremely large telescope. We show, using end-to-end numerical simulations, that with a noise-weighted matrix-vector-multiply reconstructor, the performance in terms of 50% ensquared energy (EE) of the side and central launch of the lasers is equivalent, the matched filter and weighted center of gravity centroiding algorithms are the most promising, and approximately 10×10 undersampled pixels are optimal. Significant improvement in the 50% EE can be observed with a few tens of photons/subaperture/frame, and no significant gain is seen by adding more than 200 photons/subaperture/frame. The LGS GLAO is not particularly sensitive to the sodium profile present in the mesosphere nor to a short-timescale (less than 100?s) evolution of the sodium profile. The performance of LGS GLAO is, however, sensitive to the atmospheric turbulence profile. PMID:21283238

Clare, Richard M; Le Louarn, Miska; Béchet, Clementine

2011-02-01

297

Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.  

PubMed

Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

2014-05-01

298

Ion shock acceleration by large amplitude slow ion acoustic double layers in laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic model for the shock acceleration of ions in laser-produced plasmas is developed. A fraction of the warm ions are accelerated by the large amplitude monotonic potential of the shock created due the plasma compression and electron heating by the laser. The kinetic model for the monotonic shock is based on the slow ion acoustic double layer (SIADL). It is found that the amplitude of the large amplitude SIADL is almost uniquely defined by the electron temperature. Therefore, a balance between electron heating and plasma compression is needed for optimal ion acceleration by this scheme. Typical Mach numbers of the monotonic shocks are close to 1.5. The scheme could potentially produce monoenergetic ions with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. The model is compared with recent simulations and experiments, where efficient shocks acceleration and production of monoenergetic protons have been observed. Similarities and differences with other shock models are pointed out and discussed.

Eliasson, B. [SUPA, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)] [SUPA, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15

299

Ion shock acceleration by large amplitude slow ion acoustic double layers in laser-produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic model for the shock acceleration of ions in laser-produced plasmas is developed. A fraction of the warm ions are accelerated by the large amplitude monotonic potential of the shock created due the plasma compression and electron heating by the laser. The kinetic model for the monotonic shock is based on the slow ion acoustic double layer (SIADL). It is found that the amplitude of the large amplitude SIADL is almost uniquely defined by the electron temperature. Therefore, a balance between electron heating and plasma compression is needed for optimal ion acceleration by this scheme. Typical Mach numbers of the monotonic shocks are close to 1.5. The scheme could potentially produce monoenergetic ions with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. The model is compared with recent simulations and experiments, where efficient shocks acceleration and production of monoenergetic protons have been observed. Similarities and differences with other shock models are pointed out and discussed.

Eliasson, B.

2014-02-01

300

Dynamic behavior of diffusion flame interacting with a large-scale vortex by laser imaging techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instantaneous and simultaneous measurements of two-dimensional temperature and OH-LIF profiles by combining Rayleigh scattering with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) were demonstrated in a nitrogen-diluted hydrogen (H2 30%+N2 70%) laminar normal diffusion flame interacting with a large-scale vortex by oscillating central fuel flow or in an inverse diffusion flame by oscillating central airflow. The dynamic behavior of the diffusion flame extinction

Masaharu Komiyama; Tomoya Fujimura; Toshimi Takagi; Shinichi Kinoshita

2005-01-01

301

Compact hybrid video color mixer for large-area laser projection display  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper relates to an optical module of a compact hybrid video color mixer for large-area laser projection display. The compact optical arrangement gives a very small- sized and high-performance video image color mixing apparatus which uses a hybrid R\\/G\\/B color separator, modulate the light beam using a 3-channels acousto-optic modulator according to the video image signal and combines

Young M. Hwang; Jungho Park; Yonghoon Kim

1998-01-01

302

Aperture center energy showcase  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

Torres, J. J.

2012-03-01

303

Intermediate field measurement to characterize the wavefront of high power laser large optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The French Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) is a high power laser project, dedicated to fusion and plasma experiments. It will include 176 square beams involving thousands of large optical components. The wavefront performances of all those optics are critical to achieve the desired focal spot shape and limit the hot spots that could damage the components. The CEA has developed experimental methods to qualify precisely the quality of the large optical components manufactured for the project and measure the effect of various defects. For specific components (coated or parabola mirrors, lenses or gratings), classical techniques like interferometric setups may fail to measure the wavefront highest spatial frequencies (> 1 mm-1). In order to improve the measurements, we have proposed characterization methods based upon a laser beam diffraction interpretation. They present limits and we need to improve the wavefront measurement for high spatial frequencies (> 1 mm-1). We present in this paper the intermediate field measurement based upon the Talbot effect theory and the Fourier analysis of acquired intensity images. The technique consists in a double pass setup: a plane wave is transmitted through the component twice, to simplify the setup and improve the measurement. Then, intensity images are acquired at different distances with a CCD camera and lead to the wavefront power spectral density. We describe the experimental setup to measure the wavefront of large specific components. We show experimental results. Finally, we discuss about the advantages and the limits of such a method, and we compare it with our previous measurement methods.

Audo, Frédéric; Bouillet, Stéphane; Chico, Sandrine; Daurios, Jérôme

2014-09-01

304

Aperture Ion Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aperture ion source was conceived to eliminate distortion in measurements of angular distributions of neutral atoms and molecules that require electron-impact ion sources. The approach simplifies the coupling between ion source and spectrometer while providing virtually distortion-free angular distributions and improved accuracy in the dimensions of the ionization region. Furthermore, it virtually eliminates the volume occupied by the ion source.

Herrero, Fred

2012-01-01

305

Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50?m. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

2014-05-01

306

A New Approach for Structural Monitoring of Large Dams with a Three-Dimensional Laser Scanner  

PubMed Central

Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of great importance, due to the impact these structures have on the whole landscape where they are built. The main goal of this paper is to show the relevance and novelty of the laserscanning methodology developed, which incorporates different statistical and modelling approaches not considered until now. As a result, the methods proposed in this paper have provided the measurement and monitoring of the large “Las Cogotas” dam (Avila, Spain).

González-Aguilera, Diego; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Sánchez, José

2008-01-01

307

Aperture weighting technique for video synthetic aperture radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a technique for aperture weighting for use in video synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In video SAR the aperture required to achieve the desired cross range resolution typically exceeds the frame rate period. As a result, there can be a significant overlap in the collected phase history used to form consecutive images in the video. Video SAR algorithms seek to exploit this overlap to avoid unnecessary duplication of processing. When no aperture weighting or windowing is used one can simply form oversampled SAR images from the non-overlapping sub-apertures using coherent back projection (or other similar techniques). The resulting sub-aperture images may be coherently summed to produce a full resolution image. A simple approach to windowing for sidelobe control is to weight the sub-apertures during summation of the images. Our approach involves producing two or more weighted images for each sub-aperture which can be linearly combined to approximate any desired aperture weighting. In this method we achieve nearly the same sidelobe control as weighting the phase history data and forming a new image for each frame without losing the computation savings of the sub-aperture image combining approach.

Hawley, Robert W.; Garber, Wendy L.

2011-06-01

308

High-performance blazed GxL TM device for large-area laser projector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A blazed GxL device is described that has high optical efficiency (>70% for RGB lasers), and high contrast ratio (> 10,000:1), and that is highly reliable when used in a large-area laser projection system. The key features were a robust design and precise stress control technology to maintain a uniform shape (bow and tilt) of more than 6,000 ribbons, a 0.25-?m CMOS compatible fabrication processing and planarization techniques to reduce fluctuation of the ribbons, and a reliable Al-Cu reflective film that provided protection against a high-power laser. No degradation in characteristics of the GxL device was observed after operating a 5,000- lumen projector for 2,000 hours and conducting 2,000 temperature cycling tests at -20°C and +80°C. Consequently, the world's largest laser projection screen with a size of 2005 inches (10 m × 50 m) and 6 million pixels (1,080 × 5,760) was demonstrated at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi, Japan.

Ito, Yasuyuki; Saruta, Kunihiko; Kasai, Hiroto; Nishida, Masato; Yamaguchi, Masanari; Yamashita, Keitaro; Taguchi, Ayumu; Oniki, Kazunao; Tamada, Hitoshi

2006-01-01

309

Observations of large-scale fluid transport by laser-guided plankton aggregationsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diel vertical migration of plankton has been proposed to affect global ocean circulation to a degree comparable to winds and tides. This biomixing process has never been directly observed, however, due to the inability to predict its occurrence in situ or to reproduce it in a laboratory setting. Furthermore, it has been argued that the energy imparted to the ocean by plankton migrations occurs at the scale of individual organisms, which is too small to impact ocean mixing. We describe the development of a multi-laser guidance system that leverages the phototactic abilities of plankton to achieve controllable vertical migrations concurrently with laser velocimetry of the surrounding flow. Measurements in unstratified fluid show that the hydrodynamic interactions between neighboring swimmers establish an alternate energy transfer route from the small scales of individually migrating plankton to significantly larger scales. Observations of laser-induced vertical migrations of Artemia salina reveal the appearance of a downward jet, which triggers a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that results in the generation of eddy-like structures with characteristic length scales much larger than the organisms. The measured energy spectrum is consistent with these findings and indicates energy input at large scales, despite the small individual size of the organisms. These results motivate the study of biomixing in the presence of stratification to assess the contribution of migrating zooplankton to local and global ocean dynamics. The laser control methodology developed here enables systematic study of the relevant processes.

Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Dabiri, John O.

2014-10-01

310

Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.  

PubMed

Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 ?m2 on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm2. Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated. PMID:25402166

Tong, Siyu; Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

2014-11-17

311

Synthetic aperture systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 25, 26, 1983  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture concepts are discussed, taking into account a synthetic aperture beam control system, a coherent optical system of modular imaging collectors providing an approach for a large aperture high angular resolution telescope in space, multimirror telescope alignment systems which employ fan beams and translation insensitive interferometers, translation insensitive heterodyne interferometers, and a synthetic aperture phase measurement system using a metering rod bridge with corner cubes. Topics related to design, simulation, and analysis are also explored, giving attention to a physical understanding of synthetic aperture arrays via simple models, design and performance of ranging telescopes, performance and phasing of multiline synthetic apertures, a computer model for evaluating synthetic aperture propogation, image-plane phase sensing for phased array telescopes, the testing of large telescope systems using multiple subapertures, and the influence of higher order noise in wavefront reconstruction. Synthetic aperture experiments are also considered.

Fender, J. S.

1984-01-01

312

Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical detection devices such as optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are widely used in many applications for the functions of measurements, inspections and analysis. Due to the large dimension of prisms and gratings, the traditional optical devices normally occupy a large space with complicated components. Since cheaper and smaller optical devices are always in demand, miniaturization has been kept going for years. Thanks to recent fabrication advances, nanophotonic devices such as semiconductor laser chips have been growing in number and diversity. However, the optical biosensor chips and the optical spectrometer chips are seldom reported in the literature. For the reason of improving system integration, the study of ultra-compact, low-cost, high-performance and easy-alignment optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are imperative. This thesis is an endeavor in these two subjects and will present our research work on studying the optical transmission properties of dielectric aperture arrays and developing new optical biosensors and optical spectrometers. The first half of the thesis demonstrates that the optical phase shift associated with the surface plasmon (SP) assisted extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in nano-hole arrays fabricated in a metal film has a strong dependence on the material refractive index value in close proximity to the holes. A novel refractive index sensor based on detecting the EOT phase shift is proposed by building a model. This device readily provides a 2-D biosensor array platform for non-labeled real-time detection of a variety of organic and biological molecules in a sensor chip format, which leads to a high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and a large number of parallel channels while facilitating high resolution imaging and supporting a large space-bandwidth product (SBP). Simulation (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc) results indicate an achievable sensitivity limit of 4.37x10-9 refractive index units (RIU) and a dynamic range as large as 0.17 RIU. Subsequently, optical transmission properties through a self-mixing interferometer array are studied and a novel high-resolution cost-effective optical spectrometer is proposed. The miniature interferometer-based spectrometer is made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a CCD as the detector. The detected intensity of each CCD pixels contains the spectral information. Since each frequency component in the incoming beam corresponds to a unique phase difference of the two beam portions of each optical interferometer, the total intensity received by each CCD pixel, which is resulted from the addition of the interference signals from all the frequency components in the beam, should also be unique. Therefore, the spectrum calculation is a problem to solve an ill-posed linear system by using Tikhonov regularization method. Simulation results show that the resolution can reach picometer level. Apart from the choice of path difference between the interfering beams, the spectral resolution also depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and analogue-digital conversion resolution (dynamic range) of the CCD chip. In addition, the theory of uniform waveguide scattering is explored to expand the possibility of using such mini-interferometers for performing free-space spectral analysis of waveguide devices. At the same time, the method of least squares is used to correct the pixel non-uniformity of the CCD so as to improve the performance of the spectrometer. The sensor chip and spectrometer chip introduced here are based on the interference of light transmitted through dielectric aperture arrays. Their compact feature renders these devices ideal for miniaturization and integration as the systems in microfluidics architectures and lab-on-chip designs.

