These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Large atomic displacements associated with the nitrogen antisite in GaN T. Mattila*  

E-print Network

techniques has led to a dramatic improvement in the quality of samples. The difficulty in obtaining p-type GaNLarge atomic displacements associated with the nitrogen antisite in GaN T. Mattila* Laboratory of an extensive theoretical study of the nitrogen antisite in GaN. The neutral antisite in c-GaN is reported

2

Atomic displacements in ferroelectric trigonal and orthorhombic boracite structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New crystal-structure refinements of Pca21 boracite, Mg3ClB7O13, and R??{lunate}c ericaite, Fe2.4Mg0.6ClB7O13, show that some boron and oxygen atoms are involved in the 'ferro' transitions as well as the metal and halogen atoms. The atomic displacements associated with the polarity changes are as large as 0.6A??. ?? 1972.

Dowty, E.; Clark, J.R.

1972-01-01

3

VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS WITH ARBITRARY LARGE DISPLACEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The paper considers arbitrary large deflections of strings and connected with it coupling of vertical and horizontal displacements. Strings are made of a linearly elastic material. The physical model of a tie rod, equations and algorithm of their solutions as well as examples of string analysis are presented. Obtained results are compared to analytical solutions already known but for

Adam Grabowski

4

Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate of simulated gouge fails to quantitatively account for the experimental observations.

Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

1996-01-01

5

Atom interferometry using wave packets with constant spatial displacements  

SciTech Connect

A standing-wave light-pulse sequence is demonstrated that places atoms into a superposition of wave packets with precisely controlled displacements that remain constant for times as long as 1 s. The separated wave packets are subsequently recombined, resulting in atom interference patterns that probe energy differences of {approx_equal}10{sup -34} J and can provide acceleration measurements that are insensitive to platform vibrations.

Su, Edward J.; Prentiss, Mara G. [Harvard University Department of Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Wu Saijun [Harvard University Department of Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2010-04-15

6

Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters  

SciTech Connect

A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials.

Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

1999-08-29

7

Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

2014-03-01

8

ELECTROTHERMAL SCS MICROMIRROR WITH LARGE-VERTICAL-DISPLACEMENT ACTUATION  

E-print Network

in Fig. 1(a). The mirror plate is attached to a rigid silicon frame by a set of aluminum, and precision micropositioning systems. Numerous piston-motion actuation designs have been reported displacement. This paper presents a novel large-vertical-displacement (LVD) micromirror design that can perform

Bowers, John

9

A large displacement, high frequency, underwater microelectromechanical systems actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we demonstrate an in situ electrostatic actuator that can operate underwater across a wide range of displacements and frequencies, achieving a displacement of approximately 10 ?m at 500 Hz and 1 ?m at 5 kHz; this performance surpasses that of existing underwater physical actuators. To attain these large displacements at such high speeds, we optimized critical design parameters using a computationally efficient description of the physics of low quality (Q) factor underwater electrostatic actuators. Our theoretical model accurately predicts actuator motion profiles as well as limits of bandwidth and displacement.

Hoelzle, David J.; Chan, Clara K.; Scott, Michael B.; Lake, Melinda A.; Rowat, Amy C.

2015-01-01

10

Intrinsic Noise Properties of Atomic Point Contact Displacement Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By coupling an atomic point contact (APC) to a nanomechanical beam, we measure the noise properties of an APC, an object which is the basis of scanning tunneling microscopy and is used to create electrical contact to single molecules. Using a microwave technique, we detect the resonant motion of the nanomechanical beam at frequencies up to 200 MHz. This measurement is sensitive enough to observe the random thermal motion of the nanomechanical beam at 250 mK. We use this thermal motion to evaluate the noise properties of the APC, demonstrating a displacement imprecision limited by the shot-noise in the number of electrons that tunnel across the APC and observing the force due to measurement backaction. Together, the imprecision and backaction yield a total uncertainty in the beam's displacement that is 42 times the standard quantum limit. In addition, we detect the beam's response to piezoelectric, electric, and magnetic forces, and use feedback to ``squash'' the shot-noise.

Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Lehnert, K. W.

2007-03-01

11

False asymmetry, pseudosymmetry, disorder, polymorphism and atomic displacement parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two similar sugars, with chemical formulas differing only by the presence of a methyl group connected to the molecule backbones in different positions, crystallize in the monoclinic P21 space group giving rise to Z? = 2 structures. They both bear an azide side chain which is the principal responsible for the lack of a higher symmetry for one compound only. We analyzed their most relevant features by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction coupled with a quantitative estimation of their potential tendency to crystallize in a different space group with higher symmetry. The latter tendency of the most promising of the two compounds is commented in the light of the anisotropic behaviour of the atomic displacement parameters.

Lombardo, Giuseppe M.; Punzo, Francesco

2014-12-01

12

Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films  

PubMed Central

A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead–zirconate–titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 ?m of static displacement, with 80–90 ?m displacements being typical, using four 920 ?m long by 70 ?m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy. PMID:25506130

Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

2014-01-01

13

Evaluation of displacement demands on large circular universal expansion joints  

SciTech Connect

In 1989 a seismic upgrade was completed at a facility to minimize any disruption of the enriching operations that could result from a major seismic event. Expansion joint modifications were a major part of this upgrade. Large diameter universal expansion joints (bellows) have been employed in facilities at locations where the piping is routed across building joints between structural units. These expansion joints are intended to permit differential displacement of the structural units without introducing excessive loadings into the piping system as well as alleviate thermal loadings. Reanalysis of the building to meet current seismic requirements have resulted in displacements at the building joints that exceed those considered during the initial design. These new seismic building displacements were usually larger than the values used to procure the bellows assemblies. To ensure a confidence in the evaluation of the existing bellows to the new design displacement, a walkdown was performed on a sample population and these results were used to determine any required modifications. This paper presents the bellows critical attributes for inspection, the evaluation process, the additional concern of the universal spool piece dynamic contribution, and an evaluation example. The expansion joints are primarily subjected to thermal displacements and differential movement between building units.

Buchanan, L.P.; Barnhart, J.A. [Parsons Power Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-12-01

14

SIFT flow for large-displacement object tracking.  

PubMed

Traditional tracking methods place an emphasis on how to cope with the variations in target appearance effectively. However, when the motion displacement of the target between image frames becomes larger, these methods may be unstable. This paper presents a novel (to our knowledge) visual object tracking method. In this method, we first introduce scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow into the tracking problem and develop a real-time motion prediction method to capture large displacement between consecutive image frames. Then we use belief propagation (BP) to convert the problem of finding maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) to globally minimizing an energy function to get the best matching pairs of points for producing good candidate regions of the target. And last, the refined point trajectories are obtained according to the bidirectional flow field consistency estimation and covariance region descriptor matching, which can update model states efficiently so as to achieve enhanced robustness for visual tracking. Compared with the state-of-art tracking methods, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows favorable performance when the object undergoes large motion displacement between image frames. PMID:25322097

Zhang, Huanlong; Hu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu

2014-09-20

15

Retrieval of the atomic displacements in the crystal from the coherent X-ray diffraction pattern.  

PubMed

The retrieval of spatially resolved atomic displacements is investigated via the phases of the direct(real)-space image reconstructed from the strained crystal's coherent X-ray diffraction pattern. It is demonstrated that limiting the spatial variation of the first- and second-order spatial displacement derivatives improves convergence of the iterative phase-retrieval algorithm for displacements reconstructions to the true solution. This approach is exploited to retrieve the displacement in a periodic array of silicon lines isolated by silicon dioxide filled trenches. PMID:24971974

Minkevich, A A; Köhl, M; Escoubas, S; Thomas, O; Baumbach, T

2014-07-01

16

Note: Seesaw actuation of atomic force microscope probes for improved imaging bandwidth and displacement range.  

PubMed

The authors describe a method of actuation for atomic force microscope (AFM) probes to improve imaging speed and displacement range simultaneously. Unlike conventional piezoelectric tube actuation, the proposed method involves a lever and fulcrum "seesaw" like actuation mechanism that uses a small, fast piezoelectric transducer. The lever arm of the seesaw mechanism increases the apparent displacement range by an adjustable gain factor, overcoming the standard tradeoff between imaging speed and displacement range. Experimental characterization of a cantilever holder implementing the method is provided together with comparative line scans obtained with contact mode imaging. An imaging bandwidth of 30 kHz in air with the current setup was demonstrated. PMID:21895282

Torun, H; Torello, D; Degertekin, F L

2011-08-01

17

Direct observation of depth-dependent atomic displacements associated with dislocations in gallium nitride.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope has a sufficiently small depth of field to observe depth-dependent atomic displacements in a crystal. The depth-dependent displacements associated with the Eshelby twist of dislocations in GaN normal to the foil with a screw component of the Burgers vector are directly imaged. We show that these displacements are observed as a rotation of the lattice between images taken in a focal series. From the sense of the rotation, the sign of the screw component can be determined. PMID:25302902

Lozano, J G; Yang, H; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; D'Alfonso, A J; Yasuhara, A; Okunishi, E; Zhang, S; Humphreys, C J; Allen, L J; Galindo, P L; Hirsch, P B; Nellist, P D

2014-09-26

18

Direct Observation of Depth-Dependent Atomic Displacements Associated with Dislocations in Gallium Nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope has a sufficiently small depth of field to observe depth-dependent atomic displacements in a crystal. The depth-dependent displacements associated with the Eshelby twist of dislocations in GaN normal to the foil with a screw component of the Burgers vector are directly imaged. We show that these displacements are observed as a rotation of the lattice between images taken in a focal series. From the sense of the rotation, the sign of the screw component can be determined.

Lozano, J. G.; Yang, H.; Guerrero-Lebrero, M. P.; D'Alfonso, A. J.; Yasuhara, A.; Okunishi, E.; Zhang, S.; Humphreys, C. J.; Allen, L. J.; Galindo, P. L.; Hirsch, P. B.; Nellist, P. D.

2014-09-01

19

Note: Seesaw actuation of atomic force microscope probes for improved imaging bandwidth and displacement range  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a method of actuation for atomic force microscope (AFM) probes to improve imaging speed and displacement range simultaneously. Unlike conventional piezoelectric tube actuation, the proposed method involves a lever and fulcrum ''seesaw'' like actuation mechanism that uses a small, fast piezoelectric transducer. The lever arm of the seesaw mechanism increases the apparent displacement range by an adjustable gain factor, overcoming the standard tradeoff between imaging speed and displacement range. Experimental characterization of a cantilever holder implementing the method is provided together with comparative line scans obtained with contact mode imaging. An imaging bandwidth of 30 kHz in air with the current setup was demonstrated.

Torun, H. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bogazici University, Bebek, TR-34342 Istanbul (Turkey); Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. L. [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2011-08-15

20

Use of Atomic Force Microscopy Force Measurements To Monitor Citrate Displacement by Amines on Gold in  

E-print Network

Use of Atomic Force Microscopy Force Measurements To Monitor Citrate Displacement by Amines on Gold-(dimethylamino)pyridine and pyridine, in aqueous solution, onto trisodium citrate equilibrated gold has been monitored by the decrease in the electrostatic potential of the gold surface with time. Pronounced changes

Chan, Derek Y C

21

Development of the ENDF/B-VI Atom Displacement Cross Sections for Iron  

SciTech Connect

The atom displacement (dpa) cross sections for iron given in the ASTM Standard Practice E6 693 are based on the data from ENDF/B-IV the cross sections have been changed considerably. In particular for iron, ENDF/B-VI gives cross-section evaluations for the individual isotopes with more forward-directed inelastic scattering, and reduced magnitude of the inelastic scattering at high energies. This report provides the displacement cross sections for iron generated from the ENDF/B-VI data and documents the procedure used to calculate the new dpa cross sections.

Remec, I.; White, J.E.

1999-06-01

22

Comparison of Two Kinds of Large Displacement Precision Parallel Mechanisms for Micro\\/nano Positioning Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents kinematic analysis of two kinds of large displacement parallel platforms for micro\\/nano positioning applications. The kinematics model of the dual parallel mechanism systems is established via the stiffness model of individual wide-range flexure hinge. The displacements of the end platform and the input parameters of prismatic actuators are discussed and the corrected values of input motions are

Yuan Yun; Yangmin Li

2008-01-01

23

Graphically oriented method for obtaining atomic displacement fields in crystals from irreducible representations of space groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for obtaining distortion fields in a crystal from a given irreducible representation of the underlying space group is described. The method, based on projection operators of group theory, is graphically oriented and therefore calculation-free. For an example (space group P4¯21m), complete sets of representation matrices are analytically calculated for all irreducible representations which correspond to all wave vectors of the form k=(q,q,0). All 96 linear independent atomic displacement modes in the (3×3×1) supercell, which are induced by the two irreducible representations with k=(13,13,0), are explicitly determined: the obtained atomic displacement fields are plane waves with wave vector k.

Gutmann, Jürgen K.; Böhm, Horst

2000-06-01

24

Improved calculation of displacements per atom cross section in solids by gamma and electron irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several authors had estimated the displacements per atom cross sections under different approximations and models, including most of the main gamma- and electron-material interaction processes. These previous works used numerical approximation formulas which are applicable for limited energy ranges. We proposed the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM), which relates the established theories about atom displacements to the electron and positron secondary fluence distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study the MCCM procedure is adapted in order to estimate the displacements per atom cross sections for gamma and electron irradiation. The results obtained through this procedure are compared with previous theoretical calculations. An improvement in about 10-90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section is observed in our results on regard to the previous evaluations for the studied incident energies. On the other hand, the dpa cross section values produced by irradiation with electrons are improved by our calculations in about 5-50% when compared with the theoretical approximations. When thin samples are irradiated with electrons, more precise results are obtained through the MCCM (in about 20-70%) with respect to the previous studies.

Piñera, Ibrahin; Cruz, Carlos M.; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Cabal, Ana E.; Espen, Piet Van; Remortel, Nick Van

2014-11-01

25

Numerical Simulation of Displacement Ventilation in a Gymnasium in a Large Space Building  

E-print Network

. However, there still remains a lot to do in providing a suitable airflow pattern for competitions, with less energy consumption. Recently the displacement ventilation (DV) system has been adopted in northern Europe. It is used in large spaces...

Wu, X.; Li, X.

2006-01-01

26

Experimental examination of wire mesh dampers subjected to large amplitude displacements  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL EXAMINATION OF WIRE MESH DAMPERS SUBJECTED TO LARGE AMPLITUDE DISPLACEMENTS A Thesis by ADAM ATHEW JONES Submited to the Ofice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements... for the degre of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2007 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL EXAMINATION OF WIRE MESH DAMPERS SUBJECTED TO LARGE AMPLITUDE DISPLACEMENTS A Thesis by ADAM ATHEW JONES Submited to the Ofice of Graduate...

Jones, Adam Matthew

2009-06-02

27

Nonlinear displacement of ventral stress fibers under externally applied lateral force by an atomic force microscope.  

PubMed

Actin-based stress fibers (SFs) have fundamental importance in the maintenance of mechanical stability of living cells. Several in vitro measurements of their elastic properties have therefore been made, but direct mechanical manipulation of individual SFs in vivo for the determination of their mechanical properties has not been attempted. No less important is a search for the possible formation of a global mechanical network involving SFs and other intracellular filamentous components. In this article, we present an application of atomic force microscopy to probe into a live cell and laterally push selected SFs in a fibroblast cells (VNOf 06 fibroblast-like cells derived from rat vomeronasal tissue) transfected with a green fluorescent protein-?-actin gene. The transfected cells were transferred to a serum-depleted medium before the atomic force microscope manipulation. The lateral displacement of the SFs under a point loading condition recorded on a fluorescence microscope revealed both linear and nonlinear displacements against the contour distance from the point of force loading. The nonlinear displacements of the SFs were attributed to their association with a cortical actomyosin-cell membrane complex that effectively pulled them back as a 2D thin plate. PMID:21976314

Hakari, Tomoro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Osada, Toshiya; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Afrin, Rehana; Ikai, Atsushi

2011-11-01

28

Optical knife-edge displacement sensor for high-speed atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We show that an optical knife-edge technique can be used to detect the parallel shift of an object with sub-nanometer resolution over a wide bandwidth. This allows to design simple, contact-free, and high-speed displacement sensors that can be implemented in high-speed atomic force microscope scanners. In an experimental setup, we achieved a root-mean-square sensor noise of 0.8?nm within a bandwidth from 1?Hz to 1.1?MHz. We used this sensor to detect and correct the nonlinear z-piezo displacement during force curves acquired with rates of up to 5?kHz. We discuss the fundamental resolution limit and the linearity of the sensor.

Braunsmann, Christoph; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: tilman.schaeffer@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Prucker, Veronika [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstraße 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstraße 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2014-03-10

29

Optical knife-edge displacement sensor for high-speed atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that an optical knife-edge technique can be used to detect the parallel shift of an object with sub-nanometer resolution over a wide bandwidth. This allows to design simple, contact-free, and high-speed displacement sensors that can be implemented in high-speed atomic force microscope scanners. In an experimental setup, we achieved a root-mean-square sensor noise of 0.8 nm within a bandwidth from 1 Hz to 1.1 MHz. We used this sensor to detect and correct the nonlinear z-piezo displacement during force curves acquired with rates of up to 5 kHz. We discuss the fundamental resolution limit and the linearity of the sensor.

Braunsmann, Christoph; Prucker, Veronika; Schäffer, Tilman E.

2014-03-01

30

Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com [Radiant Technologies, Inc., 2835C Pan American Fwy NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

2014-08-14

31

Modelling the unusual temperature dependence of atomic displacements in proteins by local nonharmonic potentials.  

