Science.gov

Sample records for large aperture laser

  1. Large aperture adaptive optics for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, Franois; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sbastien

    2015-05-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed a range of large aperture electro-mechanical deformable mirrors (DM) suitable for ultra short pulsed intense lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations thanks to electromechanical actuators driven by stepper motors. DM design and assembly method have been adapted to large aperture beams and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm at 45 angle of incidence. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Simulations were correlated with measurements on optical bench and the design has been validated by calculation for very large aperture (up to 550mm). Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for actual MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of ?m for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the ?-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The MD-AME mirrors can be adapted to circular, square or elliptical beams and they are compatible with all dielectric or metallic coatings.

  2. Characteristics of Laser-Induced Surface Damage on Large-Aperture KDP Crystals at 351 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Han, Wei; Cao, Hua-Bao; Li, Fu-Quan; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Jun-Pu; Zheng, Kui-Xing; Zhu, Qi-Hua; Zheng, Wan-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Laser-induced damage often determines the effective lifetime of an optic in large high-energy laser facilities. We present the damage performance on the rear surface of a large-aperture KDP crystal for 351 nm, 5 ns laser pulses. Surface damage shows a lower threshold than bulk damage after conditioning. Craters initiated on the scratch are found to increase with the shot number before filling the scratch. The experimental results reveal that damage initiation is mainly caused by extrinsic nanoabsorbers buried in the surface during the large-aperture laser operation.

  3. Fabrication of large-aperture random phase plate for uniform illumination on laser fusion target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huijie; Lu, Dunwu; Wang, Runwen; Zhao, Yongkai; Liu, Zengshui

    2000-04-01

    We have fabricated a large aperture random phase plate (RPP) in Chinese K9 glass substrate for target-plane laser beam smoothing at 1.06 micrometer wavelength, by using large aperture photolithography and dilute HF etching processes. The RPP's clear aperture is (phi) 250 mm. The measured average step height is 1.060 micrometer, which has a relative standard deviation of 1.24% at 5 locations on the RPP to the theoretical value. A focal spot with very sharp edges and nearly flat-top overall envelope intensity distribution is obtained at the focal-plane of a focusing lens. These results show that our fabrication techniques for RPP is effective, and is easily scaleable to even larger apertures.

  4. Development of large-aperture electro-optical switch for high power laser at CAEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongjun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zhang, Jun; Lin, Donghui; Zheng, Jiangang; Zheng, Kuixing

    2015-02-01

    Large-aperture electro-optical switch based on plasma Pockels cell (PPC) is one of important components for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) laser facility. We have demonstrated a single-pulse driven 41 PPC with 400mm400mm aperture for SGIII laser facility. And four 21 PPCs modules with 350mm350mm aperture have been operated in SGII update laser facility. It is different to the PPC of NIF and LMJ for its simple operation to perform Pockels effect. With optimized operation parameters, the PPCs meet the SGII-U laser requirement of four-pass amplification control. Only driven by one high voltage pulser, the simplified PPC system would be provided with less associated diagnostics, and higher reliability. To farther reduce the insert loss of the PPC, research on the large-aperture PPC based on DKDP crystal driven by one pulse is developed. And several single-pulse driven PPCs with 80mm80mm DKDP crystal have been manufactured and operated in laser facilities.

  5. Off-axis multipass amplifier as a large aperture driver stage for fusion lasers.

    PubMed

    Murray, J E; Downs, D C; Hunt, J T; Hermes, G L; Warren, W E

    1981-03-01

    A multipass amplifier configuration is described which has potential as a large aperture, high gain driver stage for fusion laser systems. We avoid the present limitations of large aperture switches by using an off-angle geometry that does not require an optical switch. The saturated gain characteristics of this multipass amplifier are optimized numerically. Three potential problems are investigated experimentally, self-lasing, output beam quality, and amplified spontaneous emission output. The results indicate comparable cost for comparable performance to a linear chain, with some operational advantage for the multipass driver stage. PMID:20309212

  6. Partial feedback unstable resonator on small scale supersonic large aperture chemical laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Rui; Li, Lei

    2015-05-01

    There is always a challenge on large aperture medium power laser's resonator design, stable resonator would supports significant higher order transverse modes, folded and telescope stable resonator are too complex and not preferred by engineers, unstable resonator need rather large round trip gain to compensate its high geometric out-coupling, which is difficult for this kind of laser since its gain length is limited due to the power level and large aperture. Partial feedback unstable resonator had been proposed to tackle this difficulty since the early days of laser development, however, the debates of its effect never stopped even with those distinguished optical resonator scientists such as Siegman, Anan'ev, and Weber. Recently integrated partial feedback unstable resonator design had been successfully demonstrated on a medium size chemical oxygen iodine laser. In this paper, we carry this resonator configuration on a small scale discharge driven supersonic nozzle array Hydrogen Fluoride chemical laser, a typical large aperture short gain length device. With magnification equals 4/3, we successfully get ten Watts level ring beam output.

  7. Alignment system for high-power large aperture laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziano, Roberto; Accary, Jean-Baptiste; Ploetzeneder, Birgit; Versaci, Roberto; LeGarrec, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    The ELI-beamlines facility1 is being built within the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) project based on the European ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) process. The alignment of the high power lasers is an essential operation to be performed before shooting. A critical part of the alignment procedure is the definition of the references for the alignment. The most common procedure is to insert a cross shaped mask into the beam path. The centre of the cross defines the optical axis. Because of the difficulties in automatizing this procedure, a semi-automatic procedure is being used in many facilities. During such procedure an operator has to interact with the alignment system. The purpose of this work is to present the alignment process and to show how to use light sources as references for a fully automated alignment system.1, 2

  8. Fast inspection of bulk and surface defects of large aperture optics in high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuan'an; Hu, Guohang; Liu, Shijie; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced damage for nanosecond pulse duration is attributed to the existence of defects. The growth and polishing, as well as coating deposition, may induce versatile kinds of defects, including dig, scratch and inclusion. It is special important to get the information of the defects, such as size and location, which is the basis to know the origin of the defects and figures out effective techniques to eliminate it. It is quite easy to get the information of the defects with micron-level resolution, but it is time-consuming and is not suitable for fast inspection of the large aperture (hundreds of millimeters). In this work, on-the-fly image capture technique was employed to realize fast inspection of large aperture optics. A continuous green laser was employed as illumination source to enhance and enlarge the image of bulk defects. So it could detect the submicron-scale defects. A transmission microscopy with white light illumination was employed to detect the surface defect. Its field of view was about 2.8mm1.6mm. The sample was raster scanned driving by a stepper motor through the stationary illumination laser and digital camera, and the speed to scan the sample was about 10mm/s. The results of large aperture optics proved the functions of this fast inspection technique.

  9. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nostrand, M C; Weiland, T L; Luthi, R L; Vickers, J L; Sell, W D; Stanley, J A; Honig, J; Auerbach, J; Hackel, R P; Wegner, P J

    2003-11-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm{sup 2} high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics.

  10. Large-aperture laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement and its system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiqian; Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Ren, Huan; Shao, Rongjun

    2015-06-29

    A new laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement (LDCFM) method is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and RL. Using the property that the focus of laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement system (LDCFS) precisely corresponds to the null point of the differential confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LDCFM measures the RL focal length f(R)' by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and last surface of RL, measures the axial space d(0) between RL and test ultra-long focal length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of RL and the vertex of UFL last surface, and measures the variation l in focus position of LDCFS with and without test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f(T)' by the above measured f(R)', d(0) and l. In addition, a LDCFS based on the proposed method is developed for a large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.01% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610 mm and focal length of 31,000 mm. LDCFM provides a novel approach for the high-precision focal-length measurement of large-aperture UFL. PMID:26191747

  11. Laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties of large aperture elements of YCOB crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanqing; Wu, Anhua; Gao, Pan; Tu, Xiaoniu; Liang, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jing; Yang, Liming; Wang, Tao; Qian, Liejia; Shi, Erwei

    2012-01-01

    Large size of YCa4O(BO3)3(YCOB) crystals were grown both by Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Large size elements as large as 60 mm clear aperture were cut and polished with surface flatness of 1/5 wavelength. Optical homogeneity of YCOB crystal was found in the order of 10-6. Laser damage thresholds of several YCOB crystal elements were tested using different laser facilities with different pulse widths or wavelengths, with thresholds varied from 0.8 GW/cm2 to more than 1 TW/cm2. One SHG and two optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) experiments were executed to characterize the nonlinear optical properties of YCOB crystals and the quality of the crystals. The results shown that YCOB had good performance in OPCPA application, especially with low content of parameter florescence. Combined with good NLO performance and possibility to grow large size crystals, YCOB crystal was a good choice for high power OPCPA applications.

  12. Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Woods, B.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Roberts, D.; Atherton, L.J.

    1995-08-20

    We describe the design and performance of large-aperture ({lt}30 cm {times} 30 cm) optical switches that have demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, active switching of a high-energy ({lt}5 kJ) optical pulse in an inertial-confinement fusion laser. These optical switches, which consist of a plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) and a passive polarizer, permit the design of efficient, multipass laser amplifiers. In a PEPC, plasma discharges on the faces of a thin (1-cm) electro-optic crystal (KDP or KD{bold |}P) act as highly conductive and transparent electrodes. These plasma electrodes facilitate rapid ({lt}100 ns) and uniform charging of the crystal to the half-wave voltage and discharging back to 0 V. We discuss the operating principles, design, optical performance, and technical issues of a 32 cm {times} 32 cm prototype PEPC with both KDP and KD{bold |}P crystals, and a 37 cm {times} 37 cm PEPC with a KDP crystal for the Beamlet laser. This PEPC recently switched a 6-kJ, 3-ns pulse in a four-pass cavity.

  13. Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Mark A.; Woods, B.; Deyoreo, J. J.; Roberts, D.; Atherton, L. J.

    1995-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of large-aperture ( greater than 30 cm \\times 30 cm) optical switches that have demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, active switching of a high-energy ( greater than 5 kJ) optical pulse in an inertial-confinement fusion laser. These optical switches, which consist of a plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) and a passive polarizer, permit the design of efficient, multipass laser amplifiers. In a PEPC, plasma discharges on the faces of a thin (1-cm) electro-optic crystal (KDP or KD*P) act as highly conductive and transparent electrodes. These plasma electrodes facilitate rapid ( less than 100 ns) and uniform charging of the crystal to the half-wave voltage and discharging back to 0 V. We discuss the operating principles, design, optical performance, and technical issues of a 32 cm \\times 32 cm prototype PEPC with both KDP and KD*P crystals, and a 37 cm \\times 37 cm PEPC with a KDP crystal for the Beamlet laser. This PEPC recently switched a 6-kJ, 3-ns pulse in a four-pass cavity.

  14. Large-aperture ultra-long focal length measurement and its system by laser confocal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Guo, Yongkui; Yuan, Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new laser confocal ultralong focal length measurement method (LCFM) is proposed with the capability to self-calibrate the reference lens (RL) focal length and the axial space between the test lens and the RL. Using the property that the focus of a laser confocal ultralong focal length measurement system (LCFS) precisely corresponds to the peak point of the confocal axial intensity curve, the proposed LCFM measures the RL focal length f\\text{R}\\prime by precisely identifying the positions of the focus and the last surface of the RL, measures the axial space d0 between the RL and the test ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL) by identifying the last surface of the RL and the vertex of the UFL last surface, measures the variation l in focus position of the LCFS with and without the test UFL, and then calculates the UFL focal length f\\text{T}\\prime using the above-measured f\\text{R}\\prime , d0, and l. Furthermore, the LCFM uses conic fitting, which obviously enhances the measurement accuracy by reducing the influences of random disturbances. In addition, an LCFS based on the proposed method is developed for large aperture lens. The experimental results indicate that the relative uncertainty is less than 0.015% for the test UFL, which has an aperture of 610?mm and a focal length of 31?000?mm. Compared with existing methods, the LCFM utilizes a concise structure and has good stability, making it especially suitable for practical engineering applications.

  15. Investigation of phase effects of coherent beam combining for large-aperture ultrashort ultrahigh intensity laser systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ze-Xi; Gao, Yan-Qi; Cui, Yong; Xu, Zhong-Yang; An, Ning; Liu, Dong; Wang, Tao; Rao, Da-Xing; Chen, Ming; Feng, Wei; Ji, Lai-Lin; Cao, Zhao-Dong; Yang, Xue-Dong; Ma, Wei-Xin

    2015-11-20

    Large-aperture ultrashort ultrahigh intensity laser systems are able to achieve unprecedented super-high peak power. However, output power from a single laser channel is not high enough for some important applications and it is difficult to improve output power from a single laser channel significantly in the near future. Coherent beam combining is a promising method which combines many laser channels to obtain much higher peak power than a single channel. In this work, phase effects of coherent beam combining for large-aperture ultrashort laser systems are investigated theoretically. A series of numerical simulations are presented to obtain the requirements of spatial phase for specific goals and the changing trends of requirements for different pulse durations and number of channels. The influence of wavefront distortion on coherent beam combining is also discussed. Some advice is proposed for improving the performance of combining. In total, this work could help to design a practical large-aperture ultrashort ultrahigh intensity laser system in the future. PMID:26836561

  16. Developing Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) Technology for the Manufacture of Large-Aperture Optics in Megajoule Class Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A

    2010-10-27

    Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large-aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture large-aperture damage resistant optics.

  17. MRF Applications: On the Road to Making Large-Aperture Ultraviolet Laser Resistant Continuous Phase Plates for High-Power Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Hachkowski, M R; Nelson, A; Xin, K

    2006-10-26

    Over the past two years we have developed MRF tools and procedures to manufacture large-aperture (430 X 430 mm) continuous phase plates (CPPs) that are capable of operating in the infrared portion (1053 nm) of high-power laser systems. This is accomplished by polishing prescribed patterns of continuously varying topographical features onto finished plano optics using MRF imprinting techniques. We have been successful in making, testing, and using large-aperture CPPs whose topography possesses spatial periods as low as 4 mm and surface peak-to-valleys as high as 8.6 {micro}m. Combining this application of MRF technology with advanced MRF finishing techniques that focus on ultraviolet laser damage resistance makes it potentially feasible to manufacture large-aperture CPPs that can operate in the ultraviolet (351 nm) without sustaining laser-induced damage. In this paper, we will discuss the CPP manufacturing process and the results of 351-nm/3-nsec equivalent laser performance experiments conducted on large-aperture CPPs manufactured using advanced MRF protocols.

  18. Repetitively pulsed regime of Nd : glass large-aperture laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmin, A A; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaykin, A A

    2012-04-30

    A repetitively pulsed operation regime of neodymium glass rod laser amplifiers with apertures of 4.5, 6, 8.5, and 10 cm is analysed using experimental data. The limits of an increase in the pulse repetition rates are determined. Universal dependences are obtained, which help finding a compromise between increasing the repetition rate and enhancing the gain for each particular case. In particular, it is shown that an amplifier 4.5-cm in diameter exhibits a five-fold safety factor with respect to a thermo-mechanical breakdown at a repetition rate of 1 pulse min{sup -1} and stored energy of above 100 J. A strong thermally induced birefringence in two such amplifiers is experimentally reduced to a 'cold' level by employing a 90 Degree-Sign optical rotator.

  19. Repetitively pulsed regime of Nd : glass large-aperture laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, A. A.; Khazanov, Efim A.; Shaykin, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    A repetitively pulsed operation regime of neodymium glass rod laser amplifiers with apertures of 4.5, 6, 8.5, and 10 cm is analysed using experimental data. The limits of an increase in the pulse repetition rates are determined. Universal dependences are obtained, which help finding a compromise between increasing the repetition rate and enhancing the gain for each particular case. In particular, it is shown that an amplifier 4.5-cm in diameter exhibits a five-fold safety factor with respect to a thermo-mechanical breakdown at a repetition rate of 1 pulse min-1 and stored energy of above 100 J. A strong thermally induced birefringence in two such amplifiers is experimentally reduced to a 'cold' level by employing a 90 optical rotator.

  20. A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. Q.; Ma, J. L.; Yan, C. L.; Liu, G. J.; Ma, X. H.; Gong, J. F.; Feng, Y.; Wei, Z. P.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, Y. J.

    2013-05-01

    A fundamental mode Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is experimentally demonstrated. The VCSEL has a circular output-beam which makes it easier for it to be directly coupled to a Nd:GdVO4 microcrystal. In our research, a large aperture 808 nm VCSEL, with a multi-ring-shaped aperture (MRSA) and an almost Gaussian-shaped far-field profile, is used as the pumping source. Experimental results for the Nd:GdVO4 laser pumped by the VCSEL are presented. The maximum output peak power of 0.754 W is obtained under a pump peak power of 1.3 W, and the corresponding opto-optic conversion efficiency is 58.1%. The average slope efficiency is 65.8% from the threshold pump power of 0.2 W to the pump power of 1.3 W. The laser beam quality factors are measured to be {M}x2=1.2 0 and {M}y2=1.1 5.

  1. Industrial large-aperture XeCl laser for surface processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letardi, Tommaso; Baldesi, Alessandro; Bollanti, Sarah; Bonfigli, Francesca; Di Lazzaro, Paolo; Flora, Francesco; Giordano, Gualtiero; Marinai, Alessandro; Murra, Daniele; Schina, Giovanni; Zheng, Cheng En

    2000-02-01

    In the frame of a large project on new materials technologies for photovoltaic and microelectronic applications (FOTO), the process of amorphous silicon (a-Si) transformation into polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) by means of laser irradiation has been tested with a long-pulse (160 ns), 8 J/p XeCl source. Following the positive results, a laser source, having design parameters of 10 J/p, 120 ns, 10 Hz, has been designed and built, with the aim of realizing a laboratory line for the production of thin film transistors (TFTs) devices.

  2. Large-aperture CsLiB6O10 frequency doubler for high-energy Nd:glass laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Norihiro; Yamakawa, Koichi

    2002-09-01

    We describe the demonstration of the high pulse energy and high efficiency second-harmonic generation (SHG) at 532-nm using large aperture CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals for the first time to our knowledge. A pulsed green energy of 25 J has been generated with 34 J of input 1064-nm Nd:glass laser radiation using a two-stage crystal architecture. High conversion efficiency of 74 % has been attained at fundamental laser intensity of only 370 MW/cm2. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals. We discuss in detail the design and performance of SHG using CLBO crystals.

  3. Large aperture kinoform phase plates in fused silica for spatial beam smoothing on Nova and the Beamlet Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rushford, M.C.; Dixit, S.N.; Thomas, I.M.; Martin, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1997-03-01

    It is now widely recognized that spatial beam smoothing (homogenization) is essential in coupling the laser energy to the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. For the indirect drive approach to ICF, it is desirable to distribute the laser energy into a uniformly speckled profile that has a flat-top super-Gaussian envelope (8th power or higher) and contains greater than 95% of the energy inside the super-Gaussian profile. Spatial smoothing is easily achieved by introducing a binary random phase plate (RPP) in the beam. This produces a homogenized far-field pattern which consists of an overall envelope function determined by the RPP element superimposed with a fine scale speckle pattern arising due to the interference among the various RPP elements. Although easy to fabricate and currently in routine use in many fusion laboratories, the binary RPPs do not meet the ICF requirements stated above since the far-field intensity profile is restricted to essentially an Airy function containing only 84% (an upper limit) of the energy inside the central spot. Approaches using lenslet arrays (refractive or diffractive) have limited use since they operate in the quasi-far-field and have a short depth of focus. The limitations of the RPPs can be overcome by relaxing the binary phase constraint. We have recently presented 5 continuously varying phase screens for tailoring the focal plane irradiance profiles. Called kinoform phase plates (KPPs), these phase screens offer complete flexibility in tailoring the focal plane envelope and, at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency inside the focal spot. In this paper we discuss the design and fabrication of such kinoform phase plates in fused silica for spatial beam smoothing on the Nova and the Beamlet lasers. Since the phase plates are used at the end of the laser chain, KPPs on Nova and Beamlet have to be fabricated on large aperture optics (65-cm diameter and 40-cm square substrates respectively). The following section presents a brief review of process for designing the KPPs. In section 3, we discuss the fabrication of large aperture KPPs in fused silica substrates. The optical performance of these KPPs is discussed in section 4 which is followed by a summary.

  4. High-energy large-aperture Ti:sapphire amplifier for 5 PW laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yuxi; Gan, Zebiao; Liang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lianghong; Lu, Xiaoming; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Xinliang; Xu, Lu; Lu, Haihe; Yin, Dingjun; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-11-01

    We report on the generation of 192.3 J centered at 800 nm wavelength from a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system. The experimental results demonstrate that parasitic lasing can be suppressed successfully in the final amplifier based on a Ti:sapphire crystal of 150 mm in diameter. An over 50% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was measured for the final amplifier by optimizing the time delay of two pump pulses and enhancing the injected seed energy. With 72% compressor throughput efficiency and 27 fs long compressed pulse duration obtained at a lower energy level, this laser could potentially support a compressed laser pulse of 5.13 PW peak power. The experimental results represent notable progress regarding the CPA laser. PMID:26512506

  5. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  6. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  7. Large-aperture approximation for not-so-large apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Chris; Gordeyev, Stanislav; Jumper, Eric

    2013-07-01

    In-flight wavefront measurements around a flat-window turret at subsonic Mach numbers are analyzed in instantaneous and time-averaged sense. In addition to the root-mean-squared levels of aero-optical distortions, higher-order spatial statistics are calculated, and their dependence as a function of the viewing angle is discussed. Given the optical data obtained, the applicability of the commonly used large aperture approximation (LAA) is revisited. We show that, for all angles, the LAA consistently underestimates the time-averaged Strehl ratio, so the LAA should be used very cautiously. Some reasons for these discrepancies are traced to non-Gaussian spatial distribution of the optical wavefronts. A different approximation for computing time-averaged Strehl ratios is proposed, and the results are discussed.

  8. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  9. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

  10. HI-CLASS on AEOS: a large-aperture laser radar for space surveillance/situational awareness investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Mark A.; Dryden, Gordon L.; Pohle, Richard H.; Ayers, Kirstie; Carreras, Richard A.; Crawford, Linda L.; Taft, Russell

    2001-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory/Directed Energy Directorate (AFRL/DE) via the ALVA (Applications of Lidars for Vehicles with Analysis) program installed in late 2000 a wideband, 12 J 15 Hz CO2 laser radar (ladar) on the 3.67 meter aperture AEOS (Advanced Electro-Optics System) telescope. This system is part of the Maui Space Surveillance System (MSSS), on the summit of Haleakala, Maui, HI. This ladar adopts the technology successfully demonstrated by the first generation HI-CLASS (High Performance CO2) Ladar Surveillance Sensor) operating on the nearby 0.6 meter aperture Laser Beam Director (LBD) and developed under the Field Ladar Demonstration program, jointly sponsored by AFRL/DE and the Army's Space and Missile Defense Command. The moderate power (approximately 180 watts) HI-CLASS/AEOS system generates multiple, coherent waveforms for precision satellite tracking and characterization of space objects for 1 m2 targets at ranges out to 10,000 km. This system also will be used to track space objects smaller than30 cm at ranges to 2,000 km. A third application of this system is to provide data for developing satellite identification, characterization, health and status techniques. This paper will discuss the operating characteristics and innovative features of the new system. The paper will also review recent results in support of AF needs, demonstrations, experiments, as well as planned activities that directly support applications in the DoD, scientific, and commercial arenas.

  11. High energy second-harmonic generation of Nd:glass laser radiation with large aperture CsLiB6O10 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Norihiro; Yamakawa, Koichi

    2002-09-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a high-energy green laser pulse using large aperture CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals for the first time to our knowledge. A pulsed energy of 25 J at 532-nm was generated using the 1064-nm incident Nd:glass laser radiation with an energy of 34 J. High conversion efficiency of 74 % at intensities of only 370 MW/cm2 was obtained using a two-stage crystal architecture. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals.

  12. High energy second-harmonic generation of Nd:glass laser radiation with large aperture CsLiB6O10 crystals.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Inoue, Norihiro; Yamakawa, Koichi

    2002-09-23

    We have demonstrated the generation of a high-energy green laser pulse using large aperture CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals for the first time to our knowledge. A pulsed energy of 25 J at 532-nm was generated using the 1064-nm incident Nd:glass laser radiation with an energy of 34 J. High conversion efficiency of 74 % at intensities of only 370 MW/cm2 was obtained using a two-stage crystal architecture. This result represents the highest green pulse energy ever reported using the CLBO crystals. PMID:19451960

  13. Performance of a prototype for a large-aperture multipass Nd:glass laser for inertial confinement fusion.

    PubMed

    Van Wonterghem, B M; Murray, J R; Campbell, J H; Speck, D R; Barker, C E; Smith, I C; Browning, D F; Behrendt, W C

    1997-07-20

    The Beamlet is a single-beam prototype of future multibeam megajoule-class Nd:glass laser drivers for inertial confinement fusion. It uses a multipass main amplifier, adaptive optics, and efficient, high-fluence frequency conversion to the third harmonic. The Beamlet amplifier contains Brewster-angle glass slabs with a clear aperture of 39 cm x 39 cm and a full-aperture plasma-electrode Pockels cell switch. It has been successfully tested over a range of pulse lengths from 1-10 ns up to energies at 1.053 mum of 5.8 kJ at 1 ns and 17.3 kJ at 10 ns. A 39-actuator deformable mirror corrects the beam quality to a Strehl ratio of as much as 0.4. The 1.053-mum output has been converted to the third harmonic at efficiencies as high as 80% and fluences as high as 8.7 J/cm(2) for 3-ns pulses. PMID:18259297

  14. Finite-aperture tapered unstable resonator lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, Robert George

    The development of high power, high brightness semiconductor lasers is important for applications such as efficient pumping of fiber amplifiers and free space communication. The ability to couple directly into the core of a single-mode fiber can vastly increase the absorption of pump light. Further, the high mode-selectivity provided by unstable resonators accommodates single-mode operation to many times the threshold current level. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate a more efficient semiconductor-based unstable resonator design. The tapered unstable resonator laser consists of a single-mode ridge coupled to a tapered gain region. The ridge, aided by spoiling grooves, provides essential preparation of the fundamental mode, while the taper provides significant amplification and a large output mode. It is shown a laterally finite taper-side mirror (making the laser a "finite-aperture tapered unstable resonator laser") serves to significantly improve differential quantum efficiency. This results in the possibility for higher optical powers while still maintaining single-mode operation. Additionally, the advent of a detuned second order grating allows for a low divergent, quasicircular output beam emitted from the semiconductor surface, easing packaging tolerances, and making two dimensional integrated arrays possible. In this dissertation, theory, design, fabrication, and characterization are presented. Material theory is introduced, reviewing gain, carrier, and temperature effects on field propagation. Coupled-mode and coupled wave theory is reviewed to allow simulation of the passive grating. A numerical model is used to investigate laser design and optimization, and effects of finite-apertures are explored. A microfabrication method is introduced to create the FATURL in InAlGaAs/-InGaAsP/InP material emitting at about 1410 nm. Fabrication consists of photolithography, electron-beam lithography, wet etch and dry etching processes, metal and dielectric electron-beam evaporation, and rapid-thermal annealing. FATURLs are compared to infinite aperture TURLs, and show significant improvements in differential quantum efficiency (more than 40%) under pulsed-current operation. Far-field measurements show diffraction-limited divergence up to at least 2.3 x Ith, and spectral characteristics show good control over the longitudinal mode spectrum. Finally, several modifications to the laser design and fabrication are presented to improve laser performance.

  15. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  16. Intracavity frequency doubling in a wide-aperture argon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullina, S R; Babin, S A; Vlasov, Aleksandr A; Kablukov, S I

    2005-09-30

    The four-mirror cavity with a BBO crystal for frequency doubling in a wide-aperture argon laser is optimised. The dependences of the second-harmonic power on the displacement of a focusing mirror, the displacement of the crystal, and the discharge current are measured. These dependences are in good agreement with calculations. After optimisation, {approx}1 W of UV laser radiation at 244 nm was obtained with the conversion efficiency twice as large as that for the known similar lasers. It is shown that the increase in the efficiency was achieved mainly due to the increase in the discharge-tube aperture. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner, R. Hensley, and A.L Roquemore

    2007-10-09

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 ? has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  18. Large aperture space telescope mirror fabrication trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Stephen E.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-07-01

    A number of upcoming astrophysical investigation concepts are based on large aperture spaceborne telescopes. The basic science goals drive the required aperture to gather sufficient resolution and signal for reasonable integrations to complete their planned design reference missions. In addition, certain fundamental requirements may dictate whether or not a monolithic aperture is required or a segmented mirror array is acceptable. The operating temperature and required performance (absolute and stability over time) are other important drivers. Based on such performance requirements a number of mirror manufacturing trades can be performed to balance the technical performance, cost, and schedule. We will discuss some of the overarching architectural and material trades along with particular manufacturing processes (and their related step functions) that are integral to selecting primary mirror approaches. We will include examples ranging from a few meters up to 16 meters which can be packaged into existing launch shrouds or in significantly expanded future resources such as the Ares V.

  19. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of ?200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  20. Intracavity Herriott-cell testbed for large-aperture femtosecond optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rcz, Pter; Nagy, Benedek J.; Ferencz, Krpt; Dombi, Pter

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a versatile test method of large-aperture femtosecond mirrors inside a long-cavity Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. The Herriott-cell inside the cavity is utilized for the purpose of carrying out full-aperture testing. The method is highly sensitive to the homogeneity of mirror reflectivity and group delay dispersion over the whole mirror surface and it is suitable for testing both high reflector and chirped mirrors starting from 2 size up to arbitrarily large apertures.

  1. U-turn alternative to the large aperture switch

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1994-03-09

    The primary alternative laser architecture is the U-turn design. The U-turn has significantly different cost and performance risks than the full-aperture switch, which makes it a highly desirable alternative. The U-turn was conceived at LLNL in 1992. A similar concept, the L-turn had already been discovered by the French at CEL-V. Both concepts are based on the multipass glass amplifier design, but the full-aperture Pockels cell and polarizer are replaced with smaller and less expensive optics. Eliminating the large switch and polarizer not only reduces component costs, it also provides options for shortening the laser which, in turn, could reduce the size and cost of the laser building. Efficient use of the amplifier aperture (small vignetting allowance) requires that the U-turn have a long transport spatial filter; however, this is not a disadvantage if a long spatial filter is already required for image relaying to the frequency converter. Given a long spatial filter, the U-turn is potentially more efficient because losses in the switch and polarizer are avoided.

  2. Temperature characteristic of 808nm VCSELs with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Feng, Dawei; Hao, Yongqin; Wang, Yong; Yan, Changling; Lu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to study the output characteristics of 808nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser(VCSEL) with large aperture at different temperature, 808nm VCSEL with 500?m emitting diameter are fabricated with Reticular Electrode Structure(RES). Lasing wavelength, optical power and the threshold current are measured by changing the temperature of heat sink. And an output power of 0.42W is achieved at 1.3A at room temperature under continuous wave operation. The central wavelength is 803.32nm, and the full width at half maximum is 0.16nm, the temperature shift is 0.06nm/, the thermal resistance is 0.098/mW. The testing results show that 808nm VCSEL with large aperture is good temperature characteristic.

  3. Precise measurement of transmittance and reflectance for large aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jie; Liu, De'an; Xie, Yujiang; Hui, Hongchao; Yang, Lin; Chen, Dongxian; Yang, Pengqian; Zhu, Baoqiang; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2014-11-01

    The uniformity measurement, transmittance and reflectance of the optics in other words, is one of the essential specifications for those large optics of high power laser facilities. Both high reproducibility for large-size and precision with wide dynamic range make such testing a real challenge to take. In this paper, a transmittance and reflectance measurement system with large aperture is demonstrated. With a laser source at 1053nm, three kinds of large aperture optics are tested by conventional direct detection. The results show that this system can realize high measuring precision (0.05% and 0.01% for transmittance and reflectance respectively) when tested parameter is small in value. In addition, the measurements precision with 532nm and 351nm laser sources are also tested compared, and the factors of measurement uncertainty with shorter wavelength are analyzed. To further promote accuracy and signal-noise ratio, coherent heterodyne detection and optical demodulation technique is proposed especially for high transmittance measurement. A demonstrative experiment of transmittance detection by balanced heterodyne and optical demodulation is performed, and a SD=0.052%, which is more than two order precision is achieved. It results that it is valid compared with conventional direct detection, and gives a promising method for higher precision during further practical applications.

  4. Low-cost Large Aperture Telescopes for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Low-cost, large-aperture optical receivers are required to form an affordable optical ground receiver network for laser communications. Among the ground receiver station's multiple subsystems, here, we only discuss the ongoing research activities aimed at reducing the cost of the large-size optics on the receiver. Experimental results of two different approaches for fabricating low-cost mirrors of wavefront quality on the order of 100-200X the diffraction limit are described. Laboratory-level effort are underway to improve the surface figure to better than 20X the diffraction limit.

  5. Sparse subaperture stitching method for measuring large aperture planar optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xudong; Shen, Zhengxiang; Tong, Guangde; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-02-01

    Ring polishing is a primary method to polish large aperture planar optics that is widely used in the fabrication of high-power solid-state laser equipment. The relative motion track with the ring polishing is always rotationally symmetrical and the amount of material removal is related to the radius. The height errors are identical when the points are in the same radius, which can largely reduce the coverage area when the subaperture stitching method is used to measure the figure error of the surface. A new sparse lattice for planar optics polished by ring polishing is introduced. The cumulative error is proven small enough for sparse subaperture stitching by the reference of the simulated data. A planar optical element with 200 mm×200 mm aperture was chosen to test the feasibility of our proposed method. The results indicate that sparse stitching is suitable for measuring a large planar surface polished by ring polishing. The results of two chain lattice are closer to the fully covered lattice than a one chain lattice. However, more measuring time could be saved by the one chain lattice method. So, the usage of different lattices could be adapted for different periods of large aperture planar optical manufacturing.

  6. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal. PMID:20208642

  7. Large-aperture Faraday isolator based on a terbium gallium garnet crystal.

    PubMed

    Mironov, E A; Zheleznov, D S; Starobor, A V; Voitovich, A V; Palashov, O V; Bulkanov, A M; Demidenko, A G

    2015-06-15

    Unique Faraday isolator based on a TGG single crystal with aperture diameter of 40 mm for high average power lasers has been fabricated and investigated experimentally. The device provides a stable isolation ratio over 30 dB for large-radius laser beams with kilowatt average power radiation typical for high-power applications. PMID:26076264

  8. High power 808 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser with multi-ring-shaped-aperture structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. Q.; Shang, C. Y.; Feng, Y.; Yan, C. L.; Zhao, Y. J.; Wang, Y. X.; Wang, X. H.; Liu, G. J.

    2011-02-01

    The carrier conglomeration effect has been one of the main problems in developing electrically pumped high power vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with large aperture. We demonstrate a high power 808 nm VCSEL with multi-ring-shaped-aperture (MRSA) to weaken the carrier conglomeration effect. Compared with typical VCSEL with single large aperture (SLA), the 300-μm-diameter VCSEL with MRSA has more uniform near field and far field patterns. Moreover, MRSA laser exhibits maximal CW light output power 0.3 W which is about 3 times that of SLA laser. And the maximal wall-plug efficiency of 17.4% is achieved, higher than that of SLA laser by 10%.

  9. Metrology measurements for large-aperture VPH gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Gers, Luke; Heijmans, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    The High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO) uses four large aperture, high angle of incidence volume phase holographic gratings (VPHG) for high resolution `Galactic archaeology' spectroscopy. The large clear aperture, the high diffraction efficiency, the line frequency homogeneity, and mosaic alignment made manufacturing and testing challenging. We developed new metrology systems at the AAO to verify the performance of these VPH gratings. The measured diffraction efficiencies and line frequency of the VPH gratings received so far meet the vendor's provided data. The wavefront quality for the Blue VPH grating is good but the Green and Red VPH gratings need to be post polishing.

  10. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; Del Castillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array.

  11. Large Aperture, Scanning, L-Band SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moussessian, Alina; DelCastillo, Linda; Bach, Vinh; Grando, Maurio; Quijano, Ubaldo; Smith, Phil; Zawadzki, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We have developed the first L-band membrane-based active phased array. The antenna is a 16x16 element patch array with dimensions of 2.3mx2.6m. The array uses membrane-compatible Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules for electronic beam steering. We will discuss the antenna design, the fabrication of this large array, the T/R module development, the signal distribution approach and the measured results of the array

  12. Wavefront Correction of Pettawat Laser System by a Deformable Mirror with 50 mm Active Aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Mei-Biao; Xia, Chang-Quan; Lu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ru-Xin; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2009-12-01

    We firstly propose and demonstrate a new economical approach that can correct the wavefront of the petwatt Ti:sapphire laser system with a beam size of 150mm. By using a deformable mirror with 50mm active aperture in the end of the laser, the focal spot size is reduced effectively. The experimental results show that the new approach is simple, less-expensive and valid from a technical and economical point. This technique could be applied to correct the wavefront of a large optical beam with a smaller aperture deformable mirror.

  13. Expected Performance of Adaptive Optics in Large Aperture Solar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, J.; Rimmele, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar adaptive optics has become an indispensable tool for high resolution solar observations. New generation solar telescopes, such as the 4 m aperture Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, introduce a new set of challenges to solar adaptive optics correction. Larger aperture sizes are more susceptible to the effects on AO correction performance of the extended field-of-view of the cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Observations at large zenith angles further enhance these field-of-view effects and can introduce more performance reductions due to atmospheric dispersion. We study the expected correction performance of solar adaptive optics systems in large aperture solar telescopes using an end-to-end adaptive optics simulation package.

  14. Self-Referencing Hartmann Test for Large-Aperture Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korechoff, Robert P.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for end-to-end, full aperture testing of large-aperture telescopes using an innovative variation of a Hartmann mask. This technique is practical for telescopes with primary mirrors tens of meters in diameter and of any design. Furthermore, it is applicable to the entire optical band (near IR, visible, ultraviolet), relatively insensitive to environmental perturbations, and is suitable for ambient laboratory as well as thermal-vacuum environments. The only restriction is that the telescope optical axis must be parallel to the local gravity vector during testing. The standard Hartmann test utilizes an array of pencil beams that are cut out of a well-corrected wavefront using a mask. The pencil beam array is expanded to fill the full aperture of the telescope. The detector plane of the telescope is translated back and forth along the optical axis in the vicinity of the nominal focal plane, and the centroid of each pencil beam image is recorded. Standard analytical techniques are then used to reconstruct the telescope wavefront from the centroid data. The expansion of the array of pencil beams is usually accomplished by double passing the beams through the telescope under test. However, this requires a well-corrected, autocollimation flat, the diameter or which is approximately equal to that of the telescope aperture. Thus, the standard Hartmann method does not scale well because of the difficulty and expense of building and mounting a well-corrected, large aperture flat. The innovation in the testing method proposed here is to replace the large aperture, well-corrected, monolithic autocollimation flat with an array of small-aperture mirrors. In addition to eliminating the need for a large optic, the surface figure requirement for the small mirrors is relaxed compared to that required of the large autocollimation flat. The key point that allows this method to work is that the small mirrors need to operate as a monolithic flat only with regard to tip/tilt and not piston because in collimated space piston has no effect on the image centroids. The problem of aligning the small mirrors in tip/tilt requires a two-part solution. First, each mirror is suspended from a two-axis gimbal. The orientation of the gimbal is maintained by gravity. Second, the mirror is aligned such that the mirror normal is parallel to gravity vector. This is accomplished interferometrically in a test fixture. Of course, the test fixture itself needs to be calibrated with respect to gravity.

  15. Strong terahertz radiation from air plasmas generated by an aperture-limited Gaussian pump laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Xiaoyu; Toncian, Toma; Jung, Ralph; Willi, Oswald; Li Chun; Li Yutong; Wang Weimin; Wang Shoujun; Liu Feng; Chen Min; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie

    2009-03-09

    Terahertz radiation generated by focusing the fundamental laser pulse and its second harmonic into ambient air strongly saturates with increasing pump laser energy. We demonstrate a simple method to control the Gaussian pump laser beam to improve the output of terahertz radiation with an adjustable aperture. With the optimal aperture-limited pump laser beams, the terahertz wave amplitudes can be enhanced by more than eight times depending on the pump laser parameters than those of aperture-free cases.

  16. Mission definition for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An Earth-observation measurements mission is defined for a large-aperture microwave radiometer spacecraft. This mission is defined without regard to any particular spacecraft design concept. Space data application needs, the measurement selection rationale, and broad spacecraft design requirements and constraints are described. The effects of orbital parameters and image quality requirements on the spacecraft and mission performance are discussed. Over the land the primary measurand is soil moisture; over the coastal zones and the oceans important measurands are salinity, surface temperature, surface winds, oil spill dimensions and ice boundaries; and specific measurement requirements have been selected for each. Near-all-weather operation and good spatial resolution are assured by operating at low microwave frequencies using an extremely large aperture antenna in a low-Earth-orbit contiguous mapping mode.

  17. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  18. Bridgman growth of large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Anhua; Jiang, Linwen; Qian, Guoxing; Zheng, Yanqing; Xu, Jun; Shi, Erwei

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► YCOB is a novel non-linear optical crystal possessing good thermal, mechanical and nonlinear optical properties. ► Large size crystal growth is key technology question for YCOB crystal. ► YCOB crystals 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method. ► It is a more effective growth method to obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal. -- Abstract: Large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB) crystals with 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method, and the large crystal plate (63 mm × 68 mm × 20 mm) was harvested for high-average power frequency conversion system. The crack, facet growth and spiral growth can be effectively controlled in the as-grown crystal, and Bridgman method displays more effective in obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal plate than Czochralski technique.

  19. Research on 2x1 plasma electrode electro-optical switch with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong Jun; Zheng, Kui Xing; Feng, B.; Wu, D. S.; Lu, J. P.; Tian, X. L.; Jin, F.; Sui, Zhan; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2005-01-01

    In conceptual design of the prototype for SG-III facility, a full aperture electro-optical switch was placed between the cavity mirror and the main amplifier to isolate the reflected beams. The beam on the cavity mirror is 240mm240mm square. Pockells cells of conversional design with coaxial ring electrodes can not scale to such large square aperture. In the 1980s, a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) concept was invented at LLNL. It uses transparent plasma electrode formed through gas discharge as the electrodes to apply the voltage across switching crystal to rotate the polarization of a transmitted laser beam. And it can be scaled to large aperture with thin crystal. So the switch which would be used in SG-III is based on this technology. The technical integration line as a prototype of SG-III laser is actually a 42 beam bundle. And the full aperture optical switch is mechanically designed four apertures as a removable unit, and electrically two 21 PEPC putting together. So we built a 21 PEPC to develop the technology first. The 21 PEPC is a sandwich structure made of an insulating mid plane between a pair of plasma chambers. The frame of both plasma chambers are machining in duralumin. Each chamber is installed with a planar magnetic cathode and four segments spherical anodes made from stainless steel. The cathode and anode are insulated from the housing with a special shell made from plastic, and plasma is insulated from the housing by an 80-?m-thick anodic coating on the duralumin. The two plasma chambers are separated by a mid plane of glass frame with two square holes. The two holes are filled by two electro-optical crystals with a 240-mm square aperture. With the optimized operating pressure and the electrical parameters, a very good homogeneity and low resistivity plasma electrode is obtained. Finally we tested its switching performance to simulate the case that it will be used in the SG-III prototype facility. It works with a quarter wave delay voltage and the laser beam passes through PEPC twice. The average switching efficiency across the entire aperture is greater than 98.6%, the rising time of the switch is about 83ns, and the transmission of the switch is 86%.

  20. Autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging with large curvilinear apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleszynski, E.; Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.

    2013-05-01

    An approach to autofocusing for large curved synthetic aperture radar (SAR) apertures is presented. Its essential feature is that phase corrections are being extracted not directly from SAR images, but rather from reconstructed SAR phase-history data representing windowed patches of the scene, of sizes sufficiently small to allow the linearization of the forward- and back-projection formulae. The algorithm processes data associated with each patch independently and in two steps. The first step employs a phase-gradient-type method in which phase correction compensating (possibly rapid) trajectory perturbations are estimated from the reconstructed phase history for the dominant scattering point on the patch. The second step uses phase-gradient-corrected data and extracts the absolute phase value, removing in this way phase ambiguities and reducing possible imperfections of the first stage, and providing the distances between the sensor and the scattering point with accuracy comparable to the wavelength. The features of the proposed autofocusing method are illustrated in its applications to intentionally corrupted small-scene 2006 Gotcha data. The examples include the extraction of absolute phases (ranges) for selected prominent point targets. They are then used to focus the scene and determine relative target-target distances.

  1. Large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer: Principle and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangli, Bin; Cai, Qisheng; Du, Shusong

    2015-12-01

    A large aperture spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (LASHIS) is proposed. It is a kind of pushbroom Fourier transform ultraspectral imager with no moving parts. This imaging spectrometer, based on a Sagnac lateral shearing interferometer combined with a pair of gratings, has the advantages of high spectral resolution, high throughput and robustness. The principle of LASHIS and its spectral retrieval method are introduced. The processing chain to convert raw images to ultraspectral datacube is also described. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolving power of LASHIS with the emission spectrum of a low pressure sodium lamp.

  2. Large-aperture interferometer using local reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    A large-aperture interferometer was devised by adding a local-reference-beam-generating optical system to a schlieren system. Two versions of the interferometer are demonstrated, one employing 12.7 cm (5 in.) diameter schlieren optics, the other employing 30.48 cm (12 in.) diameter parabolic mirrors in an off-axis system. In the latter configuration a cylindrical lens is introduced near the light source to correct for astigmatism. A zone plate is a satisfactory decollimating element in the reference-beam arm of the interferometer. Attempts to increase the flux and uniformity of irradiance in the reference beam by using a diffuser are discussed.

  3. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  4. Research and validation of key measurement technologies of large aperture optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Renhui; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhou, Binbin; Song, Le

    2015-07-01

    A lot of optical components with large aperture are employed in high-power solid-state laser driver. These optical components are with high requirement on the surface shape, optical homogeneity and stress distribution. In order to test these parameters, different types of interferometers, surface profilers and stress meters from different manufacturers are needed. But the problem is the products from different manufacturers may provide different test results. To solve the problem, the research and verification of the key measurement technologies of large aperture optical components are carried out in this paper. The absolute flatness and optical homogeneity measurement methods are analyzed. And the test results of different interferometric software are compared. The test results from different surface profilers and stress meters are also compared. The consistency and reliability of different test software are obtained with the comparing results, which will guide users to select a suitable product.

  5. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  6. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  7. Limitations of synthetic aperture laser optical feedback imaging.

    PubMed

    Glastre, Wilfried; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Lacot, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we study the origin and the effect of amplitude and phase noise on laser optical feedback imaging associated with a synthetic aperture (SA) imaging system. Amplitude noise corresponds to photon noise and acts as an additive noise; it can be reduced by increasing the global measurement time. Phase noise can be divided in three families: random, sinusoidal, and drift phase noise; we show that it acts as a multiplicative noise. We explain how we can reduce phase noise by making oversampling or multiple measurements depending on its type. This work can easily be extended to all SA systems (radar, laser, or terahertz), especially when raw holograms are acquired point by point. PMID:23201784

  8. Laser aperture diagnostics system for gain and wavefront measurements on NIF/LMJ amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, L. E., LLNL

    1996-12-17

    We are in the midst of constructing an amplifier laboratory (Arnplab) that will be the physics and engineering proving ground for fill sized segmented glass amplifiers of designs that will outfit the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Megajoule (LMJ) projects. Amplab will demonstrate the cornerstone mechanical, electrical and optical concepts that support the NW and LMJ amplifier schemes. Here we address the optical diagnostics that will be used to characterize optical performance of the amplifiers. We describe, the apparatus that will be used in pulsed measurements of gain distribution and wave-front distortions. The large aperture diagnostic system or LADS, is now being built through a collaborative effort between CEL-V and LLNL. The LADS will provide measurements of gain and wave front distortions over the fill extracting aperture of the NIF and LMJ prototype amplifiers. The LADS will be able to address each of eight apertures via motorized stages and following semi-automated alignment, take data on the aperture of interest. The LADS should be operational in mid-1997 at LLNL and will be used to characterize the optical performance of the very first fill scale prototype 4 x 2 NIF and LMJ amplifiers. It will be transported to Bordeaux, France to make similar measurements during activation of the first 8-aperture LMJ-like facility (LIL) that is planned to start in the near future.