Yang, Tao

313

Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

2012-06-01

314

Distributed synthetic aperture radar simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) depends primarily on attainable frequency resolution rather than on large physical size of the antenna array. The distributed architecture concept (DSAR) incorporates active elements (amplifiers) at or near the elemental radiators of the array. Since SAR's are expensive to build and expensive to test, a computer modeling approach is a feasible method of predicting the quality or nature of the SAR image from the proposed system parameters. The goal of this project is to produce a DSAR simulation software package. This report describes the progress made thus far and the work which remains to be done. Extensive work on this project had been done previously by two NASA contractors. The principal task remaining involved the creation of a suitable interface between these programs and the hardware and software available at the Johnson Space Center.

Bourgeois, B. A.

1986-01-01

315

An all-optronic synthetic aperture lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a mature technology that overcomes the diffraction limit of an imaging system's real aperture by taking advantage of the platform motion to coherently sample multiple sections of an aperture much larger than the physical one. Synthetic Aperture Lidar (SAL) is the extension of SAR to much shorter wavelengths (1.5 ?m vs 5 cm). This new technology can offer higher resolution images in day or night time as well as in certain adverse conditions. It could be a powerful tool for Earth monitoring (ship detection, frontier surveillance, ocean monitoring) from aircraft, unattended aerial vehicle (UAV) or spatial platforms. A continuous flow of high-resolution images covering large areas would however produce a large amount of data involving a high cost in term of post-processing computational time. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of a SAL system complete with image reconstruction based on optronic processing. This differs from the more traditional digital approach by its real-time processing capability. The SAL system is discussed and images obtained from a non-metallic diffuse target at ranges up to 3m are shown, these images being processed by a real-time optronic SAR processor origiinally designed to reconstruct SAR images from ENVISAT/ASAR data.

Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Terroux, Marc; Babin, François; Bergeron, Alain

2012-09-01

316

Preclinical Assessment of a 980-nm Diode Laser Ablation System in a Large Animal Tumor Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the performance of a 980-nm diode laser ablation system in an in vivo tumor model. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The ablation system consisted of a 15-W, 980-nm diode laser, flexible diffusing tipped fiber optic, and 17-gauge internally cooled catheter. Ten immunosuppressed dogs were inoculated subcutaneously with canine transmissible venereal tumor fragments in eight dorsal locations. Laser ablations were performed at 79 sites where inoculations were successful (99%) using powers of 10 W, 12.5 W, and 15 W, with exposure times between 60 and 180 seconds. In 20 cases, multiple overlapping ablations were performed. After the dogs were euthanized, the tumors were harvested, sectioned along the applicator track, measured and photographed. Measurements of ablation zone were performed on gross specimen. Histopathology and viability staining was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) staining. Results Gross pathology confirmed well-circumscribed ablation zone with sharp boundaries between thermally ablated tumor in the center surrounded by viable tumor tissue. When a single applicator was used, the greatest ablation diameters ranged from 12 mm at the lowest dose (10 W, 60 sec) to 26 mm at the highest dose (15 W, 180 sec). Multiple applicators created ablation zones of up to 42 mm in greatest diameter (with the lasers operating at 15 W for 120 sec). Conclusions The new 980-nm diode laser and internally cooled applicator effectively creates large ellipsoid thermal ablations in less than 3 minutes. PMID:20346883

Ahrar, Kamran; Gowda, Ashok; Javadi, Sanaz; Borne, Agatha; Fox, Matthew; McNichols, Roger; Ahrar, Judy U.; Stephens, Clifton; Stafford, R. Jason

2010-01-01

317

Multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system for large biological samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system developed to capture multispectral fluorescence emission images simultaneously from a relatively large target object is described. With an expanded, 355-nm Nd:YAG laser as the excitation source, the system captures fluorescence emission images in the blue, green, red, and far-red regions of the spectrum centered at 450, 550, 678, and 730 nm, respectively, from a 30-cm-diameter target area in ambient light. Images of apples and of pork meat artificially contaminated with diluted animal feces have demonstrated the versatility of fluorescence imaging techniques for potential applications in food safety inspection. Regions of contamination, including sites that were not readily visible to the human eye, could easily be identified from the images.

Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

2003-07-01

318

The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers  

SciTech Connect

The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H. [eds.] [eds.

1996-08-09

319

Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas.  

PubMed

Herein we propose, theoretically investigate, and numerically demonstrate a compact design for a vertical emitter at a wavelength of 1.5 ?m based on nanophotonic aperture antennas coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The structure utilizes a plasmonic antenna placed above a Si3N4 waveguide with a ground plane for breaking the up-down symmetry and increasing the emission efficiency. Three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations reveal that up to 60% vertical emission efficiency is possible in a structure only four wavelengths long with a 3 dB bandwidth of over 300 nm. PMID:22555702

Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman; Watts, Michael R

2012-05-01

320

Exploiting multi-scale parallelism for large scale numerical modelling of laser wakefield accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new generation of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA), supported by the extreme accelerating fields generated in the interaction of PW-Class lasers and underdense targets, promises the production of high quality electron beams in short distances for multiple applications. Achieving this goal will rely heavily on numerical modelling to further understand the underlying physics and identify optimal regimes, but large scale modelling of these scenarios is computationally heavy and requires the efficient use of state-of-the-art petascale supercomputing systems. We discuss the main difficulties involved in running these simulations and the new developments implemented in the OSIRIS framework to address these issues, ranging from multi-dimensional dynamic load balancing and hybrid distributed/shared memory parallelism to the vectorization of the PIC algorithm. We present the results of the OASCR Joule Metric program on the issue of large scale modelling of LWFA, demonstrating speedups of over 1 order of magnitude on the same hardware. Finally, scalability to over ?106 cores and sustained performance over ?2 P Flops is demonstrated, opening the way for large scale modelling of LWFA scenarios.

Fonseca, R. A.; Vieira, J.; Fiuza, F.; Davidson, A.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Silva, L. O.

2013-12-01

321

Complex aperture networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex network approach is proposed for studying the shear behavior of a rough rock joint. Similarities between aperture profiles are established, and a functional complex network-in each shear displacement-is constructed in two directions: parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction. We find that the growth of the clustering coefficient and that of the number of edges are approximately scaled with the development of shear strength and hydraulic conductivity, which could possibly be utilized to estimate and formulate a friction law and the evolution of shear distribution over asperities. Moreover, the frictional interface is mapped in the global-local parameter space of the corresponding functional friction network, showing the evolution path and, eventually, the residual stage. Furthermore, we show that with respect to shear direction, parallel aperture patches are more adaptable to environmental stimuli than perpendicular profiles. We characterize the pure-contact profiles using the same approach. Unlike the first case, the later networks show a growing trend while in the residual stage; a saturation of links is encoded in contact networks.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Young, R. Paul

2013-02-01

322

Large-Spot Material Interactions with a High-Power Solid-State Laser Beam  

SciTech Connect

We study the material interactions produced by the beam of a 25-kW solid-state laser, in experiments characterized by relatively large spot sizes ({approx}3 cm) and the presence of airflow. The targets are iron or aluminum slabs, of thickness 1 cm. In the experiments with iron, we show that combustion plays an important role in heating the material. In the experiments with aluminum, we observe a sharp transition from no melting to complete melt-through as the intensity on target increases. A layer of paint greatly reduces the requirements for melt-through. We explain these effects and incorporate them into an overall computational model.

Boley, C D; Fochs, S N; Rubenchik, A M

2008-08-06

323

A laser tracker active optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Binocular Telescope consists of two 8.4m telescopes on a common mount. Its current active optics system uses measured mechanical deflections of its optics to compensate for misalignment due to changes in telescope elevation angle and analysis of stellar images to calculate compensating optic displacements. The process is iterated until the inferred wavefront is within tolerance. Due to the asymmetry of the distribution of thermal mass of the telescope structure, thermal gradients during the night cause the current active optics alignment system to require extra iterations to achieve alignment. A system is proposed which uses a laser tracker to measure optic misalignment resulting from the additional thermal influence. This provides a single measurement of relative optic misalignment and reduces the number of iterations required to achieve collimation. A single laser tracker location can be used to measure the rigid body locations of the primary mirror, secondary mirror, prime focus camera, and flat tertiary mirror for both telescopes. A set of reference points on the telescope structure provides a common coordinate system for measurements of optic locations on each side and to assist with binocular copointing. The laser tracker measures the displacement of the optics relative to their locations measured when the telescope is in collimation. Practical considerations integrating the system with the telescope will be discussed, as well as its expected performance.

Dettmann, Lee; Ashby, Dave; Hill, John M.; Chatila, Amjad

2014-07-01

324

Research on the measurement method for a large laser beam profile based on CCD diffuse transmission imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity distribution of a laser beam (laser beam profile) is one of its most important characteristics because it yields information on the non-uniformity, centroid, centroid jitter and beam quality. A novel measurement method for obtaining a large laser beam intensity distribution based on CCD diffuse transmission imaging is proposed. The measurement principle is presented. The measurement components of the system have been designed. The layout of the system and the design of a diffuse transmission sampling target are emphasized. The methods of correcting geometric and intensity distortion of the spot are described in detail. The method to calibrate the power coefficient is also given. After the laser spot correction, we can obtain the precise laser beam intensity profile as well as the laser power. The presented test results validate the method. In the measurement field of large laser beams, the method can measure the profile with a non-uniformity of less than 1%, and laser power within 2% error compared with the calibration power meter. The measurement system can be used as a standard measurement instrument after being calibrated when manufactured.

Pang, Miao; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Xuewen; Gao, Xueyan; Hu, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shan

2013-12-01

325

Large Aperture Multiplexed Diffractive Lidar Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have delivered only 2 or 3 UV Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) thus far and have fallen short of the intended goal in size and in dual wavelength function. Looking back, it has been fortuitous that we even made anything work in the UV region. It was our good fortune to discover that the material we work with daily was adequate for use at 355 nm, if well rinsed during processing. If we had stuck to our original plan of etching in small pieces of fused silica, we would still be trying to make the first small section in our ion mill, which is not yet operational. The original plan was far too ambitious and would take another 2 years to complete beginning where we left off this time. In order to make a HOE for the IR as well as the UV we will likely have to learn to sensitize some film to the 1064 line and we have obtained sensitizer that is reported to work in that region already. That work would also take an additional year to complete.

Rallison, Richard D.; Schwemmer, Geary K. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

326

A low-noise large dynamic-range readout suitable for laser spectroscopy with photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An original low-noise large dynamic-range readout system for optical light spectroscopy with PIN diodes is presented. The front-end circuit is equipped with a smart device for automatic cancellation of the large dc offset brought about by the photodiode current. This device sinks away the exact amount of dc current from the preamplifier input, yielding auto zeroing of the output-voltage offset, while introducing the minimum electronic noise possible. As a result the measurement dynamic-range is maximized. Moreover, an auxiliary inspection point is provided which precisely tracks the dc component of the photodiode current. This output allows for precise beam alignment and may also be used for diagnostic purposes. The excellent gain stability and linearity make the circuit perfectly suited for optical-light pulse spectroscopy. Applications include particle sizing in the 100 nm range, two-dimensional characterization of semiconductor detectors, ultra-precise characterization of laser beam stability, confocal microscopy.

Pullia, A.; Sanvito, T.; Potenza, M. A.; Zocca, F.

2012-10-01

327

Multiple Differential Aperture Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Differential-aperture X-ray microscopy (DAXM) is a powerful approach to 3D tomography with particular relevance to X-ray microdiffraction. With DAXM, scattering from submicron volumes can be resolved. However, the method is intrinsically a scanning technique where every resolved volume element (voxel) requires at least one area-detector readout. Previous applications of DAXM have used a single wire for knife-edge step profiling. Here, we demonstrate a way to accelerate DAXM measurements using multiple wires. A proof-of-principle experiment with a three-wire prototype showed that the speed of measurements can be tripled, but careful calibrations of wires will be required to maintain the spatial accuracy. In addition, related possibilities for accelerating measurements are briefly discussed.

Chung, Jin-Seok [ORNL; Isa, Saliman Anavami [ORNL; Greene, Virgil [ORNL; Broadwater, Ombreyan Q [ORNL; Liu, W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL

2007-01-01

328

High rate, large area laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-power diode lasers (HPDL) are being increasingly used in industrial applications. Deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4 ) precursor by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied with emphasis on achieving high deposition rates. An HPDL system was used to provide a novel energy source facilitating a simple and compact design of the energy delivery system. Nickel deposits on complex, 3-dimensional polyurethane foam substrates were prepared and characterized. The resulting "nickel foam" represents a novel material of high porosity (>95% by volume) finding uses, among others, in the production of rechargeable battery and fuel cell electrodes and as a specialty high-temperature filtration medium. Deposition rates up to ˜19 mum/min were achieved by optimizing the gas precursor flow pattern and energy delivery to the substrate surface using a 480W diode laser. Factors affecting the transition from purely heterogeneous decomposition to a combined hetero- and homogeneous decomposition of nickel carbonyl were studied. High quality, uniform 3-D deposits produced at a rate more than ten times higher than in commercial processes were obtained by careful balance of mass transport (gas flow) and energy delivery (laser power). Cross-flow of the gases through the porous substrate was found to be essential in facilitating mass transport and for obtaining uniform deposits at high rates. When controlling the process in a transient regime (near the onset of homogenous decomposition), unique morphology features formed as part of the deposits, including textured surface with pyramid-shape crystallites, spherical and non-spherical particles and filaments. Operating the laser in a pulsed mode produced smooth, nano-crystalline deposits with sub-100 nm grains. The effect of H2S, a commonly used additive in nickel carbonyl CVD, was studied using both polyurethane and nickel foam substrates. H2S was shown to improve the substrate coverage and deposit uniformity in tests with polyurethane substrate, however, it was found to have no effect in improving the overall deposition rate compared to H2S-free deposition process. Deposition on other selected substrates, such as ultra-fine polymer foam, carbon nanofoam and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, was demonstrated. The HPDL system shows good promise for large-scale industrial application as the cost of HPDL energy continues to decrease.