PubMed Central

Recent x-ray studies of metmyoglobin at different temperatures [Frauenfelder, H. Petsko, G. A. & Tsernoglou, D. (1979) Nature (London) 280, 558-563] show that the dependence of the mean square displacements of individual atoms on the absolute temperature T can be described analytically by T mu, in which the parameter mu undergoes local variations in the range -2 to +20. This strong deviation from harmonic behavior mu = 1 is modelled here, in the classical limit, by local nonharmonic potentials, in which a particle spends part of its time in one or more weakly bound states (traps) and the rest of it as an almost free particle in a restricted volume (cavity). Analytic calculations of the mean square atomic displacement in such cavity--traps potentials for a simplified three-dimensional geometry yield the following results: A parametrically described T mu behavior characterizes a transition region in temperature below which the particle is "trapped" (solid-like) and above which the particle is "free" (liquid-like). The magnitude of mu increases with an increase in the ratio of cavity volume to trap volume. Mu greater than 0 type of behavior can be obtained by a single trap and mu less than 0 by two symmetric traps. A comparison is made between the predictions of the model and the experimental results, and the elucidation of the model parameters from x-ray data is discussed. PMID:6947262

Gavish, B

1981-01-01

32

Observation of atomic scale compositional and displacive modulations in incommensurate melilite electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The paradigm that functional materials are adequately described as three-dimensional crystal structures is not universally tenable. Gallate melilites are efficient oxide ion conductors at intermediate temperatures (?750 °C) with non-rational crystallographic modulations presumed to play a key role in significantly enhancing oxygen mobility. Lattice distortions associated with incommensuration are usually extrapolated from diffraction analysis of volumes greatly exceeding the scale of modulation. Therefore, opportunities for making direct nanometric measurements are exceptionally valuable for correlating structure with function. In [CaLn]{sub 2}[Ga]{sub 2}[Ga{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub 2} (Ln=Nd, La) melilites, atomic displacive and compositional modulation waves can be imaged by high angle annular dark field and bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy with contrast quantified through electron scattering simulation. Here, we present atomic scale observations of (3+2)-dimensional modulations in gallate melilites which expands our understanding of the ion conduction mechanism and provides guidance for enhancing the performance of solid oxide fuel cells through crystal chemical tailoring. - Highlights: • Characterise the (3+2)-dimensional melilite electrolytes using STEM technique. • Direct observation on displacive and compositional modulation in melilites. • Structural flexibility reduces when increasing interstitial oxygen. • Domain-like incommensurate modulation model is proposed.

Wei, Fengxia [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Williams, Tim [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); An, Tao; Baikie, Tom; Kloc, Christian [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Wei, Jun [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore); White, Tim, E-mail: tjwhite@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

2013-07-15

33

Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

Evans, J.; Chapman, S.

2014-08-01

34

Dynamic displacement measurement accuracy of GPS for monitoring large civil engineering structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerometer and displacement transducer are two common sensors used for structural displacement measurement. Due to their incapability of measuring static deflection of a structure, Global Positioning System (GPS) is developed as a novel sensor for measuring and monitoring both static and dynamic displacement responses of large civil engineering structures under gust winds. However, the accuracy of dynamic displacement measurement with GPS at the sub-centimeter to millimeter level depends on many factors such as required data update rate, satellite coverage, atmospheric effect, multi-path effect, and GPS data processing methods. Therefore, this paper focuses on the assessment of dynamic displacement measurement accuracy of GPS in two orthogonal directions. A 2-D motion simulation table is first developed as a test bed simulating various types of two perpendicular translational motions of tall buildings. The 2-D motion simulation table was then used to assess the performance of GPS through a series of field measurements in an open area. A band-pass filtering scheme is finally designed and applied to the table motion data recorded by the GPS. The comparison of the table motion recorded by the GPS with the original motion generated by the table shows that the GPS can measure sinusoidal or circular dynamic displacements accurately within certain amplitude and frequency ranges. The comparative results also demonstrate that the GPS can trace wind-induced dynamic responses of tall buildings satisfactorily.

Chan, W. S.; Xu, Y. L.; Ding, X. L.; Xiong, Y. L.; Dai, W. J.

2005-05-01

35

A spongy graphene based bimorph actuator with ultra-large displacement towards biomimetic application.  

PubMed

Bimorph actuators, consisting of two layers with asymmetric expansion and generating bending displacement, have been widely researched. Their actuation performances greatly rely on the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the two material layers. Here, by introducing a spongy graphene (sG) paper with a large negative CTE as well as high electrical-to-thermal properties, an electromechanical sG/PDMS bimorph actuator is designed and fabricated, showing an ultra-large bending displacement output under low voltage stimulation (curvature of about 1.2 cm(-1) at 10 V for 3 s), a high displacement-to-length ratio (?0.79), and vibration motion at AC voltage (up to 10 Hz), which is much larger and faster than that of the other electromechanical bimorph actuators. Based on the sG/PDMS bimorph serving as the "finger", a mechanical gripper is constructed to realize the fast manipulation of the objects under 0.1 Hz square wave voltage stimulation (0-8 V). The designed bimorph actuator coupled with ultra-large bending displacement, low driven voltage, and the ease of fabrication may open up substantial possibilities for the utilization of electromechanical actuators in practical biomimetic device applications. PMID:25220910

Hu, Ying; Lan, Tian; Wu, Guan; Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Wei

2014-11-01

36

Modeling of XFEL induced ionization and atomic displacement in protein nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray free-electron lasers enable high-resolution imaging of biological materials by using short enough pulses to outrun many of the effects of radiation damage. Experiments conducted at the LCLS have obtained diffraction data from single particles and protein nanocrystals at doses to the sample over 3 GGy. The details of the interaction of the X-ray FEL pulse with the sample determine the limits of this new paradigm for imaging. Recent studies suggest that in the case of crystalline samples, such as protein nanocrystals, the atomic displacements and loss of bound electrons in the crystal (due to the high X- ray intensity) has the effect of gating the diffraction signal, and hence making the experiment less radiation sensitive. Only the incident photon intensity in the first part of the pulse, before the Bragg diffraction has died out, is relevant to acquiring signal and the rest of the pulse will mainly contribute to a diffuse background. In this work we use a plasma based non-local thermodynamic equilibrium code to explore the displacement and the ionization of a protein nanocrystal at various X-ray wavelengths and intensities.

Caleman, Carl; Tîmneanu, Nicusor; Martin, Andrew V.; White, Thomas A.; Scott, Howard A.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.

2012-10-01

37

Development of steel dampers for bridges to allow large displacement through a vertical free mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolation bearings and dampers are often installed between piers and superstructures to reduce the seismic responses of bridges under large earthquakes. This paper presents a novel steel damper for bridges. The damper employs steel plates as energy dissipation components, and adopts a vertical free mechanism to achieve a large deformation capacity. Quasi-static tests using displacement-controlled cyclic loading and numerical analyses using a finite element program called ABAQUS are conducted to investigate the behavior of the damper, and a design methodology is proposed based on the tests and numerical analyses. Major conclusions obtained from this study are as follows: (1) the new dampers have stable hysteresis behavior under large displacements; (2) finite element analyses are able to simulate the behavior of the damper with satisfactory accuracy; and (3) simplified design methodology of the damper is effective.

Pan, Peng; Yan, Hong; Wang, Tao; Xu, Peizhen; Xie, Qiang

2014-09-01

38

Large scale mass redistribution and surface displacement from GRACE and SLR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass transport between the atmosphere, ocean and solid earth results in the temporal variations in the Earth gravity field and loading induced deformation of the Earth. Recent space-borne observations, such as GRACE mission, are providing extremely high precision temporal variations of gravity field. The results from 10-yr GRACE data has shown a significant annual variations of large scale vertical and horizontal displacements occurring over the Amazon, Himalayan region and South Asia, African, and Russian with a few mm amplitude. Improving understanding from monitoring and modeling of the large scale mass redistribution and the Earth's response are a critical for all studies in the geosciences, in particular for determination of Terrestrial Reference System (TRS), including geocenter motion. This paper will report results for the observed seasonal variations in the 3-dimentional surface displacements of SLR and GPS tracking stations and compare with the prediction from time series of GRACE monthly gravity solution.

Cheng, M.; Ries, J. C.; Tapley, B. D.

2012-12-01

39

Atomic displacements in low temperature irradiated chromium crystals M. Biget, F. Maury, P. Vajda, A. Lucasson (*) and P. Lucasson  

E-print Network

293 Atomic displacements in low temperature irradiated chromium crystals M. Biget, F. Maury, P interprétation des différentes sous-étapes jusqu'à 40 K. Abstract. 2014 Monocrystalline specimens of chromium potential particular to each metal. Very little is known about low temperature irradiated chromium. To our

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Calculation of displacement function of crystal atoms in the presence of temperature gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal conductivity equation is solved with allowance for experimental conditions. An expression for the displacement\\u000a function is derived. A method for calculating the displacement functions for different axes of symmetry of a crystal is proposed.

A. E. Movsisyan

2010-01-01

41

A spongy graphene based bimorph actuator with ultra-large displacement towards biomimetic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bimorph actuators, consisting of two layers with asymmetric expansion and generating bending displacement, have been widely researched. Their actuation performances greatly rely on the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the two material layers. Here, by introducing a spongy graphene (sG) paper with a large negative CTE as well as high electrical-to-thermal properties, an electromechanical sG/PDMS bimorph actuator is designed and fabricated, showing an ultra-large bending displacement output under low voltage stimulation (curvature of about 1.2 cm-1 at 10 V for 3 s), a high displacement-to-length ratio (~0.79), and vibration motion at AC voltage (up to 10 Hz), which is much larger and faster than that of the other electromechanical bimorph actuators. Based on the sG/PDMS bimorph serving as the ``finger'', a mechanical gripper is constructed to realize the fast manipulation of the objects under 0.1 Hz square wave voltage stimulation (0-8 V). The designed bimorph actuator coupled with ultra-large bending displacement, low driven voltage, and the ease of fabrication may open up substantial possibilities for the utilization of electromechanical actuators in practical biomimetic device applications.Bimorph actuators, consisting of two layers with asymmetric expansion and generating bending displacement, have been widely researched. Their actuation performances greatly rely on the difference of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the two material layers. Here, by introducing a spongy graphene (sG) paper with a large negative CTE as well as high electrical-to-thermal properties, an electromechanical sG/PDMS bimorph actuator is designed and fabricated, showing an ultra-large bending displacement output under low voltage stimulation (curvature of about 1.2 cm-1 at 10 V for 3 s), a high displacement-to-length ratio (~0.79), and vibration motion at AC voltage (up to 10 Hz), which is much larger and faster than that of the other electromechanical bimorph actuators. Based on the sG/PDMS bimorph serving as the ``finger'', a mechanical gripper is constructed to realize the fast manipulation of the objects under 0.1 Hz square wave voltage stimulation (0-8 V). The designed bimorph actuator coupled with ultra-large bending displacement, low driven voltage, and the ease of fabrication may open up substantial possibilities for the utilization of electromechanical actuators in practical biomimetic device applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Video records of the cycled actuation of the sG/PDMS bimorph at 10 V for 5 s and the manipulation of objects by a mechanical gripper at 0.1 Hz, 8 V, and optical images of a prototype voltmeter based on the sG/PDMS bimorph. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02768j

Hu, Ying; Lan, Tian; Wu, Guan; Zhu, Zicai; Chen, Wei

2014-10-01

42

Static atomic displacements in a CdTe epitaxial layer on a GaAs substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A (001)CdTe epitaxial layer on a (001)GaAs substrate was studied by x-ray diffraction between 10 and 360 K. The CdTe growth took place at 380 °C in a vertical gas flow metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor. Lattice parameters and integrated intensities of both the substrate and the epitaxial layer using the (00l) and (hhh) Bragg reflections reveal three important features. Firstly, the GaAs substrate does not exhibit severe strain after deposition and it is as perfect as a bulk GaAs. Secondly, the CdTe unit cell distorts tetragonally with a?>a? below 300 K. The decay of the (00l) reflection intensities as a function of the temperature yields a Debye temperature of 142 K, the same value as for bulk CdTe. Thirdly, a temperature-dependent isotropic static displacement of the Cd and the Te atoms is introduced to account for the anomalous behavior of the (hhh) intensities.

Horning, R. D.; Staudenmann, J.-L.

1987-05-01

43

Observation of depth-dependent atomic displacements related to dislocations in GaN by optical sectioning in the STEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that it is possible to observe depth-dependent atomic displacements in a GaN crystal due to the sufficiently small depth of field achievable in the aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. The depth-dependent displacements associated with the Eshelby twist of screw dislocations in GaN viewed end on are directly imaged, and makes possible the determination of the sign of the Burgers vector of the dislocation. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical images.

Lozano, J. G.; Guerrero-Lebrero, M. P.; Yasuhara, A.; Okinishi, E.; Zhang, S.; Humphreys, C. J.; Galindo, P. L.; Hirsch, P. B.; Nellist, P. D.

2014-06-01

44

Large-Deformation Displacement Transfer Functions for Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Slender Aerospace Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large deformation displacement transfer functions were formulated for deformed shape predictions of highly flexible slender structures like aircraft wings. In the formulation, the embedded beam (depth wise cross section of structure along the surface strain sensing line) was first evenly discretized into multiple small domains, with surface strain sensing stations located at the domain junctures. Thus, the surface strain (bending strains) variation within each domain could be expressed with linear of nonlinear function. Such piecewise approach enabled piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations [classical (Eulerian), physical (Lagrangian), and shifted curvature equations] to yield closed form slope and deflection equations in recursive forms.

Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

2013-01-01

45

Displacement in the parameter space versus spurious solution of discretization with large time step  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate a possible correspondence between differential and difference equations, it is important to possess discretization of ordinary differential equations. It is well known that when differential equations are discretized, the solution thus obtained depends on the time step used. In the majority of cases, such a solution is considered spurious when it does not resemble the expected solution of the differential equation. This often happens when the time step taken into consideration is too large. In this work, we show that, even for quite large time steps, some solutions which do not correspond to the expected ones are still topologically equivalent to solutions of the original continuous system if a displacement in the parameter space is considered. To reduce such a displacement, a judicious choice of the discretization scheme should be made. To this end, a recent discretization scheme, based on the Lie expansion of the original differential equations, proposed by Monaco and Normand-Cyrot will be analysed. Such a scheme will be shown to be sufficient for providing an adequate discretization for quite large time steps compared to the pseudo-period of the underlying dynamics.

Mendes, Eduardo; Letellier, Christophe

2004-01-01

46

Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.  

PubMed

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

2013-12-22

47

Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat  

PubMed Central

Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species’ ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

2013-01-01

48

Generating atomic multi-dimensional entangled states under large atom-cavity detuning  

E-print Network

We propose a scheme to deterministically generate atomic two-dimensional and three-dimensional entangled states by passing two 87Rb atoms through a high-Q bi-mode cavity alternately. The scheme is insensitive to atomic spontaneous decay because of large atom-cavity detuning, the influence of cavity decay is also discussed. Our strictly numerical simulation shows our proposal is good enough to demonstrate the generation of atomic entanglement with high fidelity and within the current experimental technologies.

Peng Shi; Li-Bo Chen; Wen-Dong Li; Chun-Nian Ren; Chun-Hong Zheng; Yong-Jian Gu

2012-09-25

49

American Mineralogist, Volume 75, pages 1253-1267, 1990 A study of the mean-square displacement amplitudes of Si, AI, and 0 atoms in  

E-print Network

amplitudes of Si, AI, and 0 atoms in framework structures: Evidence for rigid bonds, order, twinning of the mean-square displacement amplitudes (MSDA) of the T(Al,Si) and 0 atoms in ordered framework silicates in these crystals are consistent with a rigid bond model. In particular, the MSDAs of the T and 0 atoms

Downs, Robert T.

50

A large outbreak of shigellosis commencing in an internally displaced population, Papua New Guinea, 2013  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to investigate a large outbreak of shigellosis in Papua New Guinea that began in a camp for internally displaced persons before spreading throughout the general community. Methods Outbreak mitigation strategies were implemented in the affected area to curtail the spread of the disease. Data were collected from the surveillance system and analysed by time, place and person. Rectal swab samples were tested by standard culture methods and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the etiology of the outbreak. Results Laboratory analysis at two independent institutions established that the outbreak was caused by Shigella sp., with one strain further characterized as Shigella flexneri serotype 2. Approximately 1200 suspected cases of shigellosis were reported in a two-month period from two townships in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The outbreak resulted in at least five deaths, all in young children. Discussion This outbreak of shigellosis highlights the threat of enteric diseases to vulnerable populations such as internally displaced persons in Papua New Guinea, as has been observed in other global settings. PMID:25648967

Benny, Edwin; Mesere, Kelly; Pavlin, Boris I; Yakam, Logan; Ford, Rebecca; Yoannes, Mition; Kisa, Debbie; Abdad, Mohammad Y; Menda, Lincoln; Greenhill, Andrew R

2014-01-01

51

Separate determination of the amplitude of thermal vibrations and static atomic displacements in titanium carbide by neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

The amplitude of thermal (dynamic) atomic vibrations and meansquare static atomic displacements in titanium carbide TiC{sub x} (x = 0.97, 0.88, 0.70) have been separately determined by measuring neutron diffraction patterns at two temperatures (T{sub 1} = 300 K and T{sub 2} = 80 K). The static lattice distortions in stoichiometric titanium carbide are experimentally found to be negligible. In the TiC{sub x} homogeneity range, the amplitude {radical}u{sup 2}{sub dyn} of thermal atomic vibrations significantly increases with a decrease in the carbon concentration. The Debye temperature has been determined for the first time in the TiC{sub x} homogeneity range at both room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures.

Khidirov, I., E-mail: khidirov@inp.uz; Parpiev, A. S. [Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan)

2011-05-15

52

Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

Braaten, Eric

2012-05-31

53

A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument, the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z-piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyne interferometers in the x, y, and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper, further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore, an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm (p-v). Versatile scanning functions, for example, radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions, have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring, for instance, the step height, lateral pitch, line width, nanoroughness, and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures. Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated, showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument.

Dai, Gaoliang; Wolff, Helmut; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich

2009-04-01

54

A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance.  

PubMed

A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument, the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z-piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyne interferometers in the x, y, and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper, further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore, an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm (p-v). Versatile scanning functions, for example, radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions, have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring, for instance, the step height, lateral pitch, line width, nanoroughness, and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures. Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated, showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument. PMID:19405661

Dai, Gaoliang; Wolff, Helmut; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich

2009-04-01

55

Design and nonlinear modeling of a large-displacement XYZ flexure parallel mechanism with decoupled kinematic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes an XYZ flexure parallel mechanism (FPM) with large displacement and decoupled kinematic structure. The motion range of the large-displacement FPM using notch hinges is more than 1mm and is achieved by assembling the typical large-displacement prismatic joints and a new large-displacement prismatic joint proposed in this article. Moreover, the decoupled XYZ stage has small cross-axis error and small parasitic rotation. An exact nonlinear modeling method for the typical prismatic joint and the new type of prismatic joint is presented. Using the proposed nonlinear method, the stiffness and dynamics of the XYZ FPM are studied. Comparison between the pseudo-rigid-body and the proposed nonlinear methods is performed on the prismatic joints and the XYZ FPM. To verify the proposed nonlinear modeling method, experiments are conducted to study the linear stiffness of the prismatic joint. The stiffness and the natural frequency of the XYZ FPM are also obtained from the experimental data. The cross-axis error and the parasitic rotation of the XYZ FPM are measured. The experimental results show that the proposed XYZ FPM achieves large displacement and decoupled motion, and the proposed nonlinear method is valid for the flexure mechanism.