  9. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Leonhardt, W.J. )

    1993-07-01

    Large aperture, low mass, thin vacuum windows are required to minimize beam loss in the beam lines of particle accelerators as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. This article describes the design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience of a large rectangular vacuum window, 122 cm[times]61 cm, and two circular windows of 91.4 and 96.5 cm diam. These window designs utilize a composite Kevlar 29 fabric and Mylar laminate as a window material with a typical combined thickness of 0.35 mm. Data for several material thicknesses are also presented. The windows are usually designed to withstand a pressure differential of two to three atmospheres to achieve the required factor of safety. These windows are typically used in the medium vacuum range of 10[sup [minus]4] Torr. The equations used to predict the behavior of the window material will also be discussed.

  10. Optical system design for lens with large relative aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Zefeng; Yan, Aqi; Fei, Jiaqi; Mei, Chao; Zhang, Gaopeng

    2015-10-01

    As the space remote sensing technology progresses, the developing trend of telescope is larger and larger aperture, higher and higher resolution. An Optical system with the relative aperture of 1:2 is introduced. The primary optical properties are: focal length of 120mm, F number of 2, field angle of 7.4°. It has the advantages of large high resolution, small size and excellent image quality. Several kinds of aberration curves and the MTF curve are given. Its imaging quality is nearly diffraction limited so that the spatial frequency is greater than 70lp/mm when its modulated transfer function (MTF) value of the optical system is equal to 0.8,and the optical system distortion is less than 1%. At last, the stray light is analyzed and the baffle of the telescope is designed. The solid model of the Optical system was constructed in Tracepro software, the point sources transmittance (PST) cure was given at different off-axis angle between 7.4°~80° the analysis result indicates that the PST values are less than 10-6 when off-axis angle are larger than soar critical angle. So the system is suitable for observation or photography of deep sky objects.

  11. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  12. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for this article, an 8 16 passive array (not including T/R modules) and a 2 4 active array (including T/R modules) had been demonstrated, and it was planned to fabricate and test larger arrays.

  13. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupolemagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich,Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman,Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-04-14

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed.

  14. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  15. APPLICATION OF LARGE APERTURE EMATS TO WELD INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W.

    2008-02-28

    One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90 deg. to 90 deg. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60 deg. beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45 deg. to 70 deg. beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

  16. Application of Large Aperture Emats to Weld Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclauchlan, D. T.; Clark, S. P.; Hancock, J. W.

    2008-02-01

    One of the most significant developments in EMAT operation is the incorporation of phased array techniques. Phased array EMATs enable electronic beam steering and focusing while operating with temporally short pulses for good range resolution. Using phased array EMAT operation, multiple high powered pulsers are combined in the generation of the ultrasonic wave and multiple elements are combined in the reception of the ultrasonic wave, for improved sensitivity. EMATs make it practical to operate with shear horizontal (SH) waves and scan over a metal part's surface. An EMAT generated line force at the surface launches shear horizontal waves with uniform amplitude for beam angles from -90° to 90°. Shear horizontal waves also reflect without mode conversion from surfaces that are parallel to the polarization of the shear wave displacements. The combination of these advantages makes phased array EMATs well suited for weld inspection. Recently, BWXT Services has developed a 32 active channel EMAT phased array system for operation up to 5 MHz. In addition, each element can be constructed with several sub-elements, alternating in polarity, to effectively multiply the number of active elements for a restricted range of beam angles. For example by using elements comprised of 4 sub elements, a 128 active element aperture designed for operation with a nominal 60° beam angle provides good beam steering and focusing performance for 45° to 70° beam angles. The large active apertures allow the use of highly focused beams for good defect detection and high resolution imaging of weld defects. Application of this system to weld inspections has verified that good defect detection and imaging is possible. In addition, operation with SH waves has proven to provide improved detection of lack of fusion at the cap and root of the weld for certain weld geometries. The system has also been used to demonstrate the inspection of submerged metal arc welds while welding.

  17. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  18. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  19. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  20. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  1. Hierarchical beamforming with application to a large aperture array system

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation presents a new beamforming technique for processing sensored signals hierarchically in the frequency domain. It is possible through the use of this technique to reduce the hardware complexity in beamforming for a large aperture array system commonly requiring high hardware complexity due to a large number of sensors. For this hierarchical beamforming in the frequency domain, a new Parallel-In Serial-Out discrete Fourier Transform (PISO-DFT) algorithm is introduced, hardware implementation of which is shown to be superior to the Fast Fourier Transform hardware implementation in the following respects: (1) the PISO-DFT has a simple recursive structure utilizing one set of multiplication coefficients, (2) it has no cross-wirings commonly found in the butterfly structures of the FFT algorithm, so that (3) it is easily implemented in VLSI, and, most importantly, (4) it can be extended to a higher dimension without structural modifications. Owing to this simple extensibility, a higher dimension PISO-DFT can be partitioned into a number of lower dimension modules, so that it can be implemented in modular structures, i.e., one processor module for a group of small number of sensors, and in which all modules are identical. The signals processed in lower modules are carried through single-channel outputs and processed in an upper level processor to generate final DFT results in a hierarchical sense.

  2. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, C.

    1995-04-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed.

  3. Error analysis of large aperture static interference imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Guo

    2015-12-01

    Large Aperture Static Interference Imaging Spectrometer is a new type of spectrometer with light structure, high spectral linearity, high luminous flux and wide spectral range, etc ,which overcomes the contradiction between high flux and high stability so that enables important values in science studies and applications. However, there're different error laws in imaging process of LASIS due to its different imaging style from traditional imaging spectrometers, correspondingly, its data processing is complicated. In order to improve accuracy of spectrum detection and serve for quantitative analysis and monitoring of topographical surface feature, the error law of LASIS imaging is supposed to be learned. In this paper, the LASIS errors are classified as interferogram error, radiometric correction error and spectral inversion error, and each type of error is analyzed and studied. Finally, a case study of Yaogan-14 is proposed, in which the interferogram error of LASIS by time and space combined modulation is mainly experimented and analyzed, as well as the errors from process of radiometric correction and spectral inversion.

  4. Three-dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis for rapid and highly-accurate large-volume metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M.; Barber, Zeb W.; Reibel, Randy R.

    2015-09-01

    Currently large volume, high accuracy three-dimensional (3D) metrology is dominated by laser trackers, which typically utilize a laser scanner and cooperative reflector to estimate points on a given surface. The dependency upon the placement of cooperative targets dramatically inhibits the speed at which metrology can be conducted. To increase speed, laser scanners or structured illumination systems can be used directly on the surface of interest. Both approaches are restricted in their axial and lateral resolution at longer stand-off distances due to the diffraction limit of the optics used. Holographic aperture ladar (HAL) and synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) can enhance the lateral resolution of an imaging system by synthesizing much larger apertures by digitally combining measurements from multiple smaller apertures. Both of these approaches only produce two-dimensional imagery and are therefore not suitable for large volume 3D metrology. We combined the SAL and HAL approaches to create a swept frequency digital holographic 3D imaging system that provides rapid measurement speed for surface coverage with unprecedented axial and lateral resolution at longer standoff ranges. The technique yields a "data cube" of Fourier domain data, which can be processed with a 3D Fourier transform to reveal a 3D estimate of the surface. In this paper, we provide the theoretical background for the technique and show experimental results based on an ultra-wideband frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) chirped heterodyne ranging system showing ~100 micron lateral and axial precisions at >2 m standoff distances.

  5. The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope - BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, Mark

    We are proposing a comprehensive program to study the link between Galactic magnetic fields and star formation. After decades of study, the physical processes regulating star formation still remain poorly understood. Large-scale observations of star forming regions provide counts of the number of dense clouds each of which will eventually evolve into tens to hundreds of stars. However, when simple models of gravitational collapse are applied to the clouds they yield a Galactic star formation rate (SFR) which is many times what is actually observed. Some process or combination of processes must be slowing the collapse of the clouds. The two prevailing theories involve turbulence which prevents the effective dissipation of energy and Galactic magnetic fields which are captured and squeezed by the collapsing cloud provide a mechanism for mechanical support. Understanding these effects fits very well the SMD 2010 Science Plan's Cosmic Origins program. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Telecope BLASTPol and its planned successor, Super BLASTPol, are the first instruments to combine the sensitivity and mapping speed necessary to trace magnetic fields across entire clouds with the resolution to trace fields down into dense substructures, including cores and laments. Super BLAST-Pol will provide polarization at 250, 350 and 500 mm, with a diffraction limited beam FWHM of 22 arcmin at 250 mm. Super BLASTPol therefore provides the critical link between the PLANCK all-sky polarization maps with 5 arcmin resolution and ALMA s ultra-high resolution, but with only a 20-arcsec field of view. BLASTPol will use the PLANCK data to refine its target selection, then ALMA will utilize BLASTPol maps to zero in on areas of particular interest. Together, these three instruments will be able to probe the inner workings of star formation with previously unreachable resolution, sensitivity and scope.

  6. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  7. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Steven M.; Buck, Joseph R.; Buell, Walter F.; Dickinson, Richard P.; Kozlowski, David A.; Marechal, Nicholas J.; Wright, Timothy J.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  8. Wide-aperture laser beam measurement using transmission diffuser: errors modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsak, Ivan S.

    2015-06-01

    Instrumental errors of measurement wide-aperture laser beam diameter were modeled to build measurement setup and justify its metrological characteristics. Modeled setup is based on CCD camera and transmission diffuser. This method is appropriate for precision measurement of large laser beam width from 10 mm up to 1000 mm. It is impossible to measure such beams with other methods based on slit, pinhole, knife edge or direct CCD camera measurement. The method is suitable for continuous and pulsed laser irradiation. However, transmission diffuser method has poor metrological justification required in field of wide aperture beam forming system verification. Considering the fact of non-availability of a standard of wide-aperture flat top beam modelling is preferred way to provide basic reference points for development measurement system. Modelling was conducted in MathCAD. Super-Lorentz distribution with shape parameter 6-12 was used as a model of the beam. Using theoretical evaluations there was found that the key parameters influencing on error are: relative beam size, spatial non-uniformity of the diffuser, lens distortion, physical vignetting, CCD spatial resolution and, effective camera ADC resolution. Errors were modeled for 90% of power beam diameter criteria. 12-order Super-Lorentz distribution was primary model, because it precisely meets experimental distribution at the output of test beam forming system, although other orders were also used. The analytic expressions were obtained analyzing the modelling results for each influencing data. Attainability of <1% error based on choice of parameters of expression was shown. The choice was based on parameters of commercially available components of the setup. The method can provide up to 0.1% error in case of using calibration procedures and multiple measurements.

  9. Experimental instrumentation system for the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, William H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive optics are used in telescopes for both viewing objects with minimum distortion and for transmitting laser beams with minimum beam divergence and dance. In order to test concepts on a smaller scale, NASA MSFC is in the process of setting up an adaptive optics test facility with precision (fraction of wavelengths) measurement equipment. The initial system under test is the adaptive optical telescope called PAMELA (Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture). Goals of this test are: assessment of test hardware specifications for PAMELA application and the determination of the sensitivities of instruments for measuring PAMELA (and other adaptive optical telescopes) imperfections; evaluation of the PAMELA system integration effort and test progress and recommended actions to enhance these activities; and development of concepts and prototypes of experimental apparatuses for PAMELA.

  10. Aberrations and focusability in large solid-state-laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality of the several major components - amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters - in each amplifier train. Residual static aberrations in optical components are transferred to the beam as it traverses the optical amplifier chain. Although individual components are typically less than lambda/20 for components less than 10 cm clear aperture; and less than lambda/10 for components less than 20 cm clear aperture; the large number of such components in optical series results in a wavefront error that may exceed one wave for modern solid state lasers. For pulse operation, the focal spot is additionally broadened by intensity dependent nonlinearities. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 74 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry.

  11. In-situ monitoring of surface post-processing in large aperture fused silica optics with Optical Coherence Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, G M; Bass, I l; Hackel, R P; Mailhiot, C; Demos, S G

    2008-02-08

    Optical Coherence Tomography is explored as a method to image laser-damage sites located on the surface of large aperture fused silica optics during post-processing via CO{sub 2} laser ablation. The signal analysis for image acquisition was adapted to meet the sensitivity requirements for this application. A long-working distance geometry was employed to allow imaging through the opposite surface of the 5-cm thick optic. The experimental results demonstrate the potential of OCT for remote monitoring of transparent material processing applications.

  12. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a photoelectrochemically etched air-gap aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Megalini, L.; Lee, S.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a III-nitride nonpolar vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a photoelectrochemically (PEC) etched aperture. The PEC lateral undercut etch is used to selectively remove the multi-quantum well (MQW) region outside the aperture area, defined by an opaque metal mask. This PEC aperture (PECA) creates an air-gap in the passive area of the device, allowing one to achieve efficient electrical confinement within the aperture, while simultaneously achieving a large index contrast between core of the device (the MQW within the aperture) and the lateral cladding of the device (the air-gap formed by the PEC etch), leading to strong lateral confinement. Scanning electron microscopy and focused ion-beam analysis is used to investigate the precision of the PEC etch technique in defining the aperture. The fabricated single mode PECA VCSEL shows a threshold current density of 22 kA/cm2 (25 mA), with a peak output power of 180 ?W, at an emission wavelength of 417 nm. The near-field emission profile shows a clearly defined single linearly polarized (LP) mode profile (LP12,1), which is in contrast to the filamentary lasing that is often observed in III-nitride VCSELs. 2D mode profile simulations, carried out using COMSOL, give insight into the different mode profiles that one would expect to be displayed in such a device. The experimentally observed single mode operation is proposed to be predominantly a result of poor current spreading in the device. This non-uniform current spreading results in a higher injected current at the periphery of the aperture, which favors LP modes with high intensities near the edge of the aperture.

  13. Relationship between large-aperture optical components of striated surface shape and focal spot characteristics in the far-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zemin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yin, Xianhua; Lv, Fengnian; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Xingqiang; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-07-01

    Surface shape of optical components is an essential factor of the laser beam quality. Different types of surface correspond to different characteristics of the laser focal spot. Striated surface shape is one of common and typical cases of optical component surfaces in laser facilities, which have attracted great attention. For learning the impact of the component on focal spot in the far-field, a model component with the similar features was introduced in the study. Intensity distributions of focal spot in the far-field was simulated after laser beam went through the model component. Effects of the modulation depth and the modulation period on spot morphology were presented. Furthermore, the relations between these optical specifications and focal spots with some requirements had been analyzed. The results can enhance our understanding about striae degrees of optical elements and have reference values to guide the processing and the use of large-aperture components correctly.

  14. The scaling relationship between telescope cost and aperture size for very large telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Belle, Gerard T.; Meinel, Aden Baker; Meinel, Marjorie Pettit

    2004-01-01

    Cost data for ground-based telescopes of the last century are analyzed for trends in the relationship between aperture size and cost. We find that for apertures built prior to 1980, costs scaled as aperture size to the 2.8 power, which is consistent with the precious finding of Meinel (1978). After 1980, 'traditional' monolithic mirror telescope costs have scaled as aperture to the 2.5 power. The large multiple mirror telescopes built or in construction during this time period (Keck, LBT, GTC) appear to deviate from this relationship with significant cost savings as a result, although it is unclear what power law such structures follow. We discuss the implications of the current cost-aperture size data on the proposed large telescope projects of the next ten to twenty years. Structures that naturally tend towards the 2.0 power in the cost-aperture relationship will be the favorable choice for future extremely large apertures; out expectation is that space-based structures will ultimately gain economic advantage over ground-based ones.

  15. Sub-aperture coherence method to realize ultra-high resolution laser beam deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhenhui; Wang, Xiangru; Huang, Ziqiang; Tan, Qinggui; Duan, Yingying; Suo, Guoguo; Du, Jing; Qiu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A new phase controlled method is proposed to realize ultra-high resolution laser beam deflection on the physics of coherence between sub-apertures on one device of liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA). Sub-apertures are electronically switchable and divided from a uniform device of LC-OPA. In the approach of sub-aperture coherence (SAC), numerical simulation results show the characteristics of far field including SAC steering step and angular width. Meanwhile, the method of SAC has also been verified by experiments showing a good agreement with the simulation results of ultra-high resolution beam deflection.

  16. Wide-aperture laser diode array in the external V-shaped cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Svetikov, V V; Nurligareev, D Kh

    2014-09-30

    The operation of a wide-aperture laser diode array with the radiation wavelength 980 nm in external V-shaped symmetric and asymmetric cavities is experimentally studied. The regimes of stable oscillation are studied as functions of the feedback beam direction. The spectra and the intensity distribution of radiation in the far zone are presented for the laser diode in symmetric and asymmetric cavities. Tuning of the radiation wavelength is demonstrated using the Littman geometry in the asymmetric cavity. (lasers)

  17. Large-aperture refractive lenses for momentum-resolved spectroscopy with hard X-rays

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hiroshi; Simon, Markus; Nazmov, Vladimir; Mohr, Jürgen; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Stein, Aaron; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional kinoform and prism refractive lenses with large aperture and high transmittance at 22 keV have been investigated. A 12.0 µm focus size (full width at half-maximum) and an effective aperture of 0.85 mm, at a focal length of 705 mm and 21.747 keV, were achieved. PMID:23765301

  18. Large-aperture, tapered fiber-coupled, 10-kHz particle-image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Paul S; Roy, Sukesh; Jiang, Naibo; Gord, James R

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate the design and implementation of a fiber-optic beam-delivery system using a large-aperture, tapered step-index fiber for high-speed particle-image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent combustion flows. The tapered fiber in conjunction with a diffractive-optical-element (DOE) fiber-optic coupler significantly increases the damage threshold of the fiber, enabling fiber-optic beam delivery of sufficient nanosecond, 532-nm, laser pulse energy for high-speed PIV measurements. The fiber successfully transmits 1-kHz and 10-kHz laser pulses with energies of 5.3 mJ and 2 mJ, respectively, for more than 25 min without any indication of damage. It is experimentally demonstrated that the tapered fiber possesses the high coupling efficiency (~80%) and moderate beam quality for PIV. Additionally, the nearly uniform output-beam profile exiting the fiber is ideal for PIV applications. Comparative PIV measurements are made using a conventionally (bulk-optic) delivered light sheet, and a similar order of measurement accuracy is obtained with and without fiber coupling. Effective use of fiber-coupled, 10-kHz PIV is demonstrated for instantaneous 2D velocity-field measurements in turbulent reacting flows. Proof-of-concept measurements show significant promise for the performance of fiber-coupled, high-speed PIV using a tapered optical fiber in harsh laser-diagnostic environments such as those encountered in gas-turbine test beds and the cylinder of a combustion engine. PMID:23481818

  19. Analysis of fratricide effect observed with GeMS and its relevance for large aperture astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otarola, Angel; Neichel, Benoit; Wang, Lianqi; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Rigaut, François

    2013-12-01

    Large aperture ground-based telescopes require Adaptive Optics (AO) to correct for the distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence and achieve diffraction limited imaging quality. These AO systems rely on Natural and Laser Guide Stars (NGS and LGS) to provide the information required to measure the wavefront from the astronomical sources under observation. In particular one such LGS method consists in creating an artificial star by means of fluorescence of the sodium atoms at the altitude of the Earth's mesosphere. This is achieved by propagating one or more lasers, at the wavelength of the Na D2a resonance, from the telescope up to the mesosphere. Lasers can be launched from either behind the secondary mirror or from the perimeter of the main aperture. The so-called central- and side-launch systems, respectively. The central-launch system, while helpful to reduce the LGS spot elongation, introduces the so-called "fratricide" effect. This consists of an increase in the photon-noise in the AO Wave Front Sensors (WFS) sub-apertures, with photons that are the result of laser photons back-scattering from atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) and atmospheric aerosols (dust and/or cirrus clouds ice particles). This affects the performance of the algorithms intended to compute the LGS centroids and subsequently compute and correct the turbulence-induced wavefront distortions. In the frame of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project and using actual LGS WFS data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (Gemini MCAO a.k.a. GeMS), we show results from an analysis of the temporal variability of the observed fratricide effect, as well as comparison of the absolute magnitude of fratricide photon-flux level with simulations using models that account for molecular (Rayleigh) scattering and photons backscattered from cirrus clouds.

  20. Techniques for Matching Laser TEM(00) Mode to Obscured Circular Aperture.

    PubMed

    Peters, W N; Ledger, A M

    1970-06-01

    The performance of an optical telescope system with a centrally obscured aperture illuminated by a laser operated in the TEM(00) mode is analyzed in terms of antenna gain. This permits calculation of power budgets for optical radar and communication systems by substitution into the microwave range equations in common use. Practical techniques for increasing the antenna gain using conical axicons and aspheric lenses are presented. For example, if 0.25 of the aperture area is obscured, increases in the antenna gain of two times have been obtained using a conical axicon. The analysis also indicates that this approaches the maximum theoretical gain obtainable from an obscured aperture. The optimum method of interfacing the laser output with the obscured optical system and experimental results are also presented. PMID:20076397

  1. Large aperture deformable mirror with a transferred single-crystal silicon membrane actuated using large-stroke PZT Unimorph Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hishinumat, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui - Hyeok (EH)

    2005-01-01

    We have demonstrated a large aperture (50 mm x 50 mm) continuous membrane deformable mirror (DM) with a large-stroke piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. The DM consists of a continuous, large aperture, silicon membrane 'transferred' in its entirety onto a 20 x 20 piezoelectric unimorph actuator array. A PZT unimorph actuator, 2.5 mm in diameter with optimized PZT/Si thickness and design showed a deflection of 5.7 [m at 20V. An assembled DM showed an operating frequency bandwidth of 30 kHz and influence function of approximately 30%.

  2. High-frequency repetitively pulsed operating regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V; Kijko, V V; Kislov, V I; Suzdal'tsev, A G; Egorov, A B

    2003-09-30

    A technique for obtaining a repetitively pulsed operating regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers is proposed and experimentally realised. In this regime, the laser emits a train of pulses with a duration of 0.1 - 1 {mu}s and a pulse repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz. The main properties of the pulsed regime are theoretically analysed and the proposed technique is tested in detail employing a test-bench gas-dynamic laser. The results of the test confirmed the conclusions of the theoretical analysis. The possibility of realising a repetitively pulsed regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers without a reduction in the average output power is experimentally demonstrated. (papers devoted to the memory of academician a m prokhorov)

  3. Synthesis of a large communications aperture using small antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, George M.; Cwik, T. W.; Jamnejad, V.; Logan, R. T.; Miller, R. B.; Rogstad, Dave H.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we compare the cost of an array of small antennas to that of a single large antenna assuming both the array and single large antenna have equal performance and availability. The single large antenna is taken to be one of the 70-m antennas of the Deep Space Network. The cost of the array is estimated as a function of the array element diameter for three different values of system noise temperature corresponding to three different packaging schemes for the first amplifier. Array elements are taken to be fully steerable paraboloids and their cost estimates were obtained from commercial vendors. Array loss mechanisms and calibration problems are discussed. For array elements in the range 3 - 35 m there is no minimum in the cost versus diameter curve for the three system temperatures that were studied.

  4. The spectrum and competition of autowaves in a wide-aperture laser with a saturable filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikin, A P

    2000-11-30

    The lasing dynamics of a wide-aperture laser with an intracavity saturable absorber is theoretically studied. The saturable absorber inserting gives rise to an autowave profile of the optical field. The characteristic equation for the perturbations of the laser field is derived and solved. The spatial spectrum of autowaves is determined. The relevant set of equations was numerically solved for two types of resonant boundary conditions: total reflection of light from the side boundaries of the cavity and a coaxial laser geometry. (lasers, active media)

  5. Piezoelectrically driven translatory optical MEMS actuator with 7mm apertures and large displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenzer, H.-J.; Gu-Stoppel, S.; Stoppel, F.; Janes, J.; Hofmann, U.; Benecke, W.

    2015-02-01

    The design and manufacturing of a piezoelectrically driven translatory MEMS actuator is presented, which features a 7 mm aperture and four thin-film PZT actuators achieving large displacements. The actuator performs piston mode oscillation in resonance which can serve for Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Thereby vertical displacements in piston mode of up to 800 ?m at 163 Hz and 25 V driving sinusoidal voltage has been achieved under ambient conditions. Due to the low frequencies and the low driving voltages only low power consumption is required. The effect of residual gas friction and internal friction on the piezo-driven MEMS actuator is analyzed by measuring Qvalues associated with the piston mode. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) was also used to detect and analyses the parasitic effects especially tilting which superimposes the vertical movement of the mirror. The deviation from the pure vertical piston mode was found to 1.3 ?m along the x and 3 ?m in the y-axis.

  6. Quantitative comparison of terahertz emission from (100) InAs surfaces and a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch at high fluences.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2005-01-01

    InAs has previously been reported to be an efficient emitter of terahertz radiation at low excitation fluences by use of femtosecond laser pulses. The scaling and saturation of terahertz emission from a (100) InAs surface as a function of excitation fluence is measured and quantitatively compared with the emission from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch. We find that, although the instantaneous peak radiated terahertz field from (100) InAs exceeds the peak radiated signals from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch biased at 1.6 kV/cm, the pulse duration is shorter. For the InAs source the total energy radiated is less than can be obtained from a GaAs large-aperture photoconductive switch. PMID:15662896

  7. A novel method of calculating far-field patterns of large aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for calculation of the radiation pattern of large aperture antennas. A piece-wise linear approximation of the aperture field using overlapping pyramidal basis functions allows the radiation pattern of an aperture antenna to be calculated as though it were a two-dimensional array. The calculation of radiation pattern data versus theta and phi, suitable for 3-D or contour plot algorithms, is achieved by locating the array in the yz-plane and performing a summation over the aperture field data sampled on a square grid. A FORTRAN subroutine is provided for performing radiation pattern calculations. Numerical results are included to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence of the method. These numerical results indicate that typical accuracies of + or - 0.1 dB for Directivity, + or - dB for the 1st Sidelobe Level, and + - 2dB for the 2nd Sidelobe Level can be obtained with an aperture grid of 45x45 points and requires approximately 0.02 seconds CPU time per far-field data point on a VAX 11/750 with a floating point accelerator.

  8. High power density vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with ion implanted isolated current aperture.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Akira; Naito, Hideyuki; Torii, Kousuke; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Takenori; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2012-02-13

    We report on GaAs-based high power density vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with ion implanted isolated current apertures. A continuous-wave output power of over 380 mW and the power density of 4.9 kW/cm2 have been achieved at 15 C from the 100-?m-diameter aperture, which is the highest output characteristic ever reported for an ion implanted VCSEL. A high background suppression ratio of over 40 dB has also been obtained at the emission wavelength of 970 nm. The ion implantation technique provides an excellent current isolation in the apertures and would be a key to realize high power output from a VCSEL array. PMID:22418178

  9. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.

    2004-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 3 - 4 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  10. Tethered Formation Configurations: Meeting the Scientific Objectives of Large Aperture and Interferometric Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Rodger E.; Quinn, David A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the success of the Hubble Space Telescope, it has become apparent that new frontiers of science and discovery are made every time an improvement in imaging resolution is made. For the HST working primarily in the visible and near-visible spectrum, this meant designing, building, and launching a primary mirror approximately three meters in diameter. Conventional thinking tells us that accomplishing a comparable improvement in resolution at longer wavelengths for Earth and Space Science applications requires a corresponding increase in the size of the primary mirror. For wavelengths in the sub-millimeter range, a very large telescope with an effective aperture in excess of one kilometer in diameter would be needed to obtain high quality angular resolution. Realistically a single aperture this large is practically impossible. Fortunately such large apertures can be constructed synthetically. Possibly as few as three 34 meter diameter mirrors flying in precision formation could be used to collect light at these longer wavelengths permitting not only very large virtual aperture science to be carried out, but high-resolution interferometry as well. To ensure the longest possible mission duration, a system of tethered spacecraft will be needed to mitigate the need for a great deal of propellant. A spin-stabilized, tethered formation will likely meet these requirements. Several configurations have been proposed which possibly meet the needs of the Space Science community. This paper discusses two of them, weighing the relative pros and cons of each concept. The ultimate goal being to settle on a configuration which combines the best features of structure, tethers, and formation flying to meet the ambitious requirements necessary to make future large synthetic aperture and interferometric science missions successful.

  11. Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

  12. Fabrication and test of a concave oblate ellipsoid with large relative aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-xin; Yuan, Li-yin; Hao, Pei-ming

    2010-10-01

    Fabrication and test of the concave oblate ellipsoid becomes more difficult as the mirror relative aperture gets larger. The concave oblate ellipsoid discussed in this paper, has a very large relative aperture. Two processing methods are introduced. One is drilling sub-mirror from the mother mirror, the other is processing sub-mirror merely. A novel method to calculate aspheric grinding amount of the latter method is proposed. As the clear aperture and aperture decenter of the concave oblate ellipsoid in this paper are not large, the former processing method is finally adopted. Two online processing testing methods are proposed. One is reflective auto-collimating test; the other is refractive auto-collimating test. As for the former, a negative power lens is applied to compensate the positive spherical aberration of the concave oblate ellipsoid. The compensator has a negative - negative - positive configuration. As for the latter, the back surface of the spherical is designed to be an auxiliary spherical one. Its compensator is negative- positive- positive compensator. Besides, a high-precision plane is used to realize auto-collimating test. And the form test is selected for its online processing testing. By optical design of the compensator and gradual aberration optimization of its alignment, the test accuracy of the oblate ellipsoid shape can be achieved 1/10? (632.8nm).

  13. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  14. Aperture obstruction influences birefringence evaluation of a Nd : YAG laser system with tandem-set rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You; Kan, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Takayo; Wada, Satoshi

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we derive a theoretical and experimental expression for evaluating the thermally induced birefringence (TIB) in a Nd : YAG laser system with double rods in tandem. The analytical solution determines the optimum oscillator geometry corresponding to the minimum depolarization loss while the so-called aperture obstruction is considered in the calculation model. It can be seen that the experimental results closely follow the theoretical evaluation for both the depolarized degree and the birefringent distribution of a probe beam. We also find that the traditional evaluation method, which neglects the thermally induced lens effect and aperture truncation during the optical design, leads to an obvious deviation in determining the optimum arrangement of a laser system for compensation of birefringence. The method presented in this paper is thought to be useful in analysing any high-powered oscillators or amplifiers with high pulse energy.

  15. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  16. The influence of window thermal conductivity on the temperature distribution of the ADP crystal with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fuzhong; Zhang, Peng; Xiang, Yong; Lu, Lihua; Su, Ruifeng

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by the need of achieving the high frequency conversion efficiency of the laser beam with large diameter in the non-critical phase matching, a temperature control scheme of ADP crystal with large aperture was proposed. In this paper, in order to obtain the influence of the window thermal conductivity on the temperature distribution of ADP crystal, four different window materials, the thermal conductivities of which are different orders of magnitude, were proposed and analyzed by using the finite volume method (FVM) and experiments. The temperature distributions and temperature gradients of ADP crystal in the temperature control scheme with different window materials were discussed, and the optimal fourth harmonic generation (FHG) conversion efficiencies were obtained in different optics regions. Finally, the requirement of the window material thermal conductivity was proposed in order to obtain the high frequency conversion efficiency.

  17. Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Lui, H S; Taimre, T; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Lachab, M; Valavanis, A; Indjin, D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Raki?, A D

    2014-05-01

    We propose a terahertz (THz)-frequency synthetic aperture radar imaging technique based on self-mixing (SM) interferometry, using a quantum cascade laser. A signal processing method is employed which extracts and exploits the radar-related information contained in the SM signals, enabling the creation of THz images with improved spatial resolution. We demonstrate this by imaging a standard resolution test target, achieving resolution beyond the diffraction limit. PMID:24784063

  18. Large eccentric laser angioplasty catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Kevin D.; Reiser, Christopher

    1997-05-01

    In response to recent demand for increased debulking of large diameter coronary vascular segments, a large eccentric catheter for excimer laser coronary angioplasty has been developed. The outer tip diameter is 2.0 mm and incorporates approximately 300 fibers of 50 micron diameter in a monorail- type percutaneous catheter. The basic function of the device is to ablate a coronary atherosclerotic lesion with 308 nm excimer laser pulses, while passing the tip of the catheter through the lesion. By employing multiple passes through the lesion, rotating the catheter 90 degrees after each pass, we expect to create luminal diameters close to 3 mm with this device. Design characteristics, in-vitro testing, and initial clinical experience is presented.

  19. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  20. High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.G.; Weiner, A.M.; Melloch, M.R. . School of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Taylor, A.J. )

    1999-08-01

    Large-aperture biased photoconductive emitters which can generate high-power narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation are developed. These emitters avoid saturation at high fluence excitation and achieve enhanced peak power spectral density by employing a thick layer of short-lifetime low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) photoconductor and multiple-pulse excitation. THz waveforms are calculated from the saturation theory of large-aperture photoconductors, and a comparison is made between theory and measurement. A direct comparison of the multiple-pulse saturation properties of THz emission from semi-insulating GaAs and LT-GaAs emitters reveals a strong dependence on the carrier lifetime. In particular, the data demonstrate that saturation is avoided only when the interpulse spacing is longer than the carrier lifetime.

  1. A Large Aperture Lidar Observatory for Exploring the Interaction of Our Atmosphere with Space (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Gardner, C. S.; Swenson, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    The mesopause region has been the subject of intensive study during the past decade because it is recognized as a critical region connecting our sensible atmosphere to the near-space environment. Processes in this region include a host of wave dynamics, heat and constituent transport, turbulence, polar mesospheric cloud formation, and the influx of meteoric material. Moreover, the neutral gas properties above the mesopause from 100 - 200 km altitude are poorly characterized and are influenced by additional processes that include solar EUV absorption / ionization, eddy to molecular diffusion, neutral wind dynamo action, and geomagnetic activity. Thus, this altitude region is a complex confluence of space and atmosphere processes that ultimately determine its properties. Fundamentally these processes are operating in any planetary atmosphere and must be understood in order to advance understanding of habitability and sustainability of a planetary system. While observational and modeling capabilities are evolving, progress in characterizing neutral properties and related processes in the mesopause region and above has been inhibited because they cannot be observed in sufficient detail and at high enough altitudes with existing instrumentation. This is especially true of the neutral atmosphere from 50 - 1000 km, where observations of its properties, dynamics and thermal structure are either sparse or nonexistent. A Large-Aperture Lidar Observatory (LALO) would enable significant progress by providing critical measurements of atmospheric constituents and parameters at greatly enhanced resolution and at much higher altitudes than is possible today. A large telescope in combination with modern high-power lasers, would enable observations of the neutral atmosphere to 1000 km altitude with a sensitivity and resolution approximately 1000 times better than can be achieved with the most powerful lidar systems in operation today. There are no technology barriers to realizing this goal. The knowledge obtained would improve our ability to understand the Earth's atmosphere to its fullest extent and would have a transformational effect on upper atmosphere research in a manner similar to that experienced by ionosphere research with the implementation of large-scale incoherent scatter radars. It would also have direct applications to studies of other planets in our solar system and to the exploration of nearby exoplanets within our galaxy.

  2. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3 nm quantum well width, 1 nm barriers, a 5 nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- ? total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406 nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (16 kA/cm2), a peak output power of 12 ?W, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  3. Application of Modern Aperture Integration (AI) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) Techniques for Analysis of Large Reflector Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudduck, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of aperture integration (AI) and geometrical theory of diffraction (GTO) techniques to analyze large reflector antennas is outlined. The following techniques were used: computer modeling, validation of analysis and computer codes, computer aided design modifications, limitation on the conventional aperture integration (AIC) method, extended aperture integration (AIE) method, the AIE method for feed scattering calculations, near field probing predictions for 15 meter model, limitation on AIC for surface tolerance effects, aperture integration on the surface (AIS) method, and AIC and GTD calculations for compact range reflector.

  4. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  5. Research on the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingxu

    2007-12-01

    Large-aperture telescope can be used in surveying battlefield, researching landform, searching object, real-time monitoring, imaging, detecting and identifying spatial targets and so on. A large-aperture telescope for achieving high resolution power is designed to monitor spatial target and image in real time. Real-time monitoring plays an important role in military conflicts. The orbit parameter of object, quantity, geometrical shape parameter and so on can be obtained by detect spatial target. With the development of optical technology, people require larger aperture in optics-electronic (O-E) system. By increasing optical aperture, the ability of collecting light and resolution power in the system can be enhanced. But the support structure of the primary mirror of large-aperture telescope will be a very difficult problem. With the increase of primary mirror aperture, the weight of the primary mirror will become larger than before. The root mean square (rms) of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as deadweight, deformation of heat, environment and so on. Due to the primary mirror of telescope is an important component of telescope system. By reducing the weight of primary mirror, precision of the system is ensured. During the designing phase, one can consider the supporting project of the primary mirror synthetically and analyze it roundly according to technical requirement of optical system and the effect factors. The final structural design can be reasonable. In an astronomical telescope, the surface of reflector is an important part for collecting dark radiation of celestial bodies. Its surface shape will have an effect on collecting efficiency of telescope radiant energy directly. So the rms must be very high. Optical system of large aperture, small wavelength and small focus can receive maximal light intensity. For ground-based optical astronomical telescope, the design proposed in the paper can satisfy the requirement of the possible minimum atmosphere seeing at astronomical observatory site and exert the use efficiency of the telescope adequately. So the accuracy of the traditional surface of reflector can assure that 90% of all the light energy can be focused on within the angle diameter range of the minimum atmosphere seeing, then 100% of light energy should be focused on the angle diameter range of minimum atmosphere seeing. Because the rms of mirror is very high, precise surface machining and accurate the support of mirror are very important tasks during designing and manufacturing the telescope. In the paper, various support techniques of a large-aperture telescope primary mirror are discussed and a 3.5 meter telescope system at the Starfire Optical Range (SOR) overviewed simply, which was operated by the Directed Energy Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, USA from the ground-based O-E system for the observations of spatial target. We also analyze Theoretical elastic deformation of the Steward Observatory 2.3 meter mirror is analyzed.

  6. Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Montgomery, Edward E.; Lindner, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  7. Recent Enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Telescope Testbed at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include in improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures, and optical bench baffling. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades, discusses the lessons learned, and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  8. Source-Search Sensitivity of a Large-Area, Coded-Aperture, Gamma-Ray Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, K P; Collins, J W; Craig, W W; Fabris, L; Lanza, R C; Gallagher, S; Horn, B P; Madden, N W; Smith, E; Woodring, M L

    2004-10-27

    We have recently completed a large-area, coded-aperture, gamma-ray imager for use in searching for radiation sources. The instrument was constructed to verify that weak point sources can be detected at considerable distances if one uses imaging to overcome fluctuations in the natural background. The instrument uses a rank-19, one-dimensional coded aperture to cast shadow patterns onto a 0.57 m{sup 2} NaI(Tl) detector composed of 57 individual cubes each 10 cm on a side. These are arranged in a 19 x 3 array. The mask is composed of four-centimeter thick, one-meter high, 10-cm wide lead blocks. The instrument is mounted in the back of a small truck from which images are obtained as one drives through a region. Results of first measurements obtained with the system are presented.

  9. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; Clampin, Mark C.; Ebbets, Dennis C.; Gong, Qian; Gull, Theodore R.; Howard, Joseph M.; Jones, Andrew L.; Lyon, Richard G.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Perrygo, Charles; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  10. New multiplexed all solid state pulser for high power wide aperture kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, D. V.; Muralikrishnan, K.; Singh, Bijendra

    2013-11-01

    A novel multiplexed scheme is demonstrated to combine two or more pulsed solid state pulsers of moderate capabilities. Pulse power supply comprising of two solid state pulsers of 6 kW rating each in multiplexed mode with common magnetic pulse compression stage was demonstrated and optimized for operating with a wide aperture kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser. Using this new configuration, the multiplexed pulsed power supply was capable of operating efficiently at net repetition-rate of 13 kHz, 12 kW (wall plug average power), 18-20 kV discharge voltage and pulse rise-time of 80 ns. The laser under multiplexed configuration delivered un-interrupted output power of about 80 W with scope of further increase in laser output power in excess of 100 W.

  11. The laser linewidth effect on the image quality of phase coded synthetic aperture ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guangyu; Hou, Peipei; Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ning; Li, Guangyuan; Zhang, Guo; Liu, Liren

    2015-12-01

    The phase coded (PC) waveform in synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) outperforms linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal in lower side lobe, shorter pulse duration and making the rigid control of the chirp starting point in every pulse unnecessary. Inherited from radar PC waveform and strip map SAL, the backscattered signal of a point target in PC SAL was listed and the two dimensional match filtering algorithm was introduced to focus a point image. As an inherent property of laser, linewidth is always detrimental to coherent ladar imaging. With the widely adopted laser linewidth model, the effect of laser linewidth on SAL image quality was theoretically analyzed and examined via Monte Carlo simulation. The research gives us a clear view of how to select linewidth parameters in the future PC SAL systems.

  12. Large excimer lasers for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Important goals in DOE and DOD programs require multimegajoule laser pulses. For inertial confinement fusion there is also a requirement to deliver the pulse in about 25 nsec with a very particular power vs time profile - all at high overall efficiency and low cost per joule. After exhaustive consideration of various alternatives, our studies have shown that the most cost effective approach to energy scaling is to increase the size of the final amplifiers up to the 200 to 300 kJ level. This conclusion derives largely from the fact that, at a given complexity, costs increase slowly with increasing part size while output energy should increase dramatically. Extrapolations to low cost by drastic cuts in the unit cost of smaller devices through mass production are considered highly risky. At a minimum the requirement to provide, space, optics and mounts for such systems will remain expensive. In recent years there have been dramatic advances in scaling. The Los Alamos LAM has produced over 10 kJ in a single 1/2 nsec pulse. In this paper we explore the issues involved in scaling to higher energy while still maintaining high efficiencies. In the remainder of this paper we will discuss KrF laser scaling for the fusion mission. We will omit most of the discussion of the laser system design, but address only KrF amplifiers.

  13. Increasing the phased field-of-view of large distributed aperture telescope arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Robert D.; Palmer, Alice L.

    2001-12-01

    There are some unique optical design considerations in the design of a distributed aperture telescope array consisting of a number of individual afocal collector telescopes and a single combining telescope. As might be expected, diffraction limited imagery over the field of view requires the correction of spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and field curvature. However, there is an additional requirement on the design of the collectors. Coherent addition of the light from the collectors requires that the ratio of the sine of the input and output chief ray angles be essentially constant over the field of view. This output angle restriction is equivalent to requiring the collector telescopes to have a specific variation in angular magnification with field. Variation of magnification with field is, by definition, image distortion. With simple two and three mirror afocal collector telescope designs, there are insufficient design degrees of freedom to control distortion in addition to the other aberrations. In this paper, we present a modification to a three-mirror collector design that permits the image distortion to be adjusted in a controlled manner without influencing the other third order, Seidel aberrations. This modification permits a large distributed aperture telescope array to be designed that has both a simple optical form and a much larger phased (i.e. corrected) field of view. As a design example, we investigate the effect of the distortion correcting element on the size of the achievable field of view for a 45 meter diameter distributed aperture telescope array populated with 8 meter diameter collectors.

  14. Design of a projection objective with high numeric aperture and large view field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junbo; Hu, Song; Gao, Hongtao; Zhao, Lixin; Zhu, Xianchang

    2014-08-01

    As the primary facility for the manufacturing of integrated circuit(IC), and MEMS devices [1], the lithographic equipment's improvement is restricted by the projection objective which can decide the capacity of the image transmission of the facility and make the facility be capable of reaching the higher precision or beyond. On the basis of the function, increasing the numeric aperture is coupled with the raising of resolution of the projection objective. In this paper, a design of a projection objective with high numeric aperture and large view field for I-line lithography is proposed. Owning a dual-telecentric structure this optical system owns an angular magnification of -1.25, an effective image field of 9090mm and an image numeric aperture of 0.2. Two aspheric surfaces are adopted in this projection objective to enhance the quality of imaging that will insure the field curvature lower than a half of the DOF, restrict the distortion lower than+/-?/5 and make the MTF approximate the diffraction limits.

  15. Large Coded Aperture Mask for Spaceflight Hard X-ray Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigneau, Danielle N.; Robinson, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The 2.6 square meter coded aperture mask is a vital part of the Burst Alert Telescope on the Swift mission. A random, but known pattern of more than 50,000 lead tiles, each 5 mm square, was bonded to a large honeycomb panel which projects a shadow on the detector array during a gamma ray burst. A two-year development process was necessary to explore ideas, apply techniques, and finalize procedures to meet the strict requirements for the coded aperture mask. Challenges included finding a honeycomb substrate with minimal gamma ray attenuation, selecting an adhesive with adequate bond strength to hold the tiles in place but soft enough to allow the tiles to expand and contract without distorting the panel under large temperature gradients, and eliminating excess adhesive from all untiled areas. The largest challenge was to find an efficient way to bond the > 50,000 lead tiles to the panel with positional tolerances measured in microns. In order to generate the desired bondline, adhesive was applied and allowed to cure to each tile. The pre-cured tiles were located in a tool to maintain positional accuracy, wet adhesive was applied to the panel, and it was lowered to the tile surface with synchronized actuators. Using this procedure, the entire tile pattern was transferred to the large honeycomb panel in a single bond. The pressure for the bond was achieved by enclosing the entire system in a vacuum bag. Thermal vacuum and acoustic tests validated this approach. This paper discusses the methods, materials, and techniques used to fabricate this very large and unique coded aperture mask for the Swift mission.

  16. Long-period fibre grating writing with a slit-apertured femtosecond laser beam (? = 1026 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostovalov, A. V.; Wolf, A. A.; Babin, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    We report on long-period grating (LPG) writing in a standard telecom fibre, SMF-28e+, via refractive index modification by femtosecond pulses. A method is proposed for grating writing with a slit-apertured beam, which enables one to produce LPGs with reduced background losses and a resonance peak markedly stronger than that in the case of grating writing with a Gaussian beam. The method can be used to fabricate LPGs for use as spectral filters of fibre lasers and sensing elements of sensor systems.

  17. Large-aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer for miniaturized spectral imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Anna; Langner, Andreas; Viherkanto, Kai; Mannila, Rami

    2015-02-01

    VTT's optical MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) are tunable optical filters, which enable miniaturization of spectral imagers into small, mass producible hand-held sensors with versatile optical measurement capabilities. FPI technology has also created a basis for various hyperspectral imaging instruments, ranging from nanosatellites, environmental sensing and precision agriculture with UAVs to instruments for skin cancer detection. Until now, these application demonstrations have been mostly realized with piezo-actuated FPIs fabricated by non-monolithical assembly method, suitable for achieving very large optical apertures and with capacity to small-to-medium volumes; however large-volume production of MEMS manufacturing supports the potential for emerging spectral imaging applications also in large-volume applications, such as in consumer/mobile products. Previously reported optical apertures of MEMS FPIs in the visible range have been up to 2 mm in size; this paper presents the design, successful fabrication and characterization of MEMS FPIs for central wavelengths of λ = 500 nm and λ = 650 nm with optical apertures up to 4 mm in diameter. The mirror membranes of the FPI structures consist of ALD (atomic layer deposited) TiO2-Al2O3 λ/4- thin film Bragg reflectors, with the air gap formed by sacrificial polymer etching in O2 plasma. The entire fabrication process is conducted below 150 °C, which makes it possible to monolithically integrate the filter structures on other ICdevices such as detectors. The realized MEMS devices are aimed for nanosatellite space application as breadboard hyperspectral imager demonstrators.