Paserin, Vlad

329

A self pulsed laser ranging system under development at 'JPL'. [for onboard measurement of large space deployable reflector surface distortions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of large space deployable antenna reflectors to be used for broad-based communications systems is largely dependent on the accuracy with which the surface figure can be constructed and maintained. The paper examines various surface distortion tolerance and measurement requirements for various classes of communication antennas. Several surface measuring methods are described including a self-pulsed laser ranging system.

Berdahl, M.

1979-01-01

330

Development of large scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems  

SciTech Connect

Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for Inertial Confinement Fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and at relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future mega-joule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large (790 x 440 x 44 mm{sup 3}) plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology.

Ficini, G. [Centre d`Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, Villeneuve, St. Georges (France); Campbell, J.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

331

Diffraction of a Laser Beam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effect of the nonuniform irradiance across a laser beam on diffraction of the beam, specifically the Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam with a Gaussian irradiance profile as it passes through a circular aperture. (GA)

Jodoin, Ronald E.

1979-01-01

332

Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 ?m. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, ?, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation within variable-aperture fields will investigate the dependency of growth patterns on heterogeneous aperture distributions. (a) Aperture strain (?b/bi) after 14 days. Precipitation is concentrated near the inlet and decreases in the flow direction. (b) Width-averaged profiles of the initial and final aperture field show changes in aperture and smoothing that results from calcite precipitation between the initial discrete crystals.

Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

2013-12-01

333

Bore-sight calibration of the profile laser scanner using a large size exterior calibration field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bore-sight calibration procedure and results of a profile laser scanner using a large size exterior calibration field is presented in the paper. The task is a part of Autonomous Mapping Airship (AMA) project which aims to create s surveying system with specific properties suitable for effective surveying of medium-wide areas (units to tens of square kilometers per a day). As is obvious from the project name an airship is used as a carrier. This vehicle has some specific properties. The most important properties are high carrying capacity (15 kg), long flight time (3 hours), high operating safety and special flight characteristics such as stability of flight, in terms of vibrations, and possibility to flight at low speed. The high carrying capacity enables using of high quality sensors like professional infrared (IR) camera FLIR SC645, high-end visible spectrum (VIS) digital camera and optics in the visible spectrum and tactical grade INSGPS sensor iMAR iTracerRT-F200 and profile laser scanner SICK LD-LRS1000. The calibration method is based on direct laboratory measuring of coordinate offset (lever-arm) and in-flight determination of rotation offsets (bore-sights). The bore-sight determination is based on the minimization of squares of individual point distances from measured planar surfaces.

Koska, Bronislav; K?emen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin

2014-10-01

334

Large eddy simulation and laser diagnostic studies on a low swirl stratified premixed flame  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents numerical simulations and laser diagnostic experiments of a swirling lean premixed methane/air flame with an aim to compare different Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models for reactive flows. An atmospheric-pressure laboratory swirl burner has been developed wherein lean premixed methane/air is injected in an unconfined low-speed flow of air. The flame is stabilized above the burner rim in a moderate swirl flow, triggering weak vortex breakdown in the downstream direction. Both stereoscopic (3-component) PIV and 2-component PIV are used to investigate the flow. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to examine the temperature field in the leading flame front. Acetone-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to examine the fuel distribution. The experimental data are used to assess two different LES models; one based on level-set G-equation and flamelet chemistry, and the other based on finite rate chemistry with reduced kinetics. The two LES models treat the chemistry differently, which results in different predictions of the flame dynamic behavior and statistics. Yet, great similarity of flame structures was predicted by both models. The LES and experimental data reveal several intrinsic features of the low swirl flame such as the W-shape at the leading front, the highly wrinkled fronts in the shear layers, and the existence of extinction holes in the trailing edge of the flame. The effect of combustion models, the numerical solvers and boundary conditions on the flame and flow predictions was systematically examined. (author)

Nogenmyr, K.-J.; Bai, X.S. [Department of Energy Sciences, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Fureby, C. [Division of Weapons and Protection, The Swedish Defense Research Agency - FOI, Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, P.; Collin, R.; Linne, M. [Department of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund (Sweden)

2008-11-15

335

Large eddy simulation and laser diagnostic studies on a low swirl stratified premixed flame  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents numerical simulations and laser diagnostic experiments of a swirling lean premixed methane/air flame with an aim to compare different Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models for reactive flows. An atmospheric-pressure laboratory swirl burner has been developed wherein lean premixed methane/air is injected in an unconfined low-speed flow of air. The flame is stabilized above the burner rim in a moderate swirl flow, triggering weak vortex breakdown in the downstream direction. Both stereoscopic (3-component) PIV and 2-component PIV are used to investigate the flow. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to examine the temperature field in the leading flame front. Acetone-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to examine the fuel distribution. The experimental data are used to assess two different LES models; one based on level-set G-equation and flamelet chemistry, and the other based on finite rate chemistry with reduced kinetics. The two LES models treat the chemistry differently, which results in different predictions of the flame dynamic behavior and statistics. Yet, great similarity of flame structures was predicted by both models. The LES and experimental data reveal several intrinsic features of the low swirl flame such as the W-shape at the leading front, the highly wrinkled fronts in the shear layers, and the existence of extinction holes in the trailing edge of the flame. The effect of combustion models, the numerical solvers and boundary conditions on the flame and flow predictions was systematically examined. (author)

Nogenmyr, K.-J.; Bai, X.S. [Department of Energy Sciences, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Fureby, C. [Division of Weapons and Protection, Swedish Defense Research Agency Y FOI, Stockholm (Sweden); Petersson, P.; Collin, R.; Linne, M. [Department of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund (Sweden)

2009-01-15

336

Time-resolved pattern evolution in a large-aperture class A laser Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Group. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid, Spain  

E-print Network

and Chaos Group. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mo´stoles, Madrid, Spain J. M. Guerra Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fi´sicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain Received 15

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

337

Miniature synthetic-aperture radar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loral Defense Systems-Arizona has developed a high-performance synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) for small aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) reconnaissance applications. This miniature radar, called Miniature Synthetic-Aperture Radar (MSAR), is packaged in a small volume and has low weight. It retains key features of large SAR systems, including high-resolution imaging and all-weather operation. The operating frequency of MSAR can optionally be selected to provide foliage penetration capability. Many imaging radar configurations can be derived using this baseline system. MSAR with a data link provides an attractive UAV sensor. MSAR with a real-time image formation processor is well suited to installations where onboard processing and immediate image analysis are required. The MSAR system provides high-resolution imaging for short-to-medium range reconnaissance applications.

Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.

1990-11-01

338

Bethe's aperture theory for arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bethe’s theory is applied to the optical transmission through an array of apertures in an infinitely thin perfect electric conductor. This method shows that, in the small-aperture limit, the lowest-order TM evanescent mode governs the transmission process, allowing for both 100% transmission at the passband wavelength and zero transmission at the Wood’s anomaly. The applicability of this theory to total transmission in other systems is discussed, and a specific example of a single aperture in a transverse screen of a rectangular waveguide is given.

Gordon, Reuven

2007-11-01

339

Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy  

PubMed Central

State-of-the-art methods in high-resolution three-dimensional optical microscopy require that the focus be scanned through the entire region of interest. However, an analysis of the physics of the light–sample interaction reveals that the Fourier-space coverage is independent of depth. Here we show that, by solving the inverse scattering problem for interference microscopy, computed reconstruction yields volumes with a resolution in all planes that is equivalent to the resolution achieved only at the focal plane for conventional high-resolution microscopy. In short, the entire illuminated volume has spatially invariant resolution, thus eliminating the compromise between resolution and depth of field. We describe and demonstrate a novel computational image-formation technique called interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). ISAM has the potential to broadly impact real-time three-dimensional microscopy and analysis in the fields of cell and tumour biology, as well as in clinical diagnosis where in vivo imaging is preferable to biopsy.

Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

2014-01-01

340

Production of large molecular ion crystals via sympathetic cooling by laser-cooled Ba+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have produced ensembles of cold 16O+2, 40Ar+, 12C16O+2, and various isotopes of barium ions (135Ba+, 136Ba+ and 137Ba+) via sympathetic cooling with laser-cooled 138Ba+ in a linear radiofrequency trap. The sympathetically cooled species were embedded in the centre of large 138Ba+ Coulomb crystals containing up to 2000 ions and were identified by motional resonance excitation. Crystals with molecular fractions exceeding 70% were obtained. The observed multi-species crystal structures agree well with results from molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations were also used to deduce an upper limit for the translational temperature of the molecular ions, as low as 20 mK.

Roth, B.; Ostendorf, A.; Wenz, H.; Schiller, S.

2005-10-01

341

Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems.  

PubMed

We present a novel ytterbium (Yb)-doped large-pitch fiber design with significantly increased pump absorption and higher energy storage/gain per unit length, which enables high-peak-power fiber laser systems with smaller footprints. Up to now index matching between core and surrounding material in microstructured fibers was achieved by co-doping the active core region with fluorine. Here we carry out the index matching by passively doping the cladding with germanium, thus raising its index of refraction. Hence, the fluorine in the core can be omitted, which leads to an effective increase of the core doping concentration, while detrimental effects such as photo-darkening and lifetime quenching are avoided by maintaining the bulk Yb concentration. Experiments and simulations show that a gain higher than 50 dB/m and an output average power higher than 100 W with excellent beam quality are feasible even with a fiber length of only 40 cm. PMID:24562108

Gaida, Christian; Stutzki, Fabian; Jansen, Florian; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Eidam, Tino; Jauregui, Cesar; de Vries, Oliver; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

2014-01-15

342

Large-Scale Hollow Retroreflectors for Lunar Laser Ranging at Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser ranging to the retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Luna missions have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Although the precision of the range measurements has historically been limited by the ground station capabilities, advances in the APOLLO instrument at the Apache Point facility in New Mexico is beginning to be limited by errors associated with the lunar arrays. We report here on efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center to develop the next generation of lunar retroreflectors. We will describe a new facility that is being used to design, assemble, and test large-scale hollow retroreflectors. We will also describe results from investigations into various bonding techniques used to assemble the open comer cubes and mirror coatings that have dust mitigation properties.

Preston, Alix

2012-01-01

343

Resonators for solid-state lasers with large-volume fundamental mode and high alignment stability  

SciTech Connect

Resonators containing a focusing rod are thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, as a function of the dioptric power of the rod, two stability zones of the same width exist and that the mode volume in the rod always presents a stationary point. At this point, the output power is insensitive to the focal length fluctuations, and the mode volume inside the rod is inversely proportional to the range of the input power for which the resonator is stable. The two zones are markedly different with respect to misalignment sensitivity, which is, in general, much greater in one zone than in the other. Two design procedures are presented for monomode solid-state laser resonators with large mode volume and low sensitivity both to focal length fluctuations and to misalignment.

Magni, V.

1986-01-01

344

Percutaneous laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of very large uterine leiomyomas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of treating tumors of the liver under local anaesthesia and ultrasound and computered tomography control by mens of the diode laser of 810 nm wavelength with fiber splitter and multiple fibers suggested this form of LITT might be suitable for the treatment of very large leiomyomas where laparoscopy was not possible. The immediate effect of LITT was to produce a large volume of coagulation within the myomas, to destroy the oestrogen receptors and to coagulate the surrounding blood vessels. After one month the coagulated volume had been converted into a jelly-like substance and the zone surrounding this had started to degenerate because of the destruction of its blood vessels which had resulted in local tissue anoxia. Three months later the central coagulum and surrounding zone had been partially absorbed and the whole volume of myoma treated had shrunk to a quarter of the original size. It has thus been shown that a minimally invasive method for the destruction of very large uterine leiomyomas can be safely performed, but further research is required before its general adoption.

Chapman, Roxana

1997-05-01

345

Reflex ring laser amplifier system  

DOEpatents

The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator, e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the gain medium.

Summers, M.A.

1983-08-31

346

Near-term feasibility demonstration of laser power beaming  

SciTech Connect

A mission to recharge batteries of satellites in geostationary orbits (geosats) may be a commercially viable application which could be achieved with laser systems somewhat larger than present state-of-the-art. The lifetime of batteries on geosats is limited by repetitive discharge cycles which occur when the satellites are eclipsed by the earth during the spring and fall equinoxes. By coupling high power lasers with modern, large aperture telescopes and laser guide star adaptive optics systems, present day communications satellites could be targeted. It is important that a near term demonstration of laser power beaming be accomplished using lasers in the kilowatt range so that issues associated with high average power be addressed. The Laser Guide Star Facility at LLNL has all the necessary subsystems needed for such a near term demonstration, including high power lasers for both the power beam and guide star, beam directors and satellite tracking system.

Friedman, H.W.