Tang, Xueyan; Chen, I.-Ming; Li, Qing

2006-11-01

56

Determination of temperature-dependent atomic displacements in the Ca10Ir4As8(Fe2As2)5 superconductor with a metallic spacer layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the combination of Fe K-edge and Ir L3-edge x-ray absorption measurements as a function of temperature to investigate local atomic displacements in the newly discovered Ca10Ir4As8(Fe2As2)5 superconducting system. We find relatively relaxed Fe-Fe atomic pair correlations with large displacements in the FeAs4 tetrahedra, revealed by Fe K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. Similarly, the temperature dependence of Ir L3-edge EXAFS shows nanoscale disorder in the IrAs layer that should have a significant effect on the active FeAs-layer characteristics. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure data are presented to discuss the evolution of the unoccupied electronic states revealing the marginal role of spin-orbit coupling, while the interlayer interactions and disorder should be important for describing the physics of the Ca10Ir4As8(Fe2As2)5 system.

Paris, E.; Joseph, B.; Iadecola, A.; Marini, C.; Kudo, K.; Mitsuoka, D.; Nohara, M.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.

2014-09-01

57

An updated Lagrangian finite element formulation for large displacement dynamic analysis of three-dimensional flexible riser structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated Lagrangian finite element formulation of a three-dimensional annular section beam element is presented for large displacement and large rotation dynamic analyses of flexible riser structures. In this formulation a new linearization method is used to avoid inaccuracies normally associated with other linearization schemes. The effects of buoyancy force as well as steady state current loading are considered in

S. A. Hosseini Kordkheili; H. Bahai; M. Mirtaheri

2011-01-01

58

DYNAMICS OF ATOMIC DISPLACEMENT PROCESSES. II. INFLUENCE OF CRYSTAL LATTICE ON CASCADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic calculations carried out on the basis of a manybody lattice ; model of alpha -iron indicate that 1) An actual cubic lattice (b.c.c. or ; f.c.c.) is highly anisotropic. The random model of radiation damage, which ; assumes that all directions are equivalent as far as displacement production is ; concerned, is inadequate in describing actual conditions. Cubic lattices

Erginsoy

1963-01-01

59

Field ion microscopy of cascades of atomic displacements in metals and alloys after various types of irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on atomic-spatial investigation of radiative defect formation in surface layers of materials, initiated by neutron bombardment (of Pt, E > 0.1 MeV) and ion implantation (in Cu3Au: E = 40 keV, F = 1016 ion/m2, j = 10-3 A/cm2), are considered. Quantitative estimates are obtained for the size, shape, and volume fraction of cascades of atomic displacements formed under various types of irradiation in the surface layers of the materials. It is shown that the average size of radiation clusters after irradiation of platinum to a fast neutron fluence of 6.7 × 1022 m-2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) is about 3.8 nm. The experimentally established average size of a radiation cluster (disordered zone) in the alloy after ion bombardment is 4 × 4 × 1.5 nm.

Ivchenko, V. A.

2014-09-01

60

Phased-array piezoelectric actuators using a buckling mechanism having large displacement amplification and nonlinear stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel designs of an array of piezoelectric stack actuators using a unique buckling mechanism are presented in this paper. Multiple PZT actuator units with high gain displacement amplification mechanisms are arranged in parallel with spatial phase differences. Having an inherent kinematic singularity, the buckling mechanism provides not only an extremely high gain of displacement amplification, but also varying stiffness and

Devin Neal; H. Harry Asada

2010-01-01

61

Large-displacement structural durability analyses of simple bend specimen emulating rocket nozzle liners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-displacement elastic and elastic-plastic, finite-element stress-strain analyses of an oxygen-tree high-conductivity (OFHC) copper plate specimen were performed using an updated Lagrangian formulation. The plate specimen is intended for low-cost experiments that emulate the most important thermomechanical loading and failure modes of a more complex rocket nozzle. The plate, which is loaded in bending at 593 C, contains a centrally located and internally pressurized channel. The cyclic crack initiation lives were estimated using the results from the analyses and isothermal strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue data for OFHC copper. A comparison of the predicted and experimental cyclic lives showed that an elastic analysis predicts a longer cyclic life than that observed in experiments by a factor greater than 4. The results from elastic-plastic analysis for the plate bend specimen, however, predicted a cyclic life in close agreement with experiment, thus justifying the need for the more rigorous stress-strain analysis.

Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

1994-01-01

62

Subpixelic Measurement of Large 1D Displacements: Principle, Processing Algorithms, Performances and Software  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations—leading to high resolution—while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 ?s for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 ?m measurement range. PMID:24625736

Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J.; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

2014-01-01

63

Subpixelic measurement of large 1D displacements: principle, processing algorithms, performances and software.  

PubMed

This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations-leading to high resolution-while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 µs for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-? repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 µm measurement range. PMID:24625736

Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

2014-01-01

64

An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for solving moving boundary problems with large displacements and rotations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation based on the unstructured finite volume method is proposed for solving moving boundary problems with large displacements and rotations. The numerical method is based on the side-centered arrangement of the primitive variables that does not require any ad-hoc modifications in order to enhance pressure coupling. The continuity equation is satisfied within each element at machine precision and the summation of the continuity equations can be exactly reduced to the domain boundary, which is important for the global mass conservation. A special attention is given to construct an ALE algorithm obeying the discrete geometric conservation law (DGCL). The mesh deformation algorithm is based on the indirect Radial Basis Function (RBF) algorithm at each time level while avoiding remeshing in order to enhance numerical robustness. For the parallel solution of resulting large-scale algebraic equations in a fully coupled form, a matrix factorization is introduced similar to that of the projection method for the whole system and the parallel algebraic multigrid solver BoomerAMG is used for the scaled discrete Laplacian provided by the HYPRE library which we access through the PETSc library. The present numerical algorithm is initially validated for the decaying Taylor-Green vortex flow, the flow past an oscillating circular cylinder in a channel and the flow induced by an oscillating sphere in a cubic cavity. Then the numerical algorithm is applied to the numerical simulation of flow field around a pair of flapping Drosophila wings in hover flight. The time variation of the Eulerian coherent structures in the near wake is shown along with the aerodynamic loads.

Erzincanli, Belkis; Sahin, Mehmet

2013-12-01

65

A threaded wobble motor with a 6-pole stator-a micro motor generating large linear displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the driving principle and the experimental demonstration of a micro motor which can convert rotation into linear motion and generate large displacement. The motor is a wobble type one; its rotor and stators have screw threads. When the rotor turns, it moves linearly in the axial direction like a screw. The range of linear motion is

Tetsuhiko Iizuka; Hiroyuki Fujita

1996-01-01

66

Images Interpolation for Image-based Control Under Large Displacement Youcef Mezouar, Anthony Remazeilles, Patrick Gros, Francois Chaumette  

E-print Network

Images Interpolation for Image-based Control Under Large Displacement Youcef Mezouar, Anthony, France Abstract The principal deficiency of image-based visual servoing is that the induced (3D- trol needs a matching step between the features extracted from the initial image and the desired one

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Electronic Transport in Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene at Large Displacement Fields  

E-print Network

We study the electronic transport properties of dual-gated bilayer graphene devices. We focus on the regime of low temperatures and high electric displacement fields, where we observe a clear exponential dependence of the ...

Taychatanapat, Thiti

68

Displacement, county social cohesion and depression after a large-scale traumatic event  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is a common and potentially debilitating consequence of traumatic events. Mass traumatic events cause wide-ranging disruptions to community characteristics, influencing the population risk of depression. In the aftermath of such events, population displacement is common. Stressors associated with displacement may increase risk of depression directly. Indirectly, persons who are displaced may experience erosion in social cohesion, further exacerbating their risk for depression. Methods Using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey of adults living in the 23 southernmost counties of Mississippi (N = 708), we modeled the independent and joint relations of displacement and county-level social cohesion with depression 18–24 months after Hurricane Katrina. Results After adjustment for individual- and county-level sociodemographic characteristics and county-level hurricane exposure, joint exposure to both displacement and low social cohesion was associated with substantially higher log-odds of depression (b = 1.34 [0.86–1.83]). Associations were much weaker for exposure only to low social cohesion (b = 0.28 [?0.35–0.90]) or only to displacement (b = 0.04 [?0.80– 0.88]). The associations were robust to additional adjustment for individually perceived social cohesion and social support. Conclusion Addressing the multiple, simultaneous disruptions that are a hallmark of mass traumatic events is important to identify vulnerable populations and understand the psychological ramifications of these events. PMID:23644724

Lê, Félice; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

2013-01-01

69

Magnetic transport of trapped cold atoms over a large distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the transport of magnetically trapped cold atoms over a large distance. Atoms are captured in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and loaded into a magnetic quadrupole trap. The quadrupole potential is then moved over a distance of 33 cm into an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) chamber using a chain of quadrupole coils. By running suitable currents through the quadrupole coil pairs

Markus Greiner; Immanuel Bloch; Theodor W. Hänsch; Tilman Esslinger

2001-01-01

70

Measuring roll angle displacement based on ellipticity with high resolution and large range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and compact roll angle displacement measurement based on the principle of the light's polarization is presented. The ellipticity of the light has been chosen as the final output, which shows a good linear relationship with, and a high sensitivity to, the roll angle displacement. In the experiments, a 2.16?? step roll angle displacement has been recognized by this novel system and the linear range can be extended to 15°. The major components of this system are just a half-wave plate, a quarter-wave plate, a commonly used semiconductor laser, and a detector. Therefore, it is very easy to construct such a system both in the laboratory environment and the actual measurement environment.

Zhang, Peizhe; Wang, Yicong; Kuang, Cuifang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Xu

2015-01-01

71

Identification of plastic constitutive parameters at large deformations from three dimensional displacement fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide a general procedure to extract the constitutive parameters of a plasticity model starting\\u000a from displacement measurements and using the Virtual Fields Method. This is a classical inverse problem which has been already\\u000a investigated in the literature, however several new features are developed here. First of all the procedure applies to a general

Marco Rossi; Fabrice Pierron

2011-01-01

72

Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami  

PubMed Central

Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, though not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research, and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature. PMID:24839300

Gray, Clark; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Sumantri, Cecep; Thomas, Duncan

2014-01-01

73

Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami.  

PubMed

Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, though not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research, and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature. PMID:24839300

Gray, Clark; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Sumantri, Cecep; Thomas, Duncan

2014-01-01

74

Dynamics and control of a large displacement suspension system for ground testing of flexible space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the development in flexible space structures expands, the need for an efficient and accurate suspension system for ground tests increases accordingly. In this article, a disk suspension system was developed. Analytical results describing the dynamics of a passive and active suspension system were generated given realistic parameters of the system. These results for the passive case, were then compared with the data obtained from an experimental model with initial displacement and random forcing inputs. The dynamics of the system was analyzed. Results show that the experimental model resembles closely the analytical model and therefore strongly suggests feasibility of such a suspension system.

Reaves, Mercedes C.; Chew, Meng-Sang; Juang, Jer-Nan; Chiu, Steven H.

1992-01-01

75

Online monitoring of the distributed lateral displacement in large AC power generators using a high spatial resolution Brillouin optical fiber sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, online monitoring of the distributed lateral displacement in large AC power generators using high spatial resolution differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA). To perform the measurement of distributed lateral displacements with periods of only a few cm in large AC power generators, a 2 cm spatial resolution strain measurement is realized using the differential pulse pair of 8/8.2 ns in DPP-BOTDA, and then the lateral displacements are reconstructed according to the strain-displacement relation with the assumption of a sine shape function. Using different fiberglass ripple springs, two types of lateral displacement with periods of 3 and 3.25 cm are demonstrated, obtaining a maximum displacement of 0.43 mm with a measurement accuracy of ~ 40 µm. This provides the information on the stator coil tightness through online monitoring of the distributed lateral displacement caused by the fiberglass ripple springs, and ensures safe operating conditions for large AC power generators. In addition, the large number of sensing points associated with distributed optical fiber sensors make it economically and technically practical to monitor large numbers of key components in a generator without any interference from the large magnetic and electrical fields.

Dong, Yongkang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

2011-11-01

76

Search for Displaced Supersymmetry in Events with an Electron and a Muon with Large Impact Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for new long-lived particles decaying to leptons is presented using proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC at ?{s }=8 TeV . Data used for the analysis were collected by the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 . Events are selected with an electron and muon with opposite charges that both have transverse impact parameter values between 0.02 and 2 cm. The search has been designed to be sensitive to a wide range of models with nonprompt e -? final states. Limits are set on the "displaced supersymmetry" model, with pair production of top squarks decaying into an e -? final state via R -parity-violating interactions. The results are the most restrictive to date on this model, with the most stringent limit being obtained for a top squark lifetime corresponding to c ? =2 cm , excluding masses below 790 GeV at 95% confidence level.

Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.

2015-02-01

77

Creating large out-of-plane displacement electrothermal motion stage by incorporating beams with step features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing out-of-plane actuation in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is still a challenging task. In this paper, the design, fabrication methods and experimental results for a MEMS-based out-of-plane motion stage are presented based on bulk micromachining technologies. This stage is electrothermally actuated for out-of-plane motion by incorporating beams with step features. The fabricated motion stage has demonstrated displacements of 85 µm with 0.4 µm (mA)-1 rates and generated up to 11.8 mN forces with stiffness of 138.8 N m-1. These properties obtained from the presented stage are comparable to those for in-plane motion stages, therefore making this out-of-plane stage useful when used in combination with in-plane motion stages.

Kim, Yong-Sik; Dagalakis, Nicholas G.; Gupta, Satyandra K.

2013-05-01

78

Large-angle illumination STEM: Toward three-dimensional atom-by-atom imaging.  

PubMed

To fully understand and control materials and their properties, it is of critical importance to determine their atomic structures in all three dimensions. Recent revolutionary advances in electron optics - the inventions of geometric and chromatic aberration correctors as well as electron source monochromators - have provided fertile ground for performing optical depth sectioning at atomic-scale dimensions. In this study we theoretically demonstrate the imaging of top/sub-surface atomic structures and identify the depth of single dopants, single vacancies and the other point defects within materials by large-angle illumination scanning transmission electron microscopy (LAI-STEM). The proposed method also allows us to measure specimen properties such as thickness or three-dimensional surface morphology using observations from a single crystallographic orientation. PMID:25484363

Ishikawa, Ryo; Lupini, Andrew R; Hinuma, Yoyo; Pennycook, Stephen J

2015-04-01

79

Large-scale separation of amino acids by continuous displacement chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. The technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications.

DeCarli, J.P. II; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

1989-10-01

80

Characteristics of a monolithic microvalve with a large-displacement electrostatic actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of a monolithic microvalve using a curved electrode electrostatic actuator and an integrable valve orifice are described. The valve is a normally open electrostatic microvalve with a 83 volts switching voltage. The curved electrode is a curled up cantilever structure with few hundred micrometers out of plane displacement. Lateral buckling of the actuator is overcome by using a mesh type or finger strip type metalization pattern. Cantilever with curvatures angle ranging 0 to more than 360 degrees have been achieved by changing the thickness ratio of composite layers of the cantilever. A valve channel consisting of three inverted pyramids in tandem have been sued. The flow rate of the valve linearly depends on the pressure difference across the valve. Thickness variation of the standard wafers has minimal effect on the final orifice sizes of the valve. The surface micromachining processes used to fabricate actuators and bulk micromachining process used to fabricate the valve channel, have been integrated in a set of processes to fabricate a monolithic normally open microvalve.

Haji-Babaei, Jafar; Kwok, Chee Y.

1999-09-01

81

Search for displaced supersymmetry in events with an electron and a muon with large impact parameters.  

PubMed

A search for new long-lived particles decaying to leptons is presented using proton-proton collisions produced by the LHC at sqrt[s]=8??TeV. Data used for the analysis were collected by the CMS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7??fb^{-1}. Events are selected with an electron and muon with opposite charges that both have transverse impact parameter values between 0.02 and 2 cm. The search has been designed to be sensitive to a wide range of models with nonprompt e-? final states. Limits are set on the "displaced supersymmetry" model, with pair production of top squarks decaying into an e-? final state via R-parity-violating interactions. The results are the most restrictive to date on this model, with the most stringent limit being obtained for a top squark lifetime corresponding to c?=2??cm, excluding masses below 790 GeV at 95% confidence level. PMID:25723204

Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dobur, D; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Grebenyuk, A; Léonard, A; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Zenoni, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Crucy, S; Dildick, S; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Ryckbosch, D; Salva Diblen, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Vizan Garcia, J M; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Dos Reis Martins, T; Mora Herrera, C; Pol, M E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santaolalla, J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Marinov, A; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Tao, J; Wang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; Assran, Y; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Brochet, S; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Hindrichs, O; Klein, K; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L

2015-02-13

82

Computation of correlation-induced atomic displacements and structural transformations in paramagnetic KCuF3 and LaMnO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a computational scheme for ab initio total-energy calculations of materials with strongly interacting electrons using a plane-wave basis set. It combines ab initio band structure and dynamical mean-field theory and is implemented in terms of plane-wave pseudopotentials. The present approach allows us to investigate complex materials with strongly interacting electrons and is able to treat atomic displacements, and

I. Leonov; Dm. Korotin; N. Binggeli; V. I. Anisimov; D. Vollhardt

2010-01-01

83

Achieving large stable vertical displacement in surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)  

E-print Network

This thesis describes electrostatic actuation techniques and mechanical design features for realizing large planar analog vertical travel in an electrostatically actuated diffractive mid-infrared optical device, which is ...