  18. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  19. Compact large-aperture Fabry-Perot interferometer modules for gas spectroscopy at mid-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantojärvi, Uula; Varpula, Aapo; Antila, Tapani; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Näsilä, Antti; Mannila, Rami; Rissanen, Anna; Antila, Jarkko; Disch, Rolf J.; Waldmann, Torsten A.

    2014-03-01

    VTT has developed Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for visible and infrared wavelengths since 90's. Here we present two new platforms for mid-infrared gas spectroscopy having a large optical aperture to provide high optical throughput but still enabling miniaturized instrument size. First platform is a tunable filter that replaces a traditional filter wheel, which operates between wavelengths of 4-5 um. Second platform is for correlation spectroscopy where the interferometer provides a comb-like transmission pattern mimicking absorption of diatomic molecules at the wavelength range of 4.7-4.8 um. The Bragg mirrors have 2-4 thin layers of polysilicon and silicon oxide.

  20. Engineering Specification for Large-aperture UVO Space Telescopes Derived from Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Arnold, William; Bevan, Ryan M.; Smith, W. Scott.; Kirk, Charles S.; Postman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An advanced large aperture UV/optical UVO space telescope is required for the next generation of astrophysics and exoplanet science. The science requirements of proposed exoplanet and astrophysics missions were used to determine the encircled energy, point spread function stability and thermal environment requirements. These requirements then determine the optical wavefront specification for potential telescope assemblies which can fit inside current and planned launch vehicles. The optical wavefront specification becomes the top level of the error budget that is split into various sources that control the structural, thermal and optical design.

  1. Large aperture interferometer with phase-conjugate self-reference beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    A large aperture self-referencing interferometer consisting of a Twyman-Green interferometer using a self-pumped phase conjugator in series with test section optics is described and experimentally demonstrated. This interferometer provides twice the fringe shift of a Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer for a given optical phase change induced within the test section. It also provides greater irradiance in the reference beam than does a similar series setup utilizing a M-Z interferometer incorporating a local reference beam. Whereas the ordinary interferometer records instantaneous conditions, the new one records overage conditions if a BaTiO3 crystal is used as the phase conjugator.

  2. System architecture of MMIC-based large aperture arrays for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herczfeld, P. R.; Kam, M.; Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.; Laprade, N.

    1987-01-01

    The persistent trend to use millimeter-wave frequencies for satellite communications presents the challenge to design large-aperture phased arrays for space applications. These arrays, which comprise 100 to 10,000 elements, are now possible due to the advent of lightwave technology and the availability of monolithic microwave integrated circuits. In this paper, system aspects of optically controlled array design are studied. In particular, two architectures for a 40 GHz array are outlined, and the main system-related issues are examined: power budget, synchronization in frequency and phase, and stochastic effects.

  3. A Full Aperture Backscattering Light Diagnostic System Installed on the Shenguang-III Prototype Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Mei, Yu; Wei, Huiyue; Peng, Xiaoshi; Wang, Feng; Yang, Dong; Liu, Shenye; Yan, Yadong

    2014-06-01

    A full aperture backscattering light diagnostic system (FABLDS) implemented on the Shen Guang-III Prototype Laser Facility is described in the paper. FABLDS measures both stimulated brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with a series of optical detectors. Energy sensors record the integrated energy, and streak cameras coupled with spectrometers measure the temporal spectrum of the backscattering light. This paper provides an overview of the FABLDS and detailed descriptions of the optical path. Special components, including off-axis parabolic mirror, spatial filter and optical light filters, are incorporated along the beam path for purifying the scattering light. Several hohlraum targets were employed, including C5H12 gas-filled targets and empty targets in the experiments. Results presented in the paper indicate that the fraction of backscatter light has been obviously shrinked when the laser is smoothed by continuous phase plates (CPP).

  4. Design and fabrication of sub-wavelength annular apertures for femtosecond laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuan-Yu; Tung, Yen-Chun; Chung, Ming-Han; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2015-03-01

    Many research teams have begun pursuing optical micromachining technology in recent years due to its associated noncontact and fast speed characteristics. However, the focal spot sizes and the depth of focus (DOF) strongly influenced the design requirements of the micromachining system. The focal spot size determines the minimum features can be fabricated, which is inversely proportional to the DOF. That is, smaller focal spot size led to shorter DOF. However, the DOF of the emitted visible or near-infrared light beam is typically limited to tens of nanometers for traditional optic system. The disadvantages of using nanosecond laser for micromachining such as burrs formation and surface roughness were found to further influence the accuracy of machined surfaces. To alleviate all of the above-mentioned problems, sub-wavelength annular aperture (SAA) illuminated with 780 nm femtosecond laser were integrated to develop the new laser micromachining system presented in this paper. We first optimized the parameters for high transmittance associated with the SAA structure for the 780 nm femtosecond laser used by adopting the finite difference time domain simulations method. A lateral microscope was modified from a traditional microscope to facilitate the measurement of the emitted light beam optical energy distribution. To verify the newly developed system performance the femtosecond laser was used to illuminate the SAA fabricated on the metallic film to produce the Bessel light beam so as to perform micromachining and process on silicon, PCB board and glass. Experimental results were found to match the original system design goals reasonably well.

  5. A conceptual design of a large aperture microwave radiometer geostationary platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garn, Paul A.; Garrison, James L.; Jasinski, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Large Aperture Microwave Radiometer (LAMR) Platform has been developed and technology areas essential to the design and on-orbit viability of the platform have been defined. Those technologies that must be developed to the requirement stated here for the LAMR mission to be viable include: advanced radiation resistant solar cells, integrated complex structures, large segmented reflector panels, sub 3 kg/m(exp 2) areal density large antennas, and electric propulsion systems. Technology areas that require further development to enhance the capabilities of the LAMR platform (but are not essential for viability) include: electrical power storage, on-orbit assembly, and on-orbit systems checkout and correction.

  6. Spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture quantum-dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Jayanta; McInerney, John G.

    2009-05-15

    We present a systematic theoretical study of spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture semiconductor quantum-dot lasers within the Maxwell-Bloch formalism. Our opto-electro-thermal model self-consistently captures the essential dynamical coupling between field, polarization, and carrier density in both thermal and nonthermal regimes, providing detailed description of the complex spatiotemporal modal intensity structure and spectra in these novel devices and broad area edge-emitting lasers in general. Using linear stability analysis and high resolution adaptive-grid finite element numerical simulation, we show that in the nonthermal regime, the presence of inhomogeneous broadening in quantum-dot active media leads to suppressed filamentation and enhanced spatial coherence compared to conventional quantum well devices with comparable phase-amplitude coupling (alpha parameter). Increasing the degree of inhomogeneous broadening in the active medium leads to further improvement in spatial coherence. In the thermal regime, there is further suppression of filamentation in the inhomogeneously broadened quantum-dot active medium; however, the spatial coherence aided by inhomogeneous broadening is partly lost due to the effect of temperature on cavity detuning. We propose that device designs based on optimized inhomogeneous broadening of quantum-dot gain medium could ultimately lead to diffraction-limited outputs in the quasi-cw regime which are still very difficult to achieve in conventional wide-aperture designs.

  7. Radiometric calibration method for large aperture infrared system with broad dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Chang, Songtao; Zhu, Wei

    2015-05-20

    Infrared radiometric measurements can acquire important data for missile defense systems. When observation is carried out by ground-based infrared systems, a missile is characterized by long distance, small size, and large variation of radiance. Therefore, the infrared systems should be manufactured with a larger aperture to enhance detection ability and calibrated at a broader dynamic range to extend measurable radiance. Nevertheless, the frequently used calibration methods demand an extended-area blackbody with broad dynamic range or a huge collimator for filling the system's field stop, which would greatly increase manufacturing costs and difficulties. To overcome this restriction, a calibration method based on amendment of inner and outer calibration is proposed. First, the principles and procedures of this method are introduced. Then, a shifting strategy of infrared systems for measuring targets with large fluctuations of infrared radiance is put forward. Finally, several experiments are performed on a shortwave infrared system with ?400??mm aperture. The results indicate that the proposed method cannot only ensure accuracy of calibration but have the advantage of low cost, low power, and high motility. Hence, it is an effective radiometric calibration method in the outfield. PMID:26192499

  8. Designs for a large-aperture telescope to map the CMB 10× faster.

    PubMed

    Niemack, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Current large-aperture cosmic microwave background (CMB) telescopes have nearly maximized the number of detectors that can be illuminated while maintaining diffraction-limited image quality. The polarization-sensitive detector arrays being deployed in these telescopes in the next few years will have roughly 104 detectors. Increasing the mapping speed of future instruments by at least an order of magnitude is important to enable precise probes of the inflationary paradigm in the first fraction of a second after the big bang and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. The CMB community has begun planning a next generation "Stage IV" CMB project that will be comprised of multiple telescopes with between 105-106 detectors to pursue these goals. This paper introduces the new crossed Dragone telescope and receiver optics designs that increase the usable diffraction-limited field-of-view, and therefore the mapping speed, by an order of magnitude compared to the upcoming generation of large-aperture instruments. Polarization systematics and engineering considerations are presented, including a preliminary receiver model to demonstrate that these designs will enable high efficiency illumination of >105 detectors in a next generation CMB telescope. PMID:26974631

  9. THz imaging using Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) focal plane arrays and large aperture quasi optic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Joseph, H.; Rozban, D.; Akram, A.; Levanon, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Belenky, A.; Lineykin, S.

    2010-10-01

    The properties of terahertz (THz) radiation are well known. They penetrate well most nonconducting media; there are no known biological hazards, and atmospheric attenuation and scattering is lower than for visual and IR radiation. Recently we have found that common miniature commercial neon glow discharge detector (GDD) lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation, with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. Based on this technology we designed, built and tested 4X4 and 8X8 GDD focal plane arrays. A line vector of 32 GDD pixels is being designed in order to increase the number of pixels in such arrays and thus the image resolution. Unique large aperture quasi optic mirrors were design and tested experimentally in this work. A new technology of light weight large aperture mirrors is proposed in this work. In this case a metal coating on plastic substrate is demonstrated. According to first experiments this technology proves to reliable with minimal deformation in LAB conditions. THz Images at 100 GHz were taken using this new inexpensive technology with good quality and resolution.

  10. An Engineering Concept and Enabling Technologies for a Large Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Michael J.; Benford, Dominic J.; Moseley, Harvey S.; Roman, Juan

    2003-03-01

    "To take the next step in exploring this important part of the spectrum [30-300?m], the committee recommends the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)." - Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, 2001. In response to this recommendation, we have undertaken a study of the enabling technologies for a large single aperture far-infrared telescope such as SAFIR. A broad list of science investigations was produced and used to generate an explicit list of science requirements, from which top-level engineering requirements were derived. From these requirements, we developed a conceptual design for the SAFIR observatory based on NGST's current designs. A detailed analysis has been made of the changes and technologies necessary to produce SAFIR. Crucial technologies requiring innovation include lightweight deployable optics, cryogenic cooling of optical elements and instruments, and large arrays of sensitive detectors. Cryogen-free refrigeration technologies are necessary for SAFIR's long mission lifetime, and will have to provide significant (~100mW) cooling power at 4K to cool the mirrors while providing very low temperatures (~50mK) for detector arrays. The detector arrays require wide wavelength coverage, thousands of continuum elements, and compatibility with broadband and spectroscopic instruments.

  11. Optimization analysis of primary mirror in large aperture telescope based on workbench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengsen; Wang, Guomin

    2015-10-01

    With the diameter increasing for large aperture telescope primary mirror, the gravity caused by the increased of surface size will directly affect the quality of optical imaging, the adjustment of large aperture primary mirror will be frequent according to the requirement of observation. As the angle and the azimuth's transformation of primary mirror influences the surface shape accuracy immediately, the rational design of the primary mirror supporting structure is of crucial importance. Now the general method is to use ANSYS APDL programming, which is inconvenient and complex to fit for the different components, the calculation require much time and the analysis is lack of efficient. Taking the diameter of 1.12 m telescope primary mirror as the research objection, the paper combine the actual design parameters of SONG telescope, respectively using ANSYS WORKBENCH to employ the primary mirror axial and lateral support model in finite element method, the optimal solution is obtained by optimization design and the change rule of mirror surface deformation under inclined condition is studied. The optimization results according with the requirements of the primary mirror comprehensive error proves that the optimization analysis method is available and applicable.

  12. Large-aperture, equal-path interferometer for precision measurements of flat transparent surfaces.

    PubMed

    Deck, Leslie L; de Groot, Peter J; Soobitsky, James A

    2014-03-10

    The measurement of flat optical components often presents difficulties because the presence of parallel surfaces generates multiple reflections that confuse conventional laser-based interferometers. These same parts have increasingly demanding surface finish tolerances as technologies improve over time, further complicating the metrology task. Here we describe an interferometric optical system for high-accuracy noncontact evaluation of the form and texture of precision flat surfaces based on an equal-optical-path geometry that uses extended, broadband illumination to reduce the influence of speckle noise, multiple reflections, and coherent artifacts by a factor of 10 when compared to laser-based systems. Combined with a low-distortion, fixed-focus imaging system and 4-Mpixel camera, the 100 mm aperture instrument offers surface height resolutions of 0.1 nm over lateral spatial frequencies extending from 0.01 to 10 cycles/mm. The instrument is vibration resistant for production-line testing of flat optics such as glass hard disks for the data-storage industry and flat-panel-display substrates. PMID:24663410

  13. Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon

    2014-01-29

    Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

  14. Extremely large telescope: a twenty-five meter aperture for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, Frank N.; Sebring, Thomas A.; Ray, Frank B.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1997-03-01

    The 10-meter class Hobby-Eberly telescope (HET), now nearing completion, provides technology for optical Arecibo-type telescopes which can be extrapolated to even larger apertures. Utilizing a fixed elevation angle and a spherical segmented primary mirror provides cost effective and pragmatic solutions to mirror mounting and fabrication. Arecibo-type tracking implies a greatly reduced tracking mass and no change to the gravity vector for the primary mirror. Such a telescope can address 70 percent of the available sky and exhibit optical quality easily sufficient for effective spectroscopy and photometry. The extremely large telescope takes advantage of several key engineering approaches demonstrated by the HET project to achieve a cost comparable to similarly-sized radio rather than optical telescopes. These engineering approaches include: bolted pre-manufactured primary mirror truss, factory manufactured geodesic enclosure dome, air bearing rotation of primary mirror, tracker, and dome systems directly on concrete piers, and tracking via a hexapod system. Current estimates put the cost of the ELT at $200 million for a 25-meter aperture utilizing a 33-meter primary mirror array. Construction of the ELT would provide the astronomy community with an optical telescope nearly an order of magnitude larger than even the largest telescopes in operation or under construction today.

  15. Space-charge dominated beam transport in magnetic quadrupoles with large aperture ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    This memo summarizes the results of calculations of the usable aperture ratio for short period, magnetic quadrupoles for both ILSE magnet designs and the more general, heavy-ion fusion (HIF) ``driver`` case. From both analytic decomposition of the magnetic field in a periodic lattice and particle code simulations of beam transport, we find that fringe field nonlinearities and associated emittance growth become quite large when the beam radius a{sub b} exceeds one-quarter or so of the half-lattice period L. For ILSE, there are a number of magnet designs which can transport the specified line charge without any significant difficulties, primarily because the ratio a{sub b}/L is of order 0.1 or less. For larger sized beams such as one might employ in the low energy part of a driver, there are problems with properly matching the beam to the transport lattice in both the macroscopic and microscopic sense as a{sub b}/L exceeds 0.2. For even larger aperture ratios, particle loss can occur, with the threshold in beam radius roughly scaling inversely with {sigma}{sub o}, the single particle phase advance per lattice period.

  16. Recent enhancements of the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed at MSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, John M.; Montgomery, Edward E.; Lindner, Jeffrey L.

    2000-08-01

    Recent incremental upgrades to the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) telescope testbed have enabled the demonstration of phasing (with a monochromatic source) of clusters of primary mirror segments down to the diffraction limit. PAMELA upgrades include an improved Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, passive viscoelastic damping treatments for the voice-coil actuators, and mechanical improvement of mirror surface figures. This report summarizes the recent PAMELA upgrades and presents a status of this unique testbed for wavefront sensing and control. The Marshall Space Flight Center acquired the PAMELA telescope in 1993 after Kaman Aerospace was unable to complete integration and testing under the limited SDIO and DARPA funding. The PAMELA is a 36-segment, half-meter aperture, adaptive telescope which utilizes a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, inductive coil edge sensors, voice coil actuators, imaging CCD cameras and interferometry for figure alignment, wavefront sensing and control. MSFC originally obtained the PAMELA to supplement its research in the interactions of control systems with flexible structures. In August 1994, complete tip, tilt and piston control was successfully demonstrated using the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the inductive edge sensors.

  17. Data correction techniques for the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer based on image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Geng; Shi, Dalian; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Tao; Hu, Bingliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an approach to correct the data of the airborne large-aperture static image spectrometer (LASIS). LASIS is a kind of stationary interferometer which compromises flux output and device stability. It acquires a series of interferograms to reconstruct the hyperspectral image cube. Reconstruction precision of the airborne LASIS data suffers from the instability of the plane platform. Usually, changes of plane attitudes, such as yaws, pitches, and rolls, can be precisely measured by the inertial measurement unit. However, the along-track and across-track translation errors are difficult to measure precisely. To solve this problem, we propose a co-optimization approach to compute the translation errors between the interferograms using an image registration technique which helps to correct the interferograms with subpixel precision. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, experiments are run on real airborne LASIS data and our results are compared with those of the state-of-the-art approaches.

  18. THE BALLOON-BORNE LARGE APERTURE SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE (BLAST) 2006: CALIBRATION AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 250 hr flight over Antarctica in 2006 December (BLAST06). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, the red hypergiant star VY CMa was observed and used as the primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST06 calibration procedure are discussed. The 1sigma uncertainty on the absolute calibration is accurate to 9.5%, 8.7%, and 9.2% at the 250, 350, and 500 mum bands, respectively. The errors are highly correlated between bands resulting in much lower errors for the derived shape of the 250-500 mum continuum. The overall pointing error is < 5'' rms for the 36'', 42'', and 60'' beams. The performance of optics and pointing systems is discussed.

  19. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) and BLASTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, Enzo; Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Balloon observations from Antarctica have proven an effective and efficient way to address open Cosmological questions as well as problems in Galactic astronomy. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital mapping experiment which uses 270 bolometric detectors to image the sky in three wavebands centred at 250, 350 and 500 ?m with a 1.8 m telescope. In the years before Herschel launched, BLAST provided data of unprecedented angular and spectral coverage in frequency bands close to the peak of dust emission in star forming regions in our Galaxy, and in galaxies at cosmological distances. More recently, BLASTPol was obtained by reconfiguring the BLAST focal plane as a submillimetric polarimeter to study the role that Galactic magnetic fields have in regulating the processes of star-formation. The first and successful BLASTPol flight from Antarctica in 2010 is followed by a second flight, currently scheduled for the end of 2012.

  20. Design and fabrication of aluminum mirrors for a large aperture precision collimator operating at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.B.C. Jr.; Forney, P.; Klug, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    A new long wavelength infrared (LWIR) sensor test facility was recently developed. The requirements for this facility were a large unobscured aperture collimator operating with near diffraction limited performance, a multiple source assembly, and two orthogonal scan mirrors (in the collimated beam) all operating at 20 deg K in a vacuum tank. A systems engineering approach was used to ensure that the required optical performance would be obtainable at the specified operating temperature. This paper covers the development of the optical system mechanical requirements, the choice of the mirror substrate material, the detail mechanical design and tolerancing of these substrates, their fabrication and testing, and the mounting, alignment, and proposed testing of all the optical elements of the collimator.

  1. Development of a Large Aperture Nb3Sn Racetrack Quadrupole Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steve A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, Aurelio R.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman, Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are pre-stressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed.

  2. Topology optimization-based lightweight primary mirror design of a large-aperture space telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shutian; Hu, Rui; Li, Quhao; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Zhigang; Kang, Renke

    2014-12-10

    For the large-aperture space telescope, the lightweight primary mirror design with a high-quality optical surface is a critical and challenging issue. This work presents a topology optimization-based design procedure for a lightweight primary mirror and a new mirror configuration of a large-aperture space telescope is obtained through the presented design procedure. Inspired by the topology optimization method considering cast constraints, an optimization model for the configuration design of the mirror back is proposed, through which the distribution and the heights of the stiffeners on the mirror back can be optimized simultaneously. For the purpose of minimizing the optical surface deviation due to self-weight and polishing pressure loadings, the objective function is selected as to maximize the mirror structural stiffness, which can be achieved by minimizing the structural compliance. The total mass of the primary mirror is assigned as the constraint. In the application example, results of the optimized design topology for two kinds of mass constraints are presented. Executing the design procedure for specific requirements and postprocessing the topology obtained of the structure, a new mirror configuration with tree-like stiffeners and a multiple-arch back in double directions is proposed. A verification model is constructed to evaluate the design results and the finite element method is used to calculate the displacement of the mirror surface. Then the RMS deviation can be obtained after fitting the deformed surface by Zernike polynomials. The proposed mirror is compared with two classical mirrors in the optical performance, and the comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the new mirror configuration. PMID:25608076

  3. Horizon: A Proposal for Large Aperture, Active Optics in Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, Dennis; Jenstrom, Del

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, NASA's New Millennium Program called for proposals to validate new technology in high-earth orbit for the Earth Observing-3 (NMP EO3) mission to fly in 2003. In response, we proposed to test a large aperture, active optics telescope in geosynchronous orbit. This would flight-qualify new technologies for both Earth and Space science: 1) a future instrument with LANDSAT image resolution and radiometric quality watching continuously from geosynchronous station, and 2) the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for deep space imaging. Six enabling technologies were to be flight-qualified: 1) a 3-meter, lightweight segmented primary mirror, 2) mirror actuators and mechanisms, 3) a deformable mirror, 4) coarse phasing techniques, 5) phase retrieval for wavefront control during stellar viewing, and 6) phase diversity for wavefront control during Earth viewing. Three enhancing technologies were to be flight- validated: 1) mirror deployment and latching mechanisms, 2) an advanced microcontroller, and 3) GPS at GEO. In particular, two wavefront sensing algorithms, phase retrieval by JPL and phase diversity by ERIM International, were to sense optical system alignment and focus errors, and to correct them using high-precision mirror mechanisms. Active corrections based on Earth scenes are challenging because phase diversity images must be collected from extended, dynamically changing scenes. In addition, an Earth-facing telescope in GEO orbit is subject to a powerful diurnal thermal and radiometric cycle not experienced by deep-space astronomy. The Horizon proposal was a bare-bones design for a lightweight large-aperture, active optical system that is a practical blend of science requirements, emerging technologies, budget constraints, launch vehicle considerations, orbital mechanics, optical hardware, phase-determination algorithms, communication strategy, computational burdens, and first-rate cooperation among earth and space scientists, engineers and managers. This manuscript presents excerpts from the Horizon proposal's sections that describe the Earth science requirements, the structural -thermal-optical design, the wavefront sensing and control, and the on-orbit validation.

  4. Dual FOV infrared lens design with the laser common aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Xuan-zhi; Luan, Ya-dong; Zhang, Bo

    2015-02-01

    With the demand of autonomous precision guidance of air defense missile, the system scheme of the IR imaging/Ladar dual-mode seeker with a common aperture was proposed, and the optical system used in was designed. The system had a common receiving aperture, and its structure was very compact, so it could meet the requirement for the miniaturization of the seeker. Besides, it also could meet the demands of a wide field of view for searching target, and the demands for accurately recognizing and tracking the target at the same time. In order to increase the narrow FOV tracking performance, the dual FOV infrared optical used the zooming mode which some components flip in or out the optical system to firm the target signal. The dual FOV optics are divided into the zooming part, with dual variable focal length, and the reimaging part which was chosen in such a way to minimize the objective lens while maintaining 100% cold shield efficiency. The final infrared optics including 43(NFOV) and 1612(WFOV) was designed. The NFOV lens composed of two common IR/Ladar lens, three relay lens, a beam splitter and two reflective fold mirrors, while WFOV lens increased two lens such as Germanium and Silicon. The common IR/Ladar lens ZnS and ZnSe could refractive the IR optics and Laser optics. The beam splitter which refractived IR optics and reflected Laser optics was located in the middle of Germanium and Silicon. The designed optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system.

  5. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, N.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  6. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, M.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is 1.315m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  7. Hinged Substrate for Large Aperture Lightweight Deformable Mirrors: A Novel Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Duffy, Thomas J.; Crane, Carl D., III; White, Neil L.; Lipkin, Harvey

    2002-12-01

    A novel concept for large aperture lightweight deformable mirrors is presented. This new concept is based on using a flexure-hinged truss substrate as opposed to monolithic substrates used in all past and current deformable mirror technologies. With its ability to deform in tangential as well as normal directions, this new concept solves the problem of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between face sheet and substrate. It takes advantage of the newly emerging face sheet technologies such as nanolaminates that produce extremely lightweight optical quality face sheets and require very small forces to deform them. It also provides rigidity to the thin face sheet mirror, necessary for the uniqueness of response to actuator commands and for tolerance to disturbances. Any stresses in substrate structure are mainly limited to those induced by the forces in the face sheet itself, which are small in the new lightweight face sheets. The dynamic range of deformation is limited only by the actuator stroke, and not by the stresses induced in the substrate. Therefore it drives the actuator design to small force large stroke actuators, as opposed to the current designs that use large force small stroke moment actuators.

  8. Performance of a Fieldable Large-Area, Coded-Aperture, Gamma Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi; Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2007-01-01

    We recently developed a fieldable large-area, coded-aperture, gamma imager (the Large Area Imager - LAI). The instrument was developed to detect weak radiation sources in a fluctuating natural background. Ideally, the efficacy of the instrument is determined using receiver-operator statistics generated from measurement data in terms of probability of detection versus probability of false alarm. However, due to the impracticality of hiding many sources in public areas, it is difficult to measure the data required to generate receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Instead, we develop a high statistics "model source" from measurements of a real point source and then inject the model source into data collected from the world at large where, presumably, no source exists. In this paper we have applied this "source injection" technique to evaluate the performance of the LAI. We plotted ROC curves obtained for different source locations from the imager and for different source strengths when the source is injected at 50 m from the imager. The result shows that this prototype instrument provides excellent performance for a 1-mCi source at a distance of 50 m from the imager in a single pass at 25 mph.

  9. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Mirror for Lightweight, Large-Aperture, and Cryogenic Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Brian; Moore, James; Hackenberger, Wesley; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    A lightweight, cryogenically capable, scalable, deformable mirror has been developed for space telescopes. This innovation makes use of polymer-based membrane mirror technology to enable large-aperture mirrors that can be easily launched and deployed. The key component of this innovation is a lightweight, large-stroke, cryogenic actuator array that combines the high degree of mirror figure control needed with a large actuator influence function. The latter aspect of the innovation allows membrane mirror figure correction with a relatively low actuator density, preserving the lightweight attributes of the system. The principal components of this technology are lightweight, low-profile, high-stroke, cryogenic-capable piezoelectric actuators based on PMN-PT (piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) single-crystal configured in a flextensional actuator format; high-quality, low-thermal-expansion polymer membrane mirror materials developed by NeXolve; and electrostatic coupling between the membrane mirror and the piezoelectric actuator assembly to minimize problems such as actuator print-through.

  10. A CLOSE COMPANION SEARCH AROUND L DWARFS USING APERTURE MASKING INTERFEROMETRY AND PALOMAR LASER GUIDE STAR ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, David; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Cromer, John L.; Dekany, Richard G.; Moore, Anna M.; Ireland, Michael; Tuthill, Peter; Martinache, Frantz; Angione, John; Burruss, Rick S.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Henning, John R.; Hickey, Jeff; Kibblewhite, Edward; McKenna, Daniel L.; Petrie, Harold L.; Roberts, Jennifer; Shelton, J. Chris; Thicksten, Robert P.; Trinh, Thang

    2010-06-01

    We present a close companion search around 16 known early L dwarfs using aperture masking interferometry with Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO). The use of aperture masking allows the detection of close binaries, corresponding to projected physical separations of 0.6-10.0 AU for the targets of our survey. This survey achieved median contrast limits of {Delta}K {approx} 2.3 for separations between 1.2 {lambda}/D-4{lambda}/D and {Delta}K {approx} 1.4 at 2/3 {lambda}/D. We present four candidate binaries detected with moderate-to-high confidence (90%-98%). Two have projected physical separations less than 1.5 AU. This may indicate that tight-separation binaries contribute more significantly to the binary fraction than currently assumed, consistent with spectroscopic and photometric overluminosity studies. Ten targets of this survey have previously been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of companion searches. We use the increased resolution of aperture masking to search for close or dim companions that would be obscured by full aperture imaging, finding two candidate binaries. This survey is the first application of aperture masking with LGS AO at Palomar. Several new techniques for the analysis of aperture masking data in the low signal-to-noise regime are explored.

  11. Determination of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux over a Coastal Maritime Area Using a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Scintillometers have been widely used in estimating the surface-layer sensible heat flux (Q_H) over natural and urban surfaces, but their application over water bodies is rare. Here, a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was deployed over a coastal maritime area (`a beach') with an optical path distance of 1 km to investigate LAS capability in estimating the sensible heat fluxes. The measurements were conducted for clear days in the cold season, characterized by a warmer sea surface than the overlying air throughout the studied days. The LAS-derived Q_H showed a significant diurnal variability of 10-150 W m^{-2} at the coastal site, and it was found that local thermal advection and tidal change at the site largely influenced the diurnal variability. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the uncertainty in the LAS-derived Q_H was less than 11 %, except when De Bruin's similarity function was used. The overall results demonstrate that the LAS system can detect the magnitude and variability of the turbulent heat exchange at the coastal site with high temporal resolution, suggesting its usefulness for estimating Q_H in the coastal maritime environment.

  12. Metrological characterization of a large aperture Fizeau for x-ray mirrors measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martn, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.61025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth). Due to the very short wavelength and very high pulse energy, all the mirrors need to have high quality surface, to be very long, and at the same time to implement an effective cooling system. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mounts, we equipped a Metrology Laboratory with a Large Aperture Fizeau. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been done in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. In this report, we show the preparation of the instrument, the calibration and the performance characterization, together with some preliminary results. We also describe the approach that we want to follow for the x-rays mirrors measurements. The final goal will be to characterize very long mirrors, almost 1 meter long, with nanometer accuracy.

  13. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  14. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  15. The Large Aperture Gamma Ray Observatory as an Observational Alternative at High Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M.

    2011-10-01

    Although satellite observations have revealed some mysteries about the origin and location of cosmic rays at low energies, questions remain to be resolved in higher energy ranges (>1 GeV). However, the flow of particles at high energies is very low, large sensitive areas are necessary, so that the detection of secondary particles from observatories on the surface of the earth is a technically viable solution. While the Pierre Auger Observatory has such capacity given its 16000 m^2 of detectors, low height above sea level greatly reduces its detection capability. The Large Aperture Gamma Ray Observatory (LAGO) is an observational alternative that attempts to overcome this limitation. This project was started in 2005, placing water Cherenkov Detectors at high altitude. Observation sites have been selected with some basic requirements: altitude, academic and technical infrastructure, existence of a research group responsible for assembly and maintenance of the detectors and the analysis, visualization, divulgation and data storage. This paper presents the general status of the observatories of Sierra Negra-Mxico, Chacaltaya-Bolvia, Marcapomacocha-Per, Mrida-Venezuela and Bucaramanga-Colombia.

  16. Large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture, seismic profiling on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Jarchow, C.M. . Dept. of Geophysics); Catchings, R.D.; Lutter, W.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Clear subsurface seismic images have been obtained at low cost on the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The Columbia Plateau is perhaps the most notorious of all bad-data'' areas because large impedance contrasts in surface flood basalts severely degrade the seismic wavefield. This degradation was mitigated in this study via a large-explosive source, wide-recording aperture shooting method. The shooting method emphasizes the wide-angle portion of the wavefield, where Fermat's principle guarantees reverberation will not interfere with the seismic manifestations of crucial geologic interfaces. The basalt diving wave, normally discarded in standard common midpoint (CMP) seismic profiling, can be used to image basalt velocity structure via travel-time inversion. Maximum depth-penetration of the diving wave tightly constrains basalt-sediment interface depth. An arrival observed only at shot-receiver offsets greater than 15 km can be used to determine the velocity and geometry of basement via simultaneous inversion. The results from this study suggest that previous geologic hypotheses and hydrocarbon play concepts for the Columbia Plateau may have been in error.

  17. Large-Aperture Wide-Bandwidth Anti-Reflection-Coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, E. J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, M. A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for sub-millimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n = 3.4, low loss, and relatively high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes, but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coffecient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating. We have fabricated and coated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with coatings optimized for use between 125-165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30 deg. with low cross-polarization. We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  18. Large-aperture Wide-bandwidth Antireflection-coated Silicon Lenses for Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, R.; Munson, C. D.; Niemack, M. D.; McMahon, J. J.; Britton, J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Beall, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Fowler, J.; Gallardo, P.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Page, L.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Staggs, S. T.; Thornton, R.; Zhang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing scale of cryogenic detector arrays for submillimeter and millimeter wavelength astrophysics has led to the need for large aperture, high index of refraction, low loss, cryogenic refracting optics. Silicon with n 3.4, low loss, and high thermal conductivity is a nearly optimal material for these purposes but requires an antireflection (AR) coating with broad bandwidth, low loss, low reflectance, and a matched coefficient of thermal expansion. We present an AR coating for curved silicon optics comprised of subwavelength features cut into the lens surface with a custom three-axis silicon dicing saw. These features constitute a metamaterial that behaves as a simple dielectric coating.We have fabricated silicon lenses as large as 33.4 cm in diameter with micromachined layers optimized for use between 125 and 165 GHz. Our design reduces average reflections to a few tenths of a percent for angles of incidence up to 30deg with low cross polarization.We describe the design, tolerance, manufacture, and measurements of these coatings and present measurements of the optical properties of silicon at millimeter wavelengths at cryogenic and room temperatures. This coating and lens fabrication approach is applicable from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths and can be used to fabricate coatings with greater than octave bandwidth.

  19. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, Carl; Clampin, Mark; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; Mosier, Gary; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of ~5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity (> 90%), high uniformity (< 1%) and low polarization (< 1%) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  20. Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

  1. The pre-research of the deploy technology for the large aperture space astronomical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fanghua; Zuo, Heng; Li, Guoping

    2012-09-01

    The spherical primary mirror (Mb) of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is segmented and composed of 37 hexagonal sub-mirrors, and segmented active optics method is successfully developed in it. LAMOST project has passed through the project acceptance in 2009. The success of LAMOST makes deployable primary mirror possible. The deployable large aperture space astronomical telescope is one of the most development potential space observation spacecrafts in the future. This paper is targeted at the reflecting Schmidt telescope LAMOST, which has a 6.67X6.05m primary mirror. The feasibility of the deployable structure of the large reflecting space telescope's primary mirror has been mainly researched. The analysis of the design scheme for the deployable primary mirror has been carried out, and according to the feature and the design of LAMOST, a subdivision type deployment scheme has been given; The locating principle of the both side wings and the locking device after deployment has been analyzed; In addition the problems in the process of deployment is also preliminary discussed. This paper is targeted at the reflecting Schmidt telescope LAMOST, which has a 6.67X6.05 primary mirror. The feasibility of the deployable structure of the large reflecting telescope's primary mirror has been mainly researched. The analysis of the design scheme for the deployable primary mirror has been carried out, and according to the feature and the design of LAMOST, a subdivision type deployment scheme has been given; The locating principle of the both side wings and the locking device after deployment has been analyzed; In addition the problems in the process of deployment have been preliminary discussed.

  2. Engineering comparison between CCD and the variable aperture methods for measuring the divergence angle of laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ji-chuan; Song, Yan

    2012-10-01

    Laser beam divergence angle of laser beams is an important parameter in the laser characterization. There are many methods of beam divergence determination. The most common way is to use a device based on CCD described in the International Standard ISO11146-1 "Test methods for laser beam parameters: Beam widths, divergence angle and beam propagation factor". Moreover, in ISO11146-3 it also presents another alternative method - the variable apertures to measure beam divergence. According to ISO11146, we developed a novel automated laser measurement system with two methods for laser beam characterization, especially for synchronously determining beam divergence. It is also presented for the comparison of two methods measuring beam divergence, while their respective advantages and disadvantages are pointed out in this paper. It has been proved in practice that the auto measurement system based on two methods is an affective and convenient instrument for determining beam divergence.

  3. Analysis of aperture averaging measurements. [laser scintillation data on the effect of atmospheric turbulence on signal fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fried, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Laser scintillation data obtained by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center balloon flight no. 5 from White Sands Missile Range on 19 October 1973 are analyzed. The measurement data, taken with various size receiver apertures, were related to predictions of aperture averaging theory, and it is concluded that the data are in reasonable agreement with theory. The following parameters are assigned to the vertical distribution of the strength of turbulence during the period of the measurements (daytime), for lambda = 0.633 microns, and the source at the zenith; the aperture averaging length is d sub o = 0.125 m, and the log-amplitude variance is (beta sub l)2 = 0.084 square nepers. This corresponds to a normalized point intensity variance of 0.40.

  4. A New Type of X-ray Condenser Lenses with Large Apertures Fabricated by Rolling of Structured Films

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M.; Reznikova, E.; Nazmov, V.; Grund, T.; Last, A.

    2010-04-06

    In order to meet the demand for X-ray lenses with large apertures and, hence, photon flux, a new type of X-ray lenses has been developed: Rolled prismatic X-ray lenses feature a vast number of refracting surfaces to increase transparency and aperture, respectively. Prototypes of such lenses have been fabricated by molding and rolling of a structured polyimide film. In this work, rolled prismatic X-ray lenses are pictured, and results of first tests performed at the ANKA storage ring in Karlsruhe are presented.

  5. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  6. Microstrip patch antenna panel for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Amaro, Luis; Oakes, Eric; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne; Rosen, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a large, lightweight antenna panel for an active phased array operating at L-band. The panel was developed under a JPL program of technology development for space based radar. It utilizes dual-stacked patch elements that are interconnected with corporate feed manifold of striplines. This paper focuses on the electromagnetic design and performance of the radiating elements, with emphasis on scan performance, and also addresses mechanical and thermal aspects of the panel. The element in the array environment has a bandwidth of more than 80MHz centered at 1260MHz and is fed so that it can radiate orthogonal linear polarizations. The envisioned phased array, with a nominal aperture of 50m x 2m, is designed to scan +/-45 degrees in azimuth and +/-20 degrees in elevation. The panel of radiating elements has a mass density of 3.9 kg/m2, which represents approximately 50% of the target 8kg/m2 total panel mass density that includes T/R modules and feed manifolds.

  7. Origins of high-frequency scattered waves near PKKP from large aperture seismic array data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    This article identifies the likely origin of 1-Hz scattered waves in the vicinity of PKKP by comparing measurements of slowness and onset time to ray-theoretical predictions. The measurements are obtained from slant stacks of Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) data from 36 earthquakes and six explosions in the range 30??-116??. Three types of scattered waves explain the main features seen in the stacks, including: P scattered to PKP near the Earth's surface (P.PKP), PKKP scattered near its core-mantle-boundary (CMB) reflection point (PK.KP), and SKKP scattered near its CMB reflection point (SK.KP). The LASA stacks image the amplitude and slowness variations of the scattered waves with time. They also show where these waves can be detected and where they are free from contaminating arrivals. SK.KP waves rise above the noise approximately 100 sec before the onset time of the main SKKP arrival near 113??. Observations of PK.KP span 30??-100??. However, at distances greater than 50?? they suffer from P.PKP contamination. At distances less than 40?? the PK.KP last for about 280 sec. This is approximately 130 sec longer than the maximum ray-theoretical prediction for waves scattered at the CMB, indicating a possible combination of near-surface scattering and contributions from the overlying mantle.

  8. First definitive observations of meteor shower particles using a high-power large-aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Galindo, Freddy

    2008-03-01

    We present the first clear observations of meteor shower activity from meteor-head echoes detected by a high-power large-aperture radar (HPLAR). Such observations have been performed at the Jicamarca VHF radar using its interferometric capabilities allowing the discrimination of meteor shower echoes from the much more frequent sporadic meteors. Until now, HPLARs were unable to distinguish meteor shower from the much more common sporadic meteor ones. In this work we have been able to detect and characterize the ?-Aquariids (ETA) as well as the Perseids (PER) showers. The shower activity is more conspicuous for the ETA than for the PER shower due to the more favorable geometry. Namely, PER meteors come from low elevation angles, experiencing more filtering due to the combined Earth-atmosphere-radar instrument. In both cases, there is an excellent agreement between the measured mean velocity of the shower echoes and their expected velocity, within a fraction of 1 km s -1. Besides the good agreement with expected visual results, HPLARs observe meteors with a variety of particles sizes and masses, not observed by any other technique. Taking into account the different viewing volumes, compare to optical observations Jicamarca observes more than 1000 times more ETA meteors. Our results indicate that Jicamarca and other HPLARs are able to detect the echoes from meteor showers, but without interferometric capabilities such populations are difficult to identify just from their velocity distributions, particularly if their velocity distributions are expected to be similar to the more dominant distributions of sporadic meteors.

  9. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Tu, Juan E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn

    2014-03-21

    Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1?MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72?MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

  10. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong

    2014-03-01

    Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72 MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

  11. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  12. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope and its rebirth as a polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas Evan

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a 1.8 meter Cassegrain telescope that operates in three bands (250, 350, and 500 mum), each with 30% bandwidth. The detection system is comprised of 280 silicon-nitride micromesh bolometers distributed on three focal plane arrays with 30", 42", and 60" FWHM (full width at half max) beam sizes, respectively. BLAST's goal is to study the evolutionary history and processes associated with star formation. Earth's atmosphere is opaque to submillimeter radiation and astronomical observations in this wavelength are best conducted at high altitudes. BLAST is designed to be flown above 99.5% of the atmosphere on a stratospheric balloon. BLAST has made three scientific flights and this thesis covers the last two. The second flight was made in 2006 from McMurdo, Antarctica and studied the evolutionary history and processes associated with star formation. For the third flight, BLAST was reconfigured as a polarimeter (BLAST-Pol) and was also launched from McMurdo in December 2010. BLAST-Pol's objective is to determine what role, if any, magnetic fields play in star formation. This thesis will describe the BLAST-Pol instrument and provide a summery of key observations made by the 2006 flight.

  13. A large area reconfigurable MOEMS microshutter array for coded aperture imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNie, Mark E.; King, David O.; Price, Nicola; Combes, David J.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Brown, Alan G.; Gordon, Neil T.; Stone, Steven M.; Brunson, Kevin M.; Lewis, Keith L.; Slinger, Christopher W.; Rogers, Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously we reported on the early feasibility of realising such a mask based on polysilicon micr-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and early results in the visible and near IR bands. This employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage whilst a hysteretic row/column addressing scheme is used to control the state of individual elements. In this paper we present transmission results from the target mid-IR band (3-5?m), compare them with theory and describe the scale up from a 3x3 proof-of-concept MOEMS microshutter array to a 560 x 560 element array (2cm x 2cm chip) with the associated driver electronics and embedded control - including aspects of electronic design, addressing control and integration. The resultant microsystem represents a core building block to realise much larger reconfigurable masks using a tiled approach with further integration challenges in the future.

  14. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  15. Tracking marine mammals and ships with small and large-aperture hydrophone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Martin

    Techniques for passive acoustic tracking in all three spatial dimensions of marine mammals and ships were developed for long-term acoustic datasets recorded continuously over months using custom-designed arrays of underwater microphones (hydrophones) with spacing ranging from meters to kilometers. From the three-dimensional tracks, the acoustical properties of toothed whales and ships, such as sound intensity and directionality, were estimated as they are needed for the passive acoustic abundance estimation of toothed whales and for a quantitative description of the contribution of ships to the underwater soundscape. In addition, the tracks of the toothed whales reveal their underwater movements and demonstrate the potential of the developed tracking techniques to investigate their natural behavior and responses to sound generated by human activity, such as from ships or military SONAR. To track the periodically emitted echolocation sounds of toothed whales in an acoustically refractive environment in the upper ocean, a propagation-model based technique was developed for a hydrophone array consisting of one vertical and two L-shaped subarrays deployed from the floating instrument platform R/P FLIP. The technique is illustrated by tracking a group of five shallow-diving killer whales showing coordinated behavior. The challenge of tracking the highly directional echolocation sounds of deep-diving (< 1 km) toothed whales, in particular Cuvier's beaked whales, was addressed by embedding volumetric small-aperture (≈ 1 m element spacing) arrays into a large-aperture (≈ 1 km element spacing) seafloor array to reduce the minimum number of required receivers from five to two. The capabilities of this technique are illustrated by tracking several groups of up to three individuals over time periods from 10 min to 33 min within an area of 20 km2 in the Southern California Bight. To track and measure the underwater radiated sound of ships, a frequency domain beamformer was implemented for a volumetric hydrophone array (< 2 m element spacing) that was coupled to an autonomous acoustic seafloor recorder. This allows for the tracking and measurement of underwater radiated sound from ships of opportunity with a single instrument deployment and without depending on track information from the automatic information system (AIS).

  16. Imaging the midcontinent rift beneath Lake Superior using large aperture seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.; Morel-a-l'Huissier, Patrick; Meyer, R.; Hajnal, Z.; Karl, J.; Mereu, R. F.; Sexton, J.; Shay, J.; Chan, W. K.; Epili, D.; Jefferson, T.; Shih, X. R.; Wendling, S.; Milkereit, B.; Green, A.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1991-01-01

    We present a detailed velocity model across the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in central Lake Superior. The model was derived primarily from onshore-offshore large-aperture seismic and gravity data. High velocities obtained within a highly reflective half-graben that was imaged on coincident seismic reflection data demonstrate the dominantly mafic composition of the graben fill and constrain its total thickness to be at least 30km. Strong wide-angle reflections are observed from the lower crust and Moho, indicating that the crust is thickest (55–60km) beneath the axis of the graben. The total crustal thickness decreases rapidly to about 40 km beneath the south shore of the lake and decreases more gradually to the north. Above the Moho is a high-velocity lower crust interpreted to result from syn-rift basaltic intrusion into and/or underplating beneath the Archean lower crust. The lower crust is thickest beneath the axis of the main rift half-graben. A second region of thick lower crust is found approximately 100km north of the axis of the rift beneath a smaller half graben that is interpreted to reflect an earlier stage of rifting. The crustal model presented here resembles recent models of some passive continental margins and is in marked contrast to many models of both active and extinct Phanerozoic continental rift zones. It demonstrates that the Moho is a dynamic feature, since the pre-rift Moho is probably within or above the high-velocity lower crust, whereas the post-rift Moho is defined as the base of this layer. In the absence of major tectonic activity, however, the Moho is very stable, since the large, abrupt variations in crustal thickness beneath the MRS have been preserved for at least a billion years.

  17. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOEpatents

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  18. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

    2011-03-02

    Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to <1 nm absolute accuracy and used to mount and measure 450 mm long flats for the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments. The authors are presently extending this work to a 600 mm instrument. Instruments with 900 mm aperture are now becoming available, which would accommodate the largest mirrors of interest.