1994-01-01

347

UAVSAR Phased Array Aperture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a patch antenna array for an L-band repeat-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) instrument that is to be flown on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The antenna operates at a center frequency of 1.2575 GHz and with a bandwidth of 80 MHz, consistent with a number of radar instruments that JPL has previously flown. The antenna is designed to radiate orthogonal linear polarizations in order to facilitate fully-polarimetric measurements. Beam-pointing requirements for repeat-pass SAR interferometry necessitate electronic scanning in azimuth over a range of -20degrees in order to compensate for aircraft yaw. Beam-steering is accomplished by transmit/receive (T/R) modules and a beamforming network implemented in a stripline circuit board. This paper, while providing an overview of phased array architecture, focuses on the electromagnetic design of the antenna tiles and associated interconnects. An important aspect of the design of this antenna is that it has an amplitude taper of 10dB in the elevation direction. This is to reduce multipath reflections from the wing that would otherwise be detrimental to interferometric radar measurements. This taper is provided by coupling networks in the interconnect circuits as opposed to attenuating the output of the T/R modules. Details are given of material choices and fabrication techniques that meet the demanding environmental conditions that the antenna must operate in. Predicted array performance is reported in terms of co-polarized and crosspolarized far-field antenna patterns, and also in terms of active reflection coefficient.

Chamberlain, Neil; Zawadzki, Mark; Sadowy, Greg; Oakes, Eric; Brown, Kyle; Hodges, Richard

2009-01-01

348

Nonlinear laser lithography for indefinitely large-area nanostructuring with femtosecond pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical systems based on the interplay of nonlinear feedback mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Well-understood examples from photonics include mode locking and a broad class of fractal optics, including self-similarity. In addition to the fundamental interest in such systems, fascinating technical functionalities that are difficult or even impossible to achieve with linear systems can emerge naturally from them if the right control tools can be applied. Here, we demonstrate a method that exploits positive nonlocal feedback to initiate, and negative local feedback to regulate, the growth of ultrafast laser-induced metal-oxide nanostructures with unprecedented uniformity, at high speed, low cost and on non-planar or flexible surfaces. The nonlocal nature of the feedback allows us to stitch the nanostructures seamlessly, enabling coverage of indefinitely large areas with subnanometre uniformity in periodicity. We demonstrate our approach through the fabrication of titanium dioxide and tungsten oxide nanostructures, but it can also be extended to a large variety of other materials.

Öktem, Bülent; Pavlov, Ihor; Ilday, Serim; Kalayc?o?lu, Hamit; Rybak, Andrey; Yava?, Seydi; Erdo?an, Mutlu; Ilday, F. Ömer

2013-11-01

349

Space-Time-Waveform Adaptive Processing for Frequency Diverse Distributed Radar Apertures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews recent developments in the field of adaptive processing for frequency diverse, distributed, radar apertures. The large baseline of such a distributed radar results in angular resolution that is orders of magnitude better than the resolution of a single large radar. This capability comes at the cost of grating lobes (multistatics with evenly spaced apertures) or high sidelobes

Raviraj S. Adve; Lorne Applebaum; Michael C. Wicks; Richard A. Schneible

2006-01-01

350

Analytical solutions for the electromagnetic fields of flattened and annular Gaussian laser modes. II. Large F-number laser focusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spherical Hankel function series solution for the vector components of a general flattened Gaussian laser field is derived, based on the angular spectrum of plane waves. This perturbative series is valid for spot sizes greater than ten wavelengths, creating a complete vector solution for a general flattened Gaussian laser profile for all focusing conditions when coupled to the model developed in Part I of this investigation [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23, 2157 (2006)]. The focusing and propagation properties of these fields are then explored numerically. Finally, the exact solution is compared to the perturbative Hermite-Gaussian (0,0) laser mode by comparing the focal plane boundary conditions imposed in each and is found to be a separate and distinct solution under tight focusing conditions.

Sepke, Scott M.; Umstadter, Donald P.

2006-10-01

351

SYNTHETIC APERTURE SONAR: A TOOL IN UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) is coherent combination of successive pings such that the along-track resolution is improved. The along-track resolution in SAS images become range and frequency independent. SAS technology is efficient - it provides high resolution and large area coverage simultaneously. This makes SAS an ideal tool in search for small objects over large areas. The

Roy E Hansen; Helge S Telle

352

Diffraction analysis for periodic nano-scale apertures, scatterers and absorbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a laser diffraction measurement method to characterize periodic arrays of nano-structures including nano-scale apertures, scatterers and absorbers. The new method is very sensitive to the shapes, sizes, periodicities and alignments of tiny structures which are even smaller than the wavelength of light. The structures with a dimension of 400 nm were measured with a 532 nm laser, using

John D. Wright; Jared D. L. Jensen; Glen C. King; Sang H. Choi

2005-01-01

353

Very high numerical aperture light transmitting device  

DOEpatents

A new light-transmitting device using a SCIN glass core and a novel calcium sodium cladding has been developed. The very high index of refraction, radiation hardness, similar solubility for rare earths and similar melt and viscosity characteristics of core and cladding materials makes them attractive for several applications such as high-numerical-aperture optical fibers and specialty lenses. Optical fibers up to 60 m in length have been drawn, and several simple lenses have been designed, ground, and polished. Preliminary results on the ability to directly cast optical components of lead-indium phosphate glass are also discussed as well as the suitability of these glasses as a host medium for rare-earth ion lasers and amplifiers.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01

354

Self-pulsing in a large mode area, end-pumped, double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of self-pulsing in a large mode area, end-pumped, double-clad Yb-doped fiber laser are presented. The laser operates in a self-pulsing regime, either by using one or two perpendicularly cleaved ends as the feedback mirrors, while it transforms in a broadband amplified spontaneous emission source when both ends are angle cleaved. In the pulsed regime, up to 2?µs full width at half maximum pulse widths and repetition rates of the order of hundreds of kHz are generated.

Toral-Acosta, D.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Selvas-Aguilar, R.; Kir’yanov, A. V.; Anzueto-Sanchez, G.; Duran-Ramirez, V. M.

2014-10-01

355

Fabrication of large-scale ripples on fluorine-doped tin oxide films by femtosecond laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale uniform self-organized ripples are fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass by femtosecond laser. They can be smoothly linked in a horizontal line with the moving of XYZ stage by setting its velocity and the repetition rate of the laser. The ripple-to-ripple linking can also be realized through line-by-line scanning on a vertical level. The mechanism analysis shows that the seeding effect plays a key role in the linking of ripples.

Han, Yan-Hua; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xiu-Li; Qu, Shi-Liang

2014-09-01

356

Large-Scale Production of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on our interdisciplinary program to use the Free Electron Laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J-Lab) for high-volume pulsed laser vaporization synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Based in part on the funding of from this project, a novel nanotube production system was designed, tested, and patented. Using this new system nanotube production rates over 100 times faster than conventional laser systems were achieved. Analysis of the material produced shows that it is of as high a quality as the standard laser-based materials.

Holloway, Brian C.

2003-01-01

357

Large scale Tesla coil guided discharges initiated by femtosecond laser filamentation in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The guiding of meter scale electric discharges produced in air by a Tesla coil is realized in laboratory using a focused terawatt laser pulse undergoing filamentation. The influence of the focus position, the laser arrival time, or the gap length is studied to determine the best conditions for efficient laser guiding. Discharge parameters such as delay, jitter, and resistance are characterized. An increase of the discharge length by a factor 5 has been achieved with the laser filaments, corresponding to a mean breakdown field of 2 kV/cm for a 1.8 m gap length. Consecutive guided discharges at a repetition rate of 10 Hz are also reported.

Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Prade, B.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

2014-07-01

358

Laser Speckle Flowmetry Method for Measuring Spatial and Temporal Hemodynamic Alterations Throughout Large Microvascular Networks  

PubMed Central

Objectives 1) Develop and validate laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) as a quantitative tool for individual microvessel hemodynamics in large networks. 2) Use LSF to determine if structural differences in the dorsal skinfold microcirculation (DSFWC) of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice impart differential network hemodynamic responses to occlusion. Methods We compared LSF velocity measurements to known/measured velocities in vitro using capillary tube tissue phantoms and in vivo using mouse DSFWCs and cremaster muscles. Hemodynamic changes induced by feed arteriole occlusion were measured using LSF in DSFWCs implanted on C57BL/6 and BALB/c. Results In vitro, we found that the normalized speckle intensity (NSI) versus velocity linear relationship (R2?0.97) did not vary with diameter or hematocrit and can be shifted to meet an expected operating range. In vivo, DSFWC and cremaster muscle preparations (R2=0.92 and 0.95, respectively) demonstrated similar linear relationships between NSI and centerline velocity. Stratification of arterioles into predicted collateral pathways revealed significant differences between C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains in response to feed arteriole occlusion. Conclusions These data demonstrate the applicability of LSF to intravital microscopy microcirculation preparations for determining both relative and absolute hemodynamics on a network-wide scale while maintaining the resolution of individual microvessels. PMID:22591575

Meisner, Joshua K.; Sumer, Suna; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Higgins, Timothy J.; Price, Richard J.

2012-01-01

359

Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg {alpha}-decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d{sup 9}6s {sup 3}D{sub 3}{yields}5d{sup 9}6p {sup 3}P{sub 2} optical transition, hyperfine spectra of {sup 182,181,180,179,178}Pt and {sup 183}Pt{sup m} were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of {sup 183}Pt{sup m} were thus measured. A large deformation change between {sup 183}Pt{sup g} and {sup 183}Pt{sup m}, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force.

Le Blanc, F.; Obert, J.; Oms, J.; Putaux, J. C.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Pinard, J.; Cabaret, L.; Duong, H. T. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Crawford, J. E.; Lee, J. K. P. [Foster Radiation Laboratory, Mc Gill University, H3A2T8 Montreal (Canada); Genevey, J. [Institut des Sciences Nuceaires, IN2P3-CNRS, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Girod, M.; Peru, S. [C.E.A, Service de Physique Nucleaire, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Huber, G.; Krieg, M.; Sebastian, V. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lettry, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Lunney, D. [C.S.N.S.M., IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Zemlyanoi, S. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reaction, JINR, Dubna 141980, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

1998-12-21

360

Aperture impedance of flared horns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of moments is often used when solving for the mutual coupling in arrays of aperture antennas. For elements that are waveguides or gradually flared horns the aperture fields can be approximated by a finite sum of waveguide modal functions. To solve for the flared horn case an approximation for the aperture impedances of the modes in the horn is needed. The WKB approach can be used to find these impedances, but this technique has an important limitation. It is known to fail in the vicinity of its turning points. The turning point is the cutoff point of the mode being considered. To overcome this limitation a different technique, the spherical mode approach, is discussed. This approach has no cutoff problems and works well for conical and pyramidal horns. Comparisons between the impedances and the resulting dominant mode reflection coefficient found using the two techniques are presented to illustrate this point.

Silvestro, J. W.; Collin, R. E.

1989-01-01

361

Experimental evidence of plasma-induced incoherence of a laser beam after propagation through an underdense plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments with the six-beam laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des lasers Intenses (LULI) have demonstrated simultaneous and correlated large angular beam spreading and spectral broadening, on the red side of the spectra, of a RPP laser beam after its propagation through an underdense plasma.. At the highest intensities, the beam initial aperture is widely broadened (the F.W.H.M. aperture is increased by a factor 2) and its bandwidth increases from <0.1 A to more than 10 A. Results showing the effect of the plasma electron density, laser intensity and polarization smoothing will be presented. The increase of spatial and temporal incoherence of the laser beam is discussed following recent numerical simulations.

Labaune, Christine; Fuchs, Julien; Depierreux, Sylvie; Baldis, Hector; Pesme, Denis; Myatt, Jason; Hüller, Stefan; Laval, Guy; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir

2000-10-01

362

Mosaic of coded aperture arrays  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

Fenimore, Edward E. (Los Alamos, NM); Cannon, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01

363

Polarization and angular effects of femtosecond laser-induced nanostructure-covered large scale waves on metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we find that nanostructure-covered large scale waves (NC-LSWs) can be produced on metals using both s- and p-polarized femtosecond laser pulses. We show that the period of NC-LSWs can be controlled by laser fluence, the number of irradiating pulses, and the incident beam angle. By modeling angular dependence of NC-LSW period induced by s-polarized light, we reveal that inhomogeneous energy deposition plays an important role in the formation of NC-LSWs. This allows us to establish a three-step model for NC-LSW formation, the formation of laser-induced surface unevenness, inhomogeneous energy deposition due to the interference of the incident light with the scattered light, and nonuniform energy deposition due to shielding by LSWs.

Hwang, Taek Yong; Guo, Chunlei

2011-10-01

364

Stimulated forward Raman scattering in large scale-length laser-produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forward stimulated Raman scattering (FSRS) diagnostic was developed for the 60 beam Omega laser facility to investigate the propagation of an intense ( ~ 8 × 1014 W/cm2), frequency doubled Nd:glass laser beam ( <= 360 J, 527 nm, 1 ns) through a mm-scale laser-produced plasma. Forward scattered light was measured with spectral, and temporal resolution using a streaked spectrometer and an absolutely calibrated photo-multiplier. We present a detailed description of the instrument, the calibration methods, as well as the first forward Raman scattering measurements from hot ( ~ 2 keV), dense (5.5 × 1020 cm-3) laser-produced plasmas. These results are of interest to laser-driven inertial fusion at the National Ignition Facility where larger plasma scales could potentially lead to higher FSRS gains. In addition, simultaneous measurements of stimulated forward and backward scattered light present an unambiguous method for determining plasma density and temperature.