Deutsch, Erik R. (Erik Robertson), 1974-

2002-01-01

84

A three-degree-of-freedom thin-film PZT-actuated microactuator with large out-of-plane displacement  

PubMed Central

A novel three degree-of-freedom microactuator based on thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) is described with its detailed structural model. Its central rectangular-shaped mirror platform, also referred to as the stage, is actuated by four symmetric PZT bending legs such that each leg provides vertical translation for one corner of the stage. It has been developed to support real-time in vivo vertical cross-sectional imaging with a dual axes confocal endomicroscope for early cancer detection, having large displacements in three axes (z, ?x, ?y) and a relatively high bandwidth in the z-axis direction. Prototype microactuators closely meet the performance requirements for this application; in the out-of-plane (z-axis) direction, it has shown more than 177 ?m of displacement and about 84 Hz of structural natural frequency, when two diagonal legs are actuated at 14V. With all four legs, another prototype of the same design with lighter stage mass has achieved more than 430 ?m of out-of-plane displacement at 15V and about 200 Hz of bandwidth. The former design has shown approximately 6.4° and 2.9° of stage tilting about the x-axis and y-axis, respectively, at 14V. This paper also presents a modeling technique that uses experimental data to account for the effects of fabrication uncertainties in residual stress and structural dimensions. The presented model predicts the static motion of the stage within an average absolute error of 14.6 ?m, which approaches the desired imaging resolution, 5 ?m, and also reasonably anticipates the structural dynamic behavior of the stage. The refined model will support development of a future trajectory tracking controller for the system. PMID:25506131

Choi, Jongsoo; Qiu, Zhen; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Oldham, Kenn

2014-01-01

85

This paper presents a floating slider mechanism to achieve large scanning angular displacements with low voltage  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT This paper presents a floating slider mechanism to achieve large scanning angular consumption and low-cost drive-electronics. We introduce the concept of the floating slider mechanism tilted via hinge linkages and bimorph structures do not require manual assembly, which is advantageous

86

Element-specific modal formulations for large-displacement multibody dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large dispacement assumed-mode modeling techniques are examined in the context of multibody elastodynamics. The range of both general and element-specific approaches are studied with the aid of examples involving beams, plates, and shells. For systems undergoing primarily structural bending and twisting with little or no membrane distortion, it is found that fully-linear, element-specific, modal formulations provide the most accurate time history solutions at the least expense. When membrane effects become dominant in structural problems due to loading and boundary conditions, one must naturally resort to a formulation involving a nonlinear stress-strain relationship in addition to nonlinear terms associated with large overall system motion. Such nonlinear models were investigated using assumed modes and found to lead to modal convergence difficulties when standard free-free structural modes are employed. A constrained mode formulation aimed at addressing the convergence problem is proposed.

Ryan, R. R.; Yoo, H. H.

1989-01-01

87

Response to displaced neighbours in a territorial songbird with a large repertoire.  

PubMed

Neighbour recognition allows territory owners to modulate their territorial response according to the threat posed by each neighbour and thus to reduce the costs associated with territorial defence. Individual acoustic recognition of neighbours has been shown in numerous bird species, but few of them had a large repertoire. Here, we tested individual vocal recognition in a songbird with a large repertoire, the skylark Alauda arvensis. We first examined the physical basis for recognition in the song, and we then experimentally tested recognition by playing back songs of adjacent neighbours and strangers. Males showed a lower territorial response to adjacent neighbours than to strangers when we broadcast songs from the shared boundary. However, when we broadcast songs from the opposite boundary, males showed a similar response to neighbours and strangers, indicating a spatial categorisation of adjacent neighbours' songs. Acoustic analyses revealed that males could potentially use the syntactical arrangement of syllables in sequences to identify the songs of their neighbours. Neighbour interactions in skylarks are thus subtle relationships that can be modulated according to the spatial position of each neighbour. PMID:19495716

Briefer, Elodie; Aubin, Thierry; Rybak, Fanny

2009-09-01

88

Design, operation and validation of a new fluid-sealed direct shear apparatus capable of monitoring fault-related fluid flow to large displacements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of direct shear apparatus has been developed to allow for deformation of large and intact rock samples under fluid-sealed conditions. The sealed cell was specifically designed to monitor changes to fluid flow across the evolving rupture surface to large displacements (?120mm), and effective stress conditions up to 36MPa. To maintain a seal for the pore fluid during

S. B. Giger; M. B. Clennell; C. Harbers; P. Clark; M. Ricchetti; J. H. Ter Heege; B. B. T. Wassing; B. Orlic

2011-01-01

89

First-principles responses of solids to atomic displacements and homogeneous electric fields: Implementation of a conjugate-gradient algorithm  

E-print Network

in density, wave functions, and self-consistent potentials of solids, in response to small atomic the computation of the first-order derivatives of the wave functions, density, and self-consistent potential appearance of O N algorithms for phonons14 as well as Wannier function approach to the di- electric constant

Wu, Zhigang

90

High Displacement Actuator (HDA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Positioned beneath a fiber optic displacement sensor is the new High Displacement Actuator (HDA) developed by scientists at NASA Langley Research Center. The high displacement actuator significantly improves the state-of-the-art piezoelectric technology and provides inordinately large mechanical displacements. The HDA is also applicable to high performance sensor applications such as microphones, non-destructive testing, and vibration sensing. Test results on the high displacement actuators show displacements 50 times greater than device thickness and several orders of magnitude increase over state-of-the-art devices. The actuators can be used from DC to frequencies in excess of a megahertz and with displacement loads exceeding 10 Kg (25 lbs). The actuator can also produce displacements comparable to state-of-the-art devices with an order reduction in operating voltage. The high displacement actuators are reliable. They have been laboratory tested to beyond 400 million cycles without failure. The highly efficient electrically- insulated actuator can be operated in a vacuum, in liquids, and in the upper atmosphere. The HDA is versatile and rugged allowing for use in harsh environments for hundreds of commercial applications. In many device applications the high displacement actuator wafer itself can serve the function of several components, e.g. in simple pumps it take the place of piston, piston-rod and crank. The HDA is a packaged flexible laminate of pre-stressed polymeric materials and a piezoelectric ceramic that form a robust, low cost, user friendly device.

1994-01-01

91

Imaging and focusing of an atomic beam with a large period standing light wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel atomic lens scheme is reported. A cylindrical lens potential was created by a large period (? 45 µm) standing light wave perpendicular to a beam of metastable He atoms. The lens aperture (25 µm) was centered in one antinode of the standing wave; the laser frequency was nearly resonant with the atomic transition 23S1-23P2 (?=1.083 µm) and the

T. Sleator; T. Pfau; V. Balykin; J. Mlynek

1992-01-01

92

The dissociation-induced displacement of chemisorbed O2 by mobile O atoms and the autocatalytic recombination of O due to chain fragmentation on Ag(110)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between thermal desorption of chemisorbed dioxygen and its dissociation was studied with temperature programmed methods. Analysis of the kinetics of molecular desorption and the fraction of adsorbed molecules which dissociate is consistent with a model in which oxygen atoms released by the dissociation event induce desorption of the molecular species. These unequilibrated atoms exhibit a mean free path relative to the chemisorbed dioxygen of 1.8 nm prior to thermalization with the surface, displacing chemisorbed dioxygen within their reach. Each dissociation event leads to desorption of two oxygen molecules if the space between chemisorbed molecules approaches the minimum of 0.58 nm. This condition can be achieved experimentally by saturating the population of chemisorbed dioxygen (0.33 ML O2) at 90-100 K. Oxygen adatoms recombine near 580 K from the reconstructed (n × 1)-O adlayer with kinetics dictated by progressive fragmentation of the O(AgO)m rows. This behavior gives rise to autocatalytic recombination kinetics of oxygen adatoms which produces both an acceleration of rate at constant temperature and unusual recombination kinetics in temperature programmed desorption.

Eric Klobas, J.; Schmid, Martin; Friend, Cynthia M.; Madix, Robert J.

2014-12-01

93

Computation of correlation-induced atomic displacements and structural transformations in paramagnetic KCuF3 and LaMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a computational scheme for ab initio total-energy calculations of materials with strongly interacting electrons using a plane-wave basis set. It combines ab initio band structure and dynamical mean-field theory and is implemented in terms of plane-wave pseudopotentials. The present approach allows us to investigate complex materials with strongly interacting electrons and is able to treat atomic displacements, and hence structural transformations, caused by electronic correlations. Here it is employed to investigate two prototypical Jahn-Teller materials, KCuF3 and LaMnO3 , in their paramagnetic phases. The computed equilibrium Jahn-Teller distortion and antiferro-orbital order agree well with experiment, and the structural optimization performed for paramagnetic KCuF3 yields the correct lattice constant, equilibrium Jahn-Teller distortion and tetragonal compression of the unit cell. Most importantly, the present approach is able to determine correlation-induced structural transformations, equilibrium atomic positions, and lattice structure in both strongly and weakly correlated solids in their paramagnetic phases as well as in phases with long-range magnetic order.

Leonov, I.; Korotin, Dm.; Binggeli, N.; Anisimov, V. I.; Vollhardt, D.

2010-02-01

94

A probable vacuum state containing a large number of hydrogen atom of excited state or ground state K, Rb or Cs atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear Stark effect shows that the first excited state of hydrogen atom has large permanent electric dipole moment (EDM), d(H)=3eao (ao is Bohr radius). Using special capacitors our experiments discovered that the ground state K, Rb or Cs atom is polar atom with a large EDM of the order of eao as hydrogen atom of excited state. Their capacitance(C)

Pei-Lin You

2008-01-01

95

Atomic-order thermal nitridation of group IV semiconductors for ultra-large-scale integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main requirements for ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) is atomic-order control of process technology. Our concept of atomically controlled processing for group IV semiconductors is based on atomic-order surface reaction control in Si-based CVD epitaxial growth. On the atomic-order surface nitridation of a few nm-thick Ge/about 4 nm-thick Si0.5Ge0.5/Si(100) by NH3, it is found that N atoms diffuse through nm-order thick Ge layer into Si0.5Ge0.5/Si(100) substrate and form Si nitride, even at 500 °C. By subsequent H2 heat treatment, although N atomic amount in Ge layer is reduced drastically, the reduction of the Si nitride is slight. It is suggested that N diffusion in Ge layer is suppressed by the formation of Si nitride and that Ge/atomic-order N layer/Si1?xGex/Si (100) heterostructure is formed. These results demonstrate the capability of CVD technology for atomically controlled nitridation of group IV semiconductors for ultra-large-scale integration. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

Murota, Junichi; Le Thanh, Vinh

2015-03-01

96

Influence of static atomic displacements on composition quantification of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures from HAADF-STEM images.  

PubMed

In an earlier publication Rosenauer et al. introduced a method for determination of composition in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures from high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) images. Static atomic displacements (SADs) were neglected during simulation of reference data because of the similar covalent radii of Al and Ga. However, SADs have been shown (Grillo et al.) to influence the intensity in HAADF images and therefore could be the reason for an observed slight discrepancy between measured and nominal concentrations. In the present study parameters of the Stillinger-Weber potential were varied in order to fit computed elastic constants, lattice parameters and bonding energies to experimental ones. A reference data set of HAADF images was simulated, in which the new parameterization was used to account for SADs. Two reference samples containing AlGaN layers with different Al concentrations were investigated and Al concentrations in the layers determined based on the new data set. We found that these concentrations were in good agreement with nominal concentrations as well as concentrations determined using alternative techniques such as strain state analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:25010567

Schowalter, Marco; Stoffers, Ingo; Krause, Florian F; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Müller, Knut; Fandrich, Malte; Aschenbrenner, Timo; Hommel, Detlef; Rosenauer, Andreas

2014-10-01

97

Fission-fusion correlations for swelling and microstructure in stainless steels: effect of the helium-to-displacement-per-atom ratio  

SciTech Connect

The initial irradiated structural materials data base for fusion applications will be developed in fission reactors. Hence, this data may need to be adjusted using physically-based procedures to represent behavior in fusion environments, viz. - fission-fusion correlations. Such correlation should reflect a sound mechanistic understanding, and be verified in facilities which most closely simulate fusion conditions. In this paper we review the effects of only one of a number of potentially significant damage variables, the helium to displacement per atom ratio, on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels. Dual-ion and helium preinjection data are analyzed to provide mechanistic guidance; these results appear to be qualitatively consistent with a more detailed comparison made between fast (EBR-II) and mixed (HFIR) spectrum neutron data for a single heat of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. These two fission environments bound fusion (He/dpa ratios. A model calibrated to the fission reactor data is used to extrapolate to fusion conditions. Both the theory and broad empirical observation suggest that helium to dpa ratios have both a qualitative and quantitative influence on microstructural evolution; and that the very high and low ratios found in HFIR and EBR-II may not result in behavior which brackets intermediate fusion conditions.

Odette, G.R.; Maziaz, P.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.

1981-01-01

98

GRASP92: A package for large-scale relativistic atomic structure calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a suite of programs for multiconfiguration or configuration-interaction relativistic atomic structure calculations with large configuration state function lists. Atomic orbitals are taken to be four-component spinors. Multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations are based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian; at this level nuclei are assumed stationary and may be modelled either as point sources or as spherically-symmetric extended sources; in the latter

F. A. Parpia; C. Froese Fischer; I. P. Grant

1996-01-01

99

Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device  

SciTech Connect

We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Goto, M.; Morita, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2013-01-15

100

Displaced Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

The apparent absence of light superpartners at the LHC strongly constrains the viability of the MSSM as a solution to the hierarchy problem. These constraints can be significantly alleviated by R-parity violation (RPV). Bilinear R-parity violation, with the single operator L H_u, does not require any special flavor structure and can be naturally embedded in a GUT while avoiding constraints from proton decay (unlike baryon-number-violating RPV). The LSP in this scenario can be naturally long-lived, giving rise to displaced vertices. Many collider searches, particularly those selecting b-jets or leptons, are insensitive to events with such detector-scale displaced decays owing to cuts on track quality and impact parameter. We demonstrate that for decay lengths in the window ~1-1000 mm, constraints on superpartner masses can be as low as ~450 GeV for squarks and ~40 GeV for LSPs. In some parts of parameter space light LSPs can dominate the Higgs decay width, hiding the Higgs from existing searches. This framework motivates collider searches for detector-scale displaced vertices. LHCb may be ideally suited to trigger on such events, while ATLAS and CMS may need to trigger on missing energy in the event.

Peter W. Graham; David E. Kaplan; Surjeet Rajendran; Prashant Saraswat

2012-04-26

101

Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers.  

PubMed

Transition metal dichacogenides represent a unique class of two-dimensional layered materials that can be exfoliated into single or few atomic layers. Tungsten diselenide (WSe(2)) is one typical example with p-type semiconductor characteristics. Bulk WSe(2) has an indirect band gap (? 1.2 eV), which transits into a direct band gap (? 1.65 eV) in monolayers. Monolayer WSe(2), therefore, is of considerable interest as a new electronic material for functional electronics and optoelectronics. However, the controllable synthesis of large-area WSe(2) atomic layers remains a challenge. The studies on WSe(2) are largely limited by relatively small lateral size of exfoliated flakes and poor yield, which has significantly restricted the large-scale applications of the WSe(2) atomic layers. Here, we report a systematic study of chemical vapor deposition approach for large area growth of atomically thin WSe(2) film with the lateral dimensions up to ? 1 cm(2). Microphotoluminescence mapping indicates distinct layer dependent efficiency. The monolayer area exhibits much stronger light emission than bilayer or multilayers, consistent with the expected transition to direct band gap in the monolayer limit. The transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate excellent crystalline quality of the atomically thin WSe(2). Electrical transport studies further show that the p-type WSe(2) field-effect transistors exhibit excellent electronic characteristics with effective hole carrier mobility up to 100 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for monolayer and up to 350 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for few-layer materials at room temperature, comparable or well above that of previously reported mobility values for the synthetic WSe(2) and comparable to the best exfoliated materials. PMID:25434747

Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Chen; Shaw, Jonathan C; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan O; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2015-01-14

102

Method for large-scale fabrication of atomic-scale structures on material surfaces using surface vacancies  

DOEpatents

A method for forming atomic-scale structures on a surface of a substrate on a large-scale includes creating a predetermined amount of surface vacancies on the surface of the substrate by removing an amount of atoms on the surface of the material corresponding to the predetermined amount of the surface vacancies. Once the surface vacancies have been created, atoms of a desired structure material are deposited on the surface of the substrate to enable the surface vacancies and the atoms of the structure material to interact. The interaction causes the atoms of the structure material to form the atomic-scale structures.

Lim, Chong Wee (Urbana, IL); Ohmori, Kenji (Urbana, IL); Petrov, Ivan Georgiev (Champaign, IL); Greene, Joseph E. (Champaign, IL)

2004-07-13

103

Resonant atom-field interaction in large-size coupled-cavity arrays  

SciTech Connect

We consider an array of coupled cavities with staggered intercavity couplings, where each cavity mode interacts with an atom. In contrast to large-size arrays with uniform hopping rates where the atomic dynamics is known to be frozen in the strong-hopping regime, we show that resonant atom-field dynamics with significant energy exchange can occur in the case of staggered hopping rates even in the thermodynamic limit. This effect arises from the joint emergence of an energy gap in the free photonic dispersion relation and a discrete frequency at the gap's center. The latter corresponds to a bound normal mode stemming solely from the finiteness of the array length. Depending on which cavity is excited, either the atomic dynamics is frozen or a Jaynes-Cummings-like energy exchange is triggered between the bound photonic mode and its atomic analog. As these phenomena are effective with any number of cavities, they are prone to be experimentally observed even in small-size arrays.

Ciccarello, Francesco [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, I-90128 Palermo (Italy)

2011-04-15

104

High-speed atomic force microscopy for large scan sizes using small cantilevers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a high-speed atomic force microscope that exhibits a number of practical advantages over previous designs. Its central component is a high-speed scanner with a maximum scan size of 23 µm × 23 µm and a conveniently large sample stage area (6.5 mm × 6.5 mm). In combination with small cantilevers, image rates of up to 46 images s

Christoph Braunsmann; Tilman E. Schäffer

2010-01-01

105

Recession Swells Count of Displaced Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The weak economy of the early 1990s increased the number of displaced workers. Although a disproportionately large share were in the goods-producing industries, displacements were much more widespread across industries than a decade earlier. (Author)

Gardner, Jennifer M.

1993-01-01

106

Population Displacements Associated with Environmentally  

E-print Network

associated with large infrastructure ­ Typology of displacements ­ Case Studies · Mali · Brazil · South to changing climate (drought flood­ Infrastructure in response to changing climate (drought, flood, disasters Socio economic Impacts Enviro Impacts Dam Climate Change Fresh H20 Salinization Drought Flood

Columbia University

107

Large Deviations, Central Limit and dynamical phase transitions in the atom maser  

E-print Network

The theory of quantum jump trajectories provides a new framework for understanding dynamical phase transitions in open systems. A candidate for such transitions is the atom maser, which for certain parameters exhibits strong intermittency in the atom detection counts, and has a bistable stationary state. Although previous numerical results suggested that the "free energy" may not be a smooth function, we show that the atom detection counts satisfy a large deviations principle, and therefore we deal with a phase cross-over rather than a genuine phase transition. We argue however that the latter occurs in the limit of infinite pumping rate. As a corollary, we obtain the Central Limit Theorem for the counting process. The proof relies on the analysis of a certain deformed generator whose spectral bound is the limiting cumulant generating function. The latter is shown to be smooth, so that a large deviations principle holds by the Gartner-Ellis Theorem. One of the main ingredients is the Krein-Rutman Theorem which extends the Perron-Frobenius theory to a general class of positive compact semigroups.

Merlijn van Horssen; Madalin Guta

2013-10-14

108

Large area hexagonal boron nitride monolayer as efficient atomically thick insulating coating against friction and oxidation.  