  19. Determining suitability of Large Aperture Scintillometer for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, G.; Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Basu, S.; Colaizzi, P. D.; Marek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Scintillation method is a relatively new technique for measuring the sensible heat and water fluxes over land surfaces. Path integrating capabilities of scintillometer over heterogeneous landscapes make it a potential tool for comparing the energy fluxes derived from remote sensing based energy balance algorithms. For this reason, scintillometer-derived evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes are being used to evaluate remote sensing based energy balance algorithms for their ability to estimate ET fluxes. However, LAS' (Large Aperture Scintillometer) ability to derive ET fluxes is not thoroughly tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate LAS- and Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)-derived fluxes against lysimetric data to determine LAS' suitability for validating remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) maps. The study was conducted during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment - 2008 (BEAREX-08) at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL), Bushland, Texas. SEBS was coded in a GIS environment to retrieve ET fluxes from the high resolution imageries acquired using airborne multispectral sensors. The CPRL has four large weighing lysimeters (3 m long x 3 m wide x 2.4 m deep), each located in the middle of approximately 5 ha fields, arranged in a block pattern. The two lysimeter fields located on the east (NE and SE) were managed under irrigated conditions, and the other two lysimeters on the west (NW and SW) were under dryland management. Each lysimeter field was equipped with an automated weather station that provided measurements for net radiation (Rn), Ts, soil heat flux (Go), Ta, relative humidity, and wind speed. During BEAREX08, the NE and SE fields were planted to cotton on May 21, and the NW and SW dryland lysimeters fields were planted to cotton on June 5. One LAS each was deployed across two large dryland lysimeter fields (NW and SW) and two large irrigated lysimeter fields (NE and SE). The structural parameter of refractive index of air was measured at 1-min interval and averaged at 15-min, and synchronized with weather station. The source area (footprint) of the surface energy fluxes were computed using a footprint model. ET fluxes were derived using LAS-estimated H as a residual from the energy balance equation. Comparison of SEBS- and LAS-derived ET fluxes were made against lysimetric data and performance of each method was discussed to determine the suitability of LAS for evaluating accuracy of remote sensing based ET maps.

  20. The effects of structural parameter on the temperature distribution and conversion efficiency in the temperature control scheme of ADP squared crystal with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fuzhong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Lihua; Bai, Qingshun; Liu, Baolin

    2015-11-01

    In order to obtain the best conversion efficiency of the laser with large diameter under the Non-Critical Phase Matching (NCPM), a temperature control scheme of ADP squared crystal with large aperture is proposed. The factors which influence the crystal temperature distribution are analyzed firstly, and the structural parameter is considered to be one of the most important factors. Then, the model of structural parameter is set up and studied by the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and experiment. Finally, the optimal parameter diameter is put forward and the temperature distribution of the ADP squared crystal is obtained, which caused the 2?-4? conversion efficiency is also studied by the FVM and experiment.

  1. Assessing Inter-Sensor Variability and Sensible Heat Flux Derivation Accuracy for a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    PubMed Central

    Rambikur, Evan H.; Chávez, José L.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies. PMID:24473285

  2. Assessing inter-sensor variability and sensible heat flux derivation accuracy for a large aperture scintillometer.

    PubMed

    Rambikur, Evan H; Chávez, José L

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in determining sensible heat flux (H) of three Kipp and Zonen large aperture scintillometers (LAS) was evaluated with reference to an eddy covariance (EC) system over relatively flat and uniform grassland near Timpas (CO, USA). Other tests have revealed inherent variability between Kipp and Zonen LAS units and bias to overestimate H. Average H fluxes were compared between LAS units and between LAS and EC. Despite good correlation, inter-LAS biases in H were found between 6% and 13% in terms of the linear regression slope. Physical misalignment was observed to result in increased scatter and bias between H solutions of a well-aligned and poorly-aligned LAS unit. Comparison of LAS and EC H showed little bias for one LAS unit, while the other two units overestimated EC H by more than 10%. A detector alignment issue may have caused the inter-LAS variability, supported by the observation in this study of differing power requirements between LAS units. It is possible that the LAS physical misalignment may have caused edge-of-beam signal noise as well as vulnerability to signal noise from wind-induced vibrations, both having an impact on the solution of H. In addition, there were some uncertainties in the solutions of H from the LAS and EC instruments, including lack of energy balance closure with the EC unit. However, the results obtained do not show clear evidence of inherent bias for the Kipp and Zonen LAS to overestimate H as found in other studies. PMID:24473285

  3. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  4. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with selectively etched thin apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feezell, Daniel F.

    Long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in the 1300--1600nm wavelength window are attractive light sources for short to mid-range optical fiber communications. These devices target low-loss and low-dispersion minima in standard optical fibers and are expected to provide a low-cost alternative to the existing edge-emitting infrastructure. With low-power consumption, on wafer testing; simple packaging, and high fiber-coupling efficiency, VCSELs are ideal transmitters for CWDM, metro, local area, and storage area networks. Recently, much attention has been devoted to a rich variety of approaches to long-wavelength VCSELs. One underlying problem, however, has been the need to match a reliable high-gain active region with high-index-contrast distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) over the full 1300--1600nm wavelength range. One solution to this problem is to utilize well-established InAlGaAs active-region technology coupled with AlGaAsSb DBRs. This combination facilitates monolithic all-epitaxial InP-based devices spanning the entire 1300--1600nm wavelength range. Previously, Dr. Shigeru Nakagawa and Dr. Eric Hall have demonstrated long-wavelength VCSELs with Sb-based technology operating at 1550nm. This dissertation demonstrates the first high-performance InP-based VCSELs with Sb-based DBRs operating at 1310nm, thus solidifying Sb-based technology as a wavelength flexible platform for long-wavelength devices. Also developed is a novel and efficient tunnel-junction aperturing technology for generating extremely low-loss optical and electrical confinement. Lastly, it is shown that the benefits from such an aperturing scheme produce marked improvements in device operation versus previously demonstrated Sb-based VCSELs. The devices from this research generated over 1.6mW single-mode continuous-wave (CW) output power at room temperature (>2mW multi-mode), displayed threshold currents down to 1mA, and operated CW up to 90°C. Furthermore, world-record CW differential efficiencies (>60%) for long-wavelength VCSELs were obtained, demonstrating the effectiveness of low-loss selectively etched tunnel-junction apertures. High-speed modulation up to 6.0Gb/s was also demonstrated for the first time in Sb-based VCSELs. Error-free operation at 3.125Gb/s was shown up to 60°C, with extinction ratios remaining >8dB. These results clearly demonstrate that all-epitaxial InP-based devices with Sb-based DBRs are a viable option for high-performance long-wavelength VCSELs.

  5. Origins of High-frequency Scattered Waves Near PKKP From Large Aperture Seismic Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Vidale, J. E.

    2001-05-01

    Observations of high--frequency ( ~1 Hz) teleseismic scattered waves provide constraints for modelling fine--scale ( ~10 km) core--mantle boundary (CMB) topography and fine--scale mantle heterogeneity. The majority of previous modelling relied on precursors to PKPdf, but here we present an underutilized data set that will aid future research into Earth's fine--scale structure: scattered waves in the vicinity of PKKP. The data set consists of slant stacks generated from Large Aperture Seismic Array (LASA) data from 36 earthquakes and 6 explosions in the range 30o to 129o. Although precursors to PKKP have been studied, we examine stacks in a larger time--distance window and find that waves previously associated with scattering along the PKKP raypath actually originate from near surface scattering of PKP to P (PKP.P). In addition to these near surface contributions, three types of waves scattered at the CMB or in the overlying mantle explain the observed slownesses and onset times, including: forward scattering of PKKP between its P and KKP legs (P.KKP and PKK.P), back scattering of PKKP between its PK and KP legs (PK.KP), and similarly back scattering of SKKP energy between its SK and KP legs (SK.KP). The LASA stacks show where and when these waves are detected and where they are contaminated by the surface--scattered P.PKP. In addition, the stacks image the scattered waves' amplitude and slowness variations with time. P.KKP waves are observed near 128o (just beyond the PKKP ``b'' caustic) and last ~100 s. Close to 113o, SK.KP waves rise above the noise ~100 s before onset time of the main SKKP arrival. Observations of PK.KP span 30o to 100o. However, at distances greater than 50o they suffer from P.PKP contamination. At distances less than 50o PK.KP last for ~300 s. This is ~150 s longer than the maximum ray-theoretical prediction for waves scattered at the CMB, indicating possible contributions from the overlying mantle.

  6. The effect of air flow on the temperature distribution and the harmonic conversion efficiency of the ADP crystal with large aperture in the temperature control scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fuzhong; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Lihua; Xiang, Yong; Bai, Qingshun

    2016-03-01

    This paper presented a temperature control scheme for ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) crystal of Ф80 mm in diameter, and the influence of the air flow was also studied. This research aims to obtain the high energy, high frequency laser with large aperture under the non-critical phase matching (NCPM). Firstly, thermal analysis was carried out to investigate the air flow property in the cavity, as well as the effect of ambient temperature was analyzed. Secondly, the temperature distributions of air flow were achieved using the Finite Volume Method (FVM), and this prediction was validated by the experiment results. Finally, the effect of air flow in the cavity was obtained from the heating method, and the variation of harmonic conversion efficiency caused by the ambient temperature was also highlighted.

  7. Simulation studies of space-charge-dominated beam transport in large aperture ratio quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.; Laslett, L.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Haber, I.

    1993-05-01

    For many cases of interest in the design of heavy-ion fusion accelerators, the maximum transportable current in a magnetic quadrupole lattice scales as ({alpha}/L){sup 2} where {alpha} is the useful dynamic aperture and L is the half-lattice period. There are many cost benefits to maximizing the usable aperture which must be balanced against unwanted effects such as possible emittance growth and particle loss from anharmonic fringe fields. We have used two independent simulation codes to model space-charge dominated beam transport both in an azimuthally-pure quadrupole FODO lattice design and in a more conventional design. Our results indicate that careful matching will be necessary to minimize emittance growth and that ({alpha}/L) ratios of 0.2 or larger are possible for particular parameters.

  8. Design and construction of a large aperture quadrupole electromagnet for ILSE

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.; Vella, M.C.; Peters, C.; Stuart, M.; Faltens, A.

    1995-08-01

    We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBNL. ILSE will address many physics and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient of 28 T/m, wi a usable aperture of 6 cm. It operates at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.

  9. A high-resolution detecting system based on machine vision for defects on large aperture and super-smooth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongying; Zhao, Limin; Wang, Shitong; Cao, Pin; Liu, Dong; Li, Lu; Yan, Lu; Li, Chen; Xie, Shibing; Li, Yang; Chen, Yangjie

    2015-02-01

    The high-resolution detecting system based on machine vision for defects on large aperture and super-smooth surface uses a novel ring telecentric lighting optical system detecting the defects on the sample all round and without blind spots. The scattering light induced by surface defects enters the adaptive and highly zoom microscopic scattering dark-field imaging system for defect detecting and then forms digital images. Sub-aperture microscopic scanning sampling and fast stitching on the surface is realized by using precise multi-axis shifting guided scanning system and a standard comparison board based upon binary optics is used to implement fast calibration of micron-dimension defects detected actually. The pattern recognition technology of digital image processing which can automatically output digitalized surface defects statements after scaling is established to comprehensively evaluate defects. This system which can reach micron-dimension defect resolution can achieve detections of large aperture components of 850 mm 500 mm, solve the durable problem of subjective uncertainty brought in by human visual detection of defects and achieve quantitative detection of defects with machine vision.

  10. Defining A Risk Analysis Strategy for Exo-Earth Yields from a Future Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Avi; Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Robinson, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars using high-contrast imaging is a critical science metric for constraining the requirements on the next-generation large UVOIR space telescope. The dominant driver for the observatory architecture, cost and schedule is the telescope aperture size. Therefore it is important to provide as much constraint as possible on the required aperture size early in the design and planning process.An estimate of the detection yield for Earth-like planets can be calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation of a design reference mission (DRM), allowing the exploration of a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We have developed such a code (Stark et al. 2014); it optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield for a specific set of mission parameters. However, many of the important astrophysical quantities and future technical capabilities that feed into these parameters are not well constrained. This leads to a large uncertainty in the final mission architecture needed to achieve a specific exo-Earth yield.In this presentation we discuss the various physical and technological parameters that go into the DRM simulations, and the associated uncertainties based on the current state of research. We then present a strategy for a three-tiered risk assessment using these uncertainties, and conclude with a discussion of the current range in telescope aperture size associated with each risk level.

  11. A Large Aperture Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter Based On Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matt; Mott, Brent; Powell, Dan; Barclay, Rich; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2002-01-01

    A research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) is focused on applying Micro Opto Electromechanical Systems (MOEMS) technology to create a miniature Fabry-Perot tunable etalon for space and ground-based near infrared imaging spectrometer applications. Unlike previous devices developed for small-aperture telecommunications systems, the GSFC research is directed toward a novel 12 - 40 mm aperture for astrophysical studies, including emission line imaging of galaxies and nebulae, and multi-spectral redshift surveys in the 1.1 - 2.3 micron wavelength region. The MOEMS design features integrated electrostatic scanning of the 11-micron optical gap, and capacitance micrometry for closed loop control of parallelism within a 10-nm tolerance. The low thermal mass and inertia inherent in MOEMS devices allows for rapid cooling to the proposed 30 K operating temperature, and high frequency response. Achieving the proposed 6-nm aperture flatness (with an effective finesse of 50) represents the primary technical challenge in the current 12-mm prototype.

  12. High Energy, Narrow Linewidth 1572nm Eryb-Fiber Based MOPA for a Multi-Aperture CO2 Trace-Gas Laser Space Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Cao, He; Fouron, Jean-Luc; Storm, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Accurate global measurements of tropospheric CO2 mixing ratios are needed to study CO2 emissions and CO2 exchange with the land and oceans. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a pulsed lidar approach for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar to allow global measurements of atmospheric CO2 column densities from space. Our group has developed, and successfully flown, an airborne pulsed lidar instrument that uses two tunable pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, absorption of an O2 line pair in the oxygen A-band (765 nm), range, and atmospheric backscatter profiles in the same path. Both lasers are pulsed at 10 kHz, and the two absorption line regions are sampled at typically a 300 Hz rate. A space-based version of this lidar must have a much larger lidar power-area product due to the x40 longer range and faster along track velocity compared to airborne instrument. Initial link budget analysis indicated that for a 400 km orbit, a 1.5 m diameter telescope and a 10 second integration time, a 2 mJ laser energy is required to attain the precision needed for each measurement. To meet this energy requirement, we have pursued parallel power scaling efforts to enable space-based lidar measurement of CO2 concentrations. These included a multiple aperture approach consists of multi-element large mode area fiber amplifiers and a single-aperture approach consists of a multi-pass Er:Yb:Phosphate glass based planar waveguide amplifier (PWA). In this paper we will present our laser amplifier design approaches and preliminary results.

  13. A Large Sparse Aperture Densified Pupil Hypertelescope Concept for Ground Based Detection of Extra-Solar Earth-Like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D.; Lyon, R.; Woodruff, R.; Labeyrie, A.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A concept is presented for a large (10 - 30 meter) sparse aperture hyper telescope to image extrasolar earth-like planets from the ground in the presence of atmospheric seeing. The telescope achieves high dynamic range very close to bright stellar sources with good image quality using pupil densification techniques. Active correction of the perturbed wavefront is simplified by using 36 small flat mirrors arranged in a parabolic steerable array structure, eliminating the need for large delat lines and operating at near-infrared (1 - 3 Micron) wavelengths with flats comparable in size to the seeing cells.

  14. Speckle random pattern laser: Self-formation of looped lasing paths and dynamic effects in a wide-aperture thin-slice solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Kenju; Miyasaka, Yoshihiko; Nemoto, Kana

    2007-06-15

    We observed self-formation of looped random lasing paths in a laser-diode-pumped wide-aperture thin-slice solid-state laser with imperfect reflective end surfaces. Observed lasing patterns, resulting from random scatterers on the surfaces, showed transverse intensity distributions possessing exponential spatial autocorrelation functions. It is shown that such a speckle type of lasing pattern formation takes place when the pump position is tuned such that the surface irregularity possesses an exponential autocorrelation function whose delay length is smaller than the lasing beam diameter.

  15. Small feature sizes and high aperture ratio organic light-emitting diodes by using laser-patterned polyimide shadow masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Joseph, Kevin; Kajiyama, Koichi; Kudo, Shuji; Aziz, Hany

    2014-02-01

    A shadow mask technique capable of realizing high resolution (>330 pixel-per-inch) and 100% aperture ratio Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) full color displays is demonstrated. The technique utilizes polyimide contact shadow masks, patterned by laser ablation. Red, green, and blue OLEDs with very small feature sizes (<25 ?m) are fabricated side by side on one substrate. OLEDs fabricated via this technique have the same performance as those made by established technology. This technique has a strong potential to achieve high resolution OLED displays via standard vacuum deposition processes even on flexible substrates.

  16. Periodic self-wave structures in a wide-aperture laser with frequency detuning. I. Bifurcation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikin, A P; Molevich, N E; Kurguzkin, A A

    1999-06-30

    A theoretical investigation is reported of the stability of a homogeneous transverse distribution of lasing in a wide-aperture Fabry - Perot cavity. It is shown that when the detuning of the lasing frequency from the centre of the gain line of the active medium is negative, the conditions may be favourable for the Andronov - Hopf bifurcation. This leads to the appearance of periodic transverse wave structures. The main parameters of these waves (velocity, period, amplitude, growth increment) are found. It is also shown that a transition of a periodic wave pattern into a chaotic one is possible with increase in the wave amplitude. (laser fields and cavities)

  17. Fine calibration of large-aperture optical scintillometers and an optical estimate of inner scale of turbulence.

    PubMed

    Hill, R J; Ochs, G R

    1978-11-15

    Large-aperture optical scintillometers [Ting-i Wang et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 334 (1978)] lose their calibration if they are sensitive to portions of the spatial spectrum of temperature fluctuations where (K)(-11/3) fails to hold. The model temperature spectrum having the bump [R. J. Hill, J. Fluid Mech. 88, 541 (1978); R. J. Hill and S. F. Clifford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 892 (1978)] is used to find conditions under which the scintillometers maintain their calibration. We find that the aperture size D should be at least twenty times the inner scale l(0) if the contribution of the spectral bump is to be ignored. For application in the surface layer, one needs the height above ground of the optical path to be much greater than three times the aperture size if outer-scale effects are to be negligible. It is shown that the inner scale dependence of a scintillometer having D/l(0) approximately 2.0 and the lack of such dependence for a scintillometer having D/l(0) approximately 20.0 can be used to estimate both l(0) and C(2)(n) if the two systems are used simultaneously on the same path. A preliminary experiment was performed in the atmospheric surface layer with scintillometers having aperture sizes of 2.0 cm, 5.0 cm, and 15.0 cm; the results are consistent with the existence of the spectral bump. The inner scale is estimated by comparing data from the 2.0-cm and 15.0-cm systems. Using this inner scale, the C(2)(n) values from the 5.0-cm and 15.0-cm scintillometers are corrected for the spectral bump; the corrected values are in agreement. Other turbulence parameters are not deduced from the l(0) and C(2)(n) estimates because the l(0) values have been found to be insufficiently accurate. PMID:20204039

  18. Spatial phase locking of linear arrays of 4 and 12 wide-aperture semiconductor laser diodes in an external cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V; Derzhavin, S I; Kislov, V I; Kuz'minov, V V; Mashkovskii, D A; Kazakov, A A; Koval', Yu P; Prokhorov, A M

    1998-03-31

    Spatial phase locking was achieved experimentally for radiation from linear arrays of 4 and 12 wide-aperture multimode semiconductor lasers. This phase locking was attained in an external cavity of 1 < L < 3 cm length with a plane mirror (R=90%) by diffractive exchange of radiation between neighbouring lasers. An analysis of all possible cavity oscillation eigenmodes (supermodes) was made for a phase-locked array of 4 coupled lasers. The output radiation of this array was characterised by a high degree of coherence (with the contrast of V=0.9). The angular width (at half-maximum) dy was 1.2 mrad for the fundamental ({nu} =1) and highest ({nu} =4) supermodes, and 0.8 mrad for the modes with {nu} =2 or 3, which corresponded to the diffraction limit. Full supermode selection was achieved in the 4-laser array as a result of the Talbot effect when the cavity length was L=Z{sub T}/4. The far-field distribution of the radiation was then characterised by the parameters V=0.98 and {delta}{psi} = 1.2 mrad. The corresponding parameters of a phase-locked 12-laser array were V=0.93 for the axial propagation zone and {delta}{psi} =0.46 mrad. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  19. Large aperture diffractive telescope design for space-based lidar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinyi; Xie, Yongjun

    2015-11-01

    Diffractive telescopes are ideal to space-based lidar receivers, because of their advantages of mass and surface shape tolerances. To develop diffractive optical systems, the aberration properties and high order diffraction of diffractive lenses were discussed. The aberration properties are suitable for lidar receivers. High order diffraction is helpful to improve diffractive lens fabrication and decrease system length. And it can be realized by modifying the surface figures of a diffractive lens, mainly the ring widths and depth. A 1-meter aperture diffractive telescope design with simple structure was given, providing spot diameters less than 45μm over the whole field of view.

  20. Computation of scalar far-field patterns of large-aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omalley, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    In computer programs used for evaluating the performance of high-gain antennas, efficient numerical methods for calculating the far-field patterns must be used since the majority of computer time and storage requirements may be attributed to this phase of the program. The numerical method most frequently used is the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which computes the far field as the Fourier transform of the field distribution in the antenna aperture. A new numerical method that in many applications is superior to the FFT in terms of reducing computer time and storage requirements is described.

  1. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  2. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  3. Amplification of femtosecond pulses to above 1 J with large aperture Cr:LiSrAIF{sub 6} amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmire, T.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed a chirped pulse amplification system capable of producing femtosecond pulses with energy above one joule. This is accomplished by using a large aperture, flashlamp pumped Cr-LiSrAlF{sub 6} (Cr:LiSAF) amplifier. Optimum design of the 19 mm diameter amplifier results in a single pass gain of 5 with good beam quality. This amplifier produces 1.05 J pulses after compression with a width of < 125 fs at a repetition rate of 0.05 Hz.

  4. Laser ablation of silicon using a Bessel-like beam generated by a subwavelength annular aperture structure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuh-Yan; Chang, Chin-Kai; Lai, Ming-Wei; Huang, Long-Sun; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2011-12-01

    Using a femtosecond laser incident to an oxide-metal-oxide film engraved with a subwavelength annular aperture (SAA) structure, we generated a Bessel-like beam to ablate silicon. Experimental results show that the silicon can be ablated with a 0.05 J/cm(2) input ablation threshold at 120 fs pulse duration. We obtained a surface hole possessing a diameter less than 1 ?m. Optical performance, including depth-of-focus and focal spot of the SAA structure, were simulated using finite-different time-domain calculations. We found that a far-field laser beam propagating through a SAA structure possesses a submicrometer focal spot and high focus intensity. Our method can be easily adopted for surface machining in microfabrication applications. PMID:22192990

  5. Alternative Beam Efficiency Calculations for a Large-aperture Multiple-frequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The fundamental definition of beam efficiency, given in terms of a far field radiation pattern, was used to develop alternative definitions which improve accuracy, reduce the amount of calculation required, and isolate the separate factors composing beam efficiency. Well-known definitions of aperture efficiency were introduced successively to simplify the denominator of the fundamental definition. The superposition of complex vector spillover and backscattered fields was examined, and beam efficiency analysis in terms of power patterns was carried out. An extension from single to dual reflector geometries was included. It is noted that the alternative definitions are advantageous in the mathematical simulation of a radiometer system, and are not intended for the measurements discipline where fields have merged and therefore lost their identity.

  6. 11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Lauer, Kenneth; Li, Li; Eom, Daejin; Legnini, Daniel; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2013-01-01

    The focusing performance of a multilayer Laue lens (MLL) with 43.4??m aperture, 4?nm finest zone width and 4.2?mm focal length at 12?keV was characterized with X-rays using ptychography method. The reconstructed probe shows a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) peak size of 11.2?nm. The obtained X-ray wavefront shows excellent agreement with the dynamical calculations, exhibiting aberrations less than 0.3 wave period, which ensures the MLL capable of producing a diffraction-limited focus while offering a sufficient working distance. This achievement opens up opportunities of incorporating a variety of in-situ experiments into ultra high-resolution X-ray microscopy studies. PMID:24356395

  7. Large-aperture deformable mirror correction of tiled-grating wavefront error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, B. E.; Jungquist, R.; Qiao, J.; Abbey, S.; Dean, S. E.; Maywar, D. N.; Moore, M. D.; Waxer, L. J.; Wilson, M. E.

    2006-06-01

    When tiling three gratings, with each individually exhibiting astigmatism and power due to holographic errors and coating stress, the resulting wavefront aberrations contain high-frequency components as well as the fundamental frequency, which is nearly three cycles across the aperture in the tiling direction. A deformable mirror (DM) that was designed to compensate for much slower errors (e.g., those arising from distortion in amplifier disks) is being used to compensate for this tiling-induced error. This investigation studies the effectiveness of compensating only the fundamental frequency of the tiled aberration, and shows that this provides a significant improvement that is adequate for a range of expected aberrations. Limitations of the DM correction technique are also studied.

  8. Optical design and testing of a fast, large aperture, infrared space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, C. M.; Nevo, Y.; Ettedgui-Atad, E.; Harris, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    An optical design study for a next generation infrared space telescope has been performed. The concept is that of a passively cooled telescope of minimum aperture 2.5 m with an F/1.2 primary and wavelength coverage from 2 to as least 40 microns, and possibly to 100 microns. Compactness, low thermal emission from the optics and structure, diffraction limited imaging at 2 microns, and sensitivity to misalignment aberrations and manufacturing errors were the main considerations for this study. Ray tracing results are presented showing the characteristics of the various designs considered. A preliminary investigation of stray light properties is also given. Special emphasis has been placed on the testing of such a fast primary, and optical systems using a lateral shearing interferometer are described for testing both the primary and the primary/secondary combination.

  9. Astrometric plates obtained at the primary focus of large aperture reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markos, A.

    1984-01-01

    Coma, astigmatism, and great differences in stellar magnitudes between photographed object and reference stars constitute the main sources of errors in measuring positional plates. These three sources of error can easily be eliminated by the method used at the Klet Observatory for obtaining precise observations of faint objects. The astrometric plates are taken by the method of two diaphragms. The first diaphragm, with a small central aperture; is located in front of the photographic plate. The second diaphragm is situated in front of the mirror. By a very short (of the order of tens of seconds) exposure a sufficient number of reference stars can be obtained throughout the entire plate. The stars are very well defined to the very edge of the plate and are easy to measure. Moreover, this method makes it possible to use plates of larger dimensions than usual so that it is always possible to find the necessary reference stars.

  10. Design and construction of a large aperture, quadrupole electromagnet prototype for ILSE

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, M.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.M.; Peters, C.; Vella, M.C.

    1995-04-01

    We are currently constructing a prototype quadrupole electromagnet for the proposed Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE) at LBL. ILSE will address many physi and engineering issues relevant to the design of a heavy-ion fusion driver accelerator. The pulsed electromagnet has two layers of current windings and will produce a field gradient exceeding 25 T/m at a repetition rate of 1 Hz steady-state. In this paper, we discuss how the interaction of various concerns such as maximum dynamic aperture, short lattice period, field quality, iron yoke weight, heat transfer, and voltage standoff have led to our particular design choices. We also present 2- and 3-D numerical calculations concerning field topography and the results of transport simulations of space-charge dominated ion beams with ILSE parameters.

  11. A 2-kJ wide-aperture XeCl laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, S P; Abdullin, E N; Zorin, V B; Koval'chuk, B M; Loginov, S V; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Skakun, V S; Tarasenko, Viktor F; Tolkachev, Valerii S; Shchanin, Pyotr M

    2004-09-30

    A 308-nm XeCl laser with an active volume of 600 L is studied experimentally. The laser is pumped by a radially convergent electron beam from an accelerator with vacuum insulation. The output energy of 1.9 kJ and power of {approx}7 GW are achieved upon pumping the Ar-Xe-HCl mixture. The laser pulse FWHM is {approx}250 ns. (lasers)

  12. Dynamics of radiation from a wide-aperture laser under conditions of coherent interaction of the radiation with a medium

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikin, A P

    1999-11-30

    The dynamics of the radiation from a wide-aperture laser is investigated taking account of the finite response time of the polarisation of the active medium. This radiation is described by the Maxwell - Bloch equations, which are simplified for the case of fast relaxation of the polarisation. The methods of a qualitative theory of nonlinear dynamics systems are used to find the conditions for instability of the steady-state homogeneous laser radiation field in a Fabry - Perot cavity. It is shown that, as a rule, the system becomes unstable via an Andronov - Hopf bifurcation and the transverse profile of the optical field is modulated by a travelling self-wave. The main parameters of these self-waves are determined and their growth increment is found. It is shown that each of the roots of the characteristic equation of the system can be used to estimate the stability range of the self-wave solutions. The laser equations are also solved numerically and the results obtained are in good agreement with the conclusions of the qualitative theory. The numerical results predict harmonic and quasi-harmonic self-waves (with multiplication of their period) and also behaviour resembling chaos. (lasers)

  13. LASERS AND AMPLIFIERS: Conditions for the excitation of a wide-aperture XeCl laser with an average output radiation power of 1 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, V. M.; Dmitriev, A. A.; Prokof'ev, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    1995-05-01

    The conditions for energy deposition in a pulse-periodic XeCl laser with a 9 cm 6 cm aperture were investigated and analysed. A new power supply system in the form of two series-connected LC inverter circuits, combined with a magnetic pulse-compression stage, ensured the formation of a homogeneous gas discharge at charging voltages not exceeding 30 kV. An output energy of 10 J per pulse was obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz.

  14. Enhancement of conversion efficiency and spatial coherence of high order harmonics generated from pre-formed plasma plumes using an apertured laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Chakravarty, U.; Rathore, R.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of laser beam aperturing (Ti: sapphire laser; 800 nm, 45 fs) on the conversion efficiency (CE), harmonic yield and spatial coherence of high order harmonics generated from a low excited plasma plume of carbon (neutral and singly charged ions) is studied. The optimization of CE by varying the aperture size in combination with different laser and plasma plume parameters was carried out. The CE of the 15th harmonic is enhanced from ∼10‑7 for an unapertured laser beam to ∼10‑6 for ∼¼ times the unapertured beam diameter, at same laser energy in both cases. Further, it was found that, at a given aperture size, there is an optimum prepulse intensity for maximum CE. The results are explained by taking into account the theoretical consideration of phase matching issues in plasma plumes. The study shows that tuning the prepulse intensity and aperture size gives an easy handle to increase the harmonic conversion along with its coherence properties. The study will be useful for producing an intense source of harmonics with high spatial coherence from plasmas plumes for applications.

  15. Direct laser writing of pyramidal plasmonic structures with apertures and asymmetric gratings towards efficient subwavelength light focusing.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jiajia; Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Hao, Tingting; Wang, Yujin; Sun, Shengsheng; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Junjie; Li, Wuxia; Gu, Changzhi

    2015-08-24

    Efficient confining of photons into subwavelength scale is of great importance in both fundamental researches and engineering applications, of which one major challenge lies in the lack of effective and reliable on-chip nanofabrication techniques. Here we demonstrate the efficient subwavelength light focusing with carefully engineered pyramidal structures fabricated by direct laser writing and surface metallization. The important effects of the geometry and symmetry are investigated. Apertures with various sizes are flexibly introduced at the apex of the pyramids, the focusing spot size and center-to-sidelobe ratio of which could be improved a factor of ~4 and ~3, respectively, compared with the conical counterparts of identical size. Moreover, two pairs of asymmetric through-nanogratings are conceptually introduced onto the top end of the pyramids, showing significantly improved focusing characteristics. The studies provide a novel methodology for the design and realization of 3D plasmonic focusing with low-noise background and high energy transfer. PMID:26368223

  16. Development of a high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array with ion-implanted current apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Aoki, Yuta; Higuchi, Akira; Torii, Kousuke; Nagakura, Takehito; Morita, Takenori; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2013-03-01

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are very attractive to high power light sources owing to the advantageous configuration of two-dimensional arrays and being free from catastrophic optical damage. Although oxideconfined VCSELs have been employed in most of applications with VCSELs, ion-implanted VCSELs have a potential to be the better light sources for high power applications. In spite of the fact, the detailed characteristics of the ionimplanted VCSELs had been researched only in ten milliwatt-class output power. Here we report on a high power VCSEL-array with proton-implanted current apertures. A peak output power of over 40 W under short-pulse operation has been achieved. This is the first demonstration of ten watt-class output power for ion-implanted VCSELs.

  17. PAPERS DEVOTED TO THE MEMORY OF ACADEMICIAN A M PROKHOROV: High-frequency repetitively pulsed operating regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Kijko, V. V.; Kislov, V. I.; Suzdal'tsev, A. G.; Egorov, A. B.

    2003-09-01

    A technique for obtaining a repetitively pulsed operating regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers is proposed and experimentally realised. In this regime, the laser emits a train of pulses with a duration of 0.1 1 ?s and a pulse repetition rate of several tens of kilohertz. The main properties of the pulsed regime are theoretically analysed and the proposed technique is tested in detail employing a test-bench gas-dynamic laser. The results of the test confirmed the conclusions of the theoretical analysis. The possibility of realising a repetitively pulsed regime in high-power wide-aperture lasers without a reduction in the average output power is experimentally demonstrated.

  18. Fabrication of large-area concave microlens array on silicon by femtosecond laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zefang; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Meng, Xiangwei; Bian, Hao; Yong, Jiale; Shan, Chao; Hou, Xun

    2015-05-01

    In this Letter, a novel fabrication of large-area concave microlens array (MLA) on silicon is demonstrated by combination of high-speed laser scanning, which would result in single femtosecond laser pulse ablation on surface of silicon, and subsequent wet etching. Microscale concave microlenses with tunable dimensions and accessional aspherical profile are readily obtained on the 1??cm 1??cm silicon film, which are useful as optical elements for infrared (IR) applications. The aperture diameter and height of the microlens were characterized and the results reveal that they are both proportional to the laser scanning speed. Moreover, the optical property of high-performance silicon MLAs as a reflective homogenizer was investigated for the visible wavelength, and it can be easily extended to IR light. PMID:25927750

  19. Takagi-taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Maser, J.; Macrander, A.; Shen, Q.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, B.; Kang, H. C.; Advanced Photonics Research Inst.; Gwangju Inst. of Science and Technology

    2007-09-01

    We present a formalism of x-ray dynamical diffraction from volume diffractive optics with large numerical aperture and high aspect ratio, in an analogy to the Takagi-Taupin equations [Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311 (1962); Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Crystallogr. 87, 469 (1964)] for strained single crystals. We derive a set of basic equations for dynamical diffraction from volume diffractive optics, which enable us to study the focusing property of these optics with various grating profiles. We study volume diffractive optics that satisfy the Bragg condition to various degrees, namely, flat, tilted, and wedged geometries, and derive the curved geometries required for ultimate focusing. We show that the curved geometries satisfy both the Bragg condition everywhere and phase requirement for point focusing and effectively focus hard x rays to a scale close to the wavelength. Our calculations were made for an x-ray wavelength of 0.064 nm (19.5 keV).

  20. Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Ball, Alexander J.; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-05-01

    Flat optical devices thinner than a wavelength promise to replace conventional free-space components for wavefront and polarization control. Transmissive flat lenses are particularly interesting for applications in imaging and on-chip optoelectronic integration. Several designs based on plasmonic metasurfaces, high-contrast transmitarrays and gratings have been recently implemented but have not provided a performance comparable to conventional curved lenses. Here we report polarization-insensitive, micron-thick, high-contrast transmitarray micro-lenses with focal spots as small as 0.57 ?. The measured focusing efficiency is up to 82%. A rigorous method for ultrathin lens design, and the trade-off between high efficiency and small spot size (or large numerical aperture) are discussed. The micro-lenses, composed of silicon nano-posts on glass, are fabricated in one lithographic step that could be performed with high-throughput photo or nanoimprint lithography, thus enabling widespread adoption.

  1. Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device.

    PubMed

    Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori

    2008-10-13

    Mg-doped congruent composition LiTaO(3) (MgLT) crystal, which can be grown by a conventional Czochralski method, has improved properties such as transparent range, thermal conductivity, and coercive field compared to conventional undoped congruent LiTaO(3). In this paper, various properties of MgLT including Mg-doping dependence are characterized, and also compared to that of undoped congruent LiTaO(3), LiNbO(3), and Mg-doped congruent LiNbO(3), as a material of high power quasi-phase matching (QPM) device. Up to 3-mm-thick periodically poled MgLT crystal is shown to demonstrate the possibility of large-aperture QPM-MgLT devices. Subsequently, optical parametric oscillation experiments by using periodically poled MgLT are demonstrated to discuss an efficient QPM condition. PMID:18852804

  2. A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Sean; Ade, Peter; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven; Bihary, Richard; Bock, James; Bond, J. Richard; Chiang, H. Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo; Crill, Brendan; Dore, Olivier; Elder, Benjamin; Filippini, Jeffrey; Fraisse, Aurelien; Gambrel, Anne; Gandilo, Natalie; Gudmundsson, Jon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Holmes, Warren; Hristov, Viktor; Irwin, Kent; Jones, William; Kermish, Zigmund; Lawrie, Craig; MacTavish, Carrie; Mason, Peter; Megerian, Krikor; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Montroy, Thomas; Morford, Tracy; Nagy, Johanna; Netterfield, C. Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S.; Reintsema, Carl; Riley, Daniel C.; Ruhl, John; Runyan, Marcus; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, Donald; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of ±0.1∘. The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight.

  3. Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays.

    PubMed

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Ball, Alexander J; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Flat optical devices thinner than a wavelength promise to replace conventional free-space components for wavefront and polarization control. Transmissive flat lenses are particularly interesting for applications in imaging and on-chip optoelectronic integration. Several designs based on plasmonic metasurfaces, high-contrast transmitarrays and gratings have been recently implemented but have not provided a performance comparable to conventional curved lenses. Here we report polarization-insensitive, micron-thick, high-contrast transmitarray micro-lenses with focal spots as small as 0.57??. The measured focusing efficiency is up to 82%. A rigorous method for ultrathin lens design, and the trade-off between high efficiency and small spot size (or large numerical aperture) are discussed. The micro-lenses, composed of silicon nano-posts on glass, are fabricated in one lithographic step that could be performed with high-throughput photo or nanoimprint lithography, thus enabling widespread adoption. PMID:25947118

  4. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol): Instrument and 2010 Science Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandilo, Natalie; BLAST-Pol Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLAST-Pol) is a 1.8-m telescope that observes polarized dust emission with a resolution of 1'. BLAST-Pol images the sky onto a focal plane that consists of 270 feed-horn coupled bolometers at 250, 350, and 500 microns. In January 2011, BLAST-Pol completed a successful 9.5-day flight over Antarctica. Eight science targets were observed, and a second flight is planned for December 2012. I will give an overview of the instrument performance during the first science campaign and present preliminary maps. BLAST-Pol maps will provide an excellent dataset for studying the role of magnetic fields in star formation.

  5. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers, Technology Developments, and Synergies with Other Future Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  6. A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Sean; Ade, Peter; Amiri, Mandana; Benton, Steven; Bihary, Richard; Bock, James; Bond, J Richard; Chiang, H Cynthia; Contaldi, Carlo; Crill, Brendan; Dore, Olivier; Elder, Benjamin; Filippini, Jeffrey; Fraisse, Aurelien; Gambrel, Anne; Gandilo, Natalie; Gudmundsson, Jon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Holmes, Warren; Hristov, Viktor; Irwin, Kent; Jones, William; Kermish, Zigmund; Lawrie, Craig; MacTavish, Carrie; Mason, Peter; Megerian, Krikor; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Montroy, Thomas; Morford, Tracy; Nagy, Johanna; Netterfield, C Barth; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S; Reintsema, Carl; Riley, Daniel C; Ruhl, John; Runyan, Marcus; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shariff, Jamil; Soler, Juan; Trangsrud, Amy; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Rebecca; Turner, Anthony; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, Donald; Young, Edward

    2016-01-01

    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of ±0.1(∘). The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight. PMID:26827333

  7. XeCl laser system with a 25 cm x 25 cm output aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, N G; Losev, V F; Panchenko, Yu N; Yastremskii, A G

    1999-10-31

    A description is given of a high-power excimer laser system. The first results are reported of the amplification of a beam with a divergence close to the diffraction limit. Beyond the preamplifier, the 5 cm x 6 cm laser beam contains 50% of the radiation energy in the diffraction core. At the output from the system an irradiation brightness of 2 x 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} was obtained. A numerical model of the amplification of the radiation, taking into account the influence of the amplified spontaneous emission, was devised. It demonstrated a satisfactory agreement between the calculated and experimental data. (lasers)

  8. A real-space interactive holographic display based on a large-aperture HOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Javid; Can, Chi; Greenaway, Alan; Underwood, Ian

    2013-03-01

    We have built a HOE-based display capable of reconstructing arbitrary images, in mid-air at fixed focal depths, that can interact with the viewer in real-time. The display system comprises the HOE, a laser projection subsystem, a Kinect motion sensor and an embedded controller. The HOE functions as a fast converging lens and is A4 page sized (20×30cm). We have written a number of simple apps for the display that allow the user to draw in mid-air or to touch icons and buttons that trigger other actions. The reconstructed holographic images are high-resolution, relatively bright and visible under ambient indoor lighting conditions.

  9. Concept study of an Extremely Large Hyper Telescope (ELHyT) with 1200m sparse aperture for direct imaging at 100 micro-arcsecond resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, Antoine; Mourard, Denis; Allouche, Fatm; Chakraborthy, Rijuparna; Dejonghe, Julien; Surya, Arun; Bresson, Yves; Aime, Claude; Mary, David; Carlotti, Alexis

    2012-07-01

    The hypertelescope construction initiated in the Southern Alps (Labeyrie et al., this conference) has provided some preliminary operating experience indicating that larger versions, up to perhaps 1200m, are probably feasible at suitable sites. The Arecibo-like architecture of such instruments does not require the large mount and dome which dominate the cost of a 40m ELT. For the same cost, an "Extremely Large Hyper Telescope ( ELHyT) may therefore have a larger collecting area. It may thus in principle reach higher limiting magnitudes, both for seeing-limited and, if equipped with a Laser Guide Star and adaptive phasing, for high-resolution imaging with gain as the size ratio, i.e. about 30 with respect to a 40m ELT. Like the radio arrays of antennas, such instruments can be grown progressively. Also, they can be up-graded with several focal gondolas, independently tracking different sources. Candidate sites have been identified in the Himalaya and the Andes. We describe several design options and compare the science achievable for both instruments, ELTs and ELHyTs. The broad science addressed by an ELHyT covers stellar chromospheres, transiting exoplanets and those requiring a high dynamic range, achieved by array apodization or coronagraphy. With a Laser Guide Star, it extends to faint compact sources beyond the limits of telescopes having a smaller collecting area, supernovae, active galactic nuclei, gamma ray bursts. The sparse content of remote galaxies seen in the Hubble Deep Field appears compatible with the crowding limitations of an ELHyT having 1000 apertures.

  10. Large linewidth-enhancement factor in a microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Szwaj, Christophe; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    We evidence experimentally that the linewidth-enhancement factor {alpha} can take a rather large value ({alpha}{approx_equal}1) for a nonsemiconductor laser, here a Nd{sup 3+}: YAG microchip laser. This measure is performed using an original and simple method adapted to this kind of laser and based on the variations of the laser relaxation frequency when the laser is subjected to an optical feedback.

  11. Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting.

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Morse, John; Yunkin, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, single-crystal diamond planar refractive lenses have been fabricated by laser micromachining in 300 m-thick diamond plates which were grown by chemical vapour deposition. Linear lenses with apertures up to 1 mm and parabola apex radii up to 500 m were manufactured and tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline. The large acceptance of these lenses allows them to be used as beam-conditioning elements. Owing to the unsurpassed thermal properties of single-crystal diamond, these lenses should be suitable to withstand the extreme flux densities expected at the planned fourth-generation X-ray sources. PMID:25537584

  12. Large-field-of-view laser-scanning OR-PAM using a fibre optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. J.; Zhang, E.; Beard, P. C.

    2015-03-01

    Laser-Scanning-Optical-Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (LSOR-PAM) requires an ultrasound detector with a low noise equivalent pressure (NEP) and a large angular detection aperture in order to image a large field of view (FOV). It is however challenging to meet these requirements when using piezoelectric receivers since using a small sensing element size (<100μm) in order to achieve a large angular detection aperture will inevitability reduce the sensitivity of the detector as it scales with decreasing element size. Fibre optic ultrasound sensors based on a Fabry Perot cavity do not suffer from this limitation and can provide high detection sensitivity (NEP<0.1kPa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth) with a large angular detection aperture due to their small active element size (~10μm). A LSOR-PAM system was developed and combined with this type of fibre optic ultrasound sensor. A set of phantom studies were undertaken. The first study demonstrated that a high resolution image over a large field of view (Ø11mm) could be obtained with a sampledetector separation of only 1.6mm. In the second study, a 12μm diameter tube filled with methylene blue whose absorption coefficient was similar to that of blood was visualised demonstrating that the fibre optic sensor could provide sufficient SNR for in-vivo microvascular OR-PAM imaging. These preliminary results suggest that the fibre optic sensor has the potential to outperform piezoelectric detectors for Laser-Scanning Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy (LSOR-PAM).

  13. Preliminary evaluation of sensible heat flux measurements from a large aperture scintillometer using lysimetric data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The path integrating capabilities of scintillometers over several kilometers make it a potential tool that can bridge the gap between primary point based observations (lysimeters, Bowen ratio, or eddy covariance) and the demand for large-scale spatially averaged surface fluxes. Further, the spatial...

  14. New technologies for the actuation and controls of large aperture lightweight quality mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, S. S.; Yang, E. H.; Gullapalli, S. N.; Flood, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a set of candidate components: MEMS based large stroke (>100 microns) ultra lightweight (0.01 gm) discrete inch worm actuator technology, and a distributed actuator technology, in the context of a novel lightweight active flexure-hinged substrate concept that uses the nanolaminate face sheet.

  15. Towards predicting the laser damage threshold of large-area optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hue, J.; Genin, F.Y.; Maricle, S.M.; Kozlowski, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    As the size of optics increases, such as in the optical coatings being developed for the National Ignition Facility in US and the Laser MegaJoules in France, the difficulty also increases in measuring and defining their laser damage threshold. Measuring the threshold on small witness samples ({le}cm) rather than full aperture optic (=m) is advantageous, and in this article, the threshold of large-area components is addressed in two ways. First, a model based on the R-on-l threshold distribution is shown to predict the threshold of a large optic with a high degree of confidence. The average R-on-l threshold provides a reliable, accurate value to evaluate coatings. An automated damage test bench has been developed at CEA. Secondly, the damage threshold has to be defined according to final use of the component. LLNL has defined a functional damage threshold to set limits on maximum damage size. An empirical power law dependence of average damage size on peak fluence was found; this can be used to predict the damage behavior of large-aperture optics exhibiting the same damage morphology.

  16. Optimization of Deposition Uniformity for Large Aperture NIF Substrates in a Planetary Rotation System

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.B.; Talbot, D.