Niemann, C.; Berger, R. L.; Divol, L.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Moody, J. D.; Sorce, C. M.; Glenzer, S. H.

2011-10-01

365

Application of Ruze Equation for Inflatable Aperture Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inflatable aperture reflector antennas are an emerging technology that NASA is investigating for potential uses in science and exploration missions. As inflatable aperture antennas have not been proven fully qualified for space missions, they must be characterized properly so that the behavior of the antennas can be known in advance. To properly characterize the inflatable aperture antenna, testing must be performed in a relevant environment, such as a vacuum chamber. Since the capability of having a radiofrequency (RF) test facility inside a vacuum chamber did not exist at NASA Glenn Research Center, a different methodology had to be utilized. The proposal to test an inflatable aperture antenna in a vacuum chamber entailed performing a photogrammetry study of the antenna surface by using laser ranging measurements. A root-mean-square (rms) error term was derived from the photogrammetry study to calculate the antenna surface loss as described by the Ruze equation. However, initial testing showed that problems existed in using the Ruze equation to calculate the loss due to errors on the antenna surface. This study utilized RF measurements obtained in a near-field antenna range and photogrammetry data taken from a laser range scanner to compare the expected performance of the test antenna (via the Ruze equation) with the actual RF patterns and directivity measurements. Results showed that the Ruze equation overstated the degradation in the directivity calculation. Therefore, when the photogrammetry study is performed on the test antennas in the vacuum chamber, a more complex equation must be used in light of the fact that the Ruze theory overstates the loss in directivity for inflatable aperture reflector antennas.

Welch, Bryan W.

2008-01-01

366

Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap. A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03° and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

Rakonjac, Ana; Roberts, Kris O.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

2013-02-01

367

Future of synthetic aperture radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present status of the applications of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) is reviewed, and the technology state-of-the art as represented by the Seasat-A and SIR-A SARs examined. The potential of SAR applications, and the near- and longer-term technology trends are assessed.

Barath, F. T.

1978-01-01

368

INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Large-scale structures produced on metal surfaces by multiple laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is constructed to describe the formation of inhomogeneous surface structures 10-50 ?m in height on metal surfaces exposed to repetitive laser pulses with the following parameters: pulse duration of ~20 ns, pulse repetition rate of ~10 kHz, pulse intensity in the range 107—108 W cm-2 and beam diameter from 50 to 100 ?m. The model takes into account melting of the metal and melt flow over a distorted surface. The surface profile amplitude evaluated in the model agrees with experimental data.

Kirichenko, N. A.

2009-05-01

369

Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

2008-06-30

370

Controlling the nonlinear intracavity dynamics of large He-Ne laser gyroscopes  

E-print Network

A model based on Lamb's theory of gas lasers is applied to a He-Ne ring laser gyroscope in order to estimate and remove the laser dynamics contribution from the rotation measurements. The intensities of the counter-propagating laser beams exiting one cavity mirror are continuously observed together with a monitor of the laser population inversion. These observables, once properly calibrated with a dedicated procedure, allow us to estimate cold cavity and active medium parameters driving the main part of the nonlinearities of the system. The parameters identification and noise subtraction procedure has been verified by means of a Monte Carlo study of the system, and experimentally tested on the G-Pisa ring laser oriented with the normal to the ring plane almost parallel to the Earth rotation axis. In this configuration the Earth rotation-rate provides the maximum Sagnac effect while the contribution of the orientation error is reduced at minimum. After the subtraction of laser dynamics by a Kalman filter, the ...

Cuccato, Davide; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Ortolan, Antonello; Di Virgilio, Angela

2013-01-01

371

Imaging algorithms for a strip-map synthetic aperture sonar: minimizing the effects of aperture errors and aperture undersampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging the sea floor using high-precision synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) techniques is at the stage where the efficiency and the robustness of the various imaging algorithms are of concern. There have been several block processing algorithms developed for relatively narrow-band-, narrow swath-, and narrow beamwidth synthetic aperture systems mainly for use by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) community. These algorithms

Peter T. Gough; David W. Hawkins

1997-01-01

372

Power deposited by a Gaussian beam on a decentered circular aperture.  

PubMed

An expression for the energy or power deposited by a Gaussian beam on a decentered circular aperture is derived. It represents a generalization of the classic laser-beam truncation problem, with applications in the areas of laser scanning, detection theory, lidar, free-space communications, and so on. In addition, it can be used to quantify the effect of alignment errors on laser systems. PMID:21060492

Barbeau, N R

1995-10-01

373

Observation of large-angle quasi-monoenergetic electrons from a laser wakefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistically intense laser pulse is focused into a gas jet and quasi-monoenergetic electrons emitted at a 37 degree angle with respect to the laser axis are observed. The average energy of the electrons was between 1 and 2 MeV and the total accelerated charge was about 1 nC emitted into a 10 degree cone angle. The electron characteristics were sensitive to plasma density. The results are compared with three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. This electron acceleration mechanism might be useful as a source of injection electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator.

Kaganovich, Dmitri; Gordon, Daniel; Ting, Antonio; Milioutina, Natalie; Sprangle, Phillip

2007-11-01

374

Observation of large-angle quasi-monoenergetic electrons from a laser wakefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistically intense laser pulse is focused into a gas jet and quasi-monoenergetic electrons emitted at a 40 degree angle with respect to the laser axis are observed. The average energy of the electrons was between 1 and 2 MeV and the total accelerated charge was about 1 nC emitted into a 10 degree cone angle. The electron characteristics were sensitive to plasma density. The results are compared with three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. This electron acceleration mechanism might be useful as a source of injection electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator.

Kaganovich, Dmitri; Gordon, Daniel; Ting, Antonio

2008-11-01

375

Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker  

E-print Network

Due to its unique electronic property and the Pauli Blocking Principle, atomic layer graphene possesses wavelength-independent ultrafast saturable absorption, which can be exploited for the ultrafast photonics application. Through chemical functionalization, a graphene-polymer nanocomposite membrane was fabricated and firstly used to mode lock a fiber laser. Stable mode locked solitons with 3 nJ pulse energy, 700 fs pulse width at the 1590 nm wavelength have been directly generated from the laser. We show that graphene-polymer nanocomposites could be an attractive saturable absorber for high power fiber laser mode locking.

Han Zhang; Qiaoliang Bao; Dingyuan Tang; Luming Zhao; Kianping Loh

2009-09-30

376

Vacuum isostatic micro/macro molding of PTFE materials for laser beam shaping in environmental applications: large scale UV laser water purification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accessibility to fresh clean water has determined the location and survival of civilizations throughout the ages [1]. The tangible economic value of water is demonstrated by industry's need for water in fields such as semiconductor, food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Economic stability for all sectors of industry depends on access to reliable volumes of good quality water. As can be seen on television a nation's economy is seriously affected by water shortages through drought or mismanagement and as such those water resources must therefore be managed both for the public interest and the economic future. For over 50 years ultraviolet water purification has been the mainstay technology for water treatment, killing potential microbiological agents in water for leisure activities such as swimming pools to large scale waste water treatment facilities where the UV light photo-oxidizes various pollutants and contaminants. Well tailored to the task, UV provides a cost effective way to reduce the use of chemicals in sanitization and anti-biological applications. Predominantly based on low pressure Hg UV discharge lamps, the system is plagued with lifetime issues (~1 year normal operation), the last ten years has shown that the technology continues to advance and larger scale systems are turning to more advanced lamp designs and evaluating solidstate UV light sources and more powerful laser sources. One of the issues facing the treatment of water with UV lasers is an appropriate means of delivering laser light efficiently over larger volumes or cross sections of water. This paper examines the potential advantages of laser beam shaping components made from isostatically micro molding microstructured PTFE materials for integration into large scale water purification and sterilization systems, for both lamps and laser sources. Applying a unique patented fabrication method engineers can form micro and macro scale diffractive, holographic and faceted reflective structures into fused and semi-fused PTFE materials and compounds for use in UV Reactors. The materials unique attributes provide an unusual but effective hybrid element, by combining Lambertian diffusion and spectral reflective attributes. This paper will provide examples of the applications where this technology could be applied and typical constructions. An overview of UV sources commonly used in water treatment, including high power UV lasers and solid state UV light sources will be discussed. The paper will summarize how beam shaping elements produced in PTFE materials would provide further benefits to the emerging water disinfection or treatment market.

Lizotte, Todd; Ohar, Orest

2009-08-01

377

Multi-static coherent sparse aperture approach to precision target detection and engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar systems have long been plagued by poor cross range (azimuthal) resolution due to the standoff range of the sensors and limitations of aperture size and beamwidth. This problem is especially an issue for sensors operating in the VHF and UHF bands due to the large physical aperture required to achieve reasonable beamwidths. A coherent sparse sensor network can improve

D. R. Kirk; J. S. Bergin; P. M. Techau; J. E. Don Carlos

2005-01-01

378

REVIEW ARTICLE Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar  

E-print Network

REVIEW ARTICLE Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Christopher T. Allen Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory University of Kansas Abstract. This paper provides a brief review of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (In

Kansas, University of

379

Large-area organic distributed feedback laser fabricated by nanoreplica molding and  

E-print Network

­1295 (2007). 2. G. Morthier, W. D'Oosterlinck, and K. Huybrechts, "All-optical flip-flops based on DFB laser). 6. N. Tsutsumi, A. Fujihara, and D. Hayashi, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with a threshold

Cunningham, Brian

380

LumiPoint: Multi-User Laser-Based Interaction on Large Tiled Displays  

E-print Network

. It is bright enough to be used in normal office lighting and appears as a single seamless display device, with two Infinite Reality graphics pipes [9]. In this system, each individual uses a laser pointer

Stanford University

381

LumiPoint: MultiUser LaserBased Interaction on Large Tiled Displays  

E-print Network

. It is bright enough to be used in normal office lighting and appears as a single seamless display device, with two Infinite Reality graphics pipes [10]. In this system, each individual uses a laser pointer

Stanford University

382

LumiPoint: Multi-User Laser-Based Interaction on Large Tiled Displays  

E-print Network

. It is bright enough to be used in normal office lighting and appears as a single seamless display device, with two Infinite Reality graphics pipes [10]. In this system, each individual uses a laser pointer

Stanford University

383

Large-volume pulsed-RF excited waveguide CO sub 2 lasers  

SciTech Connect

In this paper scalable pulsed-RF excitation of a sealed-off nonflowing CO{sub 2} laser in a configuration compatible with high transverse and high longitudinal mode purity and compatible with very compact laser designs is described. The variation of maximum pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) with discharge transverse dimensions, the effects of electric field uniformity, and scalability of the results to the 10 J, 50 Hz level are discussed.

Brown, R.T.; Newman, L.A. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (US)); Murray, M.W.; Hart, R.A. (United Technologies Optical Systems, West Palm Beach, FL (US))

1992-02-01

384

Melt dynamics of aluminum irradiated with ultrafast laser radiation at large intensities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ablation of bulk aluminum has been investigated in situ using ultrafast laser radiation produced by chirped-pulse amplification technique (tp=80 fs, lambda=800 nm). Melt dynamics and the contribution of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) to the ablation have been studied experimentally and numerically for laser fluences well above ablation threshold (F<~103×Fthr). Using transient quantitative phase microscopy (TQPm), dimensions and volume of

Ilya Mingareev; Alexander Horn

2009-01-01

385

Asymptotic theory of a large fiber-laser array passive phase locking.  

PubMed

Coherent laser beam combining is a potentially attractive way to increase the combined beam brightness beyond the technological limits to single-mode fiber lasers. Passive phase locking (PPL) does not need external management and leads to strong simplification of the system. A specific feature of fiber amplifiers and lasers is that they possess optical path differences of the magnitude of many wavelengths. The involved problem in the PPL approach is to specify an ultimate limit to the phase-locked laser-array size. Earlier studies confirm the stabilizing role of gain saturation on beam-combining efficiency. The purpose of our study is to decipher the desired effect of nonlinearity on the combining efficiency in two architectures of a globally coupled fiber-laser array: (I) an array of amplifiers in ring resonator configuration with spatially filtered feedback; (II) an array of lasers also with external feedback. The external-cavity feedback in both systems results in global coupling, i.e., each element is coherently coupled to all the others. A semi-analytical approach based on the probability theory is developed to calculate the probability density for the efficiency as a function of system parameters in both ensembles. Comparison between (I) and (II) arrays indicates that the II-type arrays demonstrate better characteristics while scaling the array size. PMID:25402934

Napartovich, Anatoly P; Elkin, Nikolay N; Vysotsky, Dmitry V

2014-11-01

386

APERTURE PATTERN AND MICROSPOROGENESIS IN ASPARAGALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aperture pattern of pollen grains is a character defined as the number, shape, and position of apertures. Although this character is highly variable in angiosperms, two states are particularly wide- spread. Pollen grains with one polar aperture occur frequently in basal angiosperms and monocots while tricolpate pollen is a synapomorphy of the eudicots. Many morphological characters are the result

SOPHIE NADOT; LAURENT PENET; LEANNE D. DREYER; ARLETTE FORCHIONI; ADRIENNE RESSAYRE

387

Average brightness temperature of antenna aperture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presented an idea for the average brightness temperature of lossless antenna aperture, gave its expression for\\u000a matched and dismatched noise source. This expression showed that the average brightness temperature of antenna aperture related\\u000a with three factors: the noise temperature of noise source, the reflection coefficient of noise source, and the aperture efficiency.