PubMed

Coating is the most widely applied technology to improve surface properties of substrates, and nanotechnology has been playing an important role in enhancing the coating performance. However, the tunability of surface properties by a single atomic layer remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayer of large area and high quality can serve as a perfect coating to significantly improve friction, oxidation and electric resistance of the substrates. The exceptional low friction and insulation of h-BN monolayer coating facilitate the characterization of the h-BN film vividly by atomic force microscopy, showing the h-BN monolayer consists of domains with size within a few micrometers. This excellent coating performance together with the exceptional high thermal and chemical stability make the h-BN monolayer a promising coating material. PMID:24532053

Li, Xuemei; Yin, Jun; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

2014-03-14

109

A thermal modelling of displacement cascades in uranium dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space and time dependent temperature distribution was studied in uranium dioxide during displacement cascades simulated by classical molecular dynamics (MD). The energy for each simulated radiation event ranged between 0.2 keV and 20 keV in cells at initial temperatures of 700 K or 1400 K. Spheres into which atomic velocities were rescaled (thermal spikes) have also been simulated by MD to simulate the thermal excitation induced by displacement cascades. Equipartition of energy was shown to occur in displacement cascades, half of the kinetic energy of the primary knock-on atom being converted after a few tenths of picoseconds into potential energy. The kinetic and potential parts of the system energy are however subjected to little variations during dedicated thermal spike simulations. This is probably due to the velocity rescaling process, which impacts a large number of atoms in this case and would drive the system away from a dynamical equilibrium. This result makes questionable MD simulations of thermal spikes carried out up to now (early 2014). The thermal history of cascades was compared to the heat equation solution of a punctual thermal excitation in UO2. The maximum volume brought to a temperature above the melting temperature during the simulated cascade events is well reproduced by this simple model. This volume eventually constitutes a relevant estimate of the volume affected by a displacement cascade in UO2. This definition of the cascade volume could also make sense in other materials, like iron.

Martin, G.; Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C.; Devynck, F.; Krack, M.; Maillard, S.

2014-05-01

110

RTV 21 Displacements  

SciTech Connect

A seal is needed for the cover of the Nitrogen Test Vessel in order to prevent leakage of the N{sub 2} gas. This seal is to be molded out of RTV 21. In this experiment, the Modulus of Elasticity of the RTV was sought after, and the displacements of the RTV due to various stresses were measured to see if they were large enough to provide a tight seal between the vessel and its cover.

Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

1987-02-04

111

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle  

E-print Network

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

Demouchy, Sylvie

112

Halo phenomenon in finite many-fermion systems. Atom-positron complexes and large-scale study of atomic nuclei  

E-print Network

The analysis method proposed in Ref. \\cite{rotival07a} is applied to characterize halo properties in finite many-fermion systems. First, the versatility of the method is highlighted by applying it to light and medium-mass nuclei as well as to atom-positron and ion-positronium complexes. Second, the dependence of nuclear halo properties on the characteristics of the energy density functional used in self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations is studied. It is found that (a) the low-density behavior of the pairing functional and the regularization/renormalization scheme must be chosen coherently and with care to provide meaningful predictions, (b) the impact of pairing correlations on halo properties is significant and is the result of two competing effects, (c) the detailed characteristics of the pairing functional has however only little importance, (d) halo properties depend significantly on any ingredient of the energy density functional that influences the location of single-particle levels; i.e. the effective mass, the tensor terms and the saturation density of nuclear matter. The latter dependencies give insights to how experimental data on medium-mass drip-line nuclei can be used in the distant future to constrain some characteristics of the nuclear energy density functional. Last but not least, large scale predictions of halos among all spherical even-even nuclei are performed using specific sets of particle-hole and particle-particle energy functionals. It is shown that halos in the ground state of medium-mass nuclei will only be found at the very limit of neutron stability and for a limited number of elements.

V. Rotival; K. Bennaceur; T. Duguet

2009-03-22

113

Enhancement of magneto-optic effects via large atomic coherence in optically dense media RID B-9041-2008  

E-print Network

and applied physics include the search for parity viola- tions @3?5# and optical magnetometry. In this paper, we demonstrate that the large atomic coherence associated with electromagnetically induced transparency ~EIT! @6,7# in op- tically thick samples...

Sautenkov, V. A.; Lukin, M. D.; Bednar, CJ; Novikova, I.; Mikhailov, E.; Fleischhauer, M.; Velichansky, V. L.; Welch, George R.; Scully, Marlan O.

2000-01-01

114

Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

Duden, Thomas

2014-04-22

115

Virtual interface substructure synthesis method for normal mode analysis of super-large molecular complexes at atomic resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal mode analysis of large biomolecular complexes at atomic resolution remains challenging in computational structure biology due to the requirement of large amount of memory space and central processing unit time. In this paper, we present a method called virtual interface substructure synthesis method or VISSM to calculate approximate normal modes of large biomolecular complexes at atomic resolution. VISSM introduces the subunit interfaces as independent substructures that join contacting molecules so as to keep the integrity of the system. Compared with other approximate methods, VISSM delivers atomic modes with no need of a coarse-graining-then-projection procedure. The method was examined for 54 protein-complexes with the conventional all-atom normal mode analysis using CHARMM simulation program and the overlap of the first 100 low-frequency modes is greater than 0.7 for 49 complexes, indicating its accuracy and reliability. We then applied VISSM to the satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV, 78 300 atoms) and to F-actin filament structures of up to 39-mer, 228 813 atoms and found that VISSM calculations capture functionally important conformational changes accessible to these structures at atomic resolution. Our results support the idea that the dynamics of a large biomolecular complex might be understood based on the motions of its component subunits and the way in which subunits bind one another.

Chen, Xuehui; Sun, Yunxiang; An, Xiongbo; Ming, Dengming

2011-10-01

116

Flow injection on-line displacement/solid phase extraction system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry for selective trace silver determination in water samples.  

PubMed

A novel flow injection (FI) on-line displacement solid phase extraction preconcentration and/or separation method coupled with FAAS in order to minimize interference from other metals was developed for trace silver determination. The proposed method involved the on-line formation and subsequently pre-sorption of lead diethyldithiocarbamate (Pb-DDTC) into a column packed with PTFE-turnings. The preconcentration and/or separation of the Ag(I) took place through a displacement reaction between Ag(I) and Pb(II) of the pre-sorbed Pb-DDTC. Finally, the retained analyte was eluted with isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK) and delivered directly to nebulizer for measuring. Interference from co-existing ions with lower DDTC complex stability in comparison with Pb-DDTC, was eliminated without need for any masking reagent. With 120 s of preconcentration time at a sample flow rate of 7.6 mL min(-1), an enhancement factor of 110 and a detection limit (3s) of 0.2 microg L(-1) were obtained. The precision (RSD, n=10) was 3.1% at the 10 mug L(-1) level. The developed method was successfully applied to trace silver determination in a variety of environmental water samples and certified reference material. PMID:19174217

Christou, Chrysoula K; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

2009-04-15

117

Large-Area Quality Control of Atomically-Thin Layered Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast progress in chemical vapor deposition of graphene and other quasi-two-dimensional layered materials such as topological insulators call for development of a reliable high-throughput method of layered materials identification and quality control. The number of atomic planes in graphene or other ultra-thin films has to be determined very fast and over large wafer-scale areas. The previously existed methods of accurate counting of the number of atomic planes in few-layer graphene were primarily based on micro-Raman spectroscopy. These methods were local, slow, and could not be scaled up to characterize the whole wafers. In this dissertation research I proposed and developed an automatic approach for graphene inspection over the wafer-size areas. The proposed method can be scaled up for industrial use. It is based on the image processing analysis of the pseudo-color contrasts uniquely assigned to each few-layer graphene region characterized by a specific number of atomic planes. The initial calibration of the technique is performed with the help of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The image processing is also used to account for the lighting non-uniformity of the samples. Implementation of the technique developed in this dissertation research reduces the cost and time required for graphene identification and quality assessment, and can become the next major impetus for practical applications of graphene, few-layer graphene and other atomically-thin films. The technique was tested on mechanically exfoliated graphene and then extended to the chemical-vapor-deposited graphene, and to bismuth telluride topological insulator thin films. The second part of the dissertation research deals with development of the electrostatic transfer process. The investigated approach allows one to transfer the patterned few-layer graphene films controllably to Si3N4 substrates compatible with other materials. The large-area quality control and graphene transfer techniques developed in this dissertation research are important for the proposed practical applications of graphene in electronics and optoelectronics.

Nolen, Craig Merten

118

An atomic-absorption method for the determination of gold in large samples of geologic materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A laboratory method for the determination of gold in large (100-gram) samples has been developed for use in the study of the gold content of placer deposits and of trace amounts of gold in other geologic materials. In this method the sample is digested with bromine and ethyl ether, the gold is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone, and the determination is made by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The lower limit of detection is 0.005 part per million in the sample. The few data obtained so far by this method agree favorably with those obtained by assay and by other atomic-absorption methods. About 25 determinations can be made per man-day.

VanSickle, Gordon H.; Lakin, Hubert William

1968-01-01

119

Strong electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic media with large residual Doppler broadening  

E-print Network

Electromagnetically induced transparency and coherent population trapping were observed in a hot (1000 K) calcium vapor embedded into an electrical gas discharge. Unexpectedly large transparencies (of up to 70%) were observed under very unfavorable conditions: probe wavelength shorter than the coupling wavelength, and coupling Rabi frequency significantly smaller than the residual Doppler linewidth of the two photon transition. We developed a theoretical model that shows that the observed results are due to the combined effects of a strong probe beam and a small open character of the atomic system. Coherent population trapping also manifests itself as a change in the impedance of the gas discharge, and the phenomenon can be probed with high sensitivity via the optogalvanic effect.

Luis E. E. de Araujo; Silvania A. Carvalho; Luciano S. Soares; Antonio A. Soares; Armando Mirage; Daniel Pereira; Flavio C. Cruz

2006-11-30

120

A continuum mechanics based derivation of Reissner’s large-displacement finite-strain beam theory: the case of plane deformations of originally straight Bernoulli–Euler beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we present a continuum mechanics based derivation of Reissner’s equations for large-displacements and\\u000a finite-strains of beams, where we restrict ourselves to the case of plane deformations of originally straight Bernoulli–Euler\\u000a beams. For the latter case of extensible elastica, we succeed in attaching a continuum mechanics meaning to the stress resultants\\u000a and to all of the generalized

Hans Irschik; Johannes Gerstmayr

2009-01-01

121

Photoresponse properties of large-area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition  

SciTech Connect

Photoresponse properties of a large area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst are studied. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum characterizations confirm that the two-dimensional microstructures of MoS{sub 2} atomic layer are of high quality. Photoelectrical results indicate that the as-prepared MoS{sub 2} devices have an excellent sensitivity and a good reproducibility as a photodetector, which is proposed to be ascribed to the potential-assisted charge separation mechanism.

Luo, Siwei; Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn; Ren, Long; Hao, Guolin; Fan, Yinping; Liu, Yundan; Han, Weijia; Zang, Chen; Li, Jun; Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, People's Republic of China Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology, and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2014-10-28

122

The case for character displacement in plants.  

PubMed

The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

Beans, Carolyn M

2014-03-01

123

The case for character displacement in plants  

PubMed Central

The evidence for character displacement as a widespread response to competition is now building. This progress is largely the result of the establishment of rigorous criteria for demonstrating character displacement in the animal literature. There are, however, relatively few well-supported examples of character displacement in plants. This review explores the potential for character displacement in plants by addressing the following questions: (1) Why aren't examples of character displacement in plants more common? (2) What are the requirements for character displacement to occur and how do plant populations meet those requirements? (3) What are the criteria for testing the pattern and process of character displacement and what methods can and have been used to address these criteria in the plant literature? (4) What are some additional approaches for studying character displacement in plants? While more research is needed, the few plant systems in which character displacement hypotheses have been rigorously tested suggest that character displacement may play a role in shaping plant communities. Plants are especially amenable to character displacement studies because of the experimental ease with which they can be used in common gardens, selection analyses, and breeding designs. A deeper investigation of character displacement in plants is critical for a more complete understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes that permit the coexistence of plant species. PMID:24683467

Beans, Carolyn M

2014-01-01

124

BLOCK DISPLACEMENT METHOD FIELD DEMONSTRATION AND SPECIFICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Block Displacement technique has been developed as a remedial action method for isolating large tracks of ground contaminated by hazardous waste. The technique places a low permeability barrier around and under a large block of contaminated earth. The Block Displacement proce...

125

High-resolution and large dynamic range nanomechanical mapping in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spatial resolution imaging of material properties is an important task for the continued development of nanomaterials and studies of biological systems. Time-varying interaction forces between the vibrating tip and the sample in a tapping-mode atomic force microscope contain detailed information about the elastic, adhesive, and dissipative response of the sample. We report real-time measurement and analysis of the time-varying tip-sample interaction forces with recently introduced torsional harmonic cantilevers. With these measurements, high-resolution maps of elastic modulus, adhesion force, energy dissipation, and topography are generated simultaneously in a single scan. With peak tapping forces as low as 0.6 nN, we demonstrate measurements on blended polymers and self-assembled molecular architectures with feature sizes at 1, 10, and 500 nm. We also observed an elastic modulus measurement range of four orders of magnitude (1 MPa to 10 GPa) for a single cantilever under identical feedback conditions, which can be particularly useful for analyzing heterogeneous samples with largely different material components.

Sahin, Ozgur; Erina, Natalia

2008-11-01

126

Job Displacement Among Single Mothers:  

PubMed Central

Given the recent era of economic upheaval, studying the effects of job displacement has seldom been so timely and consequential. Despite a large literature associating displacement with worker well-being, relatively few studies focus on the effects of parental displacement on child well-being, and fewer still focus on implications for children of single parent households. Moreover, notwithstanding a large literature on the relationship between single motherhood and children’s outcomes, research on intergenerational effects of involuntary employment separations among single mothers is limited. Using 30 years of nationally representative panel data and propensity score matching methods, we find significant negative effects of job displacement among single mothers on children’s educational attainment and social-psychological well-being in young adulthood. Effects are concentrated among older children and children whose mothers had a low likelihood of displacement, suggesting an important role for social stigma and relative deprivation in the effects of socioeconomic shocks on child well-being. PMID:25032267

Brand, Jennie E.; Thomas, Juli Simon

2015-01-01

127

Large Faraday rotation of resonant light in a cold atomic cloud G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, and R. Kaiser  

E-print Network

Large Faraday rotation of resonant light in a cold atomic cloud G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, and R Received 12 March 2001; published 1 August 2001 We experimentally studied the Faraday rotation of resonant of the polarization state of the transmitted light was neces- sary to account for the role of the probe laser

Kaiser, Robin

128

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic memory  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic.-M. Duan,5 and J. Kim4 1 Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland Department of Physics and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Department of Physics

Monroe, Christopher

129

Particle displacement tracking for PIV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

Wernet, Mark P.

1990-01-01

130

Toward accurate thermochemical models for transition metals : G3large basis sets for atoms Sc-Zn.  

SciTech Connect

An augmented valence triple-zeta basis set, referred to as G3Large, is reported for the first-row transition metal elements Sc through Zn. The basis set is constructed in a manner similar to the G3Large basis set developed previously for other elements (H-Ar, K, Ca, Ga-Kr) and used as a key component in Gaussian-3 theory. It is based on a contraction of a set of 15s13p5d Gaussian primitives to 8s7p3d, and also includes sets of f and g polarization functions, diffuse spd functions, and core df polarization functions. The basis set is evaluated with triples-augmented coupled cluster [CCSD(T)] and Brueckner orbital [BD(T)] methods for a small test set involving energies of atoms, atomic ions, and diatomic hydrides. It performs well for the low-lying s{yields}d excitation energies of atoms, atomic ionization energies, and the dissociation energies of the diatomic hydrides. The Brueckner orbital-based BD(T) method performs substantially better than Hartree-Fock-based CCSD(T) for molecules such as NiH, where the starting unrestricted Hartree-Fock wavefunction suffers from a high degree of spin contamination. Comparison with available data for geometries of transition metal hydrides also shows good agreement. A smaller basis set without core polarization functions, G3MP2Large, is also defined.

Mayhall, N. J.; Raghavachari, K.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L. A.; Rassolov, V.; Indiana Univ.; Univ. of South Carolina

2008-04-01

131

Single Cs atoms as collisional probes in a large Rb magneto-optical trap  

SciTech Connect

We study cold interspecies collisions of cesium and rubidium in a strongly imbalanced system with single and few Cs atoms. Observation of the single-atom fluorescence dynamics yields insight into light-induced loss mechanisms, while both subsystems can remain in steady state. This significantly simplifies the analysis of the dynamics, as Cs-Cs collisions are effectively absent and the majority component remains unaffected, allowing us to extract a precise value of the Rb-Cs collision parameter. Extending our results to ground-state collisions would allow to use single neutral atoms as coherent probes for larger quantum systems.

Weber, Claudia; John, Shincy; Spethmann, Nicolas; Meschede, Dieter; Widera, Artur [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

2010-10-15

132

A large atomic chlorine source inferred from mid-continental reactive nitrogen chemistry.  

PubMed

Halogen atoms and oxides are highly reactive and can profoundly affect atmospheric composition. Chlorine atoms can decrease the lifetimes of gaseous elemental mercury and hydrocarbons such as the greenhouse gas methane. Chlorine atoms also influence cycles that catalytically destroy or produce tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas potentially toxic to plant and animal life. Conversion of inorganic chloride into gaseous chlorine atom precursors within the troposphere is generally considered a coastal or marine air phenomenon. Here we report mid-continental observations of the chlorine atom precursor nitryl chloride at a distance of 1,400 km from the nearest coastline. We observe persistent and significant nitryl chloride production relative to the consumption of its nitrogen oxide precursors. Comparison of these findings to model predictions based on aerosol and precipitation composition data from long-term monitoring networks suggests nitryl chloride production in the contiguous USA alone is at a level similar to previous global estimates for coastal and marine regions. We also suggest that a significant fraction of tropospheric chlorine atoms may arise directly from anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:20220847

Thornton, Joel A; Kercher, James P; Riedel, Theran P; Wagner, Nicholas L; Cozic, Julie; Holloway, John S; Dubé, William P; Wolfe, Glenn M; Quinn, Patricia K; Middlebrook, Ann M; Alexander, Becky; Brown, Steven S

2010-03-11

133

Method for preparing ultraflat, atomically perfect areas on large regions of a crystal surface by heteroepitaxy deposition  

DOEpatents

A novel method of forming large atomically flat areas is described in which a crystalline substrate having a stepped surface is exposed to a vapor of another material to deposit a material onto the substrate, which material under appropriate conditions self arranges to form 3D islands across the substrate surface. These islands are atomically flat at their top surface, and conform to the stepped surface of the substrate below at the island-substrate interface. Thereafter, the deposited materials are etched away, in the etch process the atomically flat surface areas of the islands transferred to the underlying substrate. Thereafter the substrate may be cleaned and annealed to remove any remaining unwanted contaminants, and eliminate any residual defects that may have remained in the substrate surface as a result of pre-existing imperfections of the substrate.