    2003-05-06

    Multilayer coatings on large substrates with increasingly complex spectral requirements are essential for a number of optical systems, placing stringent requirements on the error tolerances of individual layers. Each layer must be deposited quite uniformly over the entire substrate surface since any nonuniformity will add to the layer-thickness error level achieved. A deposition system containing a planetary rotation system with stationary uniformity masking is modeled, with refinements of the planetary gearing, source placement, and uniformity mask shape being utilized to achieve an optimal configuration. The impact of improper planetary gearing is demonstrated theoretically, as well as experimentally, providing more comprehensive requirements than simply avoiding repetition of previous paths through the vapor plume, until all possible combinations of gear teeth have been used. Deposition efficiency and the impact on the uniformity achieved are used to validate improved source placement.

  17. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  18. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  19. Study on the Stressed Mirror Polishing with a Continuous Polishing Machine for Large Aperture Off-axis Aspheric Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Hai-ying; Cui, Xiang-qun; Jiang, Zi-bo; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Xing-tao; Ni, Hou-kun

    2012-10-01

    A special stressed annular polishing technique is proposed to mill the off-axis aspheric sub-mirrors of a large segmented mirror with an annular polishing machine. Based on the basic principle of stressed annular polishing technique, a set of special stressing mechanisms are designed to convert milling the aspheric surfaces of sub-mirrors with different off-axis distances into milling the spherical surfaces with identical radii of curvature, so that they can be pol- ished simultaneously on a continuous polishing machine. It took about contin- uous 40 hours to polish a scaled-down mirror of the planning Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT) using this technique. This mirror has the 330 mm di- ameter, 3.6 m off-axis distance, and the 21.6 m radius of curvature, and its max- imum asphericity is 16 micron. The experiment shows that this method has a high effciency, suits batch manufacturing, especially the batch manufacturing of aspheric sub-mirrors of the segmented primary mirror of an extremely large aperture telescope.

  20. Processing method and process modeling of large aperture transparent magnesium aluminate spinel domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; McWilliams, Brandon; Kilczewski, Steven; Gilde, Gary; Lidie, Ashley; Sands, James

    2009-05-01

    Polycrystalline spinel serves as an alternative to materials such as sapphire and magnesium fluoride that are currently being used in electromagnetic window applications such as missile domes, where high strength, high hardness and high transmittance in the visible and infrared spectra are required. The cubic crystal lattice of spinel imparts an isotropy to the bulk optical property, which eliminates optical distortion due to birefringence that occurs in sapphire and other non-cubic materials. The current study is to find a reliable manufacturing process to produce large magnesium aluminate spinel domes from powder consolidation efficiently. A binder-less dry ball milling process was used to deflocculate the spinel powder to increase its fluidity in an effort to ease the shape-forming. Dry ball milling time trials were conducted at several intervals to determine the appropriate level of time required to break up both the hard and soft agglomerates associated with the virgin spinel powder. The common problems encountered in dry powder shape-forming are crack growth and delamination of the green body during cold isostatic pressing (CIPing). The cracking and the delamination are due to the buildup of stress gradients on the green body that are created by the frictional force between the powder and the die wall or mold wall. To understand the stresses during the CIPing process, a finite element analysis of stresses on the green body was conducted. The simulation was used to evaluate the effect of die tooling and process characteristics on the development of stress gradients in the green body dome. Additionally, the effect of friction between the die wall and powder was examined by the simulation. It was found that by mitigating the frictional forces, cracking and delamination on the green body could be eliminated. A stepped-pressure CIPing technique was developed to reduce stress gradient build-up during CIPing. Also, oleic acid lubricant was applied to the die wall to reduce the wall friction between the powder and the die itself. As a result of these two above-mentioned methods, it was demonstrated that it is possible to consolidate a binder-free powder into large defect-free domes.

  1. T/R module development for large aperture L-band phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Andricos, Constantine; Kumley, Kendra; Berkun, Andrew; Hodges, Richard; Spitz, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a transmit / receive (T/R) module for a large L-band space based radar active phased array being developed at JPL. Electrical performance and construction techniques are described, with emphasis on the former. The T/R modules have a bandwidth of more than 80 MHz centered at 1260MHz and support dual, switched polarizations. Phase and amplitude are controlled by a 6-bit phase shifter and a 6-bit attenuator, respectively. The transmitter power amplifier generates 2.4 W into a nominal 50 ohm load with 36% overall efficiency. The receiver noise figure is 4.4 dB including all front-end losses. The module weighs 32 g and has a footprint of 8 cm x 4.5 cm. Fourteen of these T/R modules were fabricated at the JPL Pick-and-Place Facility and were tested using a computer-controlled measurement facility developed at JPL. Calibrated performance of this set of T/R modules is presented and shows good agreement with design predictions.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Large Aperture 'Polished Panel' Optical Receivers Based on Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the development and installation of a "polished-panel" optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via realtime tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both "on-source" and "off-source" data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats with photon-counting detection, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance for these modulations. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  3. From Monolithics to Tethers to Freeflyers: The Spectrum of Large Aperture Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, Jesse; Quinn, David; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA's endeavor to push the envelope and go where we have never been before, the Space Science Enterprise has laid out a vision which includes several missions that revolutionize the collection of scientific data from space. Many of the missions designed to meet the objectives of these programs depend heavily on the ability to perform space-based interferometry, which has recently become a rapidly growing field of investigation for both the scientific and engineering communities. While scientists are faced with the challenges of designing high fidelity optical systems capable of making detailed observations, engineers wrestle with the problem of providing s-pace-based platforms that can permit this data gathering to occur. Observational data gathering is desired at's variety of spectral wavelengths and resolutions, calling for interferometers with a range of baseline requirements. Approaches to configuration design are as varied as the missions themselves from large monolithic spacecraft to multiple free-flying small spacecraft and everything in between. As will be discussed, no one approach provides a 'panacea' of solutions rather each has its place in terms of the mission requirements. The purpose here is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches, to discuss the driving factors in design selection and determine the relative range of applicability of each design approach.

  4. Synthetic seismograms through synthetic Franciscan: Insights into factors affecting large-aperture seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, Christof; Trhu, Anne M.; Goff, John A.; Levander, Alan R.; Beaudoin, Bruce C.

    In spite of an order of magnitude increase over the past 15 years in spatial sampling of the wavefield, a major uncertainty in the analysis of active source seismic data remains phase identification. This uncertainty results in part from the wide range of spatial scales of velocity heterogeneity in the crust. Smaller scale variations than those which can be deterministically resolved given the design of a particular seismic experiment can be modeled statistically using geologic constraints. Here we present synthetic seismograms generated from several different realizations of a stochastic model describing the velocity heterogeneity of Franciscan terrane rocks. We compare the results to observed data and to synthetic seismograms generated for a model derived from tomographic inversion of the data in order to obtain qualitative insights into the relative importance of large and small scale velocity heterogeneity. Not surprisingly, the synthetic data for the tomographic model best reproduce observed small-scale variations in first arrival time, which only occur for particular realizations of the stochastic model. The synthetic seismograms generated for the stochastic models best reproduce the level of signal-generated noise and suggest that the amplitude of velocity variation locally within the Franciscan is approximately 1 km/s. They also illustrate the effect of a strongly heterogeneous upper and mid-crust on the amplitude-versus-offset pattern of arrivals from the lower crust and upper mantle. These effects may sometimes be interpreted deterministically, leading to biased models or an overly optimistic estimate of lower crustal resolution.

  5. Performance evaluation of large aperture "polished panel" optical receivers based on experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    Recent interest in the development of hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the installation of a polished-panel optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex1. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via real-time tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both on-source and off-source data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  6. Feed System Design Considerations for Large Space Antenna Systems. Part 2: Single Aperture with Overlapping Feeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, V.

    1985-01-01

    Contiguous multiple beams are used to make use of the set of frequency bands at different beams at different geographical locations and achieve the most efficient use of precious frequency allocation. This is feasible only if the interference among cochannel beams is below some acceptable level, by carrier/interference (C/I) ratio. Individual beam patterns of very low sidelobes, which in turn necessitates narrow feed are required. A physically realizable solution to this problem entails either more than one reflector, more complicated optics, or breaking of each feed into a cluster of smaller elements, some of which would then be shared by adjacent beams. The latter, however, requires a complicated beamforming network (BFN) for the proper feeding of the elements. The feedpacking problem is not unique to reflector antennas and exists in lens type antennas as well. The BFN and associated problems are present in the phased array antennas and on a much larger scale. Poor scan capabilities are associated with reflector systems. The scan properties of offset fed reflector systems can be improved by choosing a very large focal length to parent reflector diameter ((F/Dp) ratio, which requires a longer boom to support the feed. In the case of reflectors with cluster feed arrangements, the scan capability for smaller F/Dp ratios is improved by proper adjustment of cluster element excitations. Such a system seems to be appropriate for up to 10 beamwidths scan. For a larger number of beams, systems with wider scan capabilities, such as phased arrays or phased array/reflector combinations, become more appealing.

  7. Deposition of high quality YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films over large areas by pulsed laser ablation with substrate scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M. F.; Wosik, J.; Forster, K.; Deshmukh, S. C.; Rampersad, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes thin films deposited in a system where substrates are scanned over areas up to 3.5 x 3.5 cm through the stationary plume of an ablated material defined by an aperture. These YBCO films are deposited on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates with the thickness of 90 and 160 nm. Attention is focused on the main features of the deposition system: line focusing of the laser beam on the target; an aperture defining the area of the plume; computerized stepper motor-driven X-Y stage translating the heated sampler holder behind the plume-defining aperture in programmed patterns; and substrate mounting block with uniform heating at high temperatures over large areas. It is noted that the high degree of uniformity of the properties in each film batch illustrates that the technique of pulsed laser deposition can be applied to produce large YBCO films of high quality.

  8. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

    2005-02-07

    We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

  9. OpTIIX: An ISS-Based Testbed Paving the Roadmap Toward a Next Generation Large Aperture UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Etemad, Shar; Seery, Bernard D.; Thronson, Harley; Burdick, Gary M.; Coulter, Dan; Goullioud, Renaud; Green, Joseph J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Postman, Marc; Sparks, Williams

    2012-01-01

    The next generation large aperture UV/Optical space telescope will need a diameter substantially larger than even that of JWST in order to address some of the most compelling unanswered scientific quests. These quests include understanding the earliest phases of the Universe and detecting life on exo-planets by studying spectra of their atmospheres. Such 8-16 meter telescopes face severe challenges in terms of cost and complexity and are unlikely to be affordable unless a new paradigm is adopted for their design and construction. The conventional approach is to use monolithic or preassembled segmented mirrors requiring complicated and risky deployments and relying on future heavy-lift vehicles, large fairings and complex geometry. The new paradigm is to launch component modules on relatively small vehicles and then perform in-orbit robotic assembly of those modules. The Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX) is designed to demonstrate, at low cost by leveraging the infrastructure provided by ISS, telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies. The use of ISS as a testbed permits the concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with robotically integrating the components. These include laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) systems, an imaging instrument, lightweight, low-cost deformable primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror. These elements are then aligned to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems like the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS flight crew, allows for future experimentation, as well as repair.

  10. Spaceborne Microwave Instrument for High Resolution Remote Sensing of the Earth's Surface Using a Large-Aperture Mesh Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E.; Wilson, W.; Yueh, S.; Freeland, R.; Helms, R.; Edelstein, W.; Sadowy, G.; Farra, D.; West, R.; Oxnevad, K.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a two-year study of a large-aperture, lightweight, deployable mesh antenna system for radiometer and radar remote sensing of the Earth from space. The study focused specifically on an instrument to measure ocean salinity and Soil moisture. Measurements of ocean salinity and soil moisture are of critical . importance in improving knowledge and prediction of key ocean and land surface processes, but are not currently obtainable from space. A mission using this instrument would be the first demonstration of deployable mesh antenna technology for remote sensing and could lead to potential applications in other remote sensing disciplines that require high spatial resolution measurements. The study concept features a rotating 6-m-diameter deployable mesh antenna, with radiometer and radar sensors, to measure microwave emission and backscatter from the Earth's surface. The sensors operate at L and S bands, with multiple polarizations and a constant look angle, scanning across a wide swath. The study included detailed analyses of science requirements, reflector and feedhorn design and performance, microwave emissivity measurements of mesh samples, design and test of lightweight radar electronic., launch vehicle accommodations, rotational dynamics simulations, and an analysis of attitude control issues associated with the antenna and spacecraft, The goal of the study was to advance the technology readiness of the overall concept to a level appropriate for an Earth science emission.

  11. A scalable multi-chip architecture to realise large-format microshutter arrays for coded aperture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNie, Mark E.; King, David O.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Stone, Steven M.; Brown, Alan G.; Gordon, Neil T.; Slinger, Christopher W.; Cannon, Kevin; Riches, Stephen; Rogers, Stanley

    2009-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously we reported on the realization of a 2x2cm single chip mask in the mid-IR based on polysilicon micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and its integration with ASIC drive electronics using conventional wire bonding. The MOEMS architecture employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage and uses a hysteretic row/column scheme for addressing. In this paper we present the latest transmission results in the mid-IR band (3-5?m) and report on progress in developing a scalable architecture based on a tiled approach using multiple 2 x 2cm MOEMS chips with associated control ASICs integrated using flip chip technology. Initial work has focused on a 2 x 2 tiled array as a stepping stone towards an 8 x 8 array.

  12. The ExaVolt Antenna: A large-aperture, balloon-embedded antenna for ultra-high energy particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Baginski, F. E.; Allison, P.; Liewer, K. M.; Miki, C.; Hill, B.; Varner, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    We describe the scientific motivation, experimental basis, design methodology, and simulated performance of the ExaVolt Antenna (EVA) mission, and planned ultra-high energy (UHE) particle observatory under development for NASA's suborbital super-pressure balloon program in Antarctica. EVA will improve over ANITA's integrated totals - the current state-of-the-art in UHE suborbital payloads - by 1-2 orders of magnitude in a single flight. The design is based on a novel application of toroidal reflector optics which utilizes a super-pressure balloon surface, along with a feed-array mounted on an inner membrane, to create an ultra-large radio antenna system with a synoptic view of the Antarctic ice sheet below it. Radio impulses arise via the Askaryan effect when UHE neutrinos interact within the ice, or via geosynchrotron emission when UHE cosmic rays interact in the atmosphere above the continent. EVA's instantaneous antenna aperture is estimated to be several hundred m 2 for detection of these events within a 150-600 MHz band. For standard cosmogenic UHE neutrino models, EVA should detect of order 30 events per flight in the EeV energy regime. For UHE cosmic rays, of order 15,000 geosynchrotron events would be detected in total, several hundred above 10 EeV, and of order 60 above the GZK cutoff energy.

  13. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S

    2007-01-25

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 {micro}m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 {micro}m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to {+-} 3D of defocus and {+-} 3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.

  14. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Diana C.; Jones, Steven M.; Silva, Dennis A.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2007-02-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 ?m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 ?m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to +/-3D of defocus and +/-3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.

  15. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-15

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  16. Large mode-volume, large beta, photonic crystal laser resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezfouli, Mohsen Kamandar; Dignam, Marc M.

    2014-12-01

    We propose an optical resonator formed from the coupling of 13, L2 defects in a triangular-lattice photonic crystal slab. Using a tight-binding formalism, we optimized the coupled-defect cavity design to obtain a resonator with predicted single-mode operation, a mode volume five times that of an L2-cavity mode and a beta factor of 0.39. The results are confirmed using finite-difference time domain simulations. This resonator is very promising for use as a single mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with high saturation output power compared to a laser consisting of one of the single-defect cavities.

  17. Making Rectangular Apertures In Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Mott, Brent; Manthripragada, Sridhar

    1994-01-01

    Conventional silicon micromachining techniques produce micrometer-sized rectangular apertures. Used to define source and detector openings for measurements of images and scattered light in visible, ultraviolet, and soft x-ray wavelength regions, and as general-purpose optical slits or slit arrays. Rectangular microscopic apertures replace circular pinholes made by puncturing foils with needles or by drilling foils with intense, highly-focused laser beams. Precise photolithography yields apertures of superior geometry.

  18. Resolving the Effects of Aperture and Volume Restriction of the Flow by Semi-Porous Barriers Using Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziefstratiou, Efthalia K.; Velissariou, Vasilia; Bohrer, Gil

    2014-09-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES) model is used to simulate the effects of large rectangular prism-shaped semi-porous barriers of varying densities under neutrally buoyant conditions. RAFLES model resolves flows inside and above forested canopies and other semi-porous barriers, and it accounts for barrier-induced drag on the flow and surface flux exchange between the barrier and the air. Unlike most other models, RAFLES model also accounts for the barrier-induced volume and aperture restriction via a modified version of the cut-cell coordinate system. We explicitly tested the effects of the numerical representation of volume restriction, independent of the effects of the drag, by comparing drag-only simulations (where we prescribed neither volume nor aperture restrictions to the flow), restriction-only simulations (where we prescribed no drag), and control simulations where both drag and volume plus aperture restrictions were included. Previous modelling and empirical work have revealed the development of important areas of increased uplift upwind of forward-facing steps, and recirculation zones downwind of backward-facing steps. Our simulations show that representation of the effects of the volume and aperture restriction due to the presence of semi-porous barriers leads to differences in the strengths and locations of increased-updraft and recirculation zones, and the length and strength of impact and adjustment zones when compared to simulation solutions with a drag-only representation. These are mostly driven by differences to the momentum budget of the streamwise wind velocity by resolved turbulence and pressure gradient fields around the front and back edges of the barrier. We propose that volume plus aperture restriction is an important component of the flow system in semi-porous environments such as forests and cities and should be considered by large-eddy simulation (LES).

  19. Single mode PT symmetric large area lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodaei, Hossein; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Heinrich, Matthias; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate single longitudinal mode operation in microring laser using the concept of PT symmetry. A PT-symmetric coupled resonator arrangement can considerably enhance the maximum achievable gain of single mode microring cavity. The method is broadband thus work well for inhomogenously broadened gain mediums. It doesn't rely on any additional component to ensure its mode selective performance, and it is robust with respect to fabrication inaccuracies. This result may pave the way for a novel way of designing integrated laser sources based on PT symmetry.

  20. Estimation of turbulent sensible heat and momentum fluxes over a heterogeneous urban area using a large aperture scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Young

    2015-08-01

    The accurate determination of surface-layer turbulent fluxes over urban areas is critical to understanding urban boundary layer (UBL) evolution. In this study, a remote-sensing technique using a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was investigated to estimate surface-layer turbulent fluxes over a highly heterogeneous urban area. The LAS system, with an optical path length of 2.1 km, was deployed in an urban area characterized by a complicated land-use mix (residential houses, water body, bare ground, etc.). The turbulent sensible heat ( Q H) and momentum fluxes (?) were estimated from the scintillation measurements obtained from the LAS system during the cold season. Three-dimensional LAS footprint modeling was introduced to identify the source areas ("footprint") of the estimated turbulent fluxes. The analysis results showed that the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes for the highly heterogeneous urban area revealed reasonable temporal variation during daytime on clear days, in comparison to the land-surface process-resolving numerical modeling. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the overall uncertainty in the LAS-derived daytime Q H was within 20%-30% in terms of the influence of input parameters and the nondimensional similarity function for the temperature structure function parameter, while the estimation errors in ? were less sensitive to the factors of influence, except aerodynamic roughness length. The 3D LAS footprint modeling characterized the source areas of the LAS-derived turbulent fluxes in the heterogeneous urban area, revealing that the representative spatial scales of the LAS system deployed with the 2.1 km optical path distance ranged from 0.2 to 2 km2 (a "micro- a scale"), depending on local meteorological conditions.

  1. Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Sethian, J.D.; Obenschain, S.P.; Gerber, K.A.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Sullivan, C.A.; Webster, W.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; McGeoch, M.W.; Altes, R.A.; Corcoran, P.A.; Smith, I.D.; Barr, O.C.

    1997-06-01

    Nike is a recently completed multi-kilojoule krypton fluoride (KrF) laser that has been built to study the physics of direct drive inertial confinement fusion. This paper describes in detail both the pulsed power and optical performance of the largest amplifier in the Nike laser, the 60 cm amplifier. This is a double pass, double sided, electron beam-pumped system that amplifies the laser beam from an input of 50 J to an output of up to 5 kJ. It has an optical aperture of 60 cm {times} 60 cm and a gain length of 200 cm. The two electron beams are 60 cm high {times} 200 cm wide, have a voltage of 640 kV, a current of 540 kA, and a flat top power pulse duration of 250 ns. A 2 kG magnetic field is used to guide the beams and prevent self-pinching. Each electron beam is produced by its own Marx/pulse forming line system. The amplifier has been fully integrated into the Nike system and is used on a daily basis for laser-target experiments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Transverse Mode Structure and Pattern Formation in Oxide Confined Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hegarty, S.P.; Hou, H.Q.; Huyet, G.; McInerney, J.G.; Porta, P.

    1999-07-06

    We analyze the transverse profiles of oxide-confined vertical cavity laser diodes as a function of aperture size. For small apertures we demonstrate that thermal lensing can be the dominant effect in determining the transverse resonator properties. We also analyze pattern formation in lasers with large apertures where we observe the appearance of tilted waves.

  3. Transverse-mode structure and pattern formation in oxide-confined vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hegarty, S.P.; Huyet, G.; Porta, P.; McInerney, J.G.; Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.

    1999-11-01

    We analyze the transverse profiles of oxide-confined vertical-cavity laser diodes as a function of aperture size. For small apertures we demonstrate that thermal lensing can be the dominant effect in determining the transverse resonator properties. We also analyze pattern formation in lasers with large apertures where we observe the appearance of tilted waves. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  4. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Mayer, S.

    2013-04-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

  5. MULTISPECTRAL LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM FOR LARGE BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presented is a detailed description of a common aperture, multispectral laser-induced fluorescence imaging system developed to allow detection of fecal matter on agricultural products. With an expanded, 355 nm, Nd:YAG laser beam as the excitation source, fluorescence emission images in the blue, gr...

  6. Numerical aperture limits on efficient ball lens coupling of laser diodes to single-mode fibers with defocus to balance spherical aberration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. Gale

    1994-01-01

    The potential capabilities and limitations of single ball lenses for coupling laser diode radiation to single-mode optical fibers have been analyzed; parameters important to optical communications were specifically considered. These parameters included coupling efficiency, effective numerical apertures, lens radius, lens refractive index, wavelength, magnification in imaging the laser diode on the fiber, and defocus to counterbalance spherical aberration of the lens. Limiting numerical apertures in object and image space were determined under the constraint that the lens perform to the Rayleigh criterion of 0.25-wavelength (Strehl ratio = 0.80). The spherical aberration-defocus balance to provide an optical path difference of 0.25 wavelength units was shown to define a constant coupling efficiency (i.e., 0.56). The relative numerical aperture capabilities of the ball lens were determined for a set of wavelengths and associated fiber-core diameters of particular interest for single-mode fiber-optic communication. The results support general continuing efforts in the optical fiber communications industry to improve coupling links within such systems with emphasis on manufacturing simplicity, system packaging flexibility, relaxation of assembly alignment tolerances, cost reduction of opto-electronic components and long term reliability and stability.

  7. Evolution of ultrashort laser pulse in large amplitude plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bu Zhigang; Ji Peiyong

    2012-11-15

    The propagation and evolution of an ultrashort laser pulse in a large amplitude plasma wave are investigated based on the photon kinetic theory. The photon number distribution function for a laser pulse in the phase space is analytically obtained by solving the photon kinetic equation in the background plasma wave. And then, the behavior of the laser pulse can be described by combining the single photon dynamics and the photon number distribution function. The evolutions of the photon number density in the coordinate and frequency domain space are discussed, and broadening or compressing of the laser pulse is also displayed in this paper. In particular, the frequency shift of the entire laser pulse is analyzed, which reflects a way of energy transformation between the laser pulse and the plasma wave.

  8. Estimating Evapotranspiration over Heterogeneously Vegetated Surfaces using Large Aperture Scintillometer, LiDAR, and Airborne Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geli, H. M.; Neale, C. M.; Pack, R. T.; Watts, D. R.; Osterberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) over heterogeneous areas is challenging especially in water-limited sparsely vegetated environments. New techniques such as airborne full-waveform LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and high resolution multispectral and thermal imagery can provide enough detail of sparse canopies to improve energy balance model estimations as well as footprint analysis of scintillometer data. The objectives of this study were to estimate ET over such areas and develop methodologies for the use of these airborne data technologies. Because of the associated heterogeneity, this study was conducted over the Cibola National wildlife refuge, southern California on an area dominated with tamarisk (salt cedar) forest (90%) interspersed with arrowweed and bare soil (10%). A set of two large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were deployed over the area to provide estimates of sensible heat flux (HLAS). The LASs were distributed over the area in a way that allowed capturing different surface spatial heterogeneity. Bowen ratio systems were used to provide hydrometeorological variables and surface energy balance fluxes (SEBF) (i.e. Rn, G, H, and LE) measurements. Scintillometer-based estimates of HLAS were improved by considering the effect of the corresponding 3D footprint and the associated displacement height (d) and the roughness length (z0) following Geli et al. (2011). The LiDAR data were acquired using the LASSI Lidar developed at Utah State University (USU). The data was used to obtain 1-m spatial resolution DEM's and vegetation canopy height to improve the HLAS estimates. The BR measurements of Rn and G were combined with LAS estimates, HLAS, to provide estimates of LELASas a residual of the energy balance equation. A thermal remote sensing model namely the two source energy balance (TSEB) of Norman et al. (1995) was applied to provide spatial estimates of SEBF. Four airborne images at 1-4 meter spatial resolution acquired using the USU airborne multispectral system during the 2007-2008 growing season were used. Estimates of LETSEB and HTSEB were compared with those derived based on LAS, HLAS and LELAS, and with those based on BR, HBR and LEBR. The comparison was performed by integrating the spatially estimated fluxes using the BR and the LAS 3D footprint weights.

  9. Large-Aperture [O I] 6300 Photometry of Comet Hale-Bopp: Implications for the Photochemistry of OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Scherb, Frank; Anderson, Christopher M.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Doane, Nathaniel E.; Combi, Michael R.; Marconi, Maximus L.; Smyth, William H.

    2001-12-01

    Large-aperture photometric observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in the forbidden red line of neutral oxygen ([O I] 6300 ) with the 150 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Prot spectrometer that comprises the Wisconsin H? Mapper and a 50 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Prot spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce main telescope from 1997 late February to mid April yield a total metastable O(1D) production rate of (2.3-5.9)1030 s-1. Applying the standard H2O and OH photodissociation branching ratios found in Huebner, Keady, & Lyon and van Dishoeck & Dalgarno, we derive a water production rate, Q(H2O), of (2.6-6.1)1031 s-1, which disagrees with Q(H2O)~11031 s-1 determined by independent H2O, OH, and H measurements. Furthermore, our own [O I] 6300 observations of the inner coma (<30,000 km) using the 3.5 m Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO telescope Hydra and Densepak multiobject spectrographs yield Q(H2O)~11031 s-1. Using our [O I] 6300 data, which cover spatial scales ranging from 2,000 to 1106 km, and a complementary set of wide-field ground-based OH images, we can constrain the sources of the apparent excess O(1D) emission to the outer coma, where photodissociation of OH is assumed to be the dominant O(1D) production mechanism. From production rates of other oxygen-bearing volatiles (e.g., CO and CO2), we can account for at most 30% of the observed excess O(1D) emission. Since even less O(1D) should be coming from other sources (e.g., electron excitation of neutral O and distributed nonnuclear sources of H2O), we hypothesize that the bulk of the excess O(1D) is likely coming from photodissociating OH. Using the experimental OH photodissociation cross section of Nee & Lee at Ly? as a guide in modifying the theoretical OH cross sections of van Dishoeck & Dalgarno, we can account for ~60% of the observed O(1D) excess without requiring major modifications to the other OH branching ratios or the total OH photodissociation lifetime.

  10. Large-Aperture [O I] 6300 A Photometry of Comet Hale-Bopp: Implications for the Photochemistry of OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Scherb, Frank; Anderson, Christopher M.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Doane, Nathaniel E.; Combi, Michael R.; Marconi, Maximus L.; Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Large-aperture photometric observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in the forbidden red line of neutral oxygen ([O I] 6300 angstroms) with the 150 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer that comprises the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper and a 50 mm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce main telescope from 1997 late February to mid April yield a total metastable O((sup 1)D) production rate of (2.3-5.9) x 10(exp 30)/s. Applying the standard H2O and OH photodissociation branching ratios, we derive a water production rate, Q(H2O), of (2.6-6.1) x 10(exp 31)/s, which disagrees with Q(H2O = 1x10(exp 31)/s determined by independent H2O, OH, and H measurements. Furthermore, our own [O I] 6300 observations of the inner coma (< 30,000 km) using the 3.5 m Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO telescope Hydra and Densepak multi-object spectrographs yield Q(H2O) = 1 x 10(exp 31)/s. Using our [O I] 6300 data, which cover spatial scales ranging from 2,000 to 1x10(exp 6) km, and a complementary set of wide-field ground-based OH images, we can constrain the sources of the apparent excess O((sup 1)D) emission to the outer coma, where photodissociation of OH is assumed to be the dominant O((sup 1)D) production mechanism. From production rates of other oxygen-bearing volatiles (e.g., CO and CO2), we can account for at most 30% of the observed excess O((sup 1)D) emission. Since even less O((sup 1)D) should be coming from other sources (e.g., electron excitation of neutral O and distributed nonnuclear sources of H2O), we hypothesize that the bulk of the excess O((sup 1)D) is likely coming from photodissociating OH. Using the experimental OH photo-dissociation cross section of Nee and Lee at Ly-alpha as a guide in modifying the theoretical OH cross sections of van Dishoeck and Dalgarno, we can account for approximately 60% of the observed O((sup 1)D) excess without requiring major modifications to the other OH branching ratios or the total OH photodissociation lifetime.

  11. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DOEpatents

    Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    2005-04-12

    A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

  12. A new look at Fresnel field computation using the Jacobi-Bessel series. [large aperture antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galindo-Israel, V.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Computational procedures that would be useful in finding the Fresnel field from a knowledge of the Jacobi-Bessel expansion of the far field are considered. The range of validity of the Fresnel approximation is carefully examined by comparing it with the exact closed form solution for the uniform circular aperture. Also investigated numerically, and in great detail, is the range of validity (over theta) of the Fresnel small angle (FSA) approximation. For moderate sized apertures as small as 10 wavelengths, it is found that the FSA approximation is very accurate to angles as wide as four or more sidelobes (as seen in the far zone). A very efficient computational method is shown to exist for the radiation integral in the form of a single series expansion that is analytically continuous and convergent for a wide range of observation points in three-dimensional space.

  13. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Hanada, M; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings. PMID:26932032

  14. Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-01

    Design techniques for the vacuum insulation have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of multi-aperture multi-grid (MAMuG) accelerators for fusion application. In this method, the nested multi-stage configuration of the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages was based on the previous experimental results about the area effect and the multi-aperture effect. Since the multi-grid effect was found to be the extension of the area effect by the total facing area this time, the total voltage holding capability of the multi-stage can be estimated from that per single stage by assuming the stage with the highest electric field, the total facing area, and the total apertures. By applying these consideration, the analysis on the 3-stage MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed well with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation, which demonstrated the high reliability to design MAMuG accelerators and also multi-stage high voltage bushings.

  15. Laser processing system development of large area and high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

    2013-03-01

    As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

  16. Large-Area Laser-Lift-Off Processing in Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmdahl, R.; Ptzel, R.; Brune, J.

    Laser lift-off is an enabling technology for microelectronics growth markets such as light emitting diodes, densely packaged semiconductor devices, and flexible displays. For example, thin film transistor structures fabricated on top of polymer layers spun on glass carriers must be delaminated from rigid substrates to create lightweight and rugged flexible displays on polymers. Low-thermal-budget processes are generically required to protect adjacent functional films. Excimer lasers provide short UV wavelength and short pulse duration required for highly-localized energy coupling. The high output power of excimer lasers enables a large processing footprint and the high-throughput rates needed in mass manufacturing.

  17. Optimization of deposition uniformity for large-aperture National Ignition Facility substrates in a planetary rotation system.

    PubMed

    Oliver, James B; Talbot, David

    2006-05-01

    Multilayer coatings on large substrates with increasingly complex spectral requirements are essential for a number of optical systems, placing stringent requirements on the error tolerances of individual layers. Each layer must be deposited quite uniformly over the entire substrate surface since any nonuniformity will add to the layer-thickness error level achieved. A deposition system containing a planetary rotation system with stationary uniformity masking is modeled, with refinements of the planetary gearing, source placement, and uniformity mask shape being utilized to achieve an optimal configuration. The impact of improper planetary gearing is demonstrated theoretically, as well as experimentally, providing more comprehensive requirements than simply avoiding repetition of previous paths through the vapor plume, until all possible combinations of gear teeth have been used. Deposition efficiency and the impact of changing vapor plume conditions on the uniformity achieved are used to validate improved source placement. Uniformity measurements performed on a mapping laser photometer demonstrate nonuniformities of less than 0.5% for 0.75 m optics in a 72 in. (1.8 m) coating chamber. PMID:16639459

  18. Equivalent common path method in large-scale laser comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mingzhao; Li, Jianshuang; Miao, Dongjing

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale laser comparator is main standard device that providing accurate, reliable and traceable measurements for high precision large-scale line and 3D measurement instruments. It mainly composed of guide rail, motion control system, environmental parameters monitoring system and displacement measurement system. In the laser comparator, the main error sources are temperature distribution, straightness of guide rail and pitch and yaw of measuring carriage. To minimize the measurement uncertainty, an equivalent common optical path scheme is proposed and implemented. Three laser interferometers are adjusted to parallel with the guide rail. The displacement in an arbitrary virtual optical path is calculated using three displacements without the knowledge of carriage orientations at start and end positions. The orientation of air floating carriage is calculated with displacements of three optical path and position of three retroreflectors which are precisely measured by Laser Tracker. A 4th laser interferometer is used in the virtual optical path as reference to verify this compensation method. This paper analyzes the effect of rail straightness on the displacement measurement. The proposed method, through experimental verification, can improve the measurement uncertainty of large-scale laser comparator.

  19. A study program on large aperture electronic scanning phased array antennas for the shuttle imaging microwave system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Fundamental phased array theory and performance parameters are discussed in terms of their application to microwave radiometry, and four scanning phased arrays representing current examples of state-of-the-art phased array technology are evaluated for potential use as components of the multispectral antenna system for the space shuttle imaging microwave system (SIMS). A discussion of problem areas, both in performance and fabrication is included, with extrapolations of performance characteristics for phased array antennas of increased sizes up to 20 m by 20 m. The possibility of interlacing two or more phased arrays to achieve a multifrequency aperture is considered, and, finally, a specific antenna system is recommended for use with SIMS.

  20. Instrument Design of the Large Aperture Solar UV Visible and IR Observing Telescope (SUVIT) for the SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Takeyama, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present an instrumental design of one major solar observation payload planned for the SOLAR-C mission: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of the lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere, with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability in wide wavelength regions from 280 nm (Mg II h&k lines) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm line) with 1.5 m class aperture and filtergraphic and spectrographic instruments.

  1. Combining Measurements with Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning System and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems for International Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bogard, James S; Hayward, Jason P; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Smith, Stephen E; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Being able to verify the operator's declaration in regards to technical design of nuclear facilities is an important aspect of every safeguards approach. In addition to visual observation, it is relevant to know if nuclear material is present or has been present in piping and ducts not declared. The possibility of combining different measurement techniques into one tool should optimize the inspection effort and increase safeguards effectiveness. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is engaged in a technical collaboration project involving two U.S. Department of Energy foreign partners to investigate combining measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning system and gamma-ray imaging systems. ORNL conducted simultaneous measurements with a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager and the 3D laser scanner in an operational facility with complex configuration and different enrichment levels and quantities of uranium. This paper describes these measurements and their results.

  2. Plane-polar Fresnel and far-field computations using the Fresnel-Wilcox and Jacobi-Bessel expansions. [for large aperture antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the computation of the Fresnel fields for large aperture antennas is significant for many applications. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for the effective utilization of the coefficients of the Jacobi-Bessel series for the far-field to obtain an analytically continuous representation of the antenna field which is valid from the Fresnel region into the far field. Attention is given to exact formulations and closed form solutions, Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, aspects of field expansion, the accuracy of the Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, and the Jacobi-Bessel expansion applied to the Fresnel small angle approximation.

  3. Laser-induced damage to large core optical fiber by high peak power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoguang; Li, Jie

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a study of laser damage to large core multimode glass optical fibers by high peak laser power of up to 175 kW. Fibers samples prepared with polymer coatings having different refractive indices were tested in a two-point bend tester while transmitting laser light. The peak power used in the experiment clearly differentiated the performance among the samples. A polymer coating having lower refractive index significantly improves the fiber resistance to bending while transmitting laser. This observation provides important insight into the damage mechanism for this particular failure mode.

  4. Large sparse aperture densified pupil hyper-telescope concept for ground-based detection of extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Lyon, Richard G.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Labeyrie, Antoine

    2003-02-01

    A concept is presented for a 10-meter sparse aperture hypertelescoep to detect extrasolar planets by direct imaging from the ground through the turbulent atmosphere. The telescope achieves high dynamic range with good image quality very close to bright stellar sources using pupil densification techniques and real-time atmospheric correction. Active correction of the perturbed wavefront is greatly simplified by several unique design features of the telescope: 1) use of an array of 19 small subaperture flat mirrors, 2) mounting the flats on a steerable parabolic truss structure, 3) operating in the near-IR, and 4) making the subaperture flats comparable in size to the seeing cells. These features relax the requirements on the wavefront sensing and control system. This paper describes the general concept. The details of design and implementation will be addresed separately.

  5. Laser-Induced Production of Large Carbon-Based Toriods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the production of large carbon-based toroids (CBTs) from fullerencs. The process involves two step laser irradiation of a mixed fullcrene target (76% C-60, 22% C-70). Transmission electron microscopy (11M) clearly identifies toroidal-shaped structures as well as Q-shaped constructs. ...

  6. Integration of optical inspection and metrology functions into DUV femtosecond laser repair tool for large-area FPD photomasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treyger, Leon; Heyl, Jon; Ronning, Donald; Ducharme, Donald

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we describe the early stages of introduction of the inspection and metrology capabilities for the large area mask repair tools. Commercially available MRT platform was used as a basis for integration of defect repair, metrology, review, inspection, and verification functions into a single MiRT prototype system. This system was designed for large area LCD/PDP photomasks of Generation 7 and beyond. Advanced DUV femtosecond laser technology was developed for repair of both clear and opaque defects on Chrome-on-Glass masks using laser CVD and laser ablation. Specifics of the system design and architecture is discussed. Laser processing module was based on the projection optics with imaged aperture. Image formation in such optical system is reviewed and outcome of the computer simulation is compared with the experimental data. For the first time, we report results of the feasibility study of grayscale photomask repair using laser CVD technology. By carefully controlling process parameters, we were able to deposit films with different thickness and therefore variable transmittance. We also discuss die-to-database inspection of half-tone masks and capabilities of the integrated metrology and review of the repaired photomask sites. Proprietary die-to-database inspection and verification algorithms combined with distributed super-fast computer architecture allowed effective process control with accurate, repeatable, and timely measurements. Different subsystems that enable integration of repair, metrology, and inspection functions into the MiRT system are discussed.

  7. Laser scanning system for inspecting large underwater hydroelectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralls, Franois; Beaudry, Julien; Blain, Michel; de Santis, Romano M.; Houde, Rgis; Hurteau, Richard; Robert, Andr; Sarraillon, Serge; Soucy, Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    A novel robotic laser scanning system for the inspection of large underwater hydroelectric structures is proposed. This system has been developed at the Hydro Quebec Research Institute and consists of a laser camera mounted on a 2-D Cartesian manipulator. Mechanical, electronic, and software design aspects; overall operational modalities; and proof of concept results are presented. We evaluated the performances of the system in the course of laboratory experiments and inspection trials carried out under normal operating conditions at the site of three of Hydro Quebec's hydroelectric dams.

  8. Laser Welding of Large Scale Stainless Steel Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitemeyer, D.; Schultz, V.; Syassen, F.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In this paper a welding process for large scale stainless steel structures is presented. The process was developed according to the requirements of an aircraft application. Therefore, stringers are welded on a skin sheet in a t-joint configuration. The 0.6 mm thickness parts are welded with a thin disc laser, seam length up to 1920 mm are demonstrated. The welding process causes angular distortions of the skin sheet which are compensated by a subsequent laser straightening process. Based on a model straightening process parameters matching the induced welding distortion are predicted. The process combination is successfully applied to stringer stiffened specimens.

  9. Nuclear-pumped lasers for large-scale applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Leonard, E.M.; Shea, R.F.; Berggren, R.R.

    1989-05-01

    Efficient initiation of large-volume chemical lasers may be achieved by neutron induced reactions which produce charged particles in the final state. When a burst mode nuclear reactor is used as the neutron source, both a sufficiently intense neutron flux and a sufficiently short initiation pulse may be possible. Proof-of-principle experiments are planned to demonstrate lasing in a direct nuclear-pumped large-volume system; to study the effects of various neutron absorbing materials on laser performance; to study the effects of long initiation pulse lengths; to demonstrate the performance of large-scale optics and the beam quality that may be obtained; and to assess the performance of alternative designs of burst systems that increase the neutron output and burst repetition rate. 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Laser reflection differential confocal large-radius measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiqian; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong

    2015-11-01

    A laser reflection differential confocal large-radius measurement (RDCLRM) method is proposed to meet the requirements of high-precision measurement for a large radius of curvature (ROC). The RDCLRM identifies the converging point of the multiply reflected test beam by using the differential confocal focusing technology. It then measures the distance between the positions of the test lens corresponding to these converging points for different reflection times. Therefore, a precise and high-efficiency measurement of a large ROC is achieved with a shorter measurement lightpath. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that RDCLRM has a relative expanded uncertainty of better than 0.005% (k=2). PMID:26560586

  11. A bright, pulsed, guide star laser for very large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Jesper; Hamilton, Murray; Hosken, David; Simakov, Nikita; Veitch, Peter

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the practical feasibility of a new sodium guide star laser with a pulsed burst output of sufficient energy at 589nm to be useful for current applications and readily scalable to meet future requirements. We describe complete experimental design verification results of the pulse burst laser concept, optimized to eliminate guide-star elongation issues and to meet all requirements for Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) for future extremely large ground-based telescopes (ELTs). It makes use of sum frequency generation (SFG) of two, Q-switched, injection mode-locked, wavelength stabilized Nd:YAG lasers, producing a macro-micro, pulse-burst output which is optimized in power and bandwidth to maximize the fluorescence from the high altitude sodium layer.

  12. Invited review article: Large ring lasers for rotation sensing.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2013-04-01

    Over the last two decades a series of large ring laser gyroscopes have been built having an unparalleled scale factor. These upscaled devices have improved the sensitivity and stability for rotation rate measurements by six orders of magnitude when compared to previous commercial developments. This progress has made possible entirely new applications of ring laser gyroscopes in the fields of geophysics, geodesy, and seismology. Ring lasers are currently the only viable measurement technology, which is directly referenced to the instantaneous rotation axis of the Earth. The sensor technology is rapidly developing. This is evidenced by the first experimentally viable proposals to make terrestrial tests of general relativistic effects such as the frame dragging of the rotating Earth. PMID:23635174

  13. Simulation of the main physical processes in remote laser penetration with large laser spot size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairallah, S. A.; Anderson, A.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Florando, J.; Wu, S.; Lowdermilk, H.

    2015-04-01

    A 3D model is developed to simulate remote laser penetration of a 1mm Aluminum metal sheet with large laser spot size ( 3x3cm2), using the ALE3D multi-physics code. The model deals with the laser-induced melting of the plate and the mechanical interaction between the solid and the melted part through plate elastic-plastic response. The effect of plate oscillations and other forces on plate rupture, the droplet formation mechanism and the influence of gravity and high laser power in further breaking the single melt droplet into many more fragments are analyzed. In the limit of low laser power, the numerical results match the available experiments. The numerical approach couples mechanical and thermal diffusion to hydrodynamics melt flow and accounts for temperature dependent material properties, surface tension, gravity and vapor recoil pressure.

  14. Surface Change Detection Using Large Footprint Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Laser altimeters provide a precise and accurate method for mapping topography at fine horizontal and vertical scales. A laser altimeter provides range by measuring the roundtrip flight time of a short pulse of laser light from the laser altimeter instrument to the target surface. The range is then combined with laser beam pointing knowledge and absolute position knowledge to provide an absolute measurement of the surface topography. Newer generations of laser altimeters measure the range by recording the shape and time of the outgoing and received laser pulses. The shape of the return pulse can also provide unique information about the vertical structure of material such as vegetation within each laser footprint. Distortion of the return pulse is caused by the time-distributed reflections adding together and representing the vertical distribution of surfaces within the footprint. Larger footprints (10 - 100m in diameter) can support numerous target surfaces and thus provide the potential for producing complex return pulses. Interpreting the return pulse from laser altimeters has evolved from simple timing between thresholds, range-walk corrections, constant-fraction discriminators, and multi-stop time interval units to actual recording of the time varying return pulse intensity - the return waveform. Interpreting the waveform can be as simple as digitally thresholding the return pulse, calculating a centroid, to fitting one or more gaussian pulse-shapes to the signal. What we present here is a new technique for using the raw recorded return pulse as a raw observation to detect centimeter-level vertical topographic change using large footprint airborne and spaceborne laser altimetry. We use the correlation of waveforms from coincident footprints as an indication of the similarity in structure of the waveforms from epoch to epoch, and assume that low correlation is an indicator of vertical structure or elevation change. Thus, using vertically and horizontally geolocated waveforms as raw observables (i.e., waveforms tied to a common reference ellipsoid), we assess whether epoch-to-epoch vertical ground motion results in a decrease in the correlation of coincident waveforms over time, and whether this can be used to quantify the magnitude of the deformation. Results of computer models and an example over an area of eroded beachfront will be presented.

  15. Gallium arsenide-based apertured vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and microcavity light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao

    A new design approach for all all-epitaxial index-guiding VCSEL fabrication with self-aligned current and optical confinement is proposed and demonstrated using MBE regrowth. The epitaxial regrowth approach has significant advantages over oxide confinement due to elimination of strain, aperture size controllability across wafer, and the aperture size controllability from wafer to wafer. A simple microcavity model is used to demonstrate the lateral mode confinement effect obtained by blue-shifting resonance frequency in the lateral regions of cavity, which leads to the new design concept for engineering waveguided VCSELs by modulation of the optical cavity length through MBE regrowth over selectively etched surface structures. The lithographically-defined aperture can be scaled to submicron level---simplifying its post-growth processing and thus making it easier to incorporate additional structural modifications (such as air-gap DBR VCSELs) for improved device performance. Enabling techniques, which include various surface protection and current blocking methods, have been developed in this work for the epitaxial regrowth approach. In-situ low-temperature-grown InAs capping is used to protect the first-step-grown wafer from standard chemical process, and is gently evaporated inside growth chamber before regrowth. Various current blocking structures have been investigated including reversed p-n junction assisted with resistive LT material, buried tunnel junction, and implanted current aperture. Excellent current confinement is achieved, which consequently leads to the first demonstration of GaAs-based air-gap DBR VCSELs and buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSELs. A novel fabrication process of air-gap/GaAs DBR mirrors has been realized by selectively removing AlGaAs sacrificial layers. Air-gap/GaAs DBR mirrors have the highest achievable refractive index contrast. This allows Air-gap/GaAs DBR mirrors to achieve desirable features, including a higher reflectivity, wider reflection stopband, lower diffraction loss, and smaller penetration depth than conventional DBR mirrors. An electrically-pumped MBE-regrown 980 nm VCSELs using p-type air-gap DBRs is demonstrated with a low threshold current density of 764 A/cm2 at room temperature under continuous-wave operation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Large-aperture CCD x-ray detector for protein crystallography using a fiber-optic taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Michael G.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Naday, Istvan; Coleman, T. A.; Westbrook, Mary L.; Travis, D. J.; Sweet, Robert M.; Pflugrath, J. W.; Stanton, Martin J.