Li Zongqian

1997-01-01

388

ESTAR - A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer for measuring soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of soil moisture from space requires putting relatively large microwave antennas in orbit. Aperture synthesis, an interferometric technique for reducing the antenna aperture needed in space, offers the potential for a practical means of meeting these requirements. An aircraft prototype, electronically steered thinned array L-band radiometer (ESTAR), has been built to develop this concept and to demonstrate its suitability for the measurement of soil moisture. Recent flights over the Walnut Gulch Watershed in Arizona show good agreement with ground truth and with measurements with the Pushbroom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR).

Le Vine, D. M.; Griffis, A.; Swift, C. T.; Jackson, T. J.

1992-01-01

389

Extreme ultraviolet spectra from highly charged gadolinium and neodymium ions in the Large Helical Device and laser produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed extreme ultraviolet spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd) and neodymium (Nd) ions produced in two different types of light sources for comparative studies. Only broad quasicontinuum feature arising from unresolved transition array was observed in high-density laser produced plasmas of pure/diluted Gd and Nd targets at the University College Dublin, and the spectral feature largely depends on electron temperature in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The difference in spectral feature among a number of spectra can be qualitatively interpreted by considering dominant ion stages and opacity effects in the plasmas.

Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; O'Gorman, C.; Li, B.; Harte, C. S.; Donnelly, T.; O'Sullivan, G.

2013-09-01

390

The Effect of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Laser on Sandblasting with Large Grit and Acid Etching (SLA) Surface  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6W power Carbon Dioxide Laser (CO2) on the biologic compatibility of the Sandblasting with large grit and acid etching (SLA) titanium discs through studying of the Sarcoma Osteogenic (SaOS-2) human osteoblast-like cells viability. Methods: Sterilized titanium discs were used together with SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells. 6 sterilized SLA titanium discs of the experimental group were exposed to irradiation by CO2 laser with a power of 6W and 10.600nm wavelength, at fixed frequency of 80Hz during 45 seconds in both pulse and non-contact settings. SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells were incubated under 37°C in humid atmosphere (95% weather, 5% CO2) for 72 hours. MTT test was performed to measure the ratio level of cellular proliferation. Results: The results indicated that at 570nm wavelength, the 6W CO2 laser power have not affected the cellular viability. Conclusion: CO2 laser in 6w power has had no effect on the biologic compatibility of the SLA titanium surface

Foroutan, Tahereh; Ayoubian, Nader

2013-01-01

391

Clustering of optically trapped large diameter plasmonic gold nanoparticles by laser beam of hybrid-TEM11* mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple trapping and clustering of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) of 254- and 150-nm diameter was affected using optical tweezers near the plasmon excitation wavelength. To ensure that the gradient force exceeded the sum of multiply-enhanced destabilizing absorption and scattering forces originating from plasmon excitation, embedded intensity gradient regions of a spatially featured asymmetric (SFA) laser beam were exploited. Thus, an intra-cavity generated SFA beam, also referred as hybrid TEM11* mode, is an intermediate between pure TEM00 and TEM11 beams and was directly obtained from a diode-pumped solid state (Nd:YAG) laser resonator without introducing any external beam modulation devices. The parabolic Gaussian-ray model of a tightly focused laser beam was adopted to evaluate the radiation forces including the volume-correction factor raised from fractional polarization of such large diameter Au-NPs under laser illumination. Temperature rise of Au-NPs and its dissipation profile in surrounding medium has also been presented. This multiple trapping and clustering of Au-NPs at plasmon excitation wavelength using sufficiently low power could be realized due to embedded intensity gradients of the SFA beam. The study might be useful for understanding the light-matter interaction, improving the sensitivity of diagnostics, and safety and efficacy of therapeutic nanotechnologies in medicine, photothermolysis, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, etc.

Kumar, Ranjeet; Mehta, Dalip Singh; Shakher, Chandra

2011-01-01

392

Active coded aperture neutron imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their penetrating power, energetic neutrons and gamma rays (>~1 MeV) offer the best possibility of detecting highly shielded or distant special nuclear material (SNM). Of these, fast neutrons offer the greatest advantage due to their very low and well understood natural background. We are investigating a wholly new approach to fast-neutron imaging-an active coded-aperture system that uses a

Peter Marleau; James Brennan; Erik Brubaker; Nathan Hilton; John Steele

2009-01-01

393

A time-resolved x-ray ring coded-aperture microscope for inertial confinement fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

For energetic x rays ([ital hv][ge]3 keV), ring coded-aperture imaging gives better signal-to-noise ratio than equivalent-resolution pinhole cameras for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. We have created a time-resolved ring coded-aperture microscope by combining a 4[times]3 array of annular apertures with a gated microchannel-plate x-ray imager. The new instrument can produce 500-ps duration sequences of images with a temporal resolution of 80 ps and a spatial resolution of 5 to 6 [mu]m. In demonstration experiments, coded images of imploded targets directly driven by the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics showed the formation and dissolution of the target cores with improved detail. Contour plots of the images indicate that the laser illumination pattern is imprinted in the imploded core region. The gated ring-aperture microscope will be useful in detailed studies of ICF target hydrodynamics.

Ress, D.; Bell, P.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5508, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)); Bradley, D.K. (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States))

1993-06-01

394

A time-resolved x-ray ring coded-aperture microscope for inertial confinement fusion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For energetic x rays (hv?3 keV), ring coded-aperture imaging gives better signal-to-noise ratio than equivalent-resolution pinhole cameras for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. We have created a time-resolved ring coded-aperture microscope by combining a 4×3 array of annular apertures with a gated microchannel-plate x-ray imager. The new instrument can produce 500-ps duration sequences of images with a temporal resolution of 80 ps and a spatial resolution of 5 to 6 ?m. In demonstration experiments, coded images of imploded targets directly driven by the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics showed the formation and dissolution of the target cores with improved detail. Contour plots of the images indicate that the laser illumination pattern is imprinted in the imploded core region. The gated ring-aperture microscope will be useful in detailed studies of ICF target hydrodynamics.

Ress, D.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.

1993-06-01

395

Theoretical investigation of feasibility of Yb:YAG as laser material for nanosecond pulse emission with large energies in the Joule range  

E-print Network

Theoretical investigation of feasibility of Yb:YAG as laser material for nanosecond pulse emission of the spectroscopic parameter set of Yb:YAG for the feasibility of a large pulse energy laser, which emits pulses:YAG are severe obstacles for the realization of ns-pulses with energy in the Joule range in a bulk geometry like

Ostermeyer, Martin

396

Large increase in refractive index inside silica glass after the movement of voids caused by femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a transparent material is irradiated by focused femtosecond laser pulses, various types of structural modification can occur inside the material. Recently, it has been reported that asymmetric structures, which are composed of two regions with positive and negative refractive index changes (?n), can be inscribed by irradiation of multiple femtosecond laser pulses at high (?MHz) repetition rates. Interestingly, the amount of positive ?n in this type of modification is larger than those in conventional structural modifications by one order of magnitude. However, the mechanisms underlying such modifications are still unclear. In this paper, we describe that similar asymmetric structures can be inscribed by using femtosecond laser pulses at a low repetition rate. Then, we examine the formation and spectroscopic characteristics of the asymmetric structures. The observation of the processed areas reveals that the asymmetric structures are formed after the movement of voids. Furthermore, micro-Raman spectroscopy suggests a large increase of three-membered ring structures in the region with positive ?n, which may account for the large ?n.

Hashimoto, Fumiya; Yoshino, Tomoki; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2014-04-01

397

Dynamically variable spot size laser system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

398

Laser amplifier based on a neodymium glass rod 150 mm in diameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique large-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifier is experimentally studied. The small-signal gain distribution is measured at different pump energies. The aperture-averaged gain is found to be 2.3. The stored energy (500 J), the maximum possible pump pulse repetition rate, and the depolarisation in a single pulse and in a series of pulses with a repetition rate of one pulse per five minutes are calculated based on the investigations performed. It is shown that the use of this amplifier at the exit of the existing laser can increase the output pulse energy from 300 to 600 J.

Shaykin, A. A.; Fokin, A. P.; Soloviev, A. A.; Kuzmin, A. A.; Shaikin, I. A.; Burdonov, K. F.; Charukhchev, A. V.; Khazanov, E. A.

2014-05-01

399

Transmission of Megawatt Relativistic Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures  

E-print Network

High power, relativistic electron beams from energy recovery linacs have great potential to realize new experimental paradigms for pioneering innovation in fundamental and applied research. A major design consideration for this new generation of experimental capabilities is the understanding of the halo associated with these bright, intense beams. In this Letter, we report on measurements performed using the 100 MeV, 430 kWatt CW electron beam from the energy recovery linac at the Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser facility as it traversed a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Thermal measurements of the block together with neutron measurements near the beam-target interaction point yielded a consistent understanding of the beam losses. These were determined to be 3 ppm through a 2 mm diameter aperture and were maintained during a 7 hour continuous run.

R. Alarcon; S. Balascuta; S. V. Benson; W. Bertozzi; J. R. Boyce; R. Cowan; D. Douglas; P. Evtushenko; P. Fisher; E. Ihloff; N. Kalantarians; A. Kelleher; R. Legg; R. G. Milner; G. R. Neil; L. Ou; B. Schmookler; C. Tennant; C. Tschalaer; G. P. Williams; S. Zhang

2013-05-01

400

Transmission of Megawatt Relativistic Electron Beams through Millimeter Apertures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-power, relativistic electron beams from energy-recovering linacs have great potential to realize new experimental paradigms for pioneering innovation in fundamental and applied research. A major design consideration for this new generation of experimental capabilities is the understanding of the halo associated with these bright, intense beams. In this Letter, we report on measurements performed using the 100 MeV, 430 kW cw electron beam from the energy-recovering linac at the Jefferson Laboratory’s Free Electron Laser facility as it traversed a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Thermal measurements of the block together with neutron measurements near the beam-target interaction point yielded a consistent understanding of the beam losses. These were determined to be 3 ppm through a 2 mm diameter aperture and were maintained during a 7 h continuous run.

Alarcon, R.; Balascuta, S.; Benson, S. V.; Bertozzi, W.; Boyce, J. R.; Cowan, R.; Douglas, D.; Evtushenko, P.; Fisher, P.; Ihloff, E.; Kalantarians, N.; Kelleher, A.; Legg, R.; Milner, R. G.; Neil, G. R.; Ou, L.; Schmookler, B.; Tennant, C.; Tschalär, C.; Williams, G. P.; Zhang, S.

2013-10-01

401

Transmission of megawatt relativistic electron beams through millimeter apertures.  

PubMed

High-power, relativistic electron beams from energy-recovering linacs have great potential to realize new experimental paradigms for pioneering innovation in fundamental and applied research. A major design consideration for this new generation of experimental capabilities is the understanding of the halo associated with these bright, intense beams. In this Letter, we report on measurements performed using the 100 MeV, 430 kW cw electron beam from the energy-recovering linac at the Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser facility as it traversed a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Thermal measurements of the block together with neutron measurements near the beam-target interaction point yielded a consistent understanding of the beam losses. These were determined to be 3 ppm through a 2 mm diameter aperture and were maintained during a 7 h continuous run. PMID:24182271

Alarcon, R; Balascuta, S; Benson, S V; Bertozzi, W; Boyce, J R; Cowan, R; Douglas, D; Evtushenko, P; Fisher, P; Ihloff, E; Kalantarians, N; Kelleher, A; Legg, R; Milner, R G; Neil, G R; Ou, L; Schmookler, B; Tennant, C; Tschalär, C; Williams, G P; Zhang, S

2013-10-18

402

Large amplitude relativistic electromagnetic solitons due to strong photon-condensation in intense laser underdense homogeneous collisionless plasma interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large amplitude electromagnetic solitons due to strong photon condensation, induced by a linearly polarized intense laser interacting with an underdense uniform collisionless plasma, are studied by particle simulations. In homogeneous plasma, both standing and accelerated solitons are observed. It is found that the acceleration of the solitons depends upon not only the laser amplitude but also the plasma length. The electromagnetic frequency of the solitons is between half and one time of the unperturbed electron plasma frequency. The electrostatic field inside the soliton has a one-cycle structure in space, while the transverse electric and the magnetic fields have half- and one-cycle structures, respectively. The acceleration of the solitons is briefly discussed.

Li, Baiwen; Ishiguro, S.; Skori?, M. M.; Sato, T.

2006-04-01

403

Large-area imager of hydrogen leaks in fuel cells using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constructed a simple device, which utilized laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to image H2 gas leaking from the surfaces of hydrogen fuel cells to ambient air. Nanosecond laser pulses of wavelength ? =532 nm emitted from a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser were first compressed to a pulse length ?t <1 ns using a stimulated Brillouin backscattering cell. Relay-imaging optics then focused this beam onto the H2 leak and initiated the breakdown plasma. The Balmer-alpha (H-?) emission that emerged from this was collected with a 2-m-long macrolens assembly with a 90-mm-diameter image area, which covered a solid angle of ˜1×10-3? steradians seen from the plasma. The H-? light was isolated by two 100-mm-diameter interference filters with a 2 nm bandpass, and imaged by a thermoelectrically cooled charge-coupled device camera. By scanning the position of the laser focus, the spatial distribution of H2 gas over a 90-mm-diameter area was photographed with a spatial resolution of ?5 mm. Photoionization of the water vapor in the air caused a strong H-? background. By using pure N2 as a buffer gas, H2 leaks with rates of <1 cc/min were imaged. We also studied the possibilities of detecting He, Ne, or Xe gas leaks.