El Gabaly, Farid; Schmid, Andreas K.

2013-03-19

134

Large Ground-State Entropy Changes for Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of Iron Complexes  

PubMed Central

Reported herein are the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions of two closely related dicationic iron tris ?-diimine complexes. FeII(H2bip) (iron(II) tris[2,2?-bi-1,4,5,6-tetra-hydropyrimidine]diperchlorate) and FeII(H2bim) (iron(II) tris[2,2?-bi-2-imidazoline]diperchlorate) both transfer H• to TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinoxyl) to yield the hydroxylamine, TEMPO-H, and the respective deprotonated iron(III) species, FeIII(Hbip) or FeIII(Hbim). The ground-state thermodynamic parameters in MeCN were determined for both systems using both static and kinetic measurements. For FeII(H2bip) + TEMPO: ?G° = ?0.3 ± 0.2 kcal mol?1, ?H° =?9.4 ± 0.6 kcal mol?1, ?S° = ?30 ± 2 cal mol?1 K?1. For FeII(H2bim) + TEMPO: ?G° = 5.0 ± 0.2 kcal mol?1, ?H° = ?4.1 ± 0.9 kcal mol?1, ?S° = ?30 ± 3 cal mol?1 K?1. The large entropy changes for these reactions, |T?S°| = 9 kcal mol?1 at 298 K, are exceptions to the traditional assumption that ?S° ? 0 for simple HAT reactions. Various studies indicate that hydrogen-bonding, solvent effects, ion-pairing, and iron spin-equilibria do not make major contributions to the observed ?S°HAT. Instead, this effect arises primarily from changes in vibrational entropy upon oxidation of the iron center. Measurement of the electron transfer half-reaction entropy, |?S° Fe(H2bim)/ET| = 29 ± 3 cal mol?1 K?1, is consistent with a vibrational origin. This conclusion is supported by UHF/6-31G* calculations on the simplified reaction [FeII(H2N=CHCH=NH2)2(H2bim)]2+•••ONH2 ? [FeII(H2N=CHCH=NH2)2(Hbim)]2+•••HONH2. The discovery that ?S°HAT can deviate significantly from zero has important implications on the study of HAT and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions. For instance, these results indicate that free energies, rather than enthalpies, should be used to estimate the driving force for HAT when transition metal centers are involved. PMID:17402735

Mader, Elizabeth A.; Davidson, Ernest R.

2008-01-01

135

Precision displacement reference system  

DOEpatents

A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

2000-02-22

136

The Atomic-scale Growth of Large-Area Monolayer Graphene on Single-Crystal Copper Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the growth and microscopic structure of large-area graphene monolayers, grown on copper single crystals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). Using atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we find that graphene grows primarily in registry with the underlying copper lattice for both Cu(111) and Cu(100). The graphene has a hexagonal superstructure on Cu(111) with a significant

L. Zhao; K. T. Rim; H. Zhou; R. He; T. F. Heinz; A. Pinczuk; G. W. Flynn; A. N. Pasupathy

2010-01-01

137

Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.  

PubMed

Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region. PMID:21590557

Mowafi, Hani

2011-01-01

138

Large-scale atomic effective pseudopotential program including an efficient spin-orbit coupling treatment in real space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the scheme of the large-scale atomic effective pseudopotential program (LATEPP), the Schrödinger equation of an electronic system is solved within an effective single-particle approach. Although not limited to, it focuses on the recently introduced atomic effective pseudopotentials derived from screened local effective crystal potentials as obtained from self-consistent density functional theory calculations. The problem can be solved in both real (real-space grid) and reciprocal space (plane-wave basis functions). Following the idea of atomic effective pseudopotentials, the density, and hence a self-consistent cycle, is not required and not implemented. An iterative solver is implemented to deliver the eigenstates close to a selected reference energy, e.g., around the band gap of a semiconductor. This approach is particularly well suited for theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of semiconductor nanostructures and we demonstrate linear scaling with the system size up to around 100 000 atoms on a single standard compute node. Moreover, an efficient real-space treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the pseudopotential framework is proposed in this work allowing for a fully relativistic description.

Zirkelbach, F.; Prodhomme, P.-Y.; Han, Peng; Cherian, R.; Bester, G.

2015-02-01

139

Large dc-electric-field-induced nonlinear optical susceptibility of hydrogen atomic vapors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique set of circumstances makes the Rydberg states of atoms ideal for mediating tunable, resonantly enhanced, nonlinear optical interactions. The application of a dc electric field to a vapor of such atoms can induce a second-order or chi(2) nonlinear susceptibility, which in the absence of the applied field would be forbidden by reasons of symmetry. This paper presents an exact expression, valid within the hydrogenic approximation for field strengths that produce a linear Stark effect, for the resonant contribution to the dc-electric-field-induced chi(2) susceptibility. Numerical evaluation of this expression for field strengths of the order of 1000 V/cm predict chi(2) susceptibilities hundreds of times larger than those of conventional mixing crystals.

Boyd, R. W.; Xiang, L.-Q.

1982-08-01

140

GRASP92: a package for large-scale relativistic atomic structure calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Program summaryTitle of program: GRASP92 Catalogue identifier: ADCU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADCU_v1_1 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: no Programming language used: Fortran Computer: IBM POWERstation 320H Operating system: IBM AIX 3.2.5+ RAM: 64M words No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 65 224 No of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 409 198 Distribution format: tar.gz Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADCU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 94 (1996) 249 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Prediction of atomic spectra—atomic energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative decay rates—using a 'fully relativistic' approach. Solution method: Atomic orbitals are assumed to be four-component spinor eigenstates of the angular momentum operator, j=l+s, and the parity operator ?=??. Configuration state functions (CSFs) are linear combinations of Slater determinants of atomic orbitals, and are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the atomic electronic angular momentum operator, J, and the atomic parity operator, P. Lists of CSFs are either explicitly prescribed by the user or generated from a set of reference CSFs, a set of subshells, and rules for deriving other CSFs from these. Approximate atomic state functions (ASFs) are linear combinations of CSFs. A variational functional may be constructed by combining expressions for the energies of one or more ASFs. Average level (AL) functionals are weighted sums of energies of all possible ASFs that may be constructed from a set of CSFs; the number of ASFs is then the same as the number, n, of CSFs. Optimal level (OL) functionals are weighted sums of energies of some subset of ASFs; the GRASP92 package is optimized for this latter class of functionals. The composition of an ASF in terms of CSFs sharing the same quantum numbers is determined using the configuration-interaction (CI) procedure that results upon varying the expansion coefficients to determine the extremum of a variational functional. Radial functions may be determined by numerically solving the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) equations that result upon varying the orbital radial functions or some subset thereof so as to obtain an extremum of the variational functional. Radial wavefunctions may also be determined using a screened hydrogenic or Thomas-Fermi model, although these schemes generally provide initial estimates for MCDF self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations. Transition properties for pairs of ASFs are computed from matrix elements of multipole operators of the electromagnetic field. All matrix elements of CSFs are evaluated using the Racah algebra. Reasons for the new version: During recent studies using the general relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP92), several errors were found, some of which might have been present already in the earlier GRASP92 version (program ABJN_v1_0, Comput. Phys. Comm. 55 (1989) 425). These errors were reported and discussed by Froese Fischer, Gaigalas, and Ralchenko in a separate publication [C. Froese Fischer, G. Gaigalas, Y. Ralchenko, Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 738-744. [7

Parpia, F. A.; Froese Fischer, C.; Grant, I. P.

2006-12-01

141

Tsunami generation by horizontal displacement of ocean bottom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami generation by an earthquake is generally modeled by water surface displacement identical to the vertical deformation of ocean bottom due to faulting. The effect of horizontal deformation is usually neglected. However, when the tsunami source is on a steep slope and the horizontal displacement is large relative to the vertical displacement, the effect becomes significant. We show this for

Yuichiro Tanioka; Kenji Satake

1996-01-01

142

Character displacement in polyphenic tadpoles.  

PubMed

Biologists have long known that closely related species are often phenotypically different where they occur together, but are indistinguishable where they occur alone. The causes of such character displacement are controversial, however. We used polyphenic spadefoot toad tadpoles (Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata) to test the hypothesis that character displacement evolves to minimize competition for food. We also sought to evaluate the role of phenotypic plasticity in the mediation of competitive interactions between these species. Depending on their diet, individuals of both species develop into either a small-headed omnivore morph, which feeds mostly on detritus, or a large-headed carnivore morph, which specializes on shrimp. Laboratory experiments and surveys of natural ponds revealed that the two species were more dissimilar in their tendency to produce carnivores when they occurred together than when they occurred alone. This divergence in carnivore production was expressed as both character displacement (where S. multiplicata's propensity to produce carnivores was lower in sympatry than in allopatry) and as phenotypic plasticity (where S. multiplicata facultatively enhanced carnivore production in S. bombifrons, and S. bombifrons facultatively suppressed carnivore production in S. multiplicata). In separate experiments, we established that S. bombifrons (the species for which carnivore production was enhanced) was the superior competitor for shrimp. Conversely, S. multiplicata (the species for which carnivore production was suppressed and omnivore production enhanced) was the superior competitor for detritus. These results therefore demonstrate that selection to minimize competition for food can cause character displacement. They also suggest that both character displacement and phenotypic plasticity may mediate competitive interactions between species. PMID:11108600

Pfennig, D W; Murphy, P J

2000-10-01

143

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) was established twelve years ago in the hope that they would "raise awareness of the plight of internally displaced people (IDP), point to gaps in national and international responses and promote solutions reflecting international standards and best practices." The Centre also keeps a database of 50 countries in which people have been displaced within their own country due to conflicts or human rights violations. To get a sense of where displaced persons are and how many countries have IDPs, visitors can click on the small world map on the far right hand side of the homepage. Scrolling over the map will reveal the number of displaced people by continent. Visitors interested in learning about an individual country can click on the continent, then click on one of the countries for an "Internal Displacement Profile", "Country Statistics", and an "Overview". The Resources tab, at the top of any page, includes "IDMC Publications", "Picture Galleries" of internally displaced people in India, Cyprus, and the West Bank, to name a few, and "IDP Maps" which has dozens of maps of from 2001 to 2009.

144

The Complete Atomic Structure of the Large Ribosomal Subunit at 2.4 Å Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large ribosomal subunit catalyzes peptide bond formation and binds initiation, termination, and elongation factors. We have determined the crystal structure of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui at 2.4 angstrom resolution, and it includes 2833 of the subunit's 3045 nucleotides and 27 of its 31 proteins. The domains of its RNAs all have irregular shapes and fit together

Nenad Ban; Poul Nissen; Jeffrey Hansen; Peter B. Moore; Thomas A. Steitz

2000-01-01

145

Atomic oxidation of large area epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)  

SciTech Connect

Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC were studied before and after an atomic oxidation process. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicates that oxygen penetrates into the substrate and decouples a part of the interface layer. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the increase of defects due to the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, we observed on the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra a splitting of the ?* peak into two distinct resonances centered at 284.7 and 285.2?eV. This double structure smears out after the oxidation process and permits to probe the interface architecture between graphene and the substrate.

Velez-Fort, E. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (CNRS-LPN), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, CNRS–UMR7590, Sorbonne Universités-Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Ouerghi, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (CNRS-LPN), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Silly, M. G.; Sirtti, F. [Synchrotron-SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin, BP48, F91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); Shukla, A. [Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, CNRS–UMR7590, Sorbonne Universités-Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2014-03-03

146

Large-area Sagnac atom interferometer with robust phase read out  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on recent progress on our matter-wave Sagnac interferometer capable of resolving ultra-slow rotations below the ?rads-1 level with a 1-s measurement time and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Two Raman interferometers are employed that are susceptible to rotation and acceleration. We demonstrate two read-out schemes exploiting the strict phase correlation of the dual interferometer, the first one locking the interferometer to the mid-fringe position, and the second relying on phase modulation combined with ellipse fitting. In both, the sensitivity to gravity acceleration is employed for controlling the differential interferometer phase without influencing the rotation signal. Furthermore, we discuss errors in the rotation signal arising from atom source instabilities combined with a residual misalignment of the three pulsed light gratings used for atomic diffraction. Monitoring the source position fluctuations allows us to suppress this spurious signal. We achieve stable operation with a sensitivity of 850 nrads-1Hz - 1 / 2 for a 1-s measurement time, and 20 nrads-1 after 4000 s of averaging. xml:lang="fr"

Tackmann, Gunnar; Berg, Peter; Abend, Sven; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst Maria

2014-12-01

147

Kinematics Problem: Displacement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A bowling ball is lifted from rest onto a shelf by an external agent (position is in meters and time is in seconds). Rank the paths by the displacement of the bowling ball during the animations (greatest first).

Wolfgang Christian

148

Variance and Covariance of Accumulated Displacement Estimates  

PubMed Central

Tracking large deformations in tissue using ultrasound can enable the reconstruction of nonlinear elastic parameters, but poses a challenge to displacement estimation algorithms. Such large deformations have to be broken up into steps, each of which contributes an estimation error to the final accumulated displacement map. The work reported here measured the error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using one-dimensional numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to tissue strain and electronic noise. The covariance between accumulation steps was also computed. These simulations show that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps, and therefore accumulate slowly, while errors due to tissue deformation are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. For reasonably low electronic noise levels, the error variance in the accumulated displacement estimates is remarkably constant as a function of step size, but increases with the length of the tracking kernel. PMID:23493610

Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

149

Inversion of displacement operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We recall briefly the displacement rankapproach to the computations,with struc- tured matrices, which we trace backto the seminal paper by Kailath, Kung, and Morf [ J. Math. Anal. Appl., 68 (1979), pp. 395–407]. The concluding stage of the computations is the recovery of the output from its compressed,representation via the associated displacement operator L. The recovery amounts to the

V. Y. Pan; X. Wang

2002-01-01

150

Direct observation of dopant atom diffusion in a bulk semiconductor crystal enhanced by a large size mismatch.  

PubMed

Diffusion is one of the fundamental processes that govern the structure, processing, and properties of materials and it plays a crucial role in determining device lifetimes. However, direct observations of diffusion processes have been elusive and limited only to the surfaces of materials. Here we use an aberration-corrected electron microscope to locally excite and directly image the diffusion of single Ce and Mn dopants inside bulk wurtzite-type AlN single crystals, identifying correlated vacancy-dopant and interstitial-dopant kick-out mechanisms. Using a 200 kV electron beam to supply energy, we observe a higher frequency of dopant jumps for the larger and heavier Ce atoms than the smaller Mn atoms. These observations confirm density-functional-theory-based predictions of a decrease in diffusion barrier for large substitutional atoms. The results show that combining depth sensitive microscopy with theoretical calculations represents a new methodology to investigate diffusion mechanisms, not restricted to surface phenomena, but within bulk materials. PMID:25375721

Ishikawa, Ryo; Mishra, Rohan; Lupini, Andrew R; Findlay, Scott D; Taniguchi, Takashi; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J

2014-10-10

151

Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic memory and photonic interconnects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical construction of scalable quantum-computer hardware capable of executing nontrivial quantum algorithms will require the juxtaposition of different types of quantum systems. We analyze a modular ion trap quantum-computer architecture with a hierarchy of interactions that can scale to very large numbers of qubits. Local entangling quantum gates between qubit memories within a single register are accomplished using natural interactions between the qubits, and entanglement between separate registers is completed via a probabilistic photonic interface between qubits in different registers, even over large distances. We show that this architecture can be made fault tolerant, and demonstrate its viability for fault-tolerant execution of modest size quantum circuits.

Monroe, C.; Raussendorf, R.; Ruthven, A.; Brown, K. R.; Maunz, P.; Duan, L.-M.; Kim, J.

2014-02-01

152

Cantilevered bimorph-based scanner for high speed atomic force microscopy with large scanning range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cantilevered bimorph-based resonance-mode scanner for high speed atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging is presented. The free end of the bimorph is used for mounting a sample stage and the other one of that is fixed on the top of a conventional single tube scanner. High speed scanning is realized with the bimorph-based scanner vibrating at resonant frequency driven by a sine wave voltage applied to one piezolayer of the bimorph, while slow scanning is performed by the tube scanner. The other piezolayer provides information on vibration amplitude and phase of the bimorph itself simultaneously, which is used for real-time data processing and image calibration. By adjusting the free length of the bimorph, the line scan rate can be preset ranging from several hundred hertz to several kilohertz, which would be beneficial for the observation of samples with different properties. Combined with a home-made AFM system and a commercially available data acquisition card, AFM images of various samples have been obtained, and as an example, images of the silicon grating taken at a line rate of 1.5 kHz with the scan size of 20 ?m are given. By manually moving the sample of polished Al foil surface while scanning, the capability of dynamic imaging is demonstrated.

Zhou, Yusheng; Shang, Guangyi; Cai, Wei; Yao, Jun-en

2010-05-01

153

Large Scale Modular Quantum Computer Architecture with Atomic Memory and Photonic Interconnects  

E-print Network

The practical construction of scalable quantum computer hardware capable of executing non-trivial quantum algorithms will require the juxtaposition of different types of quantum systems. We analyze a modular ion trap quantum computer architecture with a hierarchy of interactions that can scale to very large numbers of qubits. Local entangling quantum gates between qubit memories within a single register are accomplished using natural interactions between the qubits, and entanglement between separate registers is completed via a probabilistic photonic interface between qubits in different registers, even over large distances. We show that this architecture can be made fault-tolerant, and demonstrate its viability for fault-tolerant execution of modest size quantum circuits.

C. Monroe; R. Raussendorf; A. Ruthven; K. R. Brown; P. Maunz; L. -M. Duan; J. Kim

2013-07-02

154

A Googol of Atoms? A Directed Case in Estimation and Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is a googol?  Invented by Edward Kasner, an American mathematician who popularized the number in his 1940 book, Mathematics and the Imagination, it is a 1 followed by a hundred zeros. This directed case in estimation and very large numbers was written for a college-level introductory astronomy course, although it could also be used in a variety of other courses in chemistry, planetary science, biology, and mathematics.