    1991-07-01

    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for x-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested on a beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a beam intensity greater than 10(superscript 9) x-ray photons/s. A fiber-optic taper, an image intensifier, and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512 X 512 pixels. A detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of 0.36 was obtained by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the detector output. The dynamic range of a 4 X 4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10 (superscript 4). The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel on the detector face is 160 micrometers . A complete data set, consisting of forty-five 1 degree(s) rotation frames, was obtained in just 36 s of x-ray exposure to a crystal of chicken egg-white lysozyme. In a separate experiment, a lysozyme data set consisting of 495 0.1 degree(s) frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program, yielding symmetry R-factors for the data of 3.2- 3.5%. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a equals 275 angstroms) were also recorded. The Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were resolved but were not sufficiently separated to process these data. Changes in the detector design which will improve the DQE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for x-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources.

  17. Parasitic lasing suppression in large-aperture Ti:sapphire amplifiers by optimizing the seed-pump time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y. X.; Liang, X. Y.; Yu, L. H.; Xu, L.; Lu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.; Leng, Y. X.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out to determine the influence of the time delay between the input seed pulse and pump pulses on transverse parasitic lasing in a Ti:sapphire amplifier with a diameter of 80 mm, which is clad by a refractive index-matched liquid doped with an absorber. When the time delay is optimized, a maximum output energy of 50.8 J is achieved at a pump energy of 105 J, which corresponds to a conversion efficiency of 47.5%. Based on the existing compressor, the laser system achieves a peak power of 1.26 PW with a 29.0 fs pulse duration.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of ADP square crystal with large aperture in the new Final Optics Assembly under the non-critical phase matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fuzhong; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Qingshun; Lu, Lihua; Xiang, Yong

    2016-04-01

    This paper presented a new Final Optics Assembly (FOA) of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) square crystal with large aperture under the non-critical phase matching (NCPM), which controlled by the constant temperature water, and the temperature distribution was analyzed by simulation and experiment. Firstly, thermal analysis was carried out, as well as the temperature distribution of the cavity only heated under different velocities was analyzed. Then, the temperature distributions of ADP square crystal in the cavity were achieved using the Finite Volume Method (FVM), and this prediction was validated by the experiment results when the velocity is 0.1 m/s and 0.5 m/s. Finally, the optimal FHG conversion efficiency was obtained and the comparison of different heating methods was also highlighted.

  19. Really Large Scale Computer Graphic Projection Using Lasers and Laser Substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, Paul

    1989-07-01

    This paper reflects on past laser projects to display vector scanned computer graphic images onto very large and irregular surfaces. Since the availability of microprocessors and high powered visible lasers, very large scale computer graphics projection have become a reality. Due to the independence from a focusing lens, lasers easily project onto distant and irregular surfaces and have been used for amusement parks, theatrical performances, concert performances, industrial trade shows and dance clubs. Lasers have been used to project onto mountains, buildings, 360 globes, clouds of smoke and water. These methods have proven successful in installations at: Epcot Theme Park in Florida; Stone Mountain Park in Georgia; 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles; hundreds of Corporate trade shows and thousands of musical performances. Using new ColorRayTM technology, the use of costly and fragile lasers is no longer necessary. Utilizing fiber optic technology, the functionality of lasers can be duplicated for new and exciting projection possibilities. The use of ColorRayTM technology has enjoyed worldwide recognition in conjunction with Pink Floyd and George Michaels' world wide tours.

  20. Camera phasing in multi-aperture coherent imaging.

    PubMed

    Gunturk, Bahadir K; Miller, Nicholas J; Watson, Edward A

    2012-05-21

    The resolution of a diffraction-limited imaging system is inversely proportional to the aperture size. Instead of using a single large aperture, multiple small apertures are used to synthesize a large aperture. Such a multi-aperture system is modular, typically more reliable and less costly. On the other hand, a multi-aperture system requires phasing sub-apertures to within a fraction of a wavelength. So far in the literature, only the piston, tip, and tilt type of inter-aperture errors have been addressed. In this paper, we present an approach to correct for rotational and translational errors as well. PMID:22714167

  1. Early laser operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian; Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Ziegleder, Julian; Borelli, Jos L.; Gssler, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    ARGOS is the GLAO (Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics) Rayleigh-based LGS (Laser Guide Star) facility for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO). It is dedicated for observations with LUCI1 and LUCI2, LBTO's pair of NIR imagers and multi-object spectrographs. The system projects three laser beams from the back of each of the two secondary mirror units, which create two constellations circumscribed on circles of 2 arcmin radius with 120 degree spacing. Each of the six Nd:YAG lasers provides a beam of green (532nm) pulses at a rate of 10kHz with a power of 14W to 18W. We achieved first on-sky propagation on the night of November 5, 2013, and commissioning of the full system will take place during 2014. We present the initial results of laser operations at the observatory, including safety procedures and the required coordination with external agencies (FAA, Space Command, and Military Airspace Manager). We also describe our operational procedures and report on our experiences with aircraft spotters. Future plans for safer and more efficient aircraft monitoring and detection are discussed.

  2. Return Echoes from Medium-Large Footprint Laser Altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Hofton, Michelle A.; Rabine, David L.

    1999-01-01

    For just over 10 years, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has been at the forefront of developing return echo laser altimeters and analysis techniques for a variety of both space and airborne applications. In 1991, the Laser Remote Sensing Branch began investigating the use of medium-large diameter footprint return waveforms for measuring vegetation height and structure and sub-canopy topography. Over the last 8 years, using a variety of profiling and scanning laser altimeters (i.e. ATLAS, SLICER, SLA, and LVIS), we have collected return waveforms over a variety of terrestrial surface types. We describe the effects of instrument characteristics and within-footprint surface structure on the shape of the return waveform and suggest several techniques for extracting this information. Specifically for vegetation returns, we describe the effects of canopy parameters such as architecture and closure on the shape of the return waveform. Density profiles, statistics, and examples from a variety of vegetation types will be presented, as well as comparisons with small-footprint laser altimeter data.

  3. Phase locking of eight wide-aperture semiconductor laser diodes in one-dimensional and two-dimensional configurations in an external Talbot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, V V; Derzhavin, S I; Kislov, V I; Kuz'minov, V V; Mashkovskii, D A; Kazakov, A A; Koval', Yu P; Prokhorov, A M

    1998-04-30

    Phase locking of the output radiation and mode selection were achieved experimentally in an external Talbot cavity, of length L=Z{sub T}/4 and containing one linear array of eight wide-aperture laser diodes each 120 {mu}m wide. Such phase locking was also attained for two parallel linear arrays. The radiation from a single linear array was characterised by the contrast parameter V=0.97 and by the angular width of the diffraction maxima amounting to 0.5 mrad at half-intensity corresponding to the diffraction limit for a linear array with a diode spacing period d=200 {mu}m. A cavity with a tilted mirror was investigated and the feasibility of increasing the radiation intensity in the central lobes was demonstrated. Phase locking was attained experimentally for two linear arrays separated by a distance of 1600 {mu}m. The angular width of the maxima was 0.5 mrad in the p-n junction plane and 0.25 mrad in a plane perpendicular to the junction. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  4. Picosecond laser fabrication of micro cutting tool geometries on polycrystalline diamond composites using a high-numerical aperture micro scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Gregory; Dold, Claus; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    The generation of microsized components found in LEDs, watches, molds as well as other types of micromechanics and microelectronics require a corresponding micro cutting tool in order to be manufactured, typically by milling or turning. Micro cutting tools are made of cemented tungsten carbide and are conventionally fabricated either by electrical discharge machining (EDM) or by grinding. An alternative method is proposed through a laser-based solution operating in the picosecond pulse duration whereby the beam is deflected using a modified galvanometer-driven micro scanning system exhibiting a high numerical aperture. A micro cutting tool material which cannot be easily processed using conventional methods is investigated, which is a fine grain polycrystalline diamond composite (PCD). The generation of various micro cutting tool relevant geometries, such as chip breakers and cutting edges, are demonstrated. The generated geometries are subsequently evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quality is measured in terms of surface roughness and cutting edge sharpness. Additionally, two processing strategies in which the laser beam processes tangentially and orthogonally are compared in terms of quality.

  5. Combining Measurements with Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning System and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging System for International Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bogard, James S; Hayward, Jason P; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Smith, Steven E; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Being able to verify the operator's declaration in regard to the technical design of nuclear facilities is an important aspect of every safeguards approach. In addition to visual observation, it is necessary to know if nuclear material is present or has been present in undeclared piping and ducts. The possibility of combining the results from different measurement techniques into one easily interpreted product should optimize the inspection effort and increase safeguards effectiveness. A collaborative effort to investigate the possibility of combining measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning system and gamma-ray imaging systems is under way. The feasibility of the concept has been previously proven with different laboratory prototypes of gamma-ray imaging systems. Recently, simultaneous measurements were conducted with a new highly portable, mechanically cooled, High Purity Germanium (HPGe), coded-aperture gamma-ray imager and a 3D laser scanner in an operational facility with complex configuration and different enrichment levels and quantities of uranium. With specially designed software, data from both instruments were combined and a 3D model of the facility was generated that also identified locations of radioactive sources. This paper provides an overview of the technology, describes the measurements, discusses the various safeguards scenarios addressed, and presents results of experiments.

  6. Criteria for formation of low-frequency sound under wide-aperture repetitively pulsed laser irradiation of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Tishchenko, V N; Posukh, V G; Gulidov, A I; Zapryagaev, V I; Pavlov, A A; Boyarintsev, Ye L; Golubev, M P; Kavun, I N; Melekhov, A V; Golobokova, L S; Miroshnichenko, I B; Pavlov, Al A; Shmakov, A S

    2011-10-31

    The criteria for merging shock waves formed by optical breakdowns on the surface of solids have been investigated. Targets made of different materials were successively irradiated by two CO{sub 2}-laser pulses with energies up to 200 J and a duration of {approx}1 {mu}s. It is shown that the criteria under consideration can be applied to different targets and irradiation regimes and make it possible to calculate the parameters of repetitively pulsed laser radiation that are necessary to generate low-frequency sound and ultrasound in air.

  7. A 2x2 multi-chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask: a stepping stone to large format microshutter arrays for coded aperture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNie, Mark E.; Brown, Alan G.; King, David O.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Gordon, Neil T.; Riches, Stephen; Rogers, Stanley

    2010-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously reported work focused on realising a 2x2cm single chip mask in the mid-IR based on polysilicon micro-optoelectro- mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and its integration with ASIC drive electronics using conventional wire bonding. It employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage and uses a hysteretic row/column scheme for addressing. In this paper we report on the latest results in the mid-IR for the single chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask, trials in scaling up to a mask based on a 2x2 multi-chip array and report on progress towards realising a large format mask comprising 44 MOEMS chips. We also explore the potential of such large, transmissive IR spatial light modulator arrays for other applications and in the current and alternative architectures.

  8. Yb-doped large-mode-area laser fiber fabricated by halide-gas-phase-doping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kun; Wang, Yuying; Ni, Li; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Cong; Zhan, Huan; Wang, Jianjun; Jing, Feng; Lin, Aoxiang

    2015-06-01

    In this manuscript, we designed a rare-earth-halide gas-phase-doping setup to fabricate a large-mode-area fiber for high power laser applications. YbCl3 and AlCl3 halides are evaporated, carried respectively and finally mixed with usual host gas material SiCl4 at the hot zone of MCVD system. Owing to the all-gas-phasing reaction process and environment, the home-made Yb-doped fiber preform has a homogeneous large core and modulated refractive index profile to keep high beam quality. The drawn fiber core has a small numerical aperture of 0.07 and high Yb concentration of 9500?ppm. By using a master oscillator power amplifier system, nearly kW-level (951?W) laser output power was obtained with a slope efficiency of 83.3% at 1063.8?nm, indicating the competition and potential of the halide-gas-phase-doping technique for high power laser fiber fabrication.

  9. Optimization of deposition uniformity for large-aperture National Ignition Facility substrates in a planetary rotation system

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.B.; Talbot, D.

    2006-05-17

    Multilayer coatings on large substrates with increasingly complex spectral requirements are essential for a number of optical systems, placing stringent requirements on the error tolerances of individual layers. Each layer must be deposited quite uniformly over the entire substate surface since any nonuniformity will add to the layer-thickness error level achieved. A deposition system containing a planetary rotation system with stationary uniformity masking is modeled, with refinements of the planetary gearing, source placement, and uniformity mask shape being utilized to achieve an optimal configuration. The impact of improper planetary gearing is demonstrated theoretically, as well as experimentally, providing more comprehensive requirements than simply avoiding repetition of previous paths through the vapor plume, until all possible combinations of gear teeth have been used. Deposition efficiency and the impact of changing vapor plume conditions on the uniformity achieved are used to validate improved source placement.

  10. A laser reflection confocal large-radius measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Qiu, Lirong; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Weiqian

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new laser reflection confocal large-radius measurement (RCLRM) method. By utilizing the precise correspondence relationship between the peak point of the confocal curve and the convergence point of the multi-reflected measuring beam, we identify the position of the test lens. With a distance interferometer, we obtain the position variation of the test lens with different reflection times. Therefore, a fast and precise large-radius measurement is achieved with a shorter measuring system. Additionally, the RCLRM significantly enhances the measurement accuracy by using conic fitting. The theoretical analyses and experiments indicate that the relative expanded uncertainty is better than 0.008% (k  =  2).

  11. Study of a wide-aperture combined deformable mirror for high-power pulsed phosphate glass lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarkin, V. V.; Aleksandrov, A. G.; Jitsuno, T.; Romanov, P. N.; Rukosuev, A. L.; Kudryashov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    A deformable mirror with the size of 410 468 mm controlled by bimorph piezoceramic plates and multilayer piezo stacks is developed. The response functions of individual actuators and the measurements of the flatness of the deformable mirror surface are presented. The study of mirrors with an interferometer and a wavefront sensor has shown that it is possible to improve the surface flatness down to a residual roughness of 0.033 ?m (RMS). The possibility of correction of beam aberrations in an ultra-high-power laser using the created bimorph mirror is demonstrated.

  12. Optical Vortex Scanning in an aperture limited system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Sokolenko, Bohdan; Augustyniak, Ireneusz; Masajada, Jan; Khoroshun, Anna; Bacia, Marcin

    2014-04-01

    We consider an optical system that consists of a vortex lens and a microscopic objective. The system is illuminated with a He-Ne laser. In our previous work we showed that moving the vortex lens perpendicularly to the optical axis makes the optical vortex (introduced by the vortex lens) move inside the focused beam in a characteristic way. We also showed that the vortex trajectory is very sensitive to the position of the observation plane, especially for a large diameter of the incident beam. However, in the microscopic system the aperture is limited by the microscopic objective. In this paper we investigate the propagation of the wide incident laser beam through a vortex lens and then through a microscopic objective with small aperture. We also present a fast interferometric technique for the phase pattern reconstruction of the focused vortex beam.

  13. Effect of the photon lifetime on the characteristics of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with fully doped distributed Bragg reflectors and an oxide current aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, M. A.; Blokhin, S. A. Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Maleev, N. A.; Blokhin, A. A.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Nikitina, E. V.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of the photon lifetime in an optical microcavity on the characteristics of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with fully doped distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and an oxide current aperture is studied. The photon lifetime in the microcavity is controlled by varying the upper DBR reflectance. It is found that the speed of VCSELs with a current-aperture diameter of 10 ?m is mainly limited by the self-heating effect, despite an increase in the relaxation-oscillation damping coefficient with increasing photon lifetime in the microcavity. At the same time, the higher level of internal optical loss in lasers with a current-aperture diameter of 1.5 ?m leads to dominance of the effect of relaxation-oscillation damping independently of the radiation output loss. In the case of devices with a current-aperture diameter of 5.5 ?m, both mechanisms limiting the speed operate, which allow an increase in the VCSEL effective modulation frequency from 21 to 24 GHz as the photon lifetime decreases from 3.7 to 0.8 ps.

  14. Investigation of the stability of the electron source with a multi-aperture plasma emitter generating a large cross-section electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, M. S.; Koval, N. N.; Sulakshin, S. A.; Shugurov, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the electric strength of the high-voltage acceleration gap of an electron source with a multi-aperture plasma emitter generating a beam of large cross section (750 150 mm2) extracted into the atmosphere through a thin metal foil. It has been shown that the use of a mask in the plasma emitter which partitions the overall emission region to produce a plurality of small-cross-section beamlets, so that the extracted beam is a superposition of beamlets formed by individual emission units whose plasma boundary is stabilized by a fine metal grid, increases the electric strength of the high-voltage acceleration gap. This is of critical importance in cases where the electron source is operated in a repetitive pulse mode at high average power of the beam. In addition, an increase in the electric strength of the acceleration gap is promoted by that the modernized cathode assemblies of the plasma emitter are arranged normal to the axis along which electrons are extracted into the acceleration gap.

  15. A laser tomography test bed for extremely large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, R.; Piatrou, P.; Rigaut, F.; Uhlendorf, K.

    2014-08-01

    The Advanced Instrumentation and Technology Center at the Australian National University is building a Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics Test Bed for Extremely Large Telescopes. The optical test bench is using three Laser Guide Stars (LGS) propagating through three phase screens. The LGS wavefronts are sampled with a 16 × 16 Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH-WFS). Cone effect, spot elongation and Sodium layer density fluctuations are reproduced on the bench. Two Natural Guide Stars (NGS), on-axis and off-axis, are also added to the bench. The wavefront of the on-axis NGS is corrected with a DM located in the optical path of both the LGSs and the on-axis NGS. The DM commands are derived from the tomographic estimate of the on-axis NGS wavefront using the measurements of the 3 LGS WFSs. The off-axis NGS wavefront is sampled with a 6 × 6 SH-WFS and is emulating tip-tilt, focus and truth sensing. A DM located in front of the off-axis NGS WFS is correcting the off-axis NGS wavefront. The commands of this DM are also derived from the tomographic reconstructor. In the paper, the design of the LTAO test bed is presented.

  16. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow-on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4-meter and 8-meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars. The paper uses numerous trade studies created during the software development phase of the Arnold Mirror Modeler to illustrate the influences of system specifications on the design space. The future telescopes will require better performance, stability and documented feasibility to meet the hurdles of today's budget and schedules realities. AMTD is developing the tools, but the basic system planning mentality also has to adopt to the requirements of these very large and complex physical structures.

  17. Imaging Laser Altimetry in the Amazon: Mapping Large Areas of Topography, Vegetation Height and Structure, and Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Nelson, B.; dosSantos, J.; Valeriano, D.; Houghton, R.; Hofton, M.; Lutchke, S.; Sun, Q.

    2002-01-01

    A flight mission of NASA GSFC's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is planned for June-August 2003 in the Amazon region of Brazil. The goal of this flight mission is to map the vegetation height and structure and ground topography of a large area of the Amazon. This data will be used to produce maps of true ground topography, vegetation height, and estimated above-ground biomass and for comparison with and potential calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Approximately 15,000 sq. km covering various regions of the Amazon will be mapped. The LVIS sensor has the unique ability to accurately sense the ground topography beneath even the densest of forest canopies. This is achieved by using a high signal-to-noise laser altimeter to detect the very weak reflection from the ground that is available only through small gaps in between leaves and between tree canopies. Often the amount of ground signal is 1% or less of the total returned echo. Once the ground elevation is identified, that is used as the reference surface from which we measure the vertical height and structure of the vegetation. Test data over tropical forests have shown excellent correlation between LVIS measurements and biomass, basal area, stem density, ground topography, and canopy height. Examples of laser altimetry data over forests and the relationships to biophysical parameters will be shown. Also, recent advances in the LVIS instrument will be discussed.

  18. Efficient Nd:YAG laser end-pumped by a 1 cm aperture laser-diode bar with a GRIN lens array coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imai, Hirofumi

    1992-04-01

    A 10-W laser-diode bar, a multistripe monolithic laser-diode array, has been used to end-pump Nd:YAG. Twenty beams emitted from 20 stripes, spaced 500 microns apart, of a 1-cm linear diode array were collimated by a 1-cm-wide lens array consisting of 20 GRIN (graded-index) lenses with a width of 500 microns to pump the Nd:YAG facet. The maximum Nd:YAG CW output power at 1064 nm of 3.24 W CW was obtained at 8.6 W incident pump power with a total electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 10.1 percent, a threshold of 0.6 W, a maximum slope efficiency of 45 percent, and a single-lobed spatial mode.

  19. Characterization of C-apertures in a successful demonstration of heat-assisted magnetic recording.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajid; Bhatia, Charanjit S; Yang, Hyunsoo; Danner, Aaron J

    2015-08-01

    An optical pump-probe setup was used to measure the coercivity change in a heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) medium. The incident optical power required to attain the Curie temperature of the medium was determined by calculating its coercivity from BH loops under different illuminating laser powers through use of the Kerr signal in the pump-probe setup. The HAMR medium was then illuminated through an array of square and C-shaped nanoapertures so that the necessary laser power required for magnetic reversal could be compared to the bulk case. Magnetic force microscopy and Kerr microscopy revealed that C-apertures were able to permit heating of the magnetic medium and lower the coercivity to achieve magnetic reversal whereas the square apertures were not. The results show that aperture shape and design play a large role in HAMR head designs. PMID:26258328

  20. Laser-assisted vitrification of large equine embryos.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, J; Davis, C; Hurley, D J

    2011-12-01

    The major difficulty in providing the benefits of embryo cryopreservation for equine agriculture is the mismatch between the optimal embryo age for collection from the mare (7-8 days after ovulation was detected) and the optimal age for freezing under current methods (6.5 days after ovulation). To overcome this limitation, we tested a method to enhance penetration of cryopreservative across the capsule and trophoblast of day 7 and 8 embryos combined with rapid freezing by vitrification. Six small embryos (<300 ?m in diameter) were collected on day 6-7 after ovulation and twelve larger embryos were recovered on day 7-8. In the treatment group, replacement of blastocoelic fluid with cryopreservative solution was facilitated by a laser system used to create a small opening in the embryonic capsule and trophectoderm. All embryos were vitrified using a CryoLeaf freezing support. After recovery from freezing and embryo transfer, three of four small untreated embryos (<300 ?m in diameter, 75%) and four of nine large blastocysts in the treatment group (>300 ?m in diameter, 44%) resulted in a vesicle as detected by ultrasonography approximately one week after transfer. However, only one recipient mare was still pregnant on day 23, and she delivered a live foal. Further investigation is required to determine why most of the embryos in this experiment were lost between day 13 and day 23 of gestation. PMID:21535240

  1. Performance of a simplified slit spatial filter for large laser systems.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Han; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiang; Zou, Kuaisheng

    2014-09-01

    A new-type slit spatial filter system with three lenses was proposed, in which the focal spot was turned into focal line by adding cylindrical lenses to increase focal area and then lower the focal intensity. Its performances on image relay, aperture matching and spatial filtering are comprehended by detailed theoretical calculations and numerical simulation. According to transmission spatial filter in national ignition facility, we present a replaceable slit spatial filter, which can reduce the overall length of laser system, improve the beam quality and suppress or even avoid the pinhole (slit) closure in the spatial filter. PMID:25321597

  2. Effect of the degree of preionisation of a gas on the homogeneity of a volume discharge and generation of radiation in a wide-aperture XeCl-laser

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, I N; Koval', N N; Suslov, A I

    2002-08-31

    The results of investigation of an electric discharge XeCl laser with active region apertures 8 x 11, 10 x 15, and 15 x 15 cm are presented. The preionisation of the Ne - Xe - HCl working mixture was performed by soft X-rays and a low-current electron beam, which provided the initial concentration n{sub 0} of electrons in the gas from 10{sup 6} to 2 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. For n{sub 0} < 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, the homogeneity of the initial electron concentration and of an electric field in the discharge gap have a considerable effect on the homogeneity of the volume discharge and output characteristics of the laser. For n{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, a homogeneous volume discharge is ignited and is stable if the inhomogeneity of the electric field in the discharge gap does not exceed 10%. A storage capacitor charged to double the voltage of the quasi-stationary discharge operation is sufficient for discharge formation. It is shown that an improvement of the volume discharge homogeneity and a decrease in the size of the discharge chamber make it possible to increase the efficiency of a wide-aperture XeCl laser. (active media. lasers)

  3. Aberration beam shaping in laser cutting with large aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurevich, V. I.; Gorny, S. G.; Polyakov, I. V.; Afonyushkin, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The reasons of occurrence of the primary aberrations in optical systems for high-power-technology lasers have been analyzed. The laser intensity profile transformation in presence of a primary aberration of the both signs has been studied. A number of the optical systems with completely the same optical parameters except uncorrected primary aberration has been designed. The influence of laser intensity profile produced by these systems on the quality of midpenetrating laser cutting has been examined. It has been found that good quality cuts may be obtained for every shape of the laser intensity distribution. However, the more the scale of an uncorrected aberration is the more accurate the focal point position has to be maintained.

  4. Electron microscope aperture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electron microscope including an electron source, a condenser lens having either a circular aperture for focusing a solid cone of electrons onto a specimen or an annular aperture for focusing a hollow cone of electrons onto the specimen, and an objective lens having an annular objective aperture, for focusing electrons passing through the specimen onto an image plane are described. The invention also entails a method of making the annular objective aperture using electron imaging, electrolytic deposition and ion etching techniques.

  5. Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C; Guenther, B D; Gehm, M E; Brady, D J; Sullivan, M E

    2007-04-30

    We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer array at the detector plane. The two-dimensional aperture code is based on a row-doubled Hadamard mask with transmissive and opaque openings. The independent column code nature of the matrix makes for a mathematically well-defined pattern that spatially and spectrally maps the source information to the detector plane. Post-processing techniques on the data provide spectral estimates of the source. Comparative experimental results between a slit and coded aperture for emission spectroscopy from a CO(2) laser are demonstrated. PMID:19532832

  6. Micro-scale large-area UV laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Brune, Jan

    2009-02-01

    UV lasers are well-established sources for a wide variety of micro-machining applications. The small wavelength makes them ideal for processing of small features or to modify thin surfaces. Especially short pulse UV lasers are ideal for ablation of various materials, e. g., polyimide, parylene, PMMA, copper, gold and diamond. Furthermore these lasers are used for silicon annealing and patterning of fine circuitries to various substrates. The demand for smaller feature sizes of micro-mechanical and micro-electronic devices set new requirements in regard to resolution, throughput and overall cost efficiency of the process. In this paper, high-power excimer laser micro-machining and annealing relevant applications will be presented and discussed.

  7. a Circuit Model of Quantum Cascade Lasers Applicable to both Small and Large Current Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, M. K.; Webb, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a circuit model is devised to analyze nonlinear behaviour of quantum cascade lasers. Such nonlinear behavior influences the light output when the laser is driven by currents comparable to the average (DC) current. The simplified 2-level rate equations are first improved. Next, the circuit model is obtained following the approach for interband lasers. The difference between the circuit models of quantum cascade lasers and interband lasers is pointed out. The circuit model is simpler compared to that obtained from a 3-level model. Unlike a circuit model derived earlier from the 2-level model, the present model can handle both small and large current drives.

  8. Laser conditioning study of KDP on the optical sciences laser using large area beams

    SciTech Connect

    Runkel, M.; DeYoreo, J.; Sell, W.; Milam, D.

    1997-12-20

    Considerable attention has been paid over the years to the problem of growing high purity KDP and KD*P to meet threshold requirements on succeeding generations of inertial confinement fusion lasers at LLNL. While damage thresholds for these materials have increased over time, the current National Ignition Facility (NIF) maximum fluence requirement (redline) for KD*P frequency triplers of 14.3 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm, 3 ns has not been reached without laser (pre)conditioning. It is reasonable to assume that, despite the rapid increase in damage thresholds for rapidly grown crystals, -a program of large scale conditioning of the 192 NIF triplers will be required. Small area ramp (R/1) tests on single sites indicate that KDP damage thresholds can be raised on average up to 1.5X the unconditioned values. Unpublished LLNL 3{omega} raster conditioning studies on KDP, however, have not conclusively shown that off-line conditioning is feasible for KD*P. Consequently, investigating the feasibility of on-line conditioning of NIF triplers at 3{omega} has become a high priority for the KDP damage group at LLNL. To investigate the feasibility of on-line conditioning we performed a series of experiments using the Optical Sciences Laser (OSL) on numerous samples of conventional and rapid growth KDP and KD*P. The experiment entailed exposing sites on each sample to a range of ramped shot (N/l) sequences starting at average fluences of -2 J/cm{sup 2} (in a 7 mm ``top hat`` beam @ 351 nm, 3 ns) up to peak fluences of approximately 13 J/cm{sup 2}. Test results indicated that the most effective conditioning procedure entailed a 7-8 shot ramp starting at 2 J/cm{sup 2} and ending at 12-13 J/cm{sup 2}. The pinpoint onset fluence for the 8/1 tests was 1.4 times that of the unconditioned site. Damage evolution appears to be exponential as a function of increasing fluence. When damage occurs after conditioning however, pinpoint density evolution exhibits a greater slope than less conditioned sites. The overall reduction in the total pinpoint number can be as high as 30OX. Despite laser conditioning , the pinpoint onset for the samples considered is below the NIF redline fluence of 14.3 J/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the exponential pinpoint evolution curves indicate that damage levels at NIF redline fluences will be on the order of 10{sup 4} pinpoints/mm{sup 2}. This suggests that there will be significant damage in NIP triplers, however, substantial damage has not been observed in the large Beamlet tripler (conventionally grown KD*P) under similar exposure conditions. By applying the OSL damage evolution curves to model NIF THG output spatial profiles it is possible to show damage in NIF triplers will be slight, consisting of isolated clusters with a few pinpoints at high fluence portions of the beam. This prediction has been verified by scatter mapping the 37 cm Beamlet tripler crystal. These results will be discussed in a future memo. These results indicate the feasibility of on-line conditioning for the NIF laser.

  9. Thermal emission by a subwavelength aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    We calculate, by means of fluctuational electrodynamics, the thermal emission of an aperture separating from the outside, vacuum or a material at temperature T. We show that thermal emission is very different whether the aperture size is large or small compared to the thermal wavelength. Subwavelength apertures separating vacuum from the outside have their thermal emission strongly decreased compared to classical blackbodies which have an aperture much larger than the wavelength. A simple expression of their emissivity can be calculated and their total emissive power scales as T8 instead of T4 for large apertures. Thermal emission of disk of materials with a size comparable to the wavelength is also discussed. It is shown in particular that emissivity of such a disk is increased when the material can support surface waves such as phonon polaritons.

  10. Research on the timing sequence control in large laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Wang, Lingfang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Ling; Chen, Ji; Zhang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The timing sequence, between different pulses in SG-III laser facility, is controlled with three arbitrary waveform generators. The external clock and trigger are used to inhibit the timing jitter, which is provided by the synchronization system. Close-loop monitoring is used to make sure that the temporal phase can be recovered after reboot of the arbitrary waveform generator. The verification experiment shows that the three arbitrary waveform generators can work synchronously , which ensures the synchronization error control of the SG-III laser facility.

  11. Role of the aperture in Z-scan experiments: A parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidian Vaziri, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    In close-aperture Z-scan experiments, a small aperture is conventionally located in the far-field thereby enabling the detection of slight changes in the laser beam profile due to the Kerr-lensing effect. In this work, by numerically solving the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integrals, the amount of transmitted power through apertures has been evaluated and a parametric study on the role of the various parameters that can influence this transmitted power has been done. In order to perform a comprehensive analysis, we have used a nonlinear phase shift optimized for nonlocal nonlinear media in our calculations. Our results show that apertures will result in the formation of symmetrical fluctuations on the wings of Z-scan transmittance curves. It is further shown that the appearance of these fluctuations can be ascribed to the natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam as it propagates up to the aperture plane. Our calculations reveal that the nonlocal parameter variations can shift the position of fluctuations along the optical axis, whereas their magnitude depends on the largeness of the induced nonlinear phase shift. It is concluded that since the mentioned fluctuations are produced by the natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam itself, one must take care not to mistakenly interpret them as noise and should not expect to eliminate them from experimental Z-scan transmittance curves by using apertures with different sizes.

  12. Deterministic measurement and correction of the pad shape in full-aperture polishing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, D.; Zhang, Q.; Xie, R.; Chen, X.; Zhao, S.; Wang, J.

    2015-11-01

    Full-aperture polishing is a significant process in fabricating large optical flats because it restrains Mid-Spatial Frequency errors and removes material quickly on the whole optic surface. Nevertheless, optical flats fabricated by full-aperture polishing generally fail to meet the stringent requirement of surface figure, which has to be corrected by sub-aperture polishing processes. Surface figure of optical flats in full-aperture polishing processes is primarily dependent on the pressure distribution uniformity which correlates intensively with the lap shape. At present, practical and precise means are urgently desired for measuring and correcting the lap shape, especially the polyurethane pad lap. In the study, we present a novel method for deterministic measurement of the pad shape. The method obtains the height of the pad at spirally distributed locations implemented by the revolution of the pad and translation of the laser displacement sensor. The pad shape in terms of matrixes whose elements representing the heights at the corresponding locations is then calculated by interpolation algorithm based on the obtained data. Further, we propose a method for deterministic correction of the pad shape utilizing a small conditioning tool. The dwell time algorithm and implementation strategy for the dwell time are provided for common full-aperture polishers. These solutions for the deterministic measurement and correction of the pad shape have been validated on a full-aperture polisher with polyurethane pad. The polishing experiments revealed that the optic surface figure was obviously improved.

  13. Study of laser-induced damage to large core silica fiber by Nd:YAG and Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoguang; Li, Jie; Hokansson, Adam; Whelan, Dan; Clancy, Michael

    2009-02-01

    As a continuation of our earlier study at 2.1 μm wavelength, we have investigated the laser damage to several types of step-index, large core (1500 μm) silica fibers at two new wavelengths by high power long pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and Alexandrite (755 nm) lasers. It was observed that fibers with different designs showed a significant difference in performance at these wavelengths. We will also report a correlation of damage to the fibers between the two laser wavelengths. The performance analyses of different fiber types under the given test conditions will enable optimization of fiber design for specific applications.

  14. Single-pulse driven, large-aperture 21 array plasma-electrodes optical switch for SG-II upgrading facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Zhang, Xiongjun

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the design and performance of an optical switch that has been constructed for the SG-II upgrading facility. The device is a longitudinal, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP), 360 mm360 mm aperture, and 21 array electro-optical switch driven by a 20 kV output switching-voltage pulse generator through two plasma electrodes produced at the rise edge of the switching-voltage pulse. The results show that the temporal responses and the spatial performance of the optical switch fulfill the operation requirements of the SG-II upgrading facility.

  15. Systematic design and analysis of laser-guide-star adaptive-optics systems for large telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Morris, J.R.; Vernon, R.G.

    1994-02-01

    The authors discuss the design of laser-guided adaptive-optics systems for the large, 8-10-m-class telescopes. Through proper choice of system components and optimized system design, the laser power that is needed at the astronomical site can be kept to a minimum. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Application of laser velocimetry to unsteady flows in large scale high speed tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Flowfield measurements obtained in several large scale, high speed facilities are presented. Sampling bias and seeding problems are addressed and solutions are outlined. The laser velocimeter systems and data reduction procedures which were used in the experiments are also described. The work demonstrated the potential of the laser velocimeter for applications in other than closely controlled, smallscale laboratory situations.

  17. Laser safety training programs for a large and diverse research and development laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stocum, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is a large multiprogram Research and Development laboratory which is operated by a contractor for the US Department of Energy. In the Laboratories, lasers are both the subject of research and the tools that are used in other research, development, and testing activities. Since 1979, laser safety training has been the primary focus of the Laboratories' laser safety program. Approximately 1 100 personnel have been trained in formal courses during that time period. The formal course, presented on site by a contractor, consists of two full days of instruction. The course contents include the following topics: Laser technology and safety overview; Federal and ANSI laser standards summaries; Biological effects of laser radiation; Classification of lasers; Laser hazard analysis; Review of ANSI Z136.1 control measures; Laser eye protection. Recent emphasis on regulatory requirements, conduct of operations, and quality management has revealed a need to change the laser safety training curriculum. A new course for users of low power lasers (Class 2 and 3a) is being developed. A refresher course, a management awareness (self-study) course, and major changes in the current course are planned.

  18. Laser safety training programs for a large and diverse research and development laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stocum, W.E.

    1992-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is a large multiprogram Research and Development laboratory which is operated by a contractor for the US Department of Energy. In the Laboratories, lasers are both the subject of research and the tools that are used in other research, development, and testing activities. Since 1979, laser safety training has been the primary focus of the Laboratories` laser safety program. Approximately 1 100 personnel have been trained in formal courses during that time period. The formal course, presented on site by a contractor, consists of two full days of instruction. The course contents include the following topics: Laser technology and safety overview; Federal and ANSI laser standards summaries; Biological effects of laser radiation; Classification of lasers; Laser hazard analysis; Review of ANSI Z136.1 control measures; Laser eye protection. Recent emphasis on regulatory requirements, conduct of operations, and quality management has revealed a need to change the laser safety training curriculum. A new course for users of low power lasers (Class 2 and 3a) is being developed. A refresher course, a management awareness (self-study) course, and major changes in the current course are planned.

  19. Laser velocimeter measurements in a large transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. F.; Couch, L. M.; Feller, W. V.; Walsh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A two-component fringe type laser velocimeter operated in the backscatter mode was used to measure the free-stream velocity in an undisturbed flow field in a wind-tunnel test section from Mach 0.2 to Mach 1.0 and to measure the velocity along the stagnating streamline of a hemisphere model from Mach 0.2 to Mach 0.8. Burst signals from the laser velocimeter were processed by high-speed burst counters, and histograms of the number of occurrences of a particular counter output were collected by means of a pulse height analyzer. Arithmetic means of the histograms were calculated, and the results were compared with predicted local gas velocities with allowance for the lag of the scattering particles with respect to the gas flow. The free-stream measurements were accurate to within 2% of the calibration measurements. The stagnation streamline measurements show trends similar to theoretical predictions.

  20. A laser velocimeter system for large-scale aerodynamic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinath, M. S.; Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique laser velocimeter was developed that is capable of sensing two orthogonal velocity components from a variable remote distance of 2.6 to 10 m for use in the 40- by 80-Foot and 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnels and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility at Ames Research Center. The system hardware, positioning instrumentation, and data acquisition equipment are described in detail; system capabilities and limitations are discussed; and expressions for systematic and statistical accuracy are developed. Direct and coupled laboratory measurements taken with the system are compared with measurements taken with a laser velocimeter of higher spatial resolution, and sample data taken in the open circuit exhaust flow of a 1/50-scale model of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel are presented.

  1. Laser Plasma Particle Accelerators: Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, Eric H.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Leemans, Wim P.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Ben; Durant, Marc; Hamill, Paul; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nieter, Chet; Paul, Kevin; Shasharina, Svetlana; Veitzer, Seth; Weber, Gunther; Rubel, Oliver; Ushizima, Daniela; Bethel, Wes; Wu, John

    2009-03-20

    Compared to conventional particle accelerators, plasmas can sustain accelerating fields that are thousands of times higher. To exploit this ability, massively parallel SciDAC particle simulations provide physical insight into the development of next-generation accelerators that use laser-driven plasma waves. These plasma-based accelerators offer a path to more compact, ultra-fast particle and radiation sources for probing the subatomic world, for studying new materials and new technologies, and for medical applications.

  2. Development of laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H.; Brase, J.M.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.; Morris, J.R.; Olivier, S.S.; Rapp, D.; Salmon, J.T.; Waltjen, K.

    1992-06-29

    We describe a feasibility experiment to demonstrate high-order adaptive optics using a sodium-layer laser guide star. We use the copper-vapor-pumped dye lasers developed for LLNL`s atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program to create the laser guide star. Closed-loop adaptive corrections will be accomplished using a 69-subaperture adaptive optics system on a one-meter telescope at LLNL. The laser bream is projected upwards from a beam director approximately 5 meters away from the main telescope, and is expected to form a spot 1-2 meters in diameter at the atmospheric sodium layer (95 km altitude). We describe the overall system architecture and adaptive optics components, and analyze the expected performance. Our long-term goal is to develop sodium-layer laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes. We discuss preliminary design trade-offs for the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea.

  3. Development of laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Max, C.E.; Avicola, K.; Bissinger, H.; Brase, J.M.; Gavel, D.T.; Friedman, H.; Morris, J.R.; Olivier, S.S.; Rapp, D.; Salmon, J.T.; Waltjen, K.

    1992-06-29

    We describe a feasibility experiment to demonstrate high-order adaptive optics using a sodium-layer laser guide star. We use the copper-vapor-pumped dye lasers developed for LLNL's atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation program to create the laser guide star. Closed-loop adaptive corrections will be accomplished using a 69-subaperture adaptive optics system on a one-meter telescope at LLNL. The laser bream is projected upwards from a beam director approximately 5 meters away from the main telescope, and is expected to form a spot 1-2 meters in diameter at the atmospheric sodium layer (95 km altitude). We describe the overall system architecture and adaptive optics components, and analyze the expected performance. Our long-term goal is to develop sodium-layer laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes. We discuss preliminary design trade-offs for the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea.

  4. Modeling of large flattened mode area fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, N. N.; Napartovich, A. P.; Troshchieva, V. N.; Vysotsky, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    Potentialities of independent tailoring the index and gain profiles in fiber laser aiming to achieve a strong modal discrimination are theoretically examined. It is demonstrated by numerical simulations existence of fiber amplifier constructions which have the flattened fundamental mode profile in the gain region. It is shown that the fundamental mode retain the largest modal gain in comparison with modal gains of higher-order-modes for any depletion of the gain by the fundamental mode. The particular design is presented with the flattened fundamental mode area 6360 ?m squared.

  5. Rotating Aperture System

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian (Livermore, CA); Hall, James M. (Livermore, CA); Shen, Stewart (Danville, CA); Wood, Richard L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  6. Evolving design criteria for very large aperture space-based telescopes and their influence on the need for intergrated tools in the optimization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William R.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars.

  7. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space-Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars.

  8. Observation of the Earth's dynamic ellipticity with a large ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Kluegel, Thomas; Gebauer, Andre

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid advance of large ring laser gyroscopes, their promising applications in geoscience (such as, detection of Earth's tides, Earth's free oscillations and seismical waves etc.) have been demonstrated impressively by several ring laser groups. In this work we will report on one more application, which is the determination of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity by measuring the retrograde diurnal polar motion at the K1 wave with a single large ring laser. The Earth's astronomical dynamical ellipticity Hd = 0.00325(6) is estimated by means of 168 days of continuous data from the G-ring, located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  9. Optica aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Avoort, Casper

    2006-05-01

    Optical long baseline stellar interferometry is an observational technique in astronomy that already exists for over a century, but is truly blooming during the last decades. The undoubted value of stellar interferometry as a technique to measure stellar parameters beyond the classical resolution limit is more and more spreading to the regime of synthesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging, the measurement of parameters is extended to the reconstruction of high resolution stellar images. A number of optical telescope arrays for synthesis imaging are operational on Earth, while space-based telescope arrays are being designed. For all imaging arrays, the combination of the light collected by the telescopes in the array can be performed in a number of ways. In this thesis, methods are introduced to model these methods of beam combination and compare their effectiveness in the generation of data to be used to reconstruct the image of a stellar object. One of these methods of beam combination is to be applied in a future space telescope. The European Space Agency is developing a mission that can valuably be extended with an imaging beam combiner. This mission is labeled Darwin, as its main goal is to provide information on the origin of life. The primary objective is the detection of planets around nearby stars - called exoplanets- and more precisely, Earth-like exoplanets. This detection is based on a signal, rather than an image. With an imaging mode, designed as described in this thesis, Darwin can make images of, for example, the planetary system to which the detected exoplanet belongs or, as another example, of the dust disk around a star out of which planets form. Such images will greatly contribute to the understanding of the formation of our own planetary system and of how and when life became possible on Earth. The comparison of beam combination methods for interferometric imaging occupies most of the pages of this thesis. Additional chapters will treat related subjects, being experimental work on beam combination optics, a description of a novel formalism for aberration retrieval and experimental work on nulling interferometry. The Chapters on interferometric imaging are organized in such a way that not only the physical principles behind a stellar interferometer are clear, but these chapters also form a basis for the method of analysis applied to the interferometers - -or rather beam combination methods- under consideration. The imaging process in a stellar interferometer will be treated as the inversion of a linear system of equations. The definition of interferometric imaging in this thesis can be stated to be the reconstruction of a luminosity distribution function on the sky, that is, in angular measure, larger than the angular diffraction limited spot size -or Point-Spread Function (PSF)- of a single telescope in the array and that contains, again in angular measure, spatial structure that is much smaller than the PSF of a single telescope. This reconstruction has to be based on knowledge of the dimensions of the telescope array and the detector. The detector collects intensity data that is formed by observation of the polychromatic luminosity distribution on the sky and is deteriorated by the quantum-nature of light and an imperfect electronic detection process. Therefore, the imaging study presented in this thesis can be regarded to be a study on the signal characteristics of various interferometers while imaging a polychromatic wide-field stellar source. The collection of beam combination methods under consideration consists of four types. Among these are two well-known types, having either co-axially combined beams as in the Michelson-Morley experiment to demonstrate the existence of ether, or beams that follow optical paths as if an aperture mask were placed in front of a telescope, making the beams combine in the focus of that telescope, as suggested by Fizeau. For separated apertures rather than an aperture mask, these optical paths are stated to be homothetic. In short, these two types will be addressed as the Michelson or the Homothetic type. The other two types are addressed as Densified and Staircase. The first one is short for densified pupil imaging, an imaging technique very similar to the Homothetic type, be it that the natural course of light after the aperture mask is altered. However, the combination of the beams of light is again in focus. The Staircase method is an alternative to the co-axial Michelson method and lends its name from the fact that a staircase-shaped mirror is placed in an intermediate focal plane after each telescope in the array, before combining the beams of light co-axially. This addition allows stellar imaging as with the Michelson type, with the advantage of covering a large field-of-view. The details of these methods will intensively be discussed in this thesis, but the introduction of them at this point allows a short list of results, found by comparing them for equal imaging tasks. Homothetic imagers are best suited for covering a wide field-of-view, considering the information content of the interferometric signals these arrays produce. The large number of detectors does not seem to limit the imaging performance in the presence of noise, due to the high ratio of coherent versus incoherent information in the detector signal. The imaging efficiency of a Michelson type array is also high, although -considering only polychromatic wide-field imaging tasks- the ratio of coherent versus incoherent information in the detected signals is very low. This results in very large observation times needed to produce images comparable to those obtained with a Homothetic array. A detailed presentation of the characteristics of the detected signals in a co-axial Michelson array reveal that such signals, obtained by polychromatic observation of extended sources, have fringe envelope functions that do not allow Fourier-spectroscopy to obtain high-resolution spectroscopic information about such a source. For the Densified case, it is found that this method can indeed provide an interferometric PSF that is more favorable than a homothetic PSF, but only for narrow-angle observations. For polychromatic wide-field observations, the Densified-PSF is field-dependent, for which the image reconstruction process can account. Wide-field imaging using the favorable properties of the Densified-PSF can be performed, by using special settings of the delay or optical path length difference between interferometer arms and including observations with several settings of delay in the observation data. The Staircase method is the second best method for the imaging task under consideration. The discontinuous nature of the staircase-shaped mirrors does not give rise to a discontinuous reconstructed luminosity distribution or non-uniformly covered spatial frequencies. The intrinsic efficiency of the interferometric signal in this type of interferometer is worse than that of the other co-axial method, although the ratio of coherent versus incoherent signal in the data -the length of the fringe packet in one intensity trace-e- is nearly ultimate. The inefficiency is overwhelmingly compensated for by the very short observation time needed. Besides numerical studies of interferometer arrays, one interferometric imager was also studied experimentally. A homothetic imager was built, comprising three telescopes with fully separated beam relay optics. The pointing direction, the location and the optical path length of two of the three beams are electronically controllable. The beams can be focused together to interfere, via a beam combiner consisting of curved surfaces. This set-up allows to measure the required accuracies at which certain optical elements have to be positioned. Moreover, this set-up demonstrates that without knowledge of the initial pointing directions, locations and optical path lengths of the beams, the situation of homothesis can be attained, solely based on information from the focal plane of the set-up. Further experiments show that the approximation of exact homothesis is limited by the optical quality of the beam combiner optics. Parallel to the experiments on homothesis, a study was performed to evaluate the use of the Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) formalism for analysis of multiple aperture optical systems. It is envisaged that an aberration retrieval algorithm, provided with the common focus of a homothetic array, can be used to detect misalignment of or even aberrations in the sub-apertures of the sparse synthetic aperture. The ENZ formalism is a powerful tool to describe the focal intensity profile in an optical imaging system, imaging a monochromatic point source through a pupil that is allowed to have a certain transmission profile and phase aberration function over the pupil. Moreover, the formalism allows calculation of intensity profiles outside the best-focus plane. With the intensity information of several through-focus planes, enough information is available to reconstruct the pupil function from it. The formalism is described, including the reconstruction algorithm. Although very good results are obtained for general pupil functions, the results for synthetic pupil functions are not very promising. The detailed description of the ENZ-aberration retrieval reveals the origin of the breakdown of the retrieval process. Finally, a description of experiments on nulling interferometry is given, starting with the presentation of an experimental set-up for three-beam nulling. A novel strategy for polychromatic nulling is treated here, with the goal of relieving the tight phase constraint on the spectra in the individual beams. This theoretically allows broad band-nulling with a high rejection ratio without using achromatic phase shifters. The disappointing results led to an investigation of the spectra of the individual beams. The origin of the unsatisfactory level of the rejection ratio is found in the spectral unbalance of the beams. Before branching off, the beams have an equal spectrum. Then, the encounter of different optical elements with individually applied coatings, the control of beam-power per beam and finally the beam coupling into a single-mode fiber, apparently alter the spectra in such a way that the theoretically achievable level of the rejection ratio cannot be reached. The research described in this thesis provides onsets for research in several areas of interest related to aperture synthesis and guidelines concerning the design of synthetic telescopes for imaging. As such, this research contributes to the improvement of instrumentation for observational astronomy, in particular for stellar interferometry. While nulling interferometry is the detection technique that allows a space telescope array such as ESA-Darwin to identify exoplanets, optical aperture synthesis imaging is the technique that can make images of the planetary systems to which these exoplanets belong. Moreover, many objects can be observed that represent earlier versions of our planetary system, our Sun and even our galaxy, the Milky Way. Observing these objects might answer questions about the origins of the Earth itself and the life on it.