Hori, M.; Hayano, R. S.; Fukuta, M.; Koyama, T.; Nobusue, H.; Tanaka, J.

2009-10-01

404

Laser Metrology Sensing and Control for Large Segmented-Mirror Telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described an optical hexapod metrology concept: a) Can work together with edge sensors; b) Can measure M1 - M2 distance and M1 global curvature. Swept-frequency laser metrology system: a) Absolute optical path length measurement (approx.1 micron); b) Relative optical path length measurement (approx.nm) Air turbulence is a concern for ground-based telescopes and needs further study.

Zhao, Feng; Rao, Shanti; Ksendzov, Alex; Kadogawa, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

405

Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire-KrF laser. Part 1. Regenerative amplification of subpicosecond pulses in a wide-aperture electron beam pumped KrF amplifier  

SciTech Connect

Regenerative amplification of single and multiple ultrashort subpicosecond UV pulses in a wide-aperture KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator was investigated on the GARPUN-MTW hybrid laser system. Amplitude-modulated 100-ns long UV radiation pulses with an energy of several tens of joules were obtained at the output of the system. The pulses were a combination of a quasi-stationary oscillation pulse and a train of amplified ultrashort pulses (USPs) with a peak power of 0.2-0.3 TW, which exceeded the power of free-running lasing pulse by three orders of magnitude. The population inversion recovery time in the active KrF laser medium was estimated: {tau}{sub c} {<=} 2.0 ns. Trains of USPs spaced at an interval {Delta}t Almost-Equal-To {tau}{sub c} were shown to exhibit the highest amplification efficiency. The production of amplitude-modulated UV pulses opens up the way to the production and maintenance of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Zvorykin, V D; Ionin, Andrei A; Levchenko, A O; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Smetanin, Igor V; Sunchugasheva, E S; Ustinovskii, N N; Shutov, A V [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-04-30

406

Analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some problems faced in applications of radar measurements in hydrology are: (1) adequate calibration of the radar systems and direct digital data will be required in order that repeatable data can be acquired for hydrologic applications; (2) quantitative hydrologic research on a large scale will be prohibitive with aircraft mounted synthetic aperture radar systems due to the system geometry; (3) spacecraft platforms appear to be the best platforms for radar systems when conducting research over watersheds larger than a few square kilometers; (4) experimental radar systems should be designed to avoid use of radomes; and (5) cross polarized X and L band data seem to discriminate between good and poor hydrologic cover better than like polarized data.

Blanchard, B. J.

1977-01-01

407

The application and research of the multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser ranging technology can directly measure the distance between space targets and ground stations with the highest measurement precision and will play an irreplaceable role in orbit check and calibrating microwave measurement system. The precise orbit determination and accurate catalogue of space targets can also be realized by laser ranging with multi-stations. Among space targets, most of ones are inactive targets and space debris, which should be paid the great attentions for the safety of active spacecrafts. Because of laser diffuse reflection from the surface of targets, laser ranging to space debris has the characteristics of wide coverage and weak strength of laser echoes, even though the powerful laser system is applied. In order to increase the receiving ability of laser echoes, the large aperture telescope should be adopted. As well known, some disadvantages for one set of large aperture telescope, technical development difficulty and system running and maintenance complexity, will limit its flexible applications. The multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets is put forward to realize the equivalent receiving ability produced by one larger aperture telescope by way of using multi-receiving telescopes, with the advantages of flexibility and maintenance. The theoretical analysis of the feasibility and key technologies of multi-receiving telescopes technology in laser ranging to space targets are presented in this paper. The experimental measurement system based on the 60cm SLR system and 1.56m astronomical telescopes with a distance of about 50m is established to provide the platform for researching on the multi-receiving telescopes technology. The laser ranging experiments to satellites equipped with retro-reflectors are successfully performed by using the above experimental system and verify the technical feasibility to increase the ability of echo detection. And the multi-receiving telescopes technology will become a novel effective way to improve the detection ability of laser ranging to space debris.

Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Zhongping; Deng, Huarong; Li, Pu; Meng, Wendong; Cheng, Zhien; Shen, Lurun; Tang, Zhenhong

2014-11-01

408

Prototype development of a Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer, GeoSTAR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary details of a 2-D synthetic aperture radiometer prototype operating from 50 to 55 GHz will be presented. The laboratory prototype is being developed to demonstrate the technologies and system design needed to do millimeter-wave atmospheric soundings with high spatial resolution from Geostationary orbit. The concept is to deploy a large thinned aperture Y-array on a geostationary satellite, and to use aperture synthesis to obtain images of the Earth without the need for a large mechanically scanned antenna. The laboratory prototype consists of a Y-array of 24 horn antennas, MMIC receivers, and a digital cross-correlation sub-system.

Tanner, A. B.; Wilson, W. J.; Kangaslahti, P. P.; Lambrigsten, B. H.; Dinardo, S. J.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Ruf, C. S.; Rogacki, S.; Gross, S. M.; Musko, S.

2004-01-01

409

Compact Fiber Laser for 589nm Laser Guide Star Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser guide stars are crucial to the broad use of astronomical adaptive optics, because they facilitate access to a large fraction of possible locations on the sky. Lasers tuned to the 589 nm atomic sodium resonance can create an artificial beacon at altitudes of 95-105 km, thus coming close to reproducing the light path of starlight. The deployment of multiconjugate adaptive optics on large aperture telescopes world-wide will require the use of three to nine sodium laser guide stars in order to achieve uniform correction over the aperture with a high Strehl value. Current estimates place the minimum required laser power at > 10 W per laser for a continuous wave source, though a pulsed format, nominally 6?s in length at ~ 16.7 kHz, is currently preferred as it would enable tracking the laser through the Na layer to mitigate spot elongation. The lasers also need to be compact, efficient, robust and turnkey. We are developing an all-fiber laser system for generating a 589 nm source for laser-guided adaptive optics. Fiber lasers are more compact and insensitive to alignment than their bulk laser counterparts, and the heat-dissipation characteristics of fibers, coupled with the high efficiencies demonstrated and excellent spatial mode characteristics, make them a preferred candidate for many high power applications. Our design is based on sum-frequency mixing an Er/Yb:doped fiber laser operating at 1583 nm with a 938 nm Nd:silica fiber laser in a periodically poled crystal to generate 589 nm. We have demonstrated 14 W at 1583 nm with an Er/Yb:doped fiber laser, based on a Koheras single frequency fiber oscillator amplified in an IPG Photonics fiber amplifier. The Nd:silica fiber laser is a somewhat more novel device, since the Nd3+ ions must operate on the resonance transition (i.e. 4F3/2-4I9/2), while suppressing ASE losses at the more conventional 1088 nm transition. Optimization of the ratio of the fiber core and cladding permits operation of the laser at room temperature by minimizing the 1088 nm gain, along with induced bend loss. A 938 nm seed beam is provided by a 0.2 W diode laser, frequency broadened to 400 MHz by DC modulating the diode. This seeds a two stage double-clad, Nd:doped fiber amplifier, producing 16 W of 938 nm light with M2~ 1.05. Over 3.5 W at 589 nm in continuous wave (CW) format has been generated by sumfrequency mixing the two lasers in periodically poled potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PPKTP). To convert the system to a pulsed format, we added amplitude modulators after both the 1583 nm and 938 nm oscillators and a pre-amplifier in each line to restore the average power to the level prior to modulation. Frequency mixing is simplified by using a pulsed format as the higher peak power facilitates more efficient conversion. To date we have demonstrated 3.8 W at 589 nm in periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) using a 1 ?s pulse length and a 10% duty cycle. Additional bandwidth, pre-compensation for square pulse distortion (SPD) and polarization maintaining amplifier fiber is currently being implemented to enable scaling to higher output power and lower repetition rate. Details of these experiments, system design and performance will be presented.

Pennington, D.; Drobshoff, D.; Mitchell, S.; Brown, A.

410

The Opals Data Manager - Efficient Data Management for Processing Large Airborne Laser Scanning Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fast measurement rate of today's Airborne Laser Scanners results in billions of points for single ALS projects. Efficient algorithms and data management methods are, therefore, a precondition for successful project handling. The software package OPALS (Orientation and Processing of Airborne Laser Scanning data) was especially designed to meet those criteria. Central core of the package is the OPALS Data Manager (ODM). It provides both, fast spatial access to huge point clouds, as well as a flexible attribute schema to store additional point related quantities. Concepts of the spatial data organization and implementation details about the attribute handling are presented. Additionally, design rationales of the ODM, its file format and the system performance are described.

Otepka, J.; Mandlburger, G.; Karel, W.

2012-07-01

411

Scaling of dissipative soliton fiber lasers to megawatt peak powers by use of large-area photonic crystal fiber  

PubMed Central

We report an all-normal dispersion femtosecond laser based on large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber. Self-starting mode-locked pulses are obtained with an average power of 12 W at 84 MHz repetition rate, corresponding to 140 nJ of chirped pulse energy. These are dechirped to a near transform-limited duration of 115 fs. Experimental results are consistent with numerical simulations of dissipative soliton intracavity pulse evolution, and demonstrate scaling of 100 fs pulses to megawatt peak powers. PMID:20479811

Lefrançois, Simon; Kieu, Khanh; Deng, Yujun; Kafka, James D.; Wise, Frank W.

2011-01-01

412

Rapid production of large-area deep sub-wavelength hybrid structures by femtosecond laser light-field tailoring  

SciTech Connect

The goal of creation of large-area deep sub-wavelength nanostructures by femtosecond laser irradiation onto various materials is being hindered by the limited coherence length. Here, we report solution of the problem by light field tailoring of the incident beam with a phase mask, which serves generation of wavelets. Direct interference between the wavelets, here the first-order diffracted beams, and interference between a wavelet and its induced waves such as surface plasmon polariton are responsible for creation of microgratings and superimposed nanogratings, respectively. The principle of wavelets interference enables extension of uniformly induced hybrid structures containing deep sub-wavelength nanofeatures to macro-dimension.

Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai, E-mail: chenqd@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn; Yang, Rui; Xu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Hai-Yu [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Yang, Hai; Huo, Cheng-Song; Tu, Hai-Ling [General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Sun, Hong-Bo, E-mail: chenqd@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, 119 Jiefang Road, Changchun 130023 (China)

2014-01-20

413

Scaling of dissipative soliton fiber lasers to megawatt peak powers by use of large-area photonic crystal fiber.  

PubMed

We report an all-normal dispersion femtosecond laser based on large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber. Self-starting mode-locked pulses are obtained with an average power of 12 W at 84 MHz repetition rate, corresponding to 140 nJ of chirped pulse energy. These are dechirped to a near transform-limited duration of 115 fs. Experimental results are consistent with numerical simulations of dissipative soliton intra-cavity pulse evolution, and demonstrate scaling of 100 fs pulses to megawatt peak powers. PMID:20479811

Lefrançois, Simon; Kieu, Khanh; Deng, Yujun; Kafka, James D; Wise, Frank W

2010-05-15

414

Some solutions to the problems and pitfalls of laser velocimetry in a large transonic wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to engineering design and development features of a two-component, coaxial backscatter laser velocimetry system which attempts to realize the long-recognized desirability of this technique's use for nonintrusive flow measurement. The design of the optics for the present 16-foot transonic wind tunnel device, and problems associated with the installation of the system in the hostile, test section plenum chamber environment are discussed.

Reubush, D. E.; Franke, J. M.

1982-01-01

415

Terahertz wide aperture reflection tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a powerful imaging modality for terahertz (THz) radiation, THz wide aperture reflection tomography (WART). Edge maps of an object's cross section are reconstructed from a series of time-domain reflection measurements at different viewing angles. Each measurement corresponds to a parallel line projection of the object's cross section. The filtered backprojection algorithm is applied to recover the image from the projection data. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a reflection computed tomography technique using electromagnetic waves. We demonstrate the capabilities of THz WART by imaging the cross sections of two test objects.

Pearce, Jeremy; Choi, Hyeokho; Mittleman, Daniel M.; White, Jeff; Zimdars, David

2005-07-01

416

Matrix shaped pulsed laser deposition: New approach to large area and homogeneous deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is one of the well-established physical vapor deposition methods used for synthesis of ultra-thin layers. Especially PLD is suitable for the preparation of thin films of complex alloys and ceramics where the conservation of the stoichiometry is critical. Beside several advantages of PLD, inhomogeneity in thickness limits use of PLD in some applications. There are several approaches such as rotation of the substrate or scanning of the laser beam over the target to achieve homogenous layers. On the other hand movement and transition create further complexity in process parameters. Here we present a new approach which we call Matrix Shaped PLD to control the thickness and homogeneity of deposited layers precisely. This new approach is based on shaping of the incoming laser beam by a microlens array and a Fourier lens. The beam is split into much smaller multi-beam array over the target and this leads to a homogenous plasma formation. The uniform intensity distribution over the target yields a very uniform deposit on the substrate. This approach is used to deposit carbide and oxide thin films for biomedical applications. As a case study coating of a stent which has a complex geometry is presented briefly.