Stephen J. Shawl

2003-01-01

155

Synthesis of Large and Few Atomic Layers of Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Melted Copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNS) have been proposed as an ideal substrate for graphene-based electronic devices, but the synthesis of large and homogeneous h-BNNS is still challenging. In this contribution, we report a facile synthesis of few-layer h-BNNS on melted copper via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Comparative studies confirm the advantage of using melted copper over solid copper as a catalyst substrate. The former leads to the formation of single crystalline h-BNNS that is several microns in size and mostly in mono- and bi-layer forms, in contrast to the polycrystalline and mixed multiple layers (1-10) yielded by the latter. This difference is likely to be due to the significantly reduced and uniformly distributed nucleation sites on the smooth melted surface, in contrast to the large amounts of unevenly distributed nucleation sites that are associated with grain boundaries and other defects on the solid surface. This synthesis is expected to contribute to the development of large-scale manufacturing of h-BNNS/graphene-based electronics.

Khan, Majharul Haque; Huang, Zhenguo; Xiao, Feng; Casillas, Gilberto; Chen, Zhixin; Molino, Paul J.; Liu, Hua Kun

2015-01-01

156

Synthesis of Large and Few Atomic Layers of Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Melted Copper  

PubMed Central

Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNS) have been proposed as an ideal substrate for graphene-based electronic devices, but the synthesis of large and homogeneous h-BNNS is still challenging. In this contribution, we report a facile synthesis of few-layer h-BNNS on melted copper via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition process. Comparative studies confirm the advantage of using melted copper over solid copper as a catalyst substrate. The former leads to the formation of single crystalline h-BNNS that is several microns in size and mostly in mono- and bi-layer forms, in contrast to the polycrystalline and mixed multiple layers (1–10) yielded by the latter. This difference is likely to be due to the significantly reduced and uniformly distributed nucleation sites on the smooth melted surface, in contrast to the large amounts of unevenly distributed nucleation sites that are associated with grain boundaries and other defects on the solid surface. This synthesis is expected to contribute to the development of large-scale manufacturing of h-BNNS/graphene-based electronics. PMID:25582557

Khan, Majharul Haque; Huang, Zhenguo; Xiao, Feng; Casillas, Gilberto; Chen, Zhixin; Molino, Paul J.; Liu, Hua Kun

2015-01-01

157

Optical displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

Carr, Dustin W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-08

158

Water displacement mercury pump  

DOEpatents

A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Nielsen, M.G.

1984-04-20

159

Water displacement mercury pump  

DOEpatents

A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

1985-01-01

160

Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10?000?000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9?11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5?2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized system.

Jie, Liang [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Li, KenLi, E-mail: lkl@hnu.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China) [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082 (China); Shi, Lin [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Liu, RangSu [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Mei, Jing [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)

2014-01-15

161

Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10 000 000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9?11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5?2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized system.

Jie, Liang; Li, KenLi; Shi, Lin; Liu, RangSu; Mei, Jing

2014-01-01

162

Large displacement fast conducting polymer actuators  

E-print Network

Conducting polymers are a promising class of electroactive materials that undergo volumetric changes under applied potentials, which make them particularly useful for many actuation applications. Polypyrrole , is one of ...

Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-

2006-01-01

163

Large-dimension configuration-interaction calculations of positron binding to the group-II atoms  

SciTech Connect

The configuration-interaction (CI) method is applied to the calculation of the structures of a number of positron binding systems, including e{sup +}Be, e{sup +}Mg, e{sup +}Ca, and e{sup +}Sr. These calculations were carried out in orbital spaces containing about 200 electron and 200 positron orbitals up to l=12. Despite the very large dimensions, the binding energy and annihilation rate converge slowly with l, and the final values do contain an appreciable correction obtained by extrapolating the calculation to the l{yields}{infinity} limit. The binding energies were 0.00317 hartree for e{sup +}Be, 0.0170 hartree for e{sup +}Mg, 0.0189 hartree for e{sup +}Ca, and 0.0131 hartree for e{sup +}Sr.

Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J. [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182 (United States); Faculty of Technology, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia)

2006-03-15

164

Breathing Oscillations in Bose - Fermi Mixing Gases with Yb atoms in the Largely Prolate Deformed Traps  

E-print Network

We study the breathing oscillations in bose-fermi mixtures with Yb isotopes in the largely prolate deformed trap, which are realized by Kyoto group. We choose the three combinations of the Yb isotopes, Yb170-Yb171, Yb170-Yb173 and Yb174-Yb173, whose boson-fermion interactions are weakly repulsive, strongly attractive and strongly repulsive. The collective oscillations in the deformed trap are calculated in the dynamical time-development approach, which is formulated with the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and the Vlasov equations. We analyze the results in the time-development approach with the intrinsic oscillation modes of the deformed system, which are obtained using the scaling method, and show that the damping and forced-oscillation effects of the intrinsic modes give time-variation of oscillations, especially, in the fermion transverse mode.

Tomoyuki Maruyama; Hiroyuki Yabu

2014-03-06

165

Multi-actuation and PI control: a simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. PMID:25164496

Soltani Bozchalooi, I; Youcef-Toumi, K

2014-11-01

166

Sensitivity function analysis of gravitational wave detection with single-laser and large-momentum-transfer atomic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a configuration using atomic interferometers (AIs) had been suggested for the detection of gravitational waves. A new AI with some additional laser pulses for implementing large momentum transfer was also put forward, in order to reduce the effect of shot noise and laser frequency noise. We use a sensitivity function to analyze all possible configurations of the new AI and to distinguish how many momenta are transferred in a specific configuration. By analyzing the new configuration, we further explore a detection scheme for gravitational waves, in particular, that ameliorates laser frequency noise. We find that the amelioration occurs in such a scheme, but novelly, in some cases, the frequency noise can be canceled completely by using a proper data processing method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

Tang, Biao; Zhang, Bao-Cheng; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

2015-03-01

167

Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of alkaline silicic magmatic rocks in the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region, northern Vietnam: Identification of a displaced western extension of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analyses were carried out for alkaline silicic magmatic rocks from the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region in northern Vietnam to constrain their possible sources and to determine their petrogenetic relationship with the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), SW China. Nine granites and nine rhyolites yield zircon 206Pb/238U ages from 262 Ma to 249 Ma, coinciding with the timing of silicic magmatism in the Panxi area of the ELIP. The zircon ?Hf(t) values (+14 to +3) of these granites and rhyolites suggest a moderately depleted mantle source and overlap with those of peralkaline and metaluminous granites in the Panxi area [i.e. ?Hf(t) = +14 to +4]. The zircon Hf isotope ratios show that the zircons probably record the original source characteristics whereas whole-rock Nd isotope data indicate an evidence for crustal contamination that may have occurred at lower temperatures during magma emplacement. The synchroneity, coupled with petrological and geochemical similarities, indicate that silicic rocks from the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region are cogenetic with the Panxi silicic plutonic rocks and that they are likely derived by similar petrogenetic processes (i.e. fractionation of mafic magmas or partial melting of mafic rocks). Therefore, we propose that the Phan Si Pan-Tu Le region represents a displaced portion of the ELIP inner zone.

Usuki, Tadashi; Lan, Ching-Ying; Tran, Trong Hoa; Pham, Thi Dung; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Shellnutt, Gregory J.; Chung, Sun-Lin

2015-01-01

168

Limitations on the Extent of Off-Center Displacements in Tbmno(3) From EXAFS Measurements  

SciTech Connect

We present extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data at the Mn K and Tb L{sub 3} edges that provide upper limits on the possible displacements of any atoms in TbMnO{sub 3}. The displacements must be less than 0.005--0.01 {angstrom} for all atoms, which eliminates the possibility of moderate distortions (0.02 {angstrom}) with a small c-axis component, but for which the displacements in the ab plane average to zero. Assuming the polarization arises from a displacement of the O2 atoms along the c axis, the measured polarization then leads to an O2 displacement that is at least 6 x 10{sup -4} {angstrom}, well below our experimental limit. Thus, a combination of the EXAFS and the measured electrical polarization indicate that the atomic displacements likely lie in the range 6 x 10{sup -4}--5 x 10{sup 03} {angstrom}.

Bridges, F.; Downs, C.; O'Brien, T.; Jeong, I.-K.; Kimura, T.

2009-06-02

169

Displacement and Velocity Ratios  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by James Bourassa and John Rosz for the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses displacement and velocity ratios. Bourassa and Rosz begin by providing detailed definitions of both topics and then provide mathematical examples of each. Once this basic explanation is complete, the authors allow students to practice these theories in a set of self-correcting quiz questions. Bourassa and Rosz explain each using helpful interactive flash animations. These are not only useful in explanation, but they allow the student to more fully engage with the topic. Overall, this is a nice introduction to the physical and mathematical concepts of displacement and velocity ratios. This could be a valuable learning resource in everything from a physics to a technical education classroom.

Bourassa, James

170

Above Water: Buoyancy & Displacement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an investigation called "Shape It!" learners craft tiny boats out of clay, set them afloat on water and then add weight loads to them, in order to explore: how objects stay afloat in water; what the relationship is among surface tension, buoyancy, density and displacement; and how shape, size, and type of material affect an object's ability to remain buoyant. The introductory text discusses how heavy steel ships can float on bodies of water like rivers, bays and oceans.

2013-12-18

171

Synthesis of finite displacements and displacements in continental margins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scope of the project is the analysis of displacement-rate fields in the transitional regions between cratonal and oceanic lithospheres over Phanerozoic time (last 700 ma). Associated goals are an improved understanding of range of widths of major displacement zones; the partition of displacement gradients and rotations with position and depth in such zones; the temporal characteristics of such zones-the steadiness, episodicity, and duration of uniform versus nonunifrom fields; and the mechanisms and controls of the establishment and kinematics of displacement zones. The objective is to provide a context of time-averaged kinematics of displacement zones. The initial phase is divided topically among the methodology of measurement and reduction of displacements in the lithosphere and the preliminary analysis from geologic and other data of actual displacement histories from the Cordillera, Appalachians, and southern North America.

Speed, R. C.; Elison, M. W.; Heck, F. R.; Russo, R. M.

1988-01-01

172

Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

Connell, John W. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor)

1992-01-01

173

Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

174

Tourist displacement in two South African sport mega-events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crowding-out (or displacement) of non-event visitors has received little attention in the literature on the impact of sports events, largely because it cannot be measured accurately. This paper discusses such effects in conceptual terms and reports the results of an analysis of data on tourist arrivals in South Africa aimed at estimating the displacement effects of two sports events held

Johan Fourie; Krige Siebrits; Karly Spronk

2011-01-01

175

Angular displacement measuring device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for measuring the angular displacement of a point of interest on a structure, such as aircraft model within a wind tunnel, includes a source of polarized light located at the point of interest. A remote detector arrangement detects the orientation of the plane of the polarized light received from the source and compares this orientation with the initial orientation to determine the amount or rate of angular displacement of the point of interest. The detector arrangement comprises a rotating polarizing filter and a dual filter and light detector unit. The latter unit comprises an inner aligned filter and photodetector assembly which is disposed relative to the periphery of the polarizer so as to receive polarized light passing the polarizing filter and an outer aligned filter and photodetector assembly which receives the polarized light directly, i.e., without passing through the polarizing filter. The purpose of the unit is to compensate for the effects of dust, fog and the like. A polarization preserving optical fiber conducts polarized light from a remote laser source to the point of interest.

Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (inventor)

1992-01-01

176

Calculations of displacement corrections for in-phantom measurements with ionisation chambers for mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Displacement corrections for in-phantom measurements with ionisation cham- bers for the purpose of mammography are large and represent a major correction to consider for dose determinations. Experimental data on displacement corrections depend to a large degree on the model used to extrapolate to zero cavity radius. Calculations of displacement correction factors using a Monte Carlo code are presented for different

J. Zoetelief; C. M. Eisenhauer; J. J. Coyne

1990-01-01

177

Inherent instabilities of some W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type binary phases with large electropositive metal atoms: Six examples in the Ba-Pb, Ca-Sn-Mg,Cu,Zn, and La-Ga-Al,Zn systems  

SciTech Connect

A particular pathology of certain W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type A{sub 5}B{sub 3} structures (I4/mcm) appears to arise because of unduly close approaches of the A1-type atoms on the cell faces at 12, 0, (14,34) that occur with the larger and more electropositive A and/or in the presence of smaller B atoms. A structure refinement of binary Ba{sub 4.81}Pb{sub 3} indicates such a marginal stability in that the Ba atoms in the facial Ba{sub 0.81} chains exhibit an extreme displacement ellipsoid along c-bar . Although Ca{sub 5}Sn{sub 3} and La{sub 5}Ga{sub 3} binaries are unknown in this structure type, five stable ternary derivatives of these have been synthesized via substitution reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction means: Ca{sub 4}Sn{sub 3.223(4)}Mg{sub 0.777}, Ca{sub 4}Sn{sub 3}Cu{sub 1.30(4)}, Ca{sub 4.66(6)}Sn{sub 3}Zn{sub 0.704(4)}, La{sub 4.81(1)}Ga{sub 1.38(2)}Al{sub 1.62}, and La{sub 4.762(5)}Ga{sub 1.5(1)}Zn{sub 1.5}. Only the Ca-Sn-Zn phase exhibits lower symmetry, P4/mbm. The problematic A1 sites exhibit diverse changes in these, whereas the surrounding B2 tetrahedra are largely unaltered. The Ca-Sn results are, respectively: direct Mg/Sn substitution at the Ca1 site; mixed fractional distribution of the smaller Cu at two sites around the A1 position with an unresolved disorder; a pair of apparently independent modes, fractional Ca in the normal position and fractional Zn rectangles thereabout. The two La-Sn phases contain normal Ga,Al (Ga,Zn) tetrahedral chains with pairs of fractional disordered La atoms along 12, 0, z. Each can be rationalized in terms of a reasonable incommensurate structure. Electronic effects may also be operable.

Ganguli, Ashok K. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Shalabh [Ames Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Zhao, J.-T. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Shanghai 200050 (China); Alejandro Leon-Escamilla, E. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Corbett, John D. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: jcorbett@iastate.edu

2005-10-15

178

Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor  

PubMed Central

Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

2014-01-01

179

Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.  

PubMed

Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960

Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua

2014-01-01

180

Acetate kinase: a triple-displacement enzyme.  

PubMed

Facts relating to the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer by acetate kinase (ATP:acetate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.1) are reviewed. They point to the existence of at least one experimentally established phosphoenzyme (E-P) intermediate on the reaction pathway. Sterically, the phosphoryl transfer occurs with a net inversion of the configuration of the phosphorus atom. These facts are best in accord with a triple-displacement mode of action for acetate kinase, with two E-P intermediates and three steric inversions on phosphorus. It follows that a second E-P for acetate kinase must exist. PMID:6248856

Spector, L B

1980-05-01

181

Iraq's housing crisis : upgrading settlements for IDPS (internally displaced persons)  

E-print Network

The most recent war in Iraq has resulted in a large wave of internal and external displacement with increased sectarian violence and ethnic tension. Subsequent conflict has exacerbated conditions within the nation and ...

Shaikley, Layla Karim

2013-01-01

182

DNA nanotechnology. Programming colloidal phase transitions with DNA strand displacement.  

PubMed

DNA-grafted nanoparticles have been called "programmable atom-equivalents": Like atoms, they form three-dimensional crystals, but unlike atoms, the particles themselves carry information (the sequences of the grafted strands) that can be used to "program" the equilibrium crystal structures. We show that the programmability of these colloids can be generalized to the full temperature-dependent phase diagram, not just the crystal structures themselves. We add information to the buffer in the form of soluble DNA strands designed to compete with the grafted strands through strand displacement. Using only two displacement reactions, we program phase behavior not found in atomic systems or other DNA-grafted colloids, including arbitrarily wide gas-solid coexistence, reentrant melting, and even reversible transitions between distinct crystal phases. PMID:25657244

Rogers, W Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N

2015-02-01

183

Programming colloidal phase transitions with DNA strand displacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA-grafted nanoparticles have been called “programmable atom-equivalents”: Like atoms, they form three-dimensional crystals, but unlike atoms, the particles themselves carry information (the sequences of the grafted strands) that can be used to “program” the equilibrium crystal structures. We show that the programmability of these colloids can be generalized to the full temperature-dependent phase diagram, not just the crystal structures themselves. We add information to the buffer in the form of soluble DNA strands designed to compete with the grafted strands through strand displacement. Using only two displacement reactions, we program phase behavior not found in atomic systems or other DNA-grafted colloids, including arbitrarily wide gas-solid coexistence, reentrant melting, and even reversible transitions between distinct crystal phases.

Rogers, W. Benjamin; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

2015-02-01

184

Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

185

CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT IN POLYPHENIC TADPOLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologists have long known that closely related species are often phenotypically different where they occur together, but are indistinguishable where they occur alone. The causes of such character displacement are controversial, however. We used polyphenic spadefoot toad tadpoles (Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata) to test the hypothesis that character displacement evolves to minimize competition for food. We also sought to

David W. Pfennig; Peter J. Murphy

2000-01-01

186

Worker Displacement, 1995-97  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-three million workers were displaced from jobs they had held for at least three years, from January 1997 through December 1999. This number is roughly equivalent to the level of job losses covered in a survey that measured worker displacement from January 1995 through December 1997.

187

Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392×1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.

Aguayo, Daniel D.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza; De la Torre I., Manuel H.; Mendez, Cristian I. Caloca

2008-04-01

188

Limitations on the extent of off-center displacements in TbMnO{sub 3} from EXAFS measurements  

SciTech Connect

We present extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data at the Mn K and Tb L{sub 3} edges that provide upper limits on the possible displacements of any atoms in TbMnO{sub 3}. The displacements must be less than 0.005-0.01 A for all atoms, which eliminates the possibility of moderate distortions (0.02 A) with a small c-axis component, but for which the displacements in the ab plane average to zero. Assuming the polarization arises from a displacement of the O2 atoms along the c axis, the measured polarization then leads to an O2 displacement that is at least 6x10{sup -4} A, well below our experimental limit. Thus, a combination of the EXAFS and the measured electrical polarization indicate that the atomic displacements likely lie in the range 6x10{sup -4}-5x10{sup -3} A.

Bridges, F.; Downs, C. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); O'Brien, T. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jeong, Il-K [Research Center for Dielectrics and Advanced Matter Physics, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2007-09-01

189

Visualization of a Large Set of Hydrogen Atomic Orbital Contours Using New and Expanded Sets of Parametric Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Atomic orbitals are a theme throughout the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, and visualizing them has been a theme in this journal. Contour plots as isosurfaces or contour lines in a plane are the most familiar representations of the hydrogen wave functions. In these representations, a surface of a fixed value of the wave function ? is plotted…

Rhile, Ian J.