  10. Quad aperture RF definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foldes, P.

    1982-01-01

    A single STS package 118 m diameter hoop/column antenna is capable of providing service for appr. 250,000 mobile users. The selected quad aperture configuration is able to provide at least 25 db C/I without cable blockage, column scatter, coupling between quad apertures, and tolerance effects. A feed can be designed which uses single polarized radiating elements while the overall system employs dual polarization. The quad aperture concept can eliminate the use of diplexers and their associated losses. The critical technology issues in the RF area include the design of the radiating elements, BFN, monolithic power amplifiers and receiver front end, tolerance control and packaging of the feed.

  11. Sub-Aperture Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sub-aperture interferometers -- also called wavefront-split interferometers -- have been developed for simultaneously measuring displacements of multiple targets. The terms "sub-aperture" and "wavefront-split" signify that the original measurement light beam in an interferometer is split into multiple sub-beams derived from non-overlapping portions of the original measurement-beam aperture. Each measurement sub-beam is aimed at a retroreflector mounted on one of the targets. The splitting of the measurement beam is accomplished by use of truncated mirrors and masks, as shown in the example below

  12. Bursts of Terahertz Radiation from Large-Scale Plasmas Irradiated by Relativistic Picosecond Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, G. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Li, C.; Su, L. N.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, W. M.; Hu, Z. D.; Yan, W. C.; Dunn, J.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Chen, L. M.; Ma, J. L.; Lu, X.; Jin, Z.; Kodama, R.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-01

    Powerful terahertz (THz) radiation is observed from large-scale underdense preplasmas in front of a solid target irradiated obliquely with picosecond relativistic intense laser pulses. The radiation covers an extremely broad spectrum with about 70% of its energy located in the high frequency regime over 10 THz. The pulse energy of the radiation is found to be above 1 0 0 ? J per steradian in the laser specular direction at an optimal preplasma scale length around 40 - 50 ? m . Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the radiation is mainly produced by linear mode conversion from electron plasma waves, which are excited successively via stimulated Raman scattering instability and self-modulated laser wakefields during the laser propagation in the preplasma. This radiation can be used not only as a powerful source for applications, but also as a unique diagnostic of parametric instabilities of laser propagation in plasmas.

  13. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  14. Fabrication of large curvature microlens array using confined laser swelling method.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Zhai, Haipeng; Hu, Bing; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao

    2013-08-15

    This Letter proposes a confined laser swelling method to fabricate large curvature microlens arrays. Unlike the polymers in conventional free laser swelling, the swelling polymer, which is methyl red-doped polymethyl methacrylate here, is confined between walls formed by a substrate and a flexible cover layer. Because swelling occurs in an enclosed space, decomposed segments remain in the matrix, resulting in a large hump at the side of the flexible cover layer. The results show that these humps are tens of times higher than those acquired by conventional methods and this method has potential for high efficiency large curvature microlens fabrication. PMID:24104643

  15. High numerical aperture hybrid optics for two-photon polymerization.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Frank; Zeitner, Uwe D; Nolte, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-03-26

    We report on an immersion hybrid optics specially designed for focusing ultrashort laser pulses into a polymer for direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization. The hybrid optics allows for well-corrected focusing over a large working distance range of 577 μm with a numerical aperture (NA) of 1.33 and low internal dispersion. We combine the concepts of an aplanatic solid immersion lens (ASIL) for achieving a high NA with a diffractive optical element (DOE) for correction of aberrations. To demonstrate the improvements for volume structuring of the polymer, we compare the achievable structure sizes of our optics with a commercially available oil-immersion objective (100x, NA=1.4). PMID:22453471

  16. Overview of recent advances in excimer laser technology at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Bigio, I.J.; Sze, R.C.; Taylor, A.J.; Gibson, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    From among the areas of excimer laser development at Los Alamos two are selected for further discussion: ultra-high brightness excimer laser systems and discharge-pumped XeF(C..-->..A) lasers operating in the blue-green portion of the spectrum. Two different high brightness systems are described. One is based on small-aperture KrF amplifiers, while the other is based on a large-aperture XeCl amplifier. The XeF(C..-->..A) laser is tunable from 435 to 525 nm, and may one day become a viable alternative to pulsed dye lasers for many applications. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Measurement of the surface form error of large aperture plane optical surfaces with a polarization phase-shifting liquid reference reflection Fizeau interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanjib; Pavan Kumar, Y; Singh, Rishipal; Singh, Sarvendra

    2016-01-10

    A polarization phase-shifting liquid reference reflection Fizeau interferometer has been proposed. A polarization cyclic path optical configuration along with a concave telescope mirror is used to produce a pair of expanded, collimated p and s polarized beams with a small angular separation between them. The collimated beams are deflected along a vertical direction toward a Fizeau interferometer cavity formed between a liquid surface that acts as a reference surface and a plane test surface. Either the p or s polarized beam is allowed to strike the liquid surface normally and the orientation of the test surface is adjusted to reflect the other beam, having orthogonal linear polarization, in the direction of the normally reflected reference beam from the liquid surface. A combination of a quarter-wave plate and linear polarizer is used to apply polarization phase shift between the test and reference beams, and quantitative surface form error is measured by applying phase-shifting interferometry. A method for elimination of the residual system aberration is discussed. Results obtained for an optically polished BK-7 disk of clear aperture diameter≈160  mm are presented. PMID:26835767

  18. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Teplow, William J.; Warren, Ian

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  19. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  20. Permeability of self-affine aperture fields.

    PubMed

    Talon, Laurent; Auradou, Harold; Hansen, Alex

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a model that allows for the prediction of the permeability of self-affine rough channels (one-dimensional fracture) and two-dimensional fractures over a wide range of apertures. In the lubrication approximation, the permeability shows three different scaling regimes. For fractures with a large mean aperture or an aperture small enough to the permeability being close to disappearing, the permeability scales as the cube of the aperture when the zero level of the aperture is set to coincide with the disappearance of the permeability. Between these two regimes, there is a third regime where the scaling is due to the self-affine roughness. For rough channels, the exponent is found to be 3-1/H, where H is the Hurst exponent. For two-dimensional fractures, it is necessary to introduce an equivalent aperture b(c) to make the scaling regime apparent. b(c) is defined as the hydraulic aperture of the most restrictive barrier crossing the fracture normal to the flow direction. This regime is characterized by an exponent higher than that for the one-dimensional case: it is 2.25 for H=0.8 and 2.16 for H=0.3. PMID:21230346

  1. Accuracy improvement in laser stripe extraction for large-scale triangulation scanning measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Fan; Gao, Peng; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale triangulation scanning measurement systems are widely used to measure the three-dimensional profile of large-scale components and parts. The accuracy and speed of the laser stripe center extraction are essential for guaranteeing the accuracy and efficiency of the measuring system. However, in the process of large-scale measurement, multiple factors can cause deviation of the laser stripe center, including the spatial light intensity distribution, material reflectivity characteristics, and spatial transmission characteristics. A center extraction method is proposed for improving the accuracy of the laser stripe center extraction based on image evaluation of Gaussian fitting structural similarity and analysis of the multiple source factors. First, according to the features of the gray distribution of the laser stripe, evaluation of the Gaussian fitting structural similarity is estimated to provide a threshold value for center compensation. Then using the relationships between the gray distribution of the laser stripe and the multiple source factors, a compensation method of center extraction is presented. Finally, measurement experiments for a large-scale aviation composite component are carried out. The experimental results for this specific implementation verify the feasibility of the proposed center extraction method and the improved accuracy for large-scale triangulation scanning measurements.

  2. Pattern Formation in the Transverse Section of a Laser with a Large Fresnel Number

    SciTech Connect

    Hegarty, S.P.; Huyet, G.; McInerney, J.G.; Choquette, K.D.

    1999-02-01

    We experimentally investigate pattern formation in a single-wavelength long laser cavity with a large Fresnel number. Near the laser threshold, we observe a single frequency spatially periodic structure corresponding to titled waves theoretically predicted by the Maxwell-Bloch equations. We also show the presence of secondary instabilities at other wavelengths and polarization instabilities at the same wavelength for different parameter values. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  3. Femtosecond laser-induced asymmetric large scale waves on gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yong Hwang, Taek; Guo, Chunlei

    2012-07-09

    With femtosecond (fs) pulse irradiation, we investigate the morphological evolution of a unique type of fs laser-induced periodic surface structure, called nanostructure-covered large scale waves (NC-LSWs), covered by iterating stripe patterns of nanostructures and microstructures with a period of tens of microns. By monitoring the morphological profile of NC-LSWs following fs laser heating of Au, we show that the NC-LSWs are highly asymmetrically formed and propagate on a gold surface. We believe that the selective laser ablation of Au surface and the subsequent mass transfer of liquid Au following nonuniform energy deposition result in the asymmetric NC-LSW propagation on metals.

  4. Large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner based on voice coil actuators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Yang, Minghui; Fu, Wen

    2011-10-01

    A large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner with an in-house ingenious deflection angle detecting system is developed based on voice coil actuators direct driving mechanism. The specially designed voice coil actuators make the steering mirror moving at a sufficiently large angle. Frequency sweep method based on virtual instruments is employed to achieve the natural frequency of the laser scanner. The response shows that the performance of the laser scanner is limited by the mechanical resonances. The closed-loop controller based on mathematical model is used to reduce the oscillation of the laser scanner at resonance frequency. To design a qualified controller, the model of the laser scanner is set up. The transfer function of the model is identified with MATLAB according to the tested data. After introducing of the controller, the nonlinearity decreases from 13.75% to 2.67% at 50 Hz. The laser scanner also has other advantages such as large deflection mirror, small mechanical structure, and high scanning speed. PMID:22047325

  5. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  6. Optical aperture area determination for accurate illuminance and luminous efficacy measurements of LED lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dönsberg, Timo; Mäntynen, Henrik; Ikonen, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    The measurement uncertainty of illuminance and, consequently, luminous flux and luminous efficacy of LED lamps can be reduced with a recently introduced method based on the predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED). One of the most critical factors affecting the measurement uncertainty with the PQED method is the determination of the aperture area. This paper describes an upgrade to an optical method for direct determination of aperture area where superposition of equally spaced Gaussian laser beams is used to form a uniform irradiance distribution. In practice, this is accomplished by scanning the aperture in front of an intensity-stabilized laser beam. In the upgraded method, the aperture is attached to the PQED and the whole package is transversely scanned relative to the laser beam. This has the benefit of having identical geometry in the laser scanning of the aperture area and in the actual photometric measurement. Further, the aperture and detector assembly does not have to be dismantled for the aperture calibration. However, due to small acceptance angle of the PQED, differences between the diffraction effects of an overfilling plane wave and of a combination of Gaussian laser beams at the circular aperture need to be taken into account. A numerical calculation method for studying these effects is discussed in this paper. The calculation utilizes the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, which is applied to the geometry of the PQED and the aperture. Calculation results for various aperture diameters and two different aperture-to-detector distances are presented.

  7. Recommendations for the design and the installation of large laser scanning microscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, P. Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has since the inventions of the Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CLSM) and the Multi Photon Laser Scanning Microscope (MPLSM) developed into an essential tool in contemporary life science and material science. The market provides an increasing number of turn-key and hands-off commercial LSM systems, un-problematic to purchase, set up and integrate even into minor research groups. However, the successful definition, financing, acquisition, installation and effective use of one or more large laser scanning microscopy systems, possibly of core facility character, often requires major efforts by senior staff members of large academic or industrial units. Here, a set of recommendations is presented, which are helpful during the process of establishing large systems for confocal or non-linear laser scanning microscopy as an effective operational resource in the scientific or industrial production process. Besides the description of technical difficulties and possible pitfalls, the article also illuminates some seemingly "less scientific" processes, i.e. the definition of specific laboratory demands, advertisement of the intention to purchase one or more large systems, evaluation of quotations, establishment of contracts and preparation of the local environment and laboratory infrastructure.

  8. Micro-scanning mirrors for high-power laser applications in laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandner, Thilo; Kimme, Simon; Grasshoff, Thomas; Todt, Ulrich; Graf, Alexander; Tulea, Cristian; Lenenbach, Achim; Schenk, Harald

    2014-03-01

    We present two novel micro scanning mirrors with large aperture and HR dielectric coatings suitable for high power laser applications in a miniaturized laser-surgical instrument for neurosurgery to cut skull tissue. An electrostatic driven 2D-raster scanning mirror with 5x7.1mm aperture is used for dynamic steering of a ps-laser beam of the laser cutting process. A second magnetic 2D-beam steering mirror enables a static beam correction of a hand guided laser instrument. Optimizations of a magnetic gimbal micro mirror with 6 mm x 8 mm mirror plate are presented; here static deflections of 3 were reached. Both MEMS devices were successfully tested with a high power ps-laser at 532nm up to 20W average laser power.

  9. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y. W.; Ockert, C. E.; Wiedermann, A. H.

    1985-12-31

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  10. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  11. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Yong W. (Western Springs, IL); Wiedermann, Arne H. (Chicago Heights, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA)

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  12. Beam characteristics of a large-bore copper laser with a radiatively cooled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.J.; Boley, C.D.; Molander, W.A.; Warner, B.E.; Martinez, M.W.

    1994-01-18

    In a large-bore copper vapor laser (CVL), excessive gas heating at the axial region of the discharge lowers its efficiency by thermally populating the metastable lower laser levels. The associated lower gas density also lengthens the discharge field-diffusion time, leading to weaker axial pumping and undesired beam characteristics. The authors` laboratory has developed a novel approach to circumvent this obstacle by cooling the plasma radiatively via a series of segmented metal plates (septa) placed vertically along the length of the tube. This improved tube design significantly lowers the average gas temperature and shortens the radial delay. A 27% increase in laser power was observed with the addition of septa. The authors have characterized the beam intensity profile, spatial and temporal pulse variation, and beam polarization through extensive laboratory measurements. A detailed computational model of the laser has been used to characterize and interpret the laboratory results.

  13. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF IGNITION PROCESSES IN LARGE NATURAL GAS ENGINES USING LASER SPARK IGNITION

    SciTech Connect

    Azer Yalin; Morgan Defoort; Bryan Willson

    2005-01-01

    The current report details project progress made during the first quarterly reporting period of the DOE sponsored project ''Fundamental studies of ignition processes in large natural gas engines using laser spark ignition''. The goal of the overall research effort is to develop a laser ignition system for natural gas engines, with a particular focus on using fiber optic delivery methods. In this report we present our successful demonstration of spark formation using fiber delivery made possible though the use of novel coated hollow fibers. We present results of (high power) experimental characterizations of light propagation using hollow fibers using both a high power research grade laser as well as a more compact laser. Finally, we present initial designs of the system we are developing for future on-engine testing using the hollow fibers.

  14. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc.

  15. OSNR enhancement utilizing large effective area fiber in a multiwavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonee Shargh, R.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Anas, S. B. A.; Sahbudin, R. K. Z.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a simple Brillouin-Raman multi-channel fiber laser with supportive Rayleigh scattering in a linear cavity without employing any feedback mirrors at the end of cavity. Brillouin and the consequences of Rayleigh scattering work as virtual mirrors. We employ a section of large effective area fiber in addition to a section of dispersion compensating fiber to enhance the optical signal-to-noise ratio of multi-channel Brillouin-Raman comb fiber laser. We able to produce a flat comb fiber laser with 37 nm bandwidth from 1539 to 1576 nm built-in 460 Stokes lines with 0.08 nm spacing. Furthermore, this Brillouin-Raman comb fiber laser has acceptable optical signal-to-noise ratio value of 16.8 dB for the entire bandwidth with excellent flatness and low discrepancies in power levels of about 2.3 dB between odd and even channels.

  16. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskild-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28?dB, for lasing operation temperature ~200?K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc. PMID:26727551

  17. Large-area organic distributed feedback laser fabricated by nanoreplica molding and horizontal dipping.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chun; Lu, Meng; Jian, Xun; Tan, Yafang; Cunningham, Brian T

    2010-06-01

    The fabrication of visible wavelength vertically emitting distributed feedback (DFB) lasers with a subwavelength grating fabricated by a replica molding process and an active polymer layer printed by a horizontal dipping process is reported. The combined techniques enable the organic DFB laser to be uniformly fabricated over large surface areas upon a flexible plastic substrate, with an approach that is compatible with roll-based manufacturing. Using a fixed grating period and depth, DFB laser output wavelength is controlled over a 35 nm range through manipulation of the waveguide layer thickness, which is controlled by the speed of the horizontal dipping process. We also demonstrate that the active area of the structure may be photolithographically patterned to create dense arrays of discrete DFB lasers. PMID:20588427

  18. Printed Large-Area Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Bandedge Surface-Emitting Lasers on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Deyin; Liu, Shihchia; Yang, Hongjun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl; Hammar, Mattias; Zhou, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    We report here an optically pumped hybrid III-V/Si photoic crystal surface emitting laser (PCSEL), consisting of a heterogeneously integrated III-V InGaAsP quantum well heterostructure gain medium, printed on a patterned defect-free Si photonic crystal (PC) bandedge cavity. Single mode lasing was achieved for a large area laser, with a side-mode suppression ratio of 28 dB, for lasing operation temperature ~200 K. Two types of lasers were demonstrated operating at different temperatures. Detailed modal analysis reveals the lasing mode matches with the estimated lasing gain threshold conditions. Our demonstration promises a hybrid laser sources on Si towards three-dimensional (3D) integrated Si photonics for on-chip wavelength-division multiplex (3D WDM) systems for a wide range of volume photonic/electronic applications in computing, communication, sensing, imaging, etc. PMID:26727551

  19. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  20. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  1. Radius of Curvature Measurement of Large Optics Using Interferometry and Laser Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Connelly, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The determination of radius of curvature (ROC) of optics typically uses either a phase measuring interferometer on an adjustable stage to determine the position of the ROC and the optics surface under test. Alternatively, a spherometer or a profilometer are used for this measurement. The difficulty of this approach is that for large optics, translation of the interferometer or optic under test is problematic because of the distance of translation required and the mass of the optic. Profilometry and spherometry are alternative techniques that can work, but require a profilometer or a measurement of subapertures of the optic. The proposed approach allows a measurement of the optic figure simultaneous with the full aperture radius of curvature.

  2. Index class apertures--a class of flexible coded aperture.

    PubMed

    Byard, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    A class of flexible coded apertures, called index class apertures, is presented. The configurations are shown to possess similar properties to the geometric apertures of Gourlay and Stephen [Appl. Opt.22, 4042 (1983)], and it is demonstrated that the modified uniformly redundant arrays (MURAs) are a special case of the index class apertures. The apertures are shown to offer both a larger range of throughput values and better imaging capability than is available to the geometric apertures, while at the same time possessing more rigidity of structure than other designs, such as the MURAs and the uniformly redundant arrays. PMID:22695583

  3. Large-scale atomistic simulations of surface nanostructuring by short pulse laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengping; Shugaev, Maxim; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    The availability of petascale supercomputing resources has expanded the range of research questions that can be addressed in the simulations and, in particular, enabled large-scale atomistic simulations of short pulse laser nanostructuring of metal surfaces. A series of simulations performed for systems consisting of 108 - 109 atoms is used in this study to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the generation of complex multiscale surface morphology and microstructure. At low laser fluence, just below the spallation threshold, a concurrent occurrence of fast laser melting, dynamic relaxation of laser-induced stresses, and rapid cooling and resolidification of the transiently melted surface region is found to produce a sub-surface porous region covered by a nanocrystalline layer. At higher laser fluences, in the spallation and phase explosion regimes, the material disintegration and ejection driven by the relaxation of laser-induced stresses and/or explosive release of vapor leads to the formation of complex surface morphology that can only be studied in billion-atom simulations. The first result from a billion atom simulation of surface nanostructuring performed on Titan will be discussed in the presentation. Financial support is provided by NSF (DMR-0907247 and CMMI-1301298) and AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0541). Computational support is provided by the OLCF (MAT048) and NSF XSEDE (TG-DMR110090).

  4. High-power picosecond laser with 400W average power for large scale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Keming; Brning, Stephan; Gillner, Arnold

    2012-03-01

    Laser processing is generally known for low thermal influence, precise energy processing and the possibility to ablate every type of material independent on hardness and vaporisation temperature. The use of ultra-short pulsed lasers offers new possibilities in the manufacturing of high end products with extra high processing qualities. For achieving a sufficient and economical processing speed, high average power is needed. To scale the power for industrial uses the picosecond laser system has been developed, which consists of a seeder, a preamplifier and an end amplifier. With the oscillator/amplifier system more than 400W average power and maximum pulse energy 1mJ was obtained. For study of high speed processing of large embossing metal roller two different ps laser systems have been integrated into a cylinder engraving machine. One of the ps lasers has an average power of 80W while the other has 300W. With this high power ps laser fluencies of up to 30 J/cm2 at pulse repetition rates in the multi MHz range have been achieved. Different materials (Cu, Ni, Al, steel) have been explored for parameters like ablation rate per pulse, ablation geometry, surface roughness, influence of pulse overlap and number of loops. An enhanced ablation quality and an effective ablation rate of 4mm3/min have been achieved by using different scanning systems and an optimized processing strategy. The max. achieved volume rate is 20mm3/min.

  5. Optofluidic laser for dual-mode sensitive biomolecular detection with a large dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang; Oo, Maung Kyaw Khaing; Reddy, Karthik; Chen, Qiushu; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

    2014-04-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a powerful method for biomolecular analysis. The traditional ELISA employing light intensity as the sensing signal often encounters large background arising from non-specific bindings, material autofluorescence and leakage of excitation light, which deteriorates its detection limit and dynamic range. Here we develop the optofluidic laser-based ELISA, where ELISA occurs inside a laser cavity. The laser onset time is used as the sensing signal, which is inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration and hence the analyte concentration inside the cavity. We first elucidate the principle of the optofluidic laser-based ELISA, and then characterize the optofluidic laser performance. Finally, we present the dual-mode detection of interleukin-6 using commercial ELISA kits, where the sensing signals are simultaneously obtained by the traditional and the optofluidic laser-based ELISA, showing a detection limit of 1?fg?ml-1 (38?aM) and a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude.

  6. Wide-aperture detector of terahertz radiation based on GaAs/InGaAs transistor structure with large-area slit grating gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marem'yanin, K. V.; Ermolaev, D. M.; Fateev, D. V.; Morozov, S. V.; Maleev, N. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Popov, V. V.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2010-04-01

    Terahertz photoresponse of a GaAs/InGaAs transistor structure with large-area slit grating gate has been measured. Peaks in the photoresponse curve are assigned to plasmon resonances excited in the structure. More effective excitation of plasmon resonances is achieved in a grating gate structure with narrow slits, which increase the photoresponse amplitude by an order of magnitude.

  7. A feasibility study into the screening and imaging of hand luggage for threat items at 35 GHz using an active large aperture (1.6 m) security screening imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; O'Reilly, Dean; Salmon, Neil A.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer-Ddine; Harmer, Stuart W.

    2013-10-01

    The feasibility of screening hand luggage for concealed threat items such as Person-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices (PBIED's) both metallic and non-metallic, together with handguns and at millimetre wavelengths is investigated. Previous studies by the authors and others indicate that hand baggage material and fabric is much more transmissive and has less scattering at lower millimetre wave frequencies and the ability to use K-band active imaging with high spatial resolution presents an opportunity to image and hence recognise concealed threats. For this feasibility study, a 1.6 m aperture, 35 GHz security screening imaging system with a spatial resolution of 2.5 cm and a depth of field of around 5 cm is employed, using spatially incoherent illuminating panels to enhance image contrast. In this study, realistic scenarios using backpacks containing a realistic range of threat and non-threat items are scanned, both carried and standalone. This range of items contains large vessels suitable for containing simulated home-made PBIED's and handguns. The comprehensive list of non-threat items includes laptops, bottles, clothing and power supplies. For this study, the range at which imaging data at standoff distances can be acquired is confined to that of the particular system in use, although parameters such as illumination and integration time are optimised. However, techniques for extrapolating towards effective standoff distances using aperture synthesis imagers are discussed. The transmission loss through fabrics and clothing that may form, or be contained in baggage, are reported over range of frequencies ranging from 26 to 110 GHz.

  8. Polarisation splitting of laser beams by large angles with minimal reflection losses

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, B L

    2006-05-31

    New crystal anisotropic prisms for splitting orthogonally polarised components of laser radiation by large angles with minimal reflection losses caused by the Brewster refraction and total internal reflection of polarised waves from the crystal-air interface are considered and the method for their calculation is described. It is shown that, by assembling glue-free combinations of two or three prisms, thermally stable beamsplitters can be fabricated, which are free from the beam astigmatism and the wave dispersion of the output angles of the beams. The parameters and properties of new beamsplitters are presented in a convenient form in figures and tables. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone.

    PubMed

    An, Ran; Khadar, Ghadeer W; Wilk, Emilia I; Emigh, Brent; Haugen, Harold K; Wohl, Gregory R; Dunlop, Brett; Anvari, Mehran; Hayward, Joseph E; Fang, Qiyin

    2013-07-01

    When using ultrafast laser ablation in some orthopedic applications where precise cutting/drilling is required with minimal damage to collateral tissue, it is challenging to produce large-sized and deep holes using a tightly focused laser beam. The feasibility of producing deep, millimeter-size structures under different ablation strategies is investigated. X-ray computed microtomography was employed to analyze the morphology of these structures. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of producing holes with sizes required in clinical applications using concentric and helical ablation protocols. PMID:23884158

  10. Breaking and Moving Hotspots in a Large Grain Nb Cavity with a Laser Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, G.; Cheng, G.; Flood, R. J.; Jordan, K.; Kneisel, P.; Morrone, M. L.; Turlington, L.; Wilson, K. M.; Zhang, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Gurevich, A. V.; Nemes, G.; Baldwin, C.

    2011-07-25

    Magnetic vortices pinned near the inner surface of SRF Nb cavities are a possible source of RF hotspots, frequently observed by temperature mapping of the cavities outer surface at RF surface magnetic fields of about 100 mT. Theoretically, we expect that the thermal gradient provided by a 10 W green laser shining on the inner cavity surface at the RF hotspot locations can move pinned vortices to different pinning locations. The experimental apparatus to send the beam onto the inner surface of a photoinjector-type large-grain Nb cavity is described. Preliminary results on the changes in thermal maps observed after applying the laser heating are also reported.

  11. Development of Large Concrete Object Geometrical Model Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek-Peplinska, Janina; Popielski, Pawe?; Kasprzak, Adam; Wjcik, Pawe?

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents control periodic measurements of movements and survey of concrete dam on Dunajec River in Ro?nw, Poland. Topographical survey was conducted using laser scanning technique. The goal of survey was data collection and creation of a geometrical model. Acquired cross- and horizontal sections were utilised to create a numerical model of object behaviour at various load depending of changing level of water in reservoir. Modelling was accomplished using finite elements technique. During the project an assessment was conducted to terrestrial laser scanning techniques for such type of research of large hydrotechnical objects such as gravitational water dams. Developed model can be used to define deformations and displacement prognosis.

  12. Low-energy photoelectrons in strong-field ionization by laser pulses with large ellipticity.

    PubMed

    Dimitrovski, D; Maurer, J; Stapelfeldt, H; Madsen, L B

    2014-09-01

    The 3D photoelectron momentum distributions created by the strong-field ionization of argon atoms and naphthalene molecules with intense, large ellipticity (?0.7) femtosecond laser pulses are studied. The experiment reveals the presence of low-energy electrons for randomly oriented naphthalene, but not for argon. Our theory shows that the induced dipole part of the cationic potential facilitates the creation of the low-energy electrons. We establish the conditions in terms of laser pulse parameters and molecular properties for which this type of low-energy electrons can be observed and point to applications thereof. PMID:25238357

  13. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  14. Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.

  15. Measuring optical turbulence parameters with a three-aperture receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, David T.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Vetelino, Frida Strommqvist; Griffis, Brad; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Visone, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    Intensity fluctuations from a 532nm CW laser source were collected over an outdoor 1km path, 2m above the ground, with three different receiving apertures. The scintillation index was found for each receiving aperture and recently developed theory for all regimes of optical turbulence was used to infer three atmospheric parameters, C n2, l 0, and L 0. Parallel to the three-aperture data collection was a commercial scintillometer unit which reported C n2 and crosswind speed. There was also a weather station positioned at the receiver side which provided point measurements for temperature and wind speed. The C n2 measurement obtained from the commercial scintillometer was used to infer l 0, L 0, and the scintillation index. Those values were then compared to the inferred atmospheric parameters from the experimental data. Finally, the optimal aperture sizes for data collection with the three-aperture receiver were determined.

  16. Frequency chirped light at large detuning with an injection-locked diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, K.; Disla, M.; Dellatto, J.; Limani, A.; Kaufman, B.; Wright, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    We have developed a laser system to generate frequency-chirped light at rapid modulation speeds (∼100 MHz) with a large frequency offset. Light from an external cavity diode laser with its frequency locked to an atomic resonance is passed through a lithium niobate electro-optical phase modulator. The phase modulator is driven by a ∼6 GHz signal whose frequency is itself modulated with a RF MHz signal (<200 MHz). A second injection locked diode laser is used to filter out all of the light except the frequency-chirped ±1 order by more than 30 dB. Using this system, it is possible to generate a 1 GHz frequency chirp in 5 ns.

  17. A heterodyne laser spectrometer for precision measurements of large line splittings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, H.; Grafstrm, S.; Kowalski, J.; zu Putlitz, G.; Jastrzebski, W.; Neumann, R.

    1993-07-01

    A computer-controlled heterodyne laser spectrometer has been developed for precision measurements of spectral line spacings in the microwave regime. The instrument consists of two cw single-mode ring dye lasers which are mixed on an avalanche photodiode. Beat frequencies of up to 12.5 GHz are measured by a quartz-stabilized rf counter. Hyperfine structure lines of molecular iodine are used as reference transitions to frequency-lock the lasers and bridge large frequency distances. To demonstrate the performance, we measured the 1s2p 3P fine structure splittings of 70-150 GHz in the spectrum of helium-like 7Li +. Applying Lamb dip spectroscopy and eliminating the Doppler background by a specific data acquisition technique, the splitting frequencies were obtained with a precision of 2x10 -5.

  18. Large-scale massively parallel atomistic simulations of short pulse laser interaction with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid; Computational Materials Group Team

    2014-03-01

    Taking advantage of petascale supercomputing architectures, large-scale massively parallel atomistic simulations (108-109 atoms) are performed to study the microscopic mechanisms of short pulse laser interaction with metals. The results of the simulations reveal a complex picture of highly non-equilibrium processes responsible for material modification and/or ejection. At low laser fluences below the ablation threshold, fast melting and resolidification occur under conditions of extreme heating and cooling rates resulting in surface microstructure modification. At higher laser fluences in the spallation regime, the material is ejected by the relaxation of laser-induced stresses and proceeds through the nucleation, growth and percolation of multiple voids in the sub-surface region of the irradiated target. At a fluence of ~ 2.5 times the spallation threshold, the top part of the target reaches the conditions for an explosive decomposition into vapor and small droplets, marking the transition to the phase explosion regime of laser ablation. The dynamics of plume formation and the characteristics of the ablation plume are obtained from the simulations and compared with the results of time-resolved plume imaging experiments. Financial support for this work was provided by NSF (DMR-0907247 and CMMI-1301298) and AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0541). Computational support was provided by the OLCF (MAT048) and XSEDE (TG-DMR110090).

  19. Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity and Its Laser Treatment of Large Preterm Infants in East China

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Haidong; Ni, Yinqing; Xue, Kang; Yu, Jia; Huang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its laser treatment outcomes in premature infants with birth weight > 1250 g in Eastern China. Methods A retrospective review of 3175 ROP records was conducted at Shanghai Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University. The records were collected at the ROP clinic from 2006 to 2014, including their demographic and medical information such as gestational age, birth weight, supplemental oxygen therapy, systemic complications, ROP stage, location, presence of plus disease. All infants were examined by RetCam fundus camera. Those with Type 1 ROP were also examined by indirect ophthalmoscope before undergoing transpupillary laser treatment. Results A total of 12 infants (24 eyes) with Type 1 ROP and birth weight > 1250 g were enrolled. All infants enrolled had plus disease and ROP in zone II retina. Specifically, 16 eyes (67%) had stage 2 ROP. 8 eyes (33%) had stage 3 ROP. ROP regressed in 23 eyes (96%) following laser treatment. Partial retinal detachment developed in one eye (4%). No severe involution sequelaes or laser-related complications were recorded. Mean follow-up was 306 weeks. Conclusion Type 1 ROP may occur in large premature infants who have undergone supplemental oxygen therapy. This Type 1 ROP is mainly located in zone II retina. Laser treatment is a safe and effective intervention for these infants. PMID:26674190

  20. Preliminary Report On Combined Surgical- And Laser-Treatment Of Large Hemangiomas And Tattoos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsbach, G.

    1981-05-01

    As most hemangiomas and tattoos require many sessions to be cured completely by argon-laser or conventional therapy I developed a new combined surgical and laser-therapy method for large hemangiomas and tattoos. This is a three step method. First: The skin lesion is treated by argon-laser with the point by point method, developed by ourself. Second: Under local or general anaesthesia a) the hemangioma is partially excised and undermined letting only the skin which is already treated by argon-laser-beams. Than the hemangioma is exstirpated in toto, the wound closed by running intradermal sutures and a pressure bandage applied, b) the tattoo is abraded as deep as possible, draped by lyofoam. Then a pressure bandage is applied. Third: The hemangioma as well as the tattoo are treated by argon-laser-beams after the operation. This method is safe and effective, gives good results, minimal scars in the case of hemangiomas and tattoos. In this paper the method is described and some cases are illustrated by pre- and postoperational photographs.

  1. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  2. Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Marchesini, S.; Parkinson, D. Y.

    2014-06-15

    We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6–25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples.

  3. Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haboub, A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Marchesini, S.; Parkinson, D. Y.

    2014-06-01

    We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6-25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples.

  4. Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays.

    PubMed

    Haboub, A; MacDowell, A A; Marchesini, S; Parkinson, D Y

    2014-06-01

    We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6-25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples. PMID:24985824

  5. Multiple aperture window and seeker concepts for endo KEW applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, V.H.; Reeves, B.L.; Thyson, N.A.; Mueffelmann, W.H.; Werner, J.S.; Jones, G. Loral Infrared and Imaging Systems, Lexington, MA U.S. Army, Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL )

    1992-05-01

    Hypersonic interceptors performing endoatmospheric hit-to-kill missions require very high seeker angle measurement accuracies in very severe aero-thermal environments. Wall jet window/aperture cooling usually leads to significant aero-optic degradation in seeker and hence interceptor performance. This paper describes window/aperture concepts that have the potential of eliminating or significantly reducing the need for coolant injection, together with a multiple aperture sensor concept that can provide a high angle measurement accuracy and a large field of regard, with a small aperture size. 15 refs.

  6. A large-field polarisation-resolved laser scanning microscope: applications to CARS imaging.

    PubMed

    DE Vito, G; Canta, A; Marmiroli, P; Piazza, V

    2015-11-01

    Laser-scanning imaging techniques are frequently used to probe the molecule spatial orientation in a sample of interest by exploiting selection rules depending on the polarisation of the excitation light. For the successful implementation of these techniques the precise control of the polarisation at the sample level is of fundamental importance. Polarisation distortions induced by the optical elements are often the main limitation factor for the maximum size of the field-of-view in polarisation-resolved (PR) laser-scanning microscopy, since for large scanning angles the polarisation distortions may mask the real sample structure. Here we shall demonstrate the implementation of large-field-of-view PR microscopy and show PR CARS imaging of mouse spinal cord thanks to a careful design of the laser-beam optical path. We shall show that this design leads to strongly suppressed distortions and quantify their effects on the final images. Although the focus of this work is on CARS imaging, we stress that the approaches described here can be successfully applied to a wide range of PR laser-scanning techniques. PMID:26224369

  7. Non-contact large-scale separated surfaces flatness measurement by using laser beam and laser distance sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Fan, Bo; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie

    2015-07-01

    Large-scale separated surface is very common in modern manufacturing industry. The measurement of the flatness of such surfaces is one of the most important procedures when evaluating the manufacturing quality. Usually, the measurement needs to be accomplished in an in-situ and non-contact way. Although there are many conventional approaches such as autocollimator, capacitance displacement sensor and even CMM, they can not meet the needs from the separated surfaces measurement either because of their contact-nature or inapplicable to separated surfaces. A non-contact large-scale separated surfaces flatness measurement device utilizing laser beam and laser distance sensor (LDS) is proposed. The laser beam is rotated to form an optical reference plane. The LDS is used to measure the distance between the surface and the sensor accurately. A Position Sensitive Detector (PSD) is mounted with the LDS firmly to determine the distance between the LDS and the reference plane and then the distance between the surface and the reference plane can be obtained by subtracting the two distances. The device can be easily mounted on a machine-tool spindle and is moved to measure all the separated surfaces. Then all the data collected are used to evaluate the flatness of these separated surfaces. The accuracy analysis, the corresponding flatness evaluation algorithm, the prototype construction and experiments are also discussed. The proposed approach and device feature as high accuracy, in-situ usage and the higher degree of automatic measurement, and can be used in the areas that call for non-contact and separated surfaces measurement.

  8. Large Aperture O I 6300 Observations of Comet Hyakutake: Implications for the Photochemistry of OH and O I Production in Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, Walter M.; Combi, Michael R.

    2007-03-01

    In previous work (Morgenthaler et al. and Glinski et al.), we proposed a revision to the standard OH photochemistry of van Dishoeck & Dalgarno in order to explain the anomalously bright [O I] 6300 emission observed by several instruments in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). In order to test the validity of revisions to the OH photochemistry, we present wide-field Fabry-Prot [O I] 6300 observations of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and review similar observations recorded for 1P/Halley and 1989 c1 (Austin). Conventional long-slit spectroscopic observations of several comets in [O I] are also reviewed. The bulk of the evidence suggests that the OH photochemical rates of van Dishoeck & Dalgarno are, on the whole, correct and that the bright [O I] emission observed in Hale-Bopp, particularly at cometocentric distances beyond ~3104 km, was unique to that comet, or possibly any comet with such a large production rate.

  9. Far-field pattern of a coherently combined beam from large-scale laser diode arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1991-01-01

    The far-field pattern of a large-scale amplifier array (LSAA) consisting of a large number (2000) of diode laser amplifiers is numerically simulated, and the power collection efficiencies are determined. Random distributions of phase mismatches, misorientations, and element failures in the LSAA system are considered. Phase mismatches and misorientations of the element amplifiers are found to be the most critical parameters of those affecting the power-collection efficiency. Errors of 0.2 wavelength and 25 percent for phase and diffraction angle, respectively, cause a 10 percent reduction in power-collection efficiency. The results are used to evaluate the concept of space-laser power transmission. It is found that an overall transmission efficiency of 80 percent could be realized with a 5-m-diam. receiver at a distance of 10,000 km when an LSAA transmitter 6 m in diam. is aimed with state-of-the-art pointing accuracy.

  10. Ion shock acceleration by large amplitude slow ion acoustic double layers in laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Eliasson, B.

    2014-02-15

    A kinetic model for the shock acceleration of ions in laser-produced plasmas is developed. A fraction of the warm ions are accelerated by the large amplitude monotonic potential of the shock created due the plasma compression and electron heating by the laser. The kinetic model for the monotonic shock is based on the slow ion acoustic double layer (SIADL). It is found that the amplitude of the large amplitude SIADL is almost uniquely defined by the electron temperature. Therefore, a balance between electron heating and plasma compression is needed for optimal ion acceleration by this scheme. Typical Mach numbers of the monotonic shocks are close to 1.5. The scheme could potentially produce monoenergetic ions with a relative energy spread of less than 1%. The model is compared with recent simulations and experiments, where efficient shocks acceleration and production of monoenergetic protons have been observed. Similarities and differences with other shock models are pointed out and discussed.

  11. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  12. Aperture center energy showcase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  13. Large Aperture [O I] 6300 Observations Of Comet Hyakutake: Implications For The Photochemistry Of OH And [O I] Production In Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Harris, W. M.; Combi, M. R.

    2006-09-01

    In previous work (Morgenthaler et al. 2001, Glinski et al. 2004), we proposed a revision to the standard OH photochemistry of van Dishoeck & Dalgarno (1984) in order to explain the anomalously bright [O I] 6300 emission observed by several instruments in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). In order to test the validity of revisions to the OH photochemistry, we present wide-field Fabry-Prot [O I] 6300 observations of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) recorded with the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper (WHAM), one of the instruments that detected the [O I] excess in comet Hale-Bopp. Hyakutake was shown to have highly variable Q(H2O) values (Schleicher et al. 2002, Combi et al. 2005), so we used a time-varying Haser model with Q(H2O) values from Combi et al. to fit radial profiles formed from the WHAM image-mode data. Only the standard OH photochemistry resulted in satisfactory fits: modified OH photochemistry results in model profiles that are too flat. Radial profiles of Fabry-Prot [O I] images of comet 1989 c1 (Austin), were well fit by a Haser model with standard OH photochemistry (Schultz et al. 1993). Comet 1P/Halley [O I] images, recorded with a Fabry-Prot similar to that used in the Austin campaign (Magee-Sauer et al. 1988), however, were not well fit by static or variable Haser models using standard or modified photochemistry: the models are too flat in all cases. The bulk of the evidence suggests that the OH photochemical rates of van Dishoeck & Dalgarno (1984) are, on the whole, correct, and that the bright [O I] emission observed in Hale-Bopp, particularly at cometocentric distances beyond 3 x 104 km, was unique to that comet, or possibly any comet with such a large production rate. This work has been supported by NASA and NSF.

  14. Engineering the plasmon resonance of large area bimetallic nanoparticle films by laser nanostructuring for chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Beliatis, Michail J; Henley, Simon J; Silva, S Ravi P

    2011-04-15

    Large area fabrication of metal alloy nanoparticles with tunable surface plasmon resonances on low-cost substrates is reported. A UV excimer laser was used to anneal 5 nm thick Ag Au bilayer films deposited with different composition ratios to create alloy nanoparticles. These engineered surfaces are used to investigate how the wavelength of the surface plasmon resonance affects the optical detection capability of chemical species by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. PMID:21499357

  15. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  16. Fundamental transverse mode selection and self-stabilization in large optical cavity diode lasers under high injection current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutin, Eugene A.; Ryvkin, Boris S.; Payusov, Alexey S.; Serin, Artem A.; Gordeev, Nikita Yu

    2015-11-01

    It is shown that in high-power, large optical cavity laser diodes at high injection currents, the optical losses due to nonuniform carrier accumulation in the optical confinement layer can ensure the laser operation in the fundamental transverse mode. An experimental demonstration of switching from second order mode to fundamental mode in large optical cavity lasers with current and/or temperature increase is reported and explained, with the calculated values for the switching current and temperature in good agreement with the measurements. The results experimentally prove the nonuniform nature of carrier accumulation in the confinement layer and may aid laser design for optimizing the output.

  17. Synthetic aperture wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bará, Salvador; Arines, Justo; Pailos, Eliseo

    2014-06-01

    We propose the synthetic aperture wavefront sensing approach. It is based on acquiring several sets of measurements of the wavefront slopes by displacing sequentially the microlens array with respect to the unknown wavefront. These measurements are stacked together and processed as if obtained with a single-sampling array with an effective number of subpupils equal to the product of the number of microlenses by the number of displacements. We analyze and compare the performance of this approach with the method of modal coefficient averaging. The comparison is made in terms of the squared wavefront reconstruction error, spatially averaged over the pupil and statistically averaged over the noise and the aberrations of the population. We focused our attention on its applications to eye aberrometry. Our numerical results were obtained for a population statistics consistent with a wide sample of young adult eyes using different sampling grids and with several signal-to-noise ratios. They indicate that the synthetic aperture wavefront sensing is affected by less bias and noise propagation than the averaging method, providing smaller mean-squared estimation error. The number of complete Zernike radial orders that can be estimated using the synthetic aperture approach is consistently higher than that allowed by the conventional method.