Akkan, C. K.; May, A.; Hammadeh, M.; Abdul-Khaliq, H.; Aktas, O. C.

2014-05-01

417

Use of Zernike polynomials and interferometry in the optical design and assembly of large carbon-dioxide laser systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the need for non-raytracing schemes in the optical design and analysis of large carbon-dioxide lasers like the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios lasers currently operational at Los Alamos, and the Antares laser fusion system under construction. The scheme currently used at Los Alamos involves characterizing the various optical components with a Zernike polynomial set obtained by the digitization of experimentally produced interferograms of the components. A Fast Fourier Transform code then propagates the complex amplitude and phase of the beam through the whole system and computes the optical parameters of interest. The analysis scheme is illustrated through examples of the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios systems. A possible way of using the Zernike polynomials in optical design problems of this type is discussed. Comparisons between the computed values and experimentally obtained results are made and it is concluded that this appears to be a valid approach. As this is a review article, some previously published results are also used where relevant.

Viswanathan, V.K.

1981-01-01

418

GV /m Single-Cycle Terahertz Fields from a Laser-Driven Large-Size Partitioned Organic Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on compact and efficient laser-based THz generation in the terahertz frequency gap (1-10 THz). The radiation is generated by optical rectification of a midinfrared laser in a large-size, partitioned nonlinear organic crystal assembly. This enables up-scaling of presently field-limited tabletop THz sources to GV /m electric and several tesla magnetic field at millijoule pulse energy. In agreement with simulations, the THz beam properties at focus are shown to be not deteriorated by the discontinuity of the emitter surface. The high laser-to-THz energy conversion efficiency exceeds the Manley-Rowe limit and is explained by a cascaded ?(2) process in the organic crystals accompanied by a significant redshift of the pump spectrum. The scheme provides a compact, tabletop THz source for single-cycle transients at field strength equivalent or even higher to linear accelerator and FEL-based THz sources. This opens an avenue toward novel nonlinear THz applications.

Vicario, Carlo; Monoszlai, Balazs; Hauri, Christoph P.

2014-05-01

419

Hybrid Laser Would Combine Power With Efficiency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient laser system constructed by using two semiconductor lasers to pump neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) device. Hybrid concept allows digital transmission at data rates of several megabits per second with reasonably sized optical aperture of 20 cm. Beams from two GaAs lasers efficiently coupled for pumping Nd:YAG crystal. Combination of lasers exploits best features of each.

Sipes, Donald L., Jr

1986-01-01

420

High-contrast Imaging with an Arbitrary Aperture: Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of DM surfaces that yield high-contrast point-spread functions is not linear, and nonlinear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly nonlinear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase-induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential DM system and show that high-throughput and high-contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to the James Webb Space Telescope, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for both the future extremely large telescopes and on-axis architectures reminiscent of the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the converging nonlinear mappings resulting from our DM shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus, ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and struts while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime. This outer Fresnel ringing can be mitigated by properly designing the optical system. Consequently, ACAD is a true broadband solution to the problem of high-contrast imaging with segmented and/or on-axis apertures. We finally show that once the nonlinear solution is found, fine tuning with linear methods used in wavefront control can be applied to further contrast by another order of magnitude. Generally speaking, the ACAD technique can be used to significantly improve a broad class of telescope designs for a variety of problems.

Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin

2013-06-01

421

Catadioptric Optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the design of a laser velocimeter system, attention must be given to the performance of the optical elements in their two principal tasks: focusing laser radiation into the probe volume, and collecting the scattered light. For large aperture applications, custom lens design and fabrication costs, long optical path requirements, and chromatic aberration (for two color operation) can be problematic. The adaptation of low cost Schmidt-Cassegrain astronomical telescopes to perform these laser beam manipulation and scattered light collection tasks is examined. A generic telescope design is analyzed using ray tracing and Gaussian beam propagation theory, and a simple modification procedure for converting from infinite to near unity conjugate ratio operation with image quality near the diffraction limit was identified. Modification requirements and performance are predicted for a range of geometries. Finally, a 200-mm-aperture telescope was modified for f/10 operation; performance data for this modified optic for both laser beam focusing and scattered light collection tasks agree well with predictions.

Dunagan, Stephen E.

1989-01-01

422

Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid  

DOEpatents

An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23

423

Large-Area Reflective Infrared Filters for Millimeter/Sub-mm Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes are attempting to image the sky with ever-larger cryogenically-cooled bolometer arrays, but face challenges in mitigating the infrared loading accompanying large apertures. Absorptive infrared filters supported by mechanical coolers scale insufficiently with aperture size. Reflective metal-mesh filters placed behind the telescope window provide a scalable solution in principle, but have been limited by photolithography constraints to diameters under 300 mm. We present laser etching as an alternate technique to photolithography for fabrication of large-area reflective filters, and show results from lab tests of 500-mm-diameter filters. Filters with up to 700-mm diameter can be fabricated using laser etching with existing capability.

Ahmed, Z.; Grayson, J. A.; Thompson, K. L.; Kuo, C.-L.; Brooks, G.; Pothoven, T.

2014-09-01

424

Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber  

PubMed Central

The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg–Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers. PMID:21731106

Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W.

2011-01-01

425

A tip/tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and performance testing of the FSM. The driving requirement for the FSM is its large stroke of +/-6.1 mrad, in combination with less than 1.5 ?rad RMS absolute accuracy. The FSM design consists of a Zerodur mirror, bonded to a membrane spring and strut combination to allow only tip and tilt. Two spindle drives actuate the mirror, using a stiffness based transmission to increase resolution. Absolute accuracy is achieved with two differential inductive sensor pairs. A prototype of the FSM is realized to optimize the control configuration and measure its performance. Friction in the spindle drive is overcome by creating a local velocity control loop between the spindle drives and the shaft encoders. Accuracy is achieved by using a cascaded low bandwidth control loop with feedback from the inductive sensors. The pointing jitter and settling time of the FSM are measured with an autocollimator. The system performance meets the strict requirements, and is ready to be implemented in the first OTA.

Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.

2011-09-01

426

Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was <6 mJ, and the duration of the laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

2014-06-03

427

Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or quaternary mirror into a quasi-continuous surface with individual subapertures phased so that near diffraction limited imaging in the visible wavelength region is achieved. Continuous compensation of optical wavefront due to perturbations caused by imperfections, natural disturbances, and equipment induced vibrations/deflections to provide near diffraction limited imaging performance in the visible wavelength region. Demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating such systems with reduced mass and cost compared to past approaches.

Robinson, William G.

1997-01-01

428

NAVIS-An UGV indoor positioning system using laser scan matching for large-area real-time applications.  

PubMed

Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz even in a feature-poor environment, respectively. Therefore, it can be utilized in a real-time application. PMID:24999715

Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liu, Jinbing; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu

2014-01-01

429

NAVIS-An UGV Indoor Positioning System Using Laser Scan Matching for Large-Area Real-Time Applications  

PubMed Central

Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz even in a feature-poor environment, respectively. Therefore, it can be utilized in a real-time application. PMID:24999715

Tang, Jian.; Chen, Yuwei.; Jaakkola, Anttoni.; Liu, Jinbing.; Hyyppä, Juha.; Hyyppä, Hannu.

2014-01-01

430

New military uses for synthetic aperture radar (SAR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loral Defense Systems-Arizona, holder of the original patent for the invention of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), developed SAR to meet the military's need for an all-weather, day/night sensor that could produce high quality reconnaissance imagery in adverse weather and restricted visibility conditions. These features, and the ability to image large areas with fine resolution in a relatively short period of time make this sensor useful for many military applications. To date, however, SARs for military use have been hampered by the fact that they've been large, complex, and expensive. Additionally, they have been mounted on special purpose, single mission aircraft which are costly to operate. That situation has changed. A small, modular SAR, called Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (MSAR) developed by Loral can be mounted with relative ease on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or on multi-mission aircraft such as the F-16, F/A-18, or on the F-14.

Reamer, Richard E.; Stockton, Wayne; Stromfors, Richard D.

1993-02-01

431

Laser dynamics of a mode-locked thulium/holmium fiber laser in the solitonic and the stretched pulse regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mode-locked lasers that produce short optical pulses in the mid-infrared wavelength region have been sought out for a wide range of applications such as free space communication, molecular spectroscopy, medical diagnostics, and remote sensing. Here, a thulium and holmium (Tm/Ho) co-doped fiber laser that mode-locks in both the solitonic and stretched-pulse regimes is used to produce ultra-short pulses in the 2 mum region. Nonlinear polarization rotation technique is used where fiber nonlinearity is responsible to mode-lock the laser. The anomalous group velocity dispersion of both the single mode and gain fibers used limit the laser operation in the solitonic regime where spectral bandwidth is 10 nm and hence the pulse duration is limited to 996 fs. In order to increase the spectral bandwidth and hence get the shorter pulses the anomalous dispersion of these fibers has to compensate using normal group velocity dispersion fiber in the laser cavity. High numerical aperture fibers, which have normal group velocity dispersion around 2 mum due to its large and positive waveguide dispersion, can be used to compensate the anomalous dispersion of the gain and single mode fibers. We used a high numerical aperture fiber called UHNA4 in the laser cavity in order to compensate the anomalous dispersion of other fibers and mode-locked the laser in stretched pulse regime. The spectral bandwidth of the laser increased to 31 nm with corresponding pulse duration of 450 fs measured from the interferometric autocorrelation. The laser dynamics of the Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser is also studied while going from the stretched-pulse to solitonic regime by fiber cut-back measurements of normal dispersion fiber. It was clearly observed that both the spectral bandwidth and the pulse duration changed significantly going from one region to the other.

Kadel, Rajesh

432

Multiple differential-aperture microscopy.  

SciTech Connect

Differential-aperture X-ray microscopy (DAXM) is a powerful approach to 3D tomography with particular relevance to X-ray microdiffraction. With DAXM, scattering from submicron volumes can be resolved. However, the method is intrinsically a scanning technique where every resolved volume element (voxel) requires at least one area-detector readout. Previous applications of DAXM have used a single wire for knife-edge step profiling. Here, we demonstrate a way to accelerate DAXM measurements using multiple wires. A proof-of-principle experiment with a three-wire prototype showed that the speed of measurements can be tripled, but careful calibrations of wires will be required to maintain the spatial accuracy. In addition, related possibilities for accelerating measurements are briefly discussed.

Chung, J.-S.; Isa, S.; Greene, V.; Broadwater, O.; Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.; ORNL; Soongsil Univ.; South Carolina State Univ.

2007-01-01

433

Differential focal anisoplanatism in laser guide star wavefront sensing on extremely large telescopes.  

PubMed

Laser guide stars (LGSs) aim at increasing the sky coverage of adaptive optics (AO) as this is highly restricted when using only natural guide stars. With such three-dimensional extended objects, spot elongation may limit the measurement accuracy of wavefronts. We evaluate the effect of differential focal anisoplanatism, induced solely by the longitudinal extension of a side-launched LGS, on the slope measurements performed by a Shack-Hartmann for a 40?m class telescope. We also take this effect into account in the wavefront reconstruction and derive estimations of the resulting wavefront error in a multi-LGS AO system. We find an error of 100?nm in the worst case at the subaperture level and a small error of the order of 10?nm for six LGSs after wavefront reconstruction. PMID:22002389

Muller, Nicolas; Michau, Vincent; Robert, Clélia; Rousset, Gérard

2011-10-15

434

Laser-Disc Storage For All Digital X-Ray Images In A Large Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we will discuss a plan for an experimental application in clinical context of optical disc storage in diagnostic radiology. First computerized tomography (CT) and ultra-sound (US), later digital vascular imaging (DVI , intravenous angiography) and new digital device images such as digital radiography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NPR) will be stored permanently in a digital way. This image data base must be considered as an extension of the already operational hospital information system (ZIS). Replacing the costly, unique, bulky and operation-intensive film in a versatile, fast access- fast relocatable digital manner has obvious advantages and intrinsic,but limited, disadvantages. The aim of this experiment will be to evaluate easeof use, reliability and economic aspects of laser-disc based picture archiving and communication in a clinical experiment.

Cuigniez, Francis J. G.; Kouwenberg, Jef M. L.

1982-01-01

435

Apertural chambers in Geranium : Development and ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen grains ofGeranium robertianum andG. pratense are tricolpate. At the time of the vacuolated microspore stage intine protrusions are formed at each aperture. Each aperture becomes separated from the vegetative cytoplasm by a thick ectintine layer. Starch grains are enclosed in the protrusions and do not participate in pollen tube growth.

Martina Weber

1996-01-01

436

Large-Time-Step Particle-in-Cell\\/Monte Carlo Simulation of the Streamer Initiation Process in a Laser-Triggered Gas Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing a compensated Monte Carlo collision (MCC) model into the particle-in-cell\\/MCC method, the streamer initiation process in a laser-triggered gas switch is simulated with a large time step. The spatial distributions of electron density at various pressures and voltages are obtained. Index Terms—Laser-triggered gas switch (LTGS), Monte Carlo collision (MCC) model, particle-in-cell (PIC).

Hongguang Wang; Yongdong Li; Ruopeng Wang; Qiaogen Zhang; Chunliang Liu; Jianqi Wang

2011-01-01

437