2014-01-01

190

Testing the universality of free fall with rubidium and ytterbium in a very large baseline atom interferometer  

E-print Network

We propose a very long baseline atom interferometer test of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) with ytterbium and rubidium extending over 10m of free fall. In view of existing parametrizations of EEP violations, this choice of test masses significantly broadens the scope of atom interferometric EEP tests with respect to other performed or proposed tests by comparing two elements with high atomic numbers. In a first step, our experimental scheme will allow reaching an accuracy in the E\\"otv\\"os ratio of $7\\times 10^{-13}$. This achievement will constrain violation scenarios beyond our present knowledge and will represent an important milestone for exploring a variety of schemes for further improvements of the tests as outlined in the paper. We will discuss the technical realisation in the new infrastructure of the Hanover Institute of Technology (HITec) and give a short overview of the requirements to reach this accuracy. The experiment will demonstrate a variety of techniques which will be employed in future tests of EEP, high accuracy gravimetry and gravity-gradiometry. It includes operation of a force sensitive atom interferometer with an alkaline earth like element in free fall, beam splitting over macroscopic distances and novel source concepts.

Jonas Hartwig; Sven Abend; Christian Schubert; Dennis Schlippert; Holger Ahlers; Katerine Posso-Trujillo; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

2015-03-04

191

Validation of an effervescent spray model with secondary atomization and its application to modeling of a large-scale furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work consists of a validation attempt of an effervescent spray model with secondary atomization. The objective is the simulation of a 1 MW industrial-type liquid fuel burner equipped with effervescent spray nozzle. The adopted approach is based on a double experimental validation. Firstly, the evolution of radial drop size distributions of an isothermal spray is investigated. Secondly, the spray

Jakub Broukal; Ji?í Hájek

2011-01-01

192

Testing the universality of free fall with rubidium and ytterbium in a very large baseline atom interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a very long baseline atom interferometer test of Einstein’s equivalence principle (EEP) with ytterbium and rubidium extending over 10 m of free fall. In view of existing parametrizations of EEP violations, this choice of test masses significantly broadens the scope of atom interferometric EEP tests with respect to other performed or proposed tests by comparing two elements with high atomic numbfers. In the first step, our experimental scheme will allow us to reach an accuracy in the Eötvös ratio of 7 · 10-13. This achievement will constrain violation scenarios beyond our present knowledge and will represent an important milestone for exploring a variety of schemes for further improvements of the tests as outlined in the paper. We will discuss the technical realisation in the new infrastructure of the Hanover Institute of Technology (HITec) and give a short overview of the requirements needed to reach this accuracy. The experiment will demonstrate a variety of techniques, which will be employed in future tests of EEP, high-accuracy gravimetry and gravity gradiometry. It includes operation of a force-sensitive atom interferometer with an alkaline earth-like element in free fall, beam splitting over macroscopic distances and novel source concepts.

Hartwig, J.; Abend, S.; Schubert, C.; Schlippert, D.; Ahlers, H.; Posso-Trujillo, K.; Gaaloul, N.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M.

2015-03-01

193

Detection of a large fraction of atomic gas not associated with star-forming material in M17 SW?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The [C II] 158 ?m line is one of the dominant coolants of the ISM, and an important probe with which to study the star formation process. Recent Herschel/HIFI and SOFIA/GREAT observations showed that assuming the total velocity-integrated intensity of this line is directly associated with the star-forming material is inadequate. Aims: We probe the column densities and masses traced by the ionized and neutral atomic carbon with spectrally resolved maps, and compare them to the diffuse and dense molecular gas traced by [C I] and low-J CO lines toward the star-forming region M17 SW. Methods: We mapped a 4.1 pc × 4.7 pc region in the [C I] 609 ?m line using the APEX telescope, as well as the CO isotopologues with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Because of the velocity-resolved spectra, we analyze the data based on velocity channel maps that are 1 km s-1 wide. We correlate their spatial distribution with that of the [C II] map obtained with SOFIA/GREAT. Optically thin approximations were used to estimate the column densities of [C I] and [C II] in each velocity channel. Results: The distribution of the emission from the isotopologues 13CO, C17O, and C18O resembles more closely that of the [C I] emission than that of the 12CO emission. The spatial distribution of the [C I] and all CO isotopologues emission was found to be associated with that of [C II] in about 20%-80% of the mapped region, with the high correlation found in the central (15-23 km s-1) velocity channels. Conclusions: The excitation temperature of [C I] ranges between 40 K and 100 K in the inner molecular region of M17 SW. Excitation temperatures up to 200 K are found along the ridge. Column densities in 1 km s-1 channels between ~1015 cm-2 and ~1017 cm-2 were found for [C I]. Just ~20 % of the velocity range (~40 km s-1) that the [C II] line spans is associated with the star-forming material traced by [C I] and CO. The total (integrated over the 0-40 km s-1 velocity range) gas mass estimated from the [C II] emission gives a lower limit of ~4.4 × 103 M?. A very large fraction of at least 64% of this mass is not associated with the star-forming material in M17 SW. We also found that about 36%, 17%, and 47% of the [C II] emission is associated with the H II, H I, and H2 regimes, respectively. Comparisons with the H41? line shows an ionization region mixed with the neutral and part of the molecular gas, in agreement with the clumped structure and dynamical processes at play in M17 SW. These results are also relevant to extra-galactic studies in which [C II] is often used as a tracer of star-forming material. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe calibrated data cubes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A9

Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Stutzki, J.; Ossenkopf, V.; Spaans, M.; Güsten, R.; Wiesemeyer, H.

2015-03-01

194

Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi [Nihon Univ. Tokyo (Japan); Raggi, L. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

1996-12-31

195

Displacement based multilevel structural optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is expected to play a major role in the competitive transportation industries of tomorrow, i.e., in the design of aircraft and spacecraft, of high speed trains, boats, and automobiles. All of these vehicles require maximum performance at minimum weight to keep fuel consumption low and conserve resources. Here, MDO can deliver mathematically based design tools to create systems with optimum performance subject to the constraints of disciplines such as structures, aerodynamics, controls, etc. Although some applications of MDO are beginning to surface, the key to a widespread use of this technology lies in the improvement of its efficiency. This aspect is investigated here for the MDO subset of structural optimization, i.e., for the weight minimization of a given structure under size, strength, and displacement constraints. Specifically, finite element based multilevel optimization of structures (here, statically indeterminate trusses and beams for proof of concept) is performed. In the system level optimization, the design variables are the coefficients of assumed displacement functions, and the load unbalance resulting from the solution of the stiffness equations is minimized. Constraints are placed on the deflection amplitudes and the weight of the structure. In the subsystems level optimizations, the weight of each element is minimized under the action of stress constraints, with the cross sectional dimensions as design variables. This approach is expected to prove very efficient, especially for complex structures, since the design task is broken down into a large number of small and efficiently handled subtasks, each with only a small number of variables. This partitioning will also allow for the use of parallel computing, first, by sending the system and subsystems level computations to two different processors, ultimately, by performing all subsystems level optimizations in a massively parallel manner on separate processors. It is expected that the subsystems level optimizations can be further improved through the use of controlled growth, a method which reduces an optimization to a more efficient analysis with only a slight degradation in accuracy. The efficiency of all proposed techniques is being evaluated relative to the performance of the standard single level optimization approach where the complete structure is weight minimized under the action of all given constraints by one processor and to the performance of simultaneous analysis and design which combines analysis and optimization into a single step. It is expected that the present approach can be expanded to include additional structural constraints (buckling, free and forced vibration, etc.) or other disciplines (passive and active controls, aerodynamics, etc.) for true MDO.

Striz, Alfred G.

1995-01-01

196

Low Amplitude High Frequency Atomic Force Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterodyne laser Doppler interferometry was used to implement a high frequency atomic force microscope (AFM) that can accommodate a cantilever with a natural frequency of up to 200 MHz. Since Doppler interferometry measures velocity, the signal level increases proportionally with frequency for a given amplitude of oscillation, or the noise floor in terms of displacement decreases with 1/f. A noise level of 0.5 fm/?Hz was attained around 2 MHz, giving a large signal to noise margin for high frequency cantilevers and higher vibration mode detection. We have so far confirmed the following: (i) atomic resolution of Si(111) 7×7 with an amplitude of drive as low as 0.03 nm at 1.6 MHz, (ii) true atomic resolution dynamic lateral force microscopy, (iii) lateral force gradient detection at the atomic level, (iv) manipulation of Si atoms at room temperature, (v) vibration measurement of Si nanowires, tungsten oxide whiskers and graphene cantilevers above 100 MHz, (vi) atomic resolution imaging with the 2nd and 3rd mode of deflection and (v) true atomic resolution imaging in water using deflection or torsion with a few 10 pm amplitude of drive.

Kawakatsu, Hideki

197

Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

Lewis, R.E.

1998-10-20

198

Atomic resolution holography.  

PubMed

Atomic resolution holography, such as X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH)[1] and photoelectron holography (PH), has the attention of researcher as an informative local structure analysis, because it provides three dimensional atomic images around specific elements within a range of a few nanometers. It can determine atomic arrangements around a specific element without any prior knowledge of structures. It is considered that the atomic resolution holographic is a third method of structural analysis at the atomic level after X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). As known by many researchers, XRD and XAFS are established methods that are widespread use in various fields. XRD and XAFS provide information on long-range translational periodicities and very local environments, respectively, whereas the atomic resolution holography gives 3D information on the local order and can visualize surrounding atoms with a large range of coordination shells. We call this feature "3D medium-range local structure observation".In addition to this feature, the atomic resolution holography is very sensitive to the displacement of atoms from their ideal positions, and one can obtain quantitative information about local lattice distortions by analyzing reconstructed atomic images[2] When dopants with different atomic radii from the matrix elements are present, the lattices around the dopants are distorted. However, using the conventional methods of structural analysis, one cannot determine the extent to which the local lattice distortions are preserved from the dopants. XFH is a good tool for solving this problem.Figure 1 shows a recent achievement on a relaxor ferroelectric of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) using XFH. The structural studies of relaxor ferroelectrics have been carried out by X-ray or neutron diffractions, which suggested rhombohedral distortions of their lattices. However, their true pictures have not been obtained, yet. The Nb K? holograms showed four separate Pb images, as shown in Fig.1. Using these images, we could obtain acute and obtuse rhombohedral structures of the crystal unit cells. Moreover, the Pb-Pb correlated images reconstructed from Pb L? holograms showed a local structure of body center-like 2a0 ×2a0 × 2a0 superlattice, proving a rigid 3D network structural model combining the two kinds of rhombohedrons. This superstructure are believed to play an important role in the relaxor behaviour of PMN at atomic level[3].jmicro;63/suppl_1/i13/DFU047F1F1DFU047F1Fig. 1.3D images of the nearest Pb and O atoms around Nb in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3. The cube represents 1/8 of the unit cell. PMID:25359802

Hayashi, Kouichi

2014-11-01

199

Testing the universality of free fall with rubidium and ytterbium in a very large baseline atom interferometer  

E-print Network

We propose a very long baseline atom interferometer test of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) with ytterbium and rubidium extending over 10m of free fall. In view of existing parametrizations of EEP violations, this choice of test masses significantly broadens the scope of atom interferometric EEP tests with respect to other performed or proposed tests by comparing two elements with high atomic numbers. In a first step, our experimental scheme will allow reaching an accuracy in the E\\"otv\\"os ratio of $7\\times 10^{-13}$. This achievement will constrain violation scenarios beyond our present knowledge and will represent an important milestone for exploring a variety of schemes for further improvements of the tests as outlined in the paper. We will discuss the technical realisation in the new infrastructure of the Hanover Institute of Technology (HITec) and give a short overview of the requirements to reach this accuracy. The experiment will demonstrate a variety of techniques which will be employed in fut...

Hartwig, Jonas; Schubert, Christian; Schlippert, Dennis; Ahlers, Holger; Posso-Trujillo, Katerine; Gaaloul, Naceur; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M

2015-01-01

200

Displacement sensing system and method  

DOEpatents

A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

VunKannon Jr., Robert S

2006-08-08

201

Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation  

E-print Network

Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” by Chen and Clicksman (2003), were used to begin the literature search. Their references include papers, articles, and web sites presenting major contributions to the understanding...

Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

202

Polyimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments show variety of polyimidazoles prepared by aromatic nucleophilic displacement, from reactions of bisphenol imidazoles with activated difluoro compounds. Polyimidazoles have good mechanical properties making them suitable for use as films, moldings, and adhesives.

Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

1990-01-01

203

An amplitude modulated laser system for distance and displacement measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser distance and displacement measurement system is being developed to monitor small displacements in large space structures for strain analysis and structural control. The reflected laser beam is focused on a detector and the detected signal is mixed with the reference. Small displacements are indicated by a change in modulation frequency which is adjusted to maintain quadrature between the received signal and the reference signal from the voltage-controlled oscillator in a phase-locked loop. Measurement of absolute distance is accomplished by sweeping the modulation frequency from a quadrature lock point to an adjacent lock point.

Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.; Holben, Milford S., Jr.

1986-01-01

204

Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum transformation time appears to be more than a factor of 150. The transformation time is phenomenologically related to the overall activation energy and the cohesive energy difference of the fcc and bcc phases, which, beyond a certain combination of values, may even prevent the transformation process from occurring. Also, the morphology of the bcc product phase is remarkably sensitive to the type of boundary conditions and the choice of interatomic potential, while the influence by both the set of initial thermal velocities and the interfacial lattice incoherence only becomes apparent for specific atomic samples that transform relatively slowly. The presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries increases the spatial heterogeneity of transformation events, with the appearance of an increasing number of vacancies at the grain boundary giving rise to a larger overall transformation time. The 10 main results following from the present MD study are conveniently summarised at the end of this communication.

Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

2013-11-01

205

Geometric Deformation-Displacement Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture mapping, bump mapping, and displacement maps are central instruments in computer graphics aiming to achieve photo-realistic renderings. In all these techniques, the mapping is typically one-to-one and a single surface location is assigned a single texture color, normal, or displacement. Other specialized techniques have also been developed for the rendering of supplementary surface details such as fur hair, or

Gershon Elber

2002-01-01

206

Development of a high dynamic range spectroscopic system for observation of neutral hydrogen atom density distribution in Large Helical Device core plasma  

SciTech Connect

We report development of a high dynamic range spectroscopic system comprising a spectrometer with 30% throughput and a camera with a low-noise fast-readout complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor. The system achieves a 10{sup 6} dynamic range (?20 bit resolution) and an instrumental function approximated by a Voigt profile with Gauss and Lorentz widths of 31 and 0.31 pm, respectively, for 656 nm light. The application of the system for line profile observations of the Balmer-? emissions from high temperature plasmas generated in the Large Helical Device is also presented. In the observed line profiles, emissions are detected in far wings more than 1.0 nm away from the line center, equivalent to neutral hydrogen atom kinetic energies above 1 keV. We evaluate atom density distributions in the core plasma by analyzing the line profiles.

Fujii, K., E-mail: fujii@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Atsumi, S.; Watanabe, S.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8540 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8540 (Japan); Goto, M.; Morita, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2014-02-15

207

First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with the prediction of oxygen diffusivities in fcc nickel from first-principles calculations and large-scale atomic simulations. Considering only the interstitial octahedral to tetrahedral to octahedral minimum energy pathway for oxygen diffusion in fcc lattice, greatly underestimates the migration barrier and overestimates the diffusivities by several orders of magnitude. The results indicate that vacancies in the Ni-lattice significantly impact the migration barrier of oxygen in nickel. Incorporation of the effect of vacancies results in predicted diffusivities consistent with available experimental data. First-principles calculations show that at high temperatures the vacancy concentration is comparable to the oxygen solubility, and there is a strong binding energy and a redistribution of charge density between the oxygen atom and vacancy. Consequently, there is a strong attraction between the oxygen and vacancy in the Ni lattice, which impacts diffusion.

Fang, H. Z.; Shang, S. L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z. K. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Alfonso, D.; Alman, D. E. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Shin, Y. K.; Zou, C. Y.; Duin, A. C. T. van [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Lei, Y. K.; Wang, G. F. [National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

2014-01-28

208

40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection...CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal...

2011-07-01

209

40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section 205.153 Protection...CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine displacement must be calculated using nominal...

2010-07-01

210

Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

Covo, Michel Kireeff

2014-08-01

211

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Displacement Cascades in Single and Polycrystalline Zirconia  

SciTech Connect

Displacement cascades in zirconia have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Polycrystalline zirconia with nano-meter grains were created using Voronoi polyhedra construction and studied in comparison with single crystalline zirconia. The results show that displacement cascades with similar kinetic energy generated larger number of displaced atoms in polycrystalline than in the single crystal structure. The fraction of atoms with coordination number change was also higher in polycrystalline zirconia that was explained to be due to the diffusion of oxygen and relaxation at grain boundaries.

Du Jincheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Advanced Scientific Computing and Modeling, University of North Texas (United States)

2009-03-10

212

Generation of displaced squeezed superpositions of coherent states  

SciTech Connect

We study the method of generation of states that approximate superpositions of large-amplitude coherent states (SCSs) with high fidelity in free-traveling fields. Our approach is based on the representation of an arbitrary single-mode pure state, and SCSs in particular, in terms of displaced number states with an arbitrary displacement amplitude. The proposed optical scheme is based on alternation of photon additions and displacement operators (in the general case, N photon additions and N - 1 displacements are required) with a seed coherent state to generate both even and odd displaced squeezed SCSs regardless of the parity of the used photon additions. It is shown that the optical scheme studied is sensitive to the seed coherent state if the other parameters are unchanged. Output states can approximate either even squeezed SCS or odd SCS shifted relative to each other by some value. This allows constructing a local rotation operator, in particular, the Hadamard gate, which is a mainframe element for quantum computation with coherent states. We also show that three-photon additions with two intermediate displacement operators are sufficient to generate even displaced squeezed SCS with the amplitude 1.7 and fidelity more than 0.99. The effects deteriorating the quality of output states are considered.

Podoshvedov, S. A., E-mail: sapo66@mail.ru [South Ural State University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

213

PROJECT-INDUCED DISPLACEMENT, SECONDARY STRESSORS, AND HEALTH  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China’s Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea’s Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees’ depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. PMID:22341203

Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

2012-01-01

214

Project-induced displacement, secondary stressors, and health.  

PubMed

It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea's impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees' depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. PMID:22341203

Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

2012-04-01

215

Predictors of displacement behaviour during the 2006 Lebanon war.  

PubMed

The July 2006 war in Lebanon was one of the country's shortest wars. Yet perhaps it was also the worst interstate war in the history of Lebanon. Over the course of 33 days, the war resulted in over 1000 deaths, thousands of injuries, large-scale destruction of infrastructure and properties, as well as massive population displacements. Approximately a third of the Lebanese population was displaced during the war. Population-based survey data collected in early 2007 and logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of some demographic