  18. Aperture excited dielectric antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosswell, W. F.; Chatterjee, J. S.; Mason, V. B.; Tai, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the effect of placing dielectric objects over the aperture of waveguide antennas are presented. Experimental measurements of the radiation patterns, gain, impedance, near-field amplitude, and pattern and impedance coupling between pairs of antennas are given for various Plexiglas shapes, including the sphere and the cube, excited by rectangular, circular, and square waveguide feed apertures. The waveguide excitation of a dielectric sphere is modeled using the Huygens' source, and expressions for the resulting electric fields, directivity, and efficiency are derived. Calculations using this model show good overall agreement with experimental patterns and directivity measurements. The waveguide under an infinite dielectric slab is used as an impedance model. Calculations using this model agree qualitatively with the measured impedance data. It is concluded that dielectric loaded antennas such as the waveguide excited sphere, cube, or sphere-cylinder can produce directivities in excess of that obtained by a uniformly illuminated aperture of the same cross section, particularly for dielectric objects with dimensions of 2 wavelengths or less. It is also shown that for certain configurations coupling between two antennas of this type is less than that for the same antennas without dielectric loading.

  19. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes. PMID:24501132

  20. Implementation of swept synthetic aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottenus, Nick; Jakovljevic, Marko; Boctor, Emad; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging of deep targets is limited by the resolution of current ultrasound systems based on the available aperture size. We propose a system to synthesize an extended effective aperture in order to improve resolution and target detectability at depth using a precisely-tracked transducer swept across the region of interest. A Field II simulation was performed to demonstrate the swept aperture approach in both the spatial and frequency domains. The adaptively beam-formed system was tested experimentally using a volumetric transducer and an ex vivo canine abdominal layer to evaluate the impact of clutter-generating tissue on the resulting point spread function. Resolution was improved by 73% using a 30.8 degree sweep despite the presence of varying aberration across the array with an amplitude on the order of 100 ns. Slight variations were observed in the magnitude and position of side lobes compared to the control case, but overall image quality was not significantly degraded as compared by a simulation based on the experimental point spread function. We conclude that the swept aperture imaging system may be a valuable tool for synthesizing large effective apertures using conventional ultrasound hardware.

  1. Class of near-perfect coded apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, T. M.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging of gamma ray sources has long promised an improvement in the sensitivity of various detector systems. The promise has remained largely unfulfilled, however, for either one of two reasons. First, the encoding/decoding method produces artifacts, which even in the absence of quantum noise, restrict the quality of the reconstructed image. This is true of most correlation-type methods. Second, if the decoding procedure is of the deconvolution variety, small terms in the transfer function of the aperture can lead to excessive noise in the reconstructed image. It is proposed to circumvent both of these problems by use of a uniformly redundant array (URA) as the coded aperture in conjunction with a special correlation decoding method.

  2. A New Approach for Structural Monitoring of Large Dams with a Three-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez-Aguilera, Diego; Gmez-Lahoz, Javier; Snchez, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of great importance, due to the impact these structures have on the whole landscape where they are built. The main goal of this paper is to show the relevance and novelty of the laserscanning methodology developed, which incorporates different statistical and modelling approaches not considered until now. As a result, the methods proposed in this paper have provided the measurement and monitoring of the large Las Cogotas dam (Avila, Spain).

  3. Observations of large-scale fluid transport by laser-guided plankton aggregationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Dabiri, John O.

    2014-10-01

    Diel vertical migration of plankton has been proposed to affect global ocean circulation to a degree comparable to winds and tides. This biomixing process has never been directly observed, however, due to the inability to predict its occurrence in situ or to reproduce it in a laboratory setting. Furthermore, it has been argued that the energy imparted to the ocean by plankton migrations occurs at the scale of individual organisms, which is too small to impact ocean mixing. We describe the development of a multi-laser guidance system that leverages the phototactic abilities of plankton to achieve controllable vertical migrations concurrently with laser velocimetry of the surrounding flow. Measurements in unstratified fluid show that the hydrodynamic interactions between neighboring swimmers establish an alternate energy transfer route from the small scales of individually migrating plankton to significantly larger scales. Observations of laser-induced vertical migrations of Artemia salina reveal the appearance of a downward jet, which triggers a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that results in the generation of eddy-like structures with characteristic length scales much larger than the organisms. The measured energy spectrum is consistent with these findings and indicates energy input at large scales, despite the small individual size of the organisms. These results motivate the study of biomixing in the presence of stratification to assess the contribution of migrating zooplankton to local and global ocean dynamics. The laser control methodology developed here enables systematic study of the relevant processes.

  4. Nd:YAG thin-disk laser with large dynamic range unstable resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jianli; Yu, Yi; An, Xiangchao; Gao, Qingsong; Tang, Chun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, based on the self-reproduction condition of laser wavefront curvature, the influences of disk defocus on laser parameters can be calculated. The laser-pumping overlapping efficiency will decrease by 9%; the magnification will rise to 2.3, and the intra-cavity loss will be high to 30% due to a laser beam size mismatch when each disk has focal length of -100 m in a positive-branch confocal unstable resonator containing four disks with magnification of 1.8. Therefore, the optical conversion efficiency and stability will be reduced significantly. Several methods defocus compensation of are compared, it can be found that inserting variable-focus lens in resonant is useful in large dynamic range. In experiment, the defocus values are measured in different pumping power. A lens group, used for compensate components according to the single pass probe, is carefully designed. Under this compensation, the pulse energy can be maintained in 10 J from 1 Hz to 100 Hz. The output power can be improved 2.33 times compared to non-compensation condition.

  5. Large-scale numerical simulation of laser propulsion by parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yaoyuan; Zhao, Wentao; Wang, Zhenghua

    2013-05-01

    As one of the most significant methods to study laser propelled rocket, the numerical simulation of laser propulsion has drawn an ever increasing attention at present. Nevertheless, the traditional serial simulation model cannot satisfy the practical needs because of insatiable memory overhead and considerable computation time. In order to solve this problem, we study on a general algorithm for laser propulsion design, and bring about parallelization by using a twolevel hybrid parallel programming model. The total computing domain is decomposed into distributed data spaces, and each partition is assigned to a MPI process. A single step of computation operates in the inter loop level, where a compiler directive is used to split MPI process into several OpenMP threads. Finally, parallel efficiency of hybrid program about two typical configurations on a China-made supercomputer with 4 to 256 cores is compared with pure MPI program. And, the hybrid program exhibits better performance than the pure MPI program on the whole, roughly as expected. The result indicates that our hybrid parallel approach is effective and practical in large-scale numerical simulation of laser propulsion.

  6. High-performance blazed GxL TM device for large-area laser projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yasuyuki; Saruta, Kunihiko; Kasai, Hiroto; Nishida, Masato; Yamaguchi, Masanari; Yamashita, Keitaro; Taguchi, Ayumu; Oniki, Kazunao; Tamada, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    A blazed GxL device is described that has high optical efficiency (>70% for RGB lasers), and high contrast ratio (> 10,000:1), and that is highly reliable when used in a large-area laser projection system. The key features were a robust design and precise stress control technology to maintain a uniform shape (bow and tilt) of more than 6,000 ribbons, a 0.25-μm CMOS compatible fabrication processing and planarization techniques to reduce fluctuation of the ribbons, and a reliable Al-Cu reflective film that provided protection against a high-power laser. No degradation in characteristics of the GxL device was observed after operating a 5,000- lumen projector for 2,000 hours and conducting 2,000 temperature cycling tests at -20°C and +80°C. Consequently, the world's largest laser projection screen with a size of 2005 inches (10 m × 50 m) and 6 million pixels (1,080 × 5,760) was demonstrated at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi, Japan.

  7. Anomalous lasing of high-speed 850 nm InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a large negative gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhin, S. A. Bobrov, M. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Moser, P.; Lott, J. A.; Bimberg, D.

    2014-08-11

    The impact of a large negative quantum well gain-to-cavity etalon wavelength detuning on the static and dynamic characteristics of 850 nm InGaAlAs high-speed oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was investigated. Three distinct lasing regimes were revealed in large square aperture (≥7 μm per side) devices with large detuning including: (1) an anomalous lasing via higher order Hermite–Gaussian modes at low forward bias current; (2) lasing via the lowest order Hermite–Gaussian modes at high bias current; and (3) simultaneous lasing via both types of transverse modes at intermediate bias currents. In contrast to conventional multimode VCSELs a two-resonance modulation response was observed for the case of co-lasing via multiple transverse modes with high spectral separation. The reduction in the oxide aperture area resulted in classical lasing via the lowest order modes with a conventional single-resonance frequency response.

  8. Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.

    PubMed

    Tong, Siyu; Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2014-11-17

    Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 μm² on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm². Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated. PMID:25402166

  9. Beam Quality after Propagation of Nd:YAG Laser Light through Large-Core Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Andreas; Blewett, Ian J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2000-12-01

    Laser beam characteristics are altered during propagation through large-core optical fibers. The distribution of modes excited by the input laser beam is modified by means of mode coupling on transmission through the fiber, leading to spatial dispersion of the profile and, ultimately and unavoidably, to degradation in the quality of the delivered beam unless the beam is spatially filtered with consequent power loss. Furthermore, a mismatch between the intensity profile of a typical focused high-power laser beam and the profile of the step-index fiber gives rise to additional beam-quality degradation. Modern materials processing applications demand ever higher delivered beam qualities (as measured by a parameter such as M 2 ) to achieve greater machining precision and efficiency, a demand that is currently in conflict with the desire to utilize the convenience and flexibility of large-core fiber-optic beam delivery. We present a detailed experimental investigation of the principal beam-quality degradation effects associated with fiber-optic beam delivery and use numerical modeling to aid an initial discussion of the causes of such degradation.

  10. Cooperative stimulated Brillouin scattering driven by overlapping, large spot laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruer, William; Kirkwood, Robert; Michel, Pierre; Turnbull, David

    2013-10-01

    In NIF hohlraums, large regions of plasma are irradiated with intense overlapping and large spot laser beams. In this regime, cooperative excitation of stimulated scattering can become a significant effect. Indeed, the potential importance of cooperative scattering has already been illustrated in calculations of cross beam energy transfer, where many crossing laser beams enhance the energy of another beam- a form of (generally nonresonant) cooperative SBS in the forward direction. Similarly, cooperative interactions are thought to play some role in scattering in the backward direction. Here we consider an interesting special case in which all the beams in a cone resonantly drive an ion sound wave along the hohlraum axis. This results in laser light being scattered backward along the cone. The frequency of this scattered light differs from that of the light directly backscattered by each beam, although there may be cross talk if the frequency of the backscattered light is sufficiently broad. A simple theory is presented, and some experiments to isolate and characterize cooperative scattering are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Laser-Damage-Resistant Photoalignment Layers for High-Peak-Power Liquid Crystal Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, K.L.; Gan, J.; Mitchell, G.; Papernov, S.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-10-23

    Large-aperture liquid crystal (LC) devices have been in continuous use since 1995 as polarization control devices in the 40-TW, 351-nm, 60-beam OMEGA Nd:glass laser system at the University of Rochesters Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The feasibility of using a noncontacting alignment method for high-peak-power LC laser optics by irradiation of a linearly photopolymerizable polymer with polarized UV light was recently investigated. These materials were found to have surprisingly large laser-damage thresholds at 1054 nm, approaching that of bare fused silica (30 to 60 J/cm^2). Their remarkable laser-damage resistance and ease in scalability to large apertures of these photoalignment materials, along with the ability to produce multiple alignment states by photolithographic patterning, opens new doorways for their application in LC devices for optics, photonics, and high-peak-power laser applications.

  12. Large Aperture Multiplexed Diffractive Lidar Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallison, Richard D.; Schwemmer, Geary K. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We have delivered only 2 or 3 UV Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) thus far and have fallen short of the intended goal in size and in dual wavelength function. Looking back, it has been fortuitous that we even made anything work in the UV region. It was our good fortune to discover that the material we work with daily was adequate for use at 355 nm, if well rinsed during processing. If we had stuck to our original plan of etching in small pieces of fused silica, we would still be trying to make the first small section in our ion mill, which is not yet operational. The original plan was far too ambitious and would take another 2 years to complete beginning where we left off this time. In order to make a HOE for the IR as well as the UV we will likely have to learn to sensitize some film to the 1064 line and we have obtained sensitizer that is reported to work in that region already. That work would also take an additional year to complete.

  13. Large Aperture Systems: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies for next generation astronomical telescopes and detectors. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  14. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  15. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold and large power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Jianxin; Qi, Aiyi; Liu, Lei; Fu, Feiya; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-03-01

    The Bragg diffraction condition of surface-emitting lasing action is analyzed and Γ2-1 mode is chosen for lasing. Two types of lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (LC-PCSELs) based on the PhC band edge mode lateral resonance and vertical emission to achieve electrically driven surface emitting laser without distributed Bragg reflectors in the long wavelength optical communication band are designed and fabricated. Deep etching techniques, which rely on the active layer being or not etched through, are adopted to realize the LC-PCSELs on the commercial AlGaInAs/InP multi-quantum-well (MQW) epitaxial wafer. 1553.8 nm with ultralow threshold of 667 A/cm2 and 1575 nm with large power of 1.8 mW surface emitting lasing actions are observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production with low cost of electrically driven PCSELs.

  16. Large-area sol-gel multilayer laser reflectors applied by meniscus coating

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Thomas, I.M.

    1992-03-19

    A meniscus coating method to produce multilayer laser reflectors on 30+ cm substrates is described. These high-laser damage threshold (LDT) dielectric coatings are deposited from colloidal suspensions of silica and alumina nanometer-scale particles. The deposition process involves forcing a slow suspension flow through a porous applicator tube, forming a falling film on the tube. A substrate contacts this film to form a meniscus, and then moves relative to the applicator to entrain a film upon itself, which thins to optical dimensions upon solvent evaporation. The fluid dynamics of meniscus coating are briefly described, and optically measured dried film thicknesses are compared to theoretical predictions. Deviations from the theory are traced to non-Newtonian rheology of one of the suspensions used. Preliminary multilayer coating results which focus on large-scale uniformity and LDT are presented.

  17. Broadly tunable multiwavelength fiber laser with bismuth-oxide EDF using large effective area fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramzia Salem, A. M.; Al-Mansoori, M. H.; Hizam, H.; Mohd Noor, S. B.; Mahdi, M. A.

    2011-02-01

    A multiwavelength laser comb using 2.49 m Bismuth-oxide erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) with different lengths of large effective area fiber (LEAF) in a ring cavity configuration is realized. The Bi-EDF is used as the linear gain medium and LEAF is used as the non-linear gain medium for stimulated Brillouin scattering. Out of the four different lengths, the longest length of 25 km LEAF exhibits the widest tuning range of 44 nm (1576 to 1620 nm) in the L-band at 264 mW pump power and 5 mW Brillouin pump power. In addition, a total of 15 output channels are achieved with total average output power of -8 dBm from this laser structure. All Brillouin Stokes signals exhibit high peak power of above -20 dBm per signal and their optical signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 15 dB.

  18. Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area all-solid photonic bandgap fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guancheng; Kong, Fanting; Hawkins, Thomas; Parsons, Joshua; Jones, Maxwell; Dunn, Christopher; Kalichevsky-Dong, Monica T; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Dong, Liang

    2014-06-01

    Single-mode operation in a large-mode-area fiber laser is highly desired for power scaling. We have, for the first time, demonstrated a 50?m-core-diameter Yb-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fiber laser with a mode area over 4 times that of the previous demonstration. 75W output power has been generated with a diffraction-limited beam and an efficiency of 70% relative to the launched pump power. We have also experimentally confirmed that a robust single-mode regime exists near the high frequency edge of the bandgap. These fibers only guide light within the bandgap over a narrow spectral range, which is essential for lasing far from the gain peak and suppression of stimulated Raman scattering. This work demonstrates the strong potential for mode area scaling of in single-mode all-solid photonic bandgap fibers. PMID:24921587

  19. Asymmetric dihedral angle offsets for large-size lunar laser ranging retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsubo, Toshimichi; Kunimori, Hiroo; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masato

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of two-dimensional velocity aberration is off-centered by 5 to 6 microradians in lunar laser ranging, due to the stable measurement geometry in the motion of the Earth and the Moon. The optical responses of hollow-type retroreflectors are investigated through numerical simulations, especially focusing on large-size, single-reflector targets that can ultimately minimize the systematic error in future lunar laser ranging. An asymmetric dihedral angle offset, i.e. setting unequal angles between the three back faces, is found to be effective for retroreflectors that are larger than 100 mm in diameter. Our numerical simulation results reveal that the optimized return energy increases approximately 3.5 times more than symmetric dihedral angle cases, and the optimized dihedral angle offsets are 0.65-0.8 arcseconds for one angle, and zeroes for the other two angles.

  20. Effect of misalignments on phase-locking in a large area discharge CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggen; Wang, Shijian; Du, Quan; Ma, Zairu; Ji, Yupin; Li, Yude

    2015-08-01

    The line deviations and angle deviations of the injected beam at the resonator mirrors in the large area discharge CO2 laser (LADCL) are changed when the output mirror and the phase-locking mirror (PLM) are misaligned. The equiphase surfaces excited by the injected beam are different in the laser resonator and the effect of phase-locking will be influenced. It is shown that the misalignment of PLM is the main cause of phase-locking range reduction. The misalignment of the output mirror will mainly result in the deviation of the output beam, and the misalignment of the PLM will mainly cause decrease of the light intensity. And the maximum misaligned angle should not exceed 20 s in order to obtain the ideal effect of phase-locking. The calculated results can provide references for studying deeply the misalignment of LADCL.

  1. Distributed synthetic aperture radar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeois, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) depends primarily on attainable frequency resolution rather than on large physical size of the antenna array. The distributed architecture concept (DSAR) incorporates active elements (amplifiers) at or near the elemental radiators of the array. Since SAR's are expensive to build and expensive to test, a computer modeling approach is a feasible method of predicting the quality or nature of the SAR image from the proposed system parameters. The goal of this project is to produce a DSAR simulation software package. This report describes the progress made thus far and the work which remains to be done. Extensive work on this project had been done previously by two NASA contractors. The principal task remaining involved the creation of a suitable interface between these programs and the hardware and software available at the Johnson Space Center.

  2. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, B. A.; Goldstein, W. H.

    1996-08-01

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation 'superlasers', the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

  3. The proceedings of the 1st international workshop on laboratory astrophysics experiments with large lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B.A.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1996-08-09

    The world has stood witness to the development of a number of highly sophisticated and flexible, high power laser facilities (energies up to 50 kJ and powers up to 50 TW), driven largely by the world-wide effort in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The charter of diagnosing implosions with detailed, quantitative measurements has driven the ICF laser facilities to be exceedingly versatile and well equipped with diagnostics. Interestingly, there is considerable overlap in the physics of ICF and astrophysics. Both typically involve compressible radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, complex opacities, and equations of state of dense matter. Surprisingly, however, there has been little communication between these two communities to date. With the recent declassification of ICF in the USA, and the approval to commence with construction of the next generation ``superlasers``, the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility in the US, and its equivalent, the LMJ laser in France, the situation is ripe for change. . Given the physics similarities that exist between ICF and astrophysics, one strongly suspects that there should exist regions of overlap where supporting research on the large lasers could be beneficial to the astrophysics community. As a catalyst for discussions to this end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored this workshop. Approximately 100 scientists attended from around the world, representing eight countries: the USA, Canada, UK, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Israel. A total of 30 technical papers were presented. The two day workshop was divided into four sessions, focusing on nonlinear hydrodynamics, radiative hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and atomic physics-opacities. Copies of the presentations are contained in these proceedings.

  4. An all-optronic synthetic aperture lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Terroux, Marc; Babin, Franois; Bergeron, Alain

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a mature technology that overcomes the diffraction limit of an imaging system's real aperture by taking advantage of the platform motion to coherently sample multiple sections of an aperture much larger than the physical one. Synthetic Aperture Lidar (SAL) is the extension of SAR to much shorter wavelengths (1.5 ?m vs 5 cm). This new technology can offer higher resolution images in day or night time as well as in certain adverse conditions. It could be a powerful tool for Earth monitoring (ship detection, frontier surveillance, ocean monitoring) from aircraft, unattended aerial vehicle (UAV) or spatial platforms. A continuous flow of high-resolution images covering large areas would however produce a large amount of data involving a high cost in term of post-processing computational time. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of a SAL system complete with image reconstruction based on optronic processing. This differs from the more traditional digital approach by its real-time processing capability. The SAL system is discussed and images obtained from a non-metallic diffuse target at ranges up to 3m are shown, these images being processed by a real-time optronic SAR processor origiinally designed to reconstruct SAR images from ENVISAT/ASAR data.

  5. Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao

    Optical detection devices such as optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are widely used in many applications for the functions of measurements, inspections and analysis. Due to the large dimension of prisms and gratings, the traditional optical devices normally occupy a large space with complicated components. Since cheaper and smaller optical devices are always in demand, miniaturization has been kept going for years. Thanks to recent fabrication advances, nanophotonic devices such as semiconductor laser chips have been growing in number and diversity. However, the optical biosensor chips and the optical spectrometer chips are seldom reported in the literature. For the reason of improving system integration, the study of ultra-compact, low-cost, high-performance and easy-alignment optical biosensors and optical spectrometers are imperative. This thesis is an endeavor in these two subjects and will present our research work on studying the optical transmission properties of dielectric aperture arrays and developing new optical biosensors and optical spectrometers. The first half of the thesis demonstrates that the optical phase shift associated with the surface plasmon (SP) assisted extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) in nano-hole arrays fabricated in a metal film has a strong dependence on the material refractive index value in close proximity to the holes. A novel refractive index sensor based on detecting the EOT phase shift is proposed by building a model. This device readily provides a 2-D biosensor array platform for non-labeled real-time detection of a variety of organic and biological molecules in a sensor chip format, which leads to a high packing density, minimal analyte volumes, and a large number of parallel channels while facilitating high resolution imaging and supporting a large space-bandwidth product (SBP). Simulation (FDTD Solutions, Lumerical Solutions Inc) results indicate an achievable sensitivity limit of 4.37x10-9 refractive index units (RIU) and a dynamic range as large as 0.17 RIU. Subsequently, optical transmission properties through a self-mixing interferometer array are studied and a novel high-resolution cost-effective optical spectrometer is proposed. The miniature interferometer-based spectrometer is made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a CCD as the detector. The detected intensity of each CCD pixels contains the spectral information. Since each frequency component in the incoming beam corresponds to a unique phase difference of the two beam portions of each optical interferometer, the total intensity received by each CCD pixel, which is resulted from the addition of the interference signals from all the frequency components in the beam, should also be unique. Therefore, the spectrum calculation is a problem to solve an ill-posed linear system by using Tikhonov regularization method. Simulation results show that the resolution can reach picometer level. Apart from the choice of path difference between the interfering beams, the spectral resolution also depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and analogue-digital conversion resolution (dynamic range) of the CCD chip. In addition, the theory of uniform waveguide scattering is explored to expand the possibility of using such mini-interferometers for performing free-space spectral analysis of waveguide devices. At the same time, the method of least squares is used to correct the pixel non-uniformity of the CCD so as to improve the performance of the spectrometer. The sensor chip and spectrometer chip introduced here are based on the interference of light transmitted through dielectric aperture arrays. Their compact feature renders these devices ideal for miniaturization and integration as the systems in microfluidics architectures and lab-on-chip designs.

  6. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-07-01

    Controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de-risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect. In this paper, we apply the concept of synthetic aperture to CSEM data. Synthetic aperture allows us to design sources with specific radiation patterns for different purposes. The ability to detect reservoirs is dramatically increased after forming an appropriate synthetic aperture antenna. Consequently, the types of hydrocarbon reservoirs that CSEM can detect are significantly extended. Because synthetic apertures are constructed as a data processing step, there is no additional cost for the CSEM acquisition. Synthetic aperture has potential for simplifying and reducing the cost of CSEM acquisition. We show a data example that illustrates the increased sensitivity obtained by applying synthetic aperture CSEM source.

  7. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-01-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG. PMID:26719647

  8. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-12-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG. PMID:26719647

  9. Fetoscopic laser photocoagulation of feeding vessels to a large placental chorioangioma following fetal deterioration after amnioreduction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kathryn; Tierney, Katherine; Grubbs, Brendan H; Pruetz, Jay D; Detterich, Jon; Chmait, Ramen H

    2012-01-01

    Large placental chorioangiomas (>4 cm) can precipitate severe polyhydramnios, fetal anemia, growth restriction, high-output cardiac failure, hydrops, and fetal demise. We report a case of a large chorioangioma that was treated in a stepwise fashion with amnioreduction to ameliorate maternal discomfort, followed by fetoscopic laser ablation of the feeding vessels after rapid evolution of heart failure. Although amnioreduction was helpful in improving maternal symptoms, we suspect that the drop in intrauterine pressure from the amniotic fluid decompression may have resulted in increased tumor perfusion, thereby promoting fetal deterioration due to a 'steal' phenomenon. Close scrutiny of the fetal status via ultrasound is required, particularly if amnioreduction is necessary, and definitive treatment should be considered once early signs of heart failure develop. Fetoscopic laser ablation of the feeding vessels is a feasible definitive treatment of a large chorioangioma in cases in which perfusion of the tumor is via a superficial nonterminus umbilical artery. Future reports should describe the anatomy of the blood supply to the chorioangioma, in the hopes that further guidelines for surgical candidacy may be established. PMID:22086270

  10. Large-Spot Material Interactions with a High-Power Solid-State Laser Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Fochs, S N; Rubenchik, A M

    2008-08-06

    We study the material interactions produced by the beam of a 25-kW solid-state laser, in experiments characterized by relatively large spot sizes ({approx}3 cm) and the presence of airflow. The targets are iron or aluminum slabs, of thickness 1 cm. In the experiments with iron, we show that combustion plays an important role in heating the material. In the experiments with aluminum, we observe a sharp transition from no melting to complete melt-through as the intensity on target increases. A layer of paint greatly reduces the requirements for melt-through. We explain these effects and incorporate them into an overall computational model.

  11. Laser scattering in large-scale-length plasmas relevant to National Ignition Facility hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B.J.; Berger, R.L.; Afeyan, B.B.

    1996-10-01

    We have used homogeneous plasmas of high density (up to 1.3 X 10{sup 21} electrons per cm{sup 3}) and temperature ({approximately} 3 keV) with large density scale lengths ({approximately}2 mm) to approximate conditions within National Ignition Facility (NIF) hohlraums. Within these plasmas we have studied the dependence of stimulated Raman (SRS) and Brillouin (SBS) scattering on beam smoothing and plasma conditions at the relevant laser intensity (3{omega}, 2 X 10{sup 15}Wcm{sup 2}). Both SBS and SRS are reduced by the use of smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD).

  12. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera.

  13. Large optical cavity waveguides for high-power diode laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyarchuck, V.; Tomm, Jens W.; Guenther, T.; Mueller, R.; Kunkel, R.; Lienau, Christoph; Luft, Johann

    2001-06-01

    Properties of different Large Optical Cavity based high- power diode laser structures with an a 1 micrometers wide Al0.3Ga0.7As step-index waveguide are discussed. One key parameter is the position of the double quantum well (DQW) being either located centered or off-centered. By employing Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) in emission mode with excitation wavelengths close to the laser emission wavelength of 808 nm we visualize the effect of the waveguide design on (1) the number of guided modes and (2) the spatial profile of both fundamental and higher order modes. Detailed analysis shows that the data depend distinctly on the spatial position of the DQW and the respective changes in mode structure. By changing the excitation photon energies towards very high values of 2.8 eV (442 nm) surface excitation is realized where the waveguiding effect becomes less effective. We demonstrate the ability to map the DQW location within the waveguide by its specific absorption properties and to verify its off- centered position. Thus the NSOM technique provides a sensitive tool for nondestructive analysis of diode laser structures including its waveguide mode properties.

  14. Impact of a large negative gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning on the performance of InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhin, Sergey A.; Bobrov, Mikhail A.; Maleev, Nikolai A.; Kuzmenkov, Alexander G.; Sakharov, Alexey V.; Blokhin, Alexey A.; Moser, Philip; Lott, James A.; Bimberg, Dieter; Ustinov, Viktor M.

    2015-03-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on the InGaAlAs-materials system on GaAs substrates are the key component for short-reach data and computer communications systems. Several different modulation schemes have been developed to realize high data bit rates based on various oxide-confined near-infrared VCSEL designs operated under direct current modulation. However, one open question to resolve is the optimal gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning to employ for temperature-stable high-speed performance. We investigate the static and dynamic characteristics of 850 nm high-speed oxide-confined VCSELs with different negative gain-to-cavity wavelength detunings. Our oxideconfined 850 nm VCSELs with a more common ~10 nm negative gain-to-cavity detuning demonstrate the conventional optical mode behavior with a classical single-resonance frequency response. With a larger (? 20 nm) negative detuning, our devices with large oxide-aperture size (>6 ?m) show an anomalous start of lasing via higher order modes with a subsequent switching to lasing via the lowest order modes at higher currents. At intermediate currents, co-lasing via two types of transverse modes and a two-resonance modulation response is observed. The increase of operation temperature as well as the reduction in the oxide-aperture area resulted in classical lasing of index-guided VCSELs. The observed optical mode behavior can be attributed to the specific index guiding profile caused by the oxide-apertures, low internal optical losses, and the large gain-to-cavity detuning. Moreover, one can suggest that the complex shape of the modulation response results from the mode competition for the available gain during an interesting co-lasing operating regime.

  15. Large spectral tuning of liquid microdroplets by local heating with a focused infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, Alper; Karadağ, Yasin; Yorulmaz, Saime Ç.; Muradoğlu, Metin

    2008-08-01

    Large deformations can easily be introduced in liquid microdroplets by applying relatively small external forces or controlling the evaporation/condensation kinetics. This makes liquid microdroplets attractive to serve as the building blocks of largely tunable optical switches or filters that are essential in optical communication systems based on wavelength division multiplexing. Solid optical microcavities have not found large use in these applications, mainly due to their rigid nature. The fact that liquid microdroplets are low-cost and disposable can also prove to be important in mass production of these photonic devices. Here, we show that local heating with an infrared laser can be used to largely tune the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of water/glycerol or salty water microdroplets standing on a superhydrophobic surface. In the scheme presented, a liquid microdroplet kept in a humidity chamber is stabilized on a superhydrophobic surface, and an infrared laser beam is focused near the center of the microdroplet. As a result of the local heating, the temperature of the liquid microdroplet increases, and the water content in the liquid microdroplet evaporates until a new equilibrium is reached. At the new equilibrium state, the non-volatile component (i.e. glycerol or salt) attains a higher concentration in the liquid microdroplet. We report tunability over large spectral ranges up to 30 nm at around 590 nm. For salty water microdroplets the reported spectral tuning mechanism is almost fully reversible, while for the case of glycerol/water microdroplets the spectral tuning mechanism can be made highly reversible when the chamber is saturated with glycerol vapor and the relative water humidity approaches unity.

  16. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2013-06-01

    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  17. Computational imaging based on multi-aperture optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanida, Jun; Horisaki, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Combination of optical encoding and algorithmic decoding provides high-performance and high-functional imaging modalities known as computational imaging. Multi-aperture optics has been effectively utilized as an optical encoder and enables us to implement novel imaging methods and systems. In this paper, two instances of computational imaging using multi-aperture optics are presented with different types of apertures embedding in the optical system. A compound-eye imager is a flexible and versatile imaging system composed of multiple image fields, which was applied to intra-oral diagnostics. Single-shot phase imaging capable of capturing a large complex field is achieved by multi-aperture optics with a coded aperture. In both cases, the encoded signals are processed to retrieve desired information under the framework of computational imaging.

  18. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Justin E; Qiu, S Roger; Stolz, Christopher J

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation. PMID:21460980

  19. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  20. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jrgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, ?-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  1. A low-noise large dynamic-range readout suitable for laser spectroscopy with photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullia, A.; Sanvito, T.; Potenza, M. A.; Zocca, F.

    2012-10-01

    An original low-noise large dynamic-range readout system for optical light spectroscopy with PIN diodes is presented. The front-end circuit is equipped with a smart device for automatic cancellation of the large dc offset brought about by the photodiode current. This device sinks away the exact amount of dc current from the preamplifier input, yielding auto zeroing of the output-voltage offset, while introducing the minimum electronic noise possible. As a result the measurement dynamic-range is maximized. Moreover, an auxiliary inspection point is provided which precisely tracks the dc component of the photodiode current. This output allows for precise beam alignment and may also be used for diagnostic purposes. The excellent gain stability and linearity make the circuit perfectly suited for optical-light pulse spectroscopy. Applications include particle sizing in the 100 nm range, two-dimensional characterization of semiconductor detectors, ultra-precise characterization of laser beam stability, confocal microscopy.

  2. Laser processing system for stitching structured patterns on large 3D parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano Zuriguel, Rafael; Saludes Rodil, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    The paper addresses the development of laser based equipment to structure large surfaces (110.5m - 331.5ft) that are shaped in three dimensions. A mechanic-optical system to process curved surfaces with an acceptance angle of up to 267 is presented. The challenge is to control the combined motion of the beam delivery system with respect to distortion of the motifs and positioning tolerances. The project starting Technology Readiness Level (TRL) was 5. Currently the project is under development and at the end of September 2015 the project will reach TRL 7 after industrial-like environment testing. The proposed system will enable manufacturers to offer individualized marking for large products.

  3. Laser-driven, magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks on the Large Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, D. B. Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.

    2014-05-15

    The interaction of a laser-driven super-Alfvénic magnetic piston with a large, preformed magnetized ambient plasma has been studied by utilizing a unique experimental platform that couples the Raptor kJ-class laser system [Niemann et al., J. Instrum. 7, P03010 (2012)] to the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. This platform provides experimental conditions of relevance to space and astrophysical magnetic collisionless shocks and, in particular, allows a detailed study of the microphysics of shock formation, including piston-ambient ion collisionless coupling. An overview of the platform and its capabilities is given, and recent experimental results on the coupling of energy between piston and ambient ions and the formation of collisionless shocks are presented and compared to theoretical and computational work. In particular, a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock is observed in a quasi-perpendicular geometry in both experiments and simulations.

  4. High rate, large area laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paserin, Vlad

    High-power diode lasers (HPDL) are being increasingly used in industrial applications. Deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4 ) precursor by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied with emphasis on achieving high deposition rates. An HPDL system was used to provide a novel energy source facilitating a simple and compact design of the energy delivery system. Nickel deposits on complex, 3-dimensional polyurethane foam substrates were prepared and characterized. The resulting "nickel foam" represents a novel material of high porosity (>95% by volume) finding uses, among others, in the production of rechargeable battery and fuel cell electrodes and as a specialty high-temperature filtration medium. Deposition rates up to ˜19 mum/min were achieved by optimizing the gas precursor flow pattern and energy delivery to the substrate surface using a 480W diode laser. Factors affecting the transition from purely heterogeneous decomposition to a combined hetero- and homogeneous decomposition of nickel carbonyl were studied. High quality, uniform 3-D deposits produced at a rate more than ten times higher than in commercial processes were obtained by careful balance of mass transport (gas flow) and energy delivery (laser power). Cross-flow of the gases through the porous substrate was found to be essential in facilitating mass transport and for obtaining uniform deposits at high rates. When controlling the process in a transient regime (near the onset of homogenous decomposition), unique morphology features formed as part of the deposits, including textured surface with pyramid-shape crystallites, spherical and non-spherical particles and filaments. Operating the laser in a pulsed mode produced smooth, nano-crystalline deposits with sub-100 nm grains. The effect of H2S, a commonly used additive in nickel carbonyl CVD, was studied using both polyurethane and nickel foam substrates. H2S was shown to improve the substrate coverage and deposit uniformity in tests with polyurethane substrate, however, it was found to have no effect in improving the overall deposition rate compared to H2S-free deposition process. Deposition on other selected substrates, such as ultra-fine polymer foam, carbon nanofoam and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, was demonstrated. The HPDL system shows good promise for large-scale industrial application as the cost of HPDL energy continues to decrease.

  5. Material Measurements Using Groundplane Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komisarek, K.; Dominek, A.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for material parameter determination using an aperture in a groundplane is studied. The material parameters are found by relating the measured reflected field in the aperture to a numerical model. Two apertures are studied which can have a variety of different material configurations covering the aperture. The aperture cross-sections studied are rectangular and coaxial. The material configurations involved combinations of single layer and dual layers with or without a resistive exterior resistive sheet. The resistivity of the resistive sheet can be specified to simulate a perfect electric conductor (PEC) backing (0 Ohms/square) to a free space backing (infinity Ohms/square). Numerical parameter studies and measurements were performed to assess the feasibility of the technique.

  6. Automatic alignment technology in high power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Dai, Wan-jun; Wang, Yuan-cheng; Lian, Bo; Yang, Ying; Yuan, Qiang; Deng, Xue-wei; Zhao, Jun-pu; Zhou, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The high power solid laser system is becoming larger and higher energy that requires the beam automatic alignment faster and higher precision to ensure safety running of laser system and increase the shooting success rate. This paper take SGIII laser facility for instance, introduce the basic principle of automatic alignment of large laser system. The automatic alignment based on digital image processing technology which use the imaging of seven-classes spatial filter pinholes for feedback to working. Practical application indicates that automatic alignment system of cavity mirror in SGIII facility can finish the work in 210 seconds of four bundles and will not exceed 270 seconds of all six bundles. The alignment precision promoted to 2.5% aperture from 8% aperture. The automatic alignment makes it possible for fast and safety running of lager laser system.

  7. A self pulsed laser ranging system under development at 'JPL'. [for onboard measurement of large space deployable reflector surface distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, M.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of large space deployable antenna reflectors to be used for broad-based communications systems is largely dependent on the accuracy with which the surface figure can be constructed and maintained. The paper examines various surface distortion tolerance and measurement requirements for various classes of communication antennas. Several surface measuring methods are described including a self-pulsed laser ranging system.

  8. Spectral calibration of the coded aperture spectra imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Min, Huang; Pei, Lin lin; Lv, Qunbo; Liu, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    Coded aperture spectroscopy allows for sources of large field to be efficiently coupled into dispersive spectrometers by replacing the traditional input slit with a patterned mask. Spectral calibration is requisite for spectroscopy to obtain the spectrum information exactly. In this paper, we described the spectral calibration's principle and methods of coded aperture spectral imaging, and then gave the results of the experiment using a monochromatic extended source, at last we tested the accuracy of spectral calibration. The results indicate that this method can calibrate the coded aperture imaging spectrometer with high accuracy.

  9. Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leiran; Liu, Xueming; Gong, Yongkang; Mao, Dong; Duan, Lina

    2011-04-11

    Four different types of pulses are experimentally obtained in one erbium-doped all-fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion. The proposed laser can deliver the rectangular-spectrum (RS), Gaussian-spectrum (GS), broadband-spectrum (BS), and noise-like pulses by appropriately adjusting the polarization states. These kinds of pulses have distinctly different characteristics. The RS pulses can easily be compressed to femtosecond level whereas the pulse energy is restricted by the trend of multi-pulse shaping with excessive pump. The GS and BS pulses always maintain the single-pulse operation with much higher pulse-energy and accumulate much more chirp. After launching the pulses into the photonic-crystal fiber, the supercontinuum can be generated with the bandwidth of >700 nm by the BS pulses and of ~400 nm by the GS pulses, whereas it can hardly be generated by the RS pulses. The physical mechanisms behind the continuum generation are qualitatively investigated relating to different operating regimes. This work could help to a deeper insight of the normal-dispersion pulses. PMID:21503070

  10. Large eddy simulation and laser diagnostic studies on a low swirl stratified premixed flame

    SciTech Connect

    Nogenmyr, K.-J.; Bai, X.S.; Fureby, C.; Petersson, P.; Collin, R.; Linne, M.

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations and laser diagnostic experiments of a swirling lean premixed methane/air flame with an aim to compare different Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models for reactive flows. An atmospheric-pressure laboratory swirl burner has been developed wherein lean premixed methane/air is injected in an unconfined low-speed flow of air. The flame is stabilized above the burner rim in a moderate swirl flow, triggering weak vortex breakdown in the downstream direction. Both stereoscopic (3-component) PIV and 2-component PIV are used to investigate the flow. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to examine the temperature field in the leading flame front. Acetone-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to examine the fuel distribution. The experimental data are used to assess two different LES models; one based on level-set G-equation and flamelet chemistry, and the other based on finite rate chemistry with reduced kinetics. The two LES models treat the chemistry differently, which results in different predictions of the flame dynamic behavior and statistics. Yet, great similarity of flame structures was predicted by both models. The LES and experimental data reveal several intrinsic features of the low swirl flame such as the W-shape at the leading front, the highly wrinkled fronts in the shear layers, and the existence of extinction holes in the trailing edge of the flame. The effect of combustion models, the numerical solvers and boundary conditions on the flame and flow predictions was systematically examined. (author)

  11. Large eddy simulation and laser diagnostic studies on a low swirl stratified premixed flame

    SciTech Connect

    Nogenmyr, K.-J.; Bai, X.S.; Fureby, C.; Petersson, P.; Collin, R.; Linne, M.

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations and laser diagnostic experiments of a swirling lean premixed methane/air flame with an aim to compare different Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models for reactive flows. An atmospheric-pressure laboratory swirl burner has been developed wherein lean premixed methane/air is injected in an unconfined low-speed flow of air. The flame is stabilized above the burner rim in a moderate swirl flow, triggering weak vortex breakdown in the downstream direction. Both stereoscopic (3-component) PIV and 2-component PIV are used to investigate the flow. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to examine the temperature field in the leading flame front. Acetone-Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) is applied to examine the fuel distribution. The experimental data are used to assess two different LES models; one based on level-set G-equation and flamelet chemistry, and the other based on finite rate chemistry with reduced kinetics. The two LES models treat the chemistry differently, which results in different predictions of the flame dynamic behavior and statistics. Yet, great similarity of flame structures was predicted by both models. The LES and experimental data reveal several intrinsic features of the low swirl flame such as the W-shape at the leading front, the highly wrinkled fronts in the shear layers, and the existence of extinction holes in the trailing edge of the flame. The effect of combustion models, the numerical solvers and boundary conditions on the flame and flow predictions was systematically examined. (author)

  12. A ?-type soft-aperture LADAR SNR improvement with quantum-enhanced receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Ruan, Ningjuan; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-01

    A quantum-enhanced receiver that uses squeezed vacuum injection (SVI) and phase sensitive amplification (PSA) is in principle capable of obtaining effective signal to noise ratio (SNR) improvement in a soft-aperture homodyne-detection LAser Detection And Ranging (LADAR) system over the classical homodyne LADAR to image a far-away target. Here we investigate the performance of quantum-enhanced receiver in ?-type soft aperture LADAR for target imaging. We also use fast Fourier transform (FFT) Algorithm to simulate LADAR intensity image, and give a comparison of the SNR improvement of soft aperture case and hard aperture case.

  13. Digital holography as a tool for testing high-aperture micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, J.; Kebbel, V.; Jüptner, W.

    2005-07-01

    The collimation of strongly diverging laser beams emitted by high-power diode lasers is performed with aspherical micro-optical components which have large numerical apertures up to NA=0.7. Conventional interferometric techniques do neither deliver the resolution nor the test frequency and are too costly for an industrial application. Digital holography is presented as a measurement tool for the characterization of micro-optical components in this paper providing a robust and fast technique with a simple and compact setup. The setup presented in this contribution does not apply any imaging or magnifying optics thus avoiding any additional aberrations in the wavefront which would falsify the measurement. The reconstruction process is performed in the computer giving direct access to intensity and phase of the measured wavefront. Additional experimental efforts like, e.g. phase shifting techniques are not needed. The large numerical aperture of the microlenses leads to high fringe densities in the holograms which cannot be resolved by CCD-detectors directly. In order to avoid this problem digital holography is combined with a multiple wavelength technique and a diffusing screen to capture the highly diverging wavefront. An averaging method to reduce the introduced speckle noise is applied and results of the characterization of refractive cylindrical microlenses are presented.

  14. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Tyler S.; Marks, Daniel L.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art methods in high-resolution three-dimensional optical microscopy require that the focus be scanned through the entire region of interest. However, an analysis of the physics of the lightsample interaction reveals that the Fourier-space coverage is independent of depth. Here we show that, by solving the inverse scattering problem for interference microscopy, computed reconstruction yields volumes with a resolution in all planes that is equivalent to the resolution achieved only at the focal plane for conventional high-resolution microscopy. In short, the entire illuminated volume has spatially invariant resolution, thus eliminating the compromise between resolution and depth of field. We describe and demonstrate a novel computational image-formation technique called interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). ISAM has the potential to broadly impact real-time three-dimensional microscopy and analysis in the fields of cell and tumour biology, as well as in clinical diagnosis where in vivo imaging is preferable to biopsy. PMID:25635181

  15. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  16. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  17. Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Christian; Stutzki, Fabian; Jansen, Florian; Otto, Hans-Jrgen; Eidam, Tino; Jauregui, Cesar; de Vries, Oliver; Limpert, Jens; Tnnermann, Andreas

    2014-01-15

    We present a novel ytterbium (Yb)-doped large-pitch fiber design with significantly increased pump absorption and higher energy storage/gain per unit length, which enables high-peak-power fiber laser systems with smaller footprints. Up to now index matching between core and surrounding material in microstructured fibers was achieved by co-doping the active core region with fluorine. Here we carry out the index matching by passively doping the cladding with germanium, thus raising its index of refraction. Hence, the fluorine in the core can be omitted, which leads to an effective increase of the core doping concentration, while detrimental effects such as photo-darkening and lifetime quenching are avoided by maintaining the bulk Yb concentration. Experiments and simulations show that a gain higher than 50 dB/m and an output average power higher than 100 W with excellent beam quality are feasible even with a fiber length of only 40 cm. PMID:24562108

  18. Resonators for solid-state lasers with large-volume fundamental mode and high alignment stability

    SciTech Connect

    Magni, V.

    1986-01-01

    Resonators containing a focusing rod are thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, as a function of the dioptric power of the rod, two stability zones of the same width exist and that the mode volume in the rod always presents a stationary point. At this point, the output power is insensitive to the focal length fluctuations, and the mode volume inside the rod is inversely proportional to the range of the input power for which the resonator is stable. The two zones are markedly different with respect to misalignment sensitivity, which is, in general, much greater in one zone than in the other. Two design procedures are presented for monomode solid-state laser resonators with large mode volume and low sensitivity both to focal length fluctuations and to misalignment.

  19. Simple and economic compressors for large-volume gas transport laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, H. J. J.; Dow, J.; Seguin, V. A.

    1983-10-01

    A simple and relatively inexpensive design is proposed for a large axial flow gas transport system for a high-power laser. The system can be easily assembled using standard low-cost commercially available blower blades and hubs injection-molded from high-strength plastics, such as polypropylene, delrin, fiberglass, and polyamid glass. Several gas transport systems of different sizes have been built using this approach, and all have demonstrated efficient trouble-free performance, provided the maximum tip speed specification has not been exceeded. It is also shown that the performance of the compressors can be further improved by incorporating a properly designed circular-to-rectangular transition section on each of the blower outputs as well as a venturi section on the inlets.

  20. Large-scale in vivo femtosecond laser neurosurgery screen reveals small-molecule enhancer of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Samara, Chrysanthi; Rohde, Christopher B; Gilleland, Cody L; Norton, Stephanie; Haggarty, Stephen J; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2010-10-26

    Discovery of molecular mechanisms and chemical compounds that enhance neuronal regeneration can lead to development of therapeutics to combat nervous system injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. By combining high-throughput microfluidics and femtosecond laser microsurgery, we demonstrate for the first time large-scale in vivo screens for identification of compounds that affect neurite regeneration. We performed thousands of microsurgeries at single-axon precision in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans at a rate of 20 seconds per animal. Following surgeries, we exposed the animals to a hand-curated library of approximately one hundred small molecules and identified chemicals that significantly alter neurite regeneration. In particular, we found that the PKC kinase inhibitor staurosporine strongly modulates regeneration in a concentration- and neuronal type-specific manner. Two structurally unrelated PKC inhibitors produce similar effects. We further show that regeneration is significantly enhanced by the PKC activator prostratin. PMID:20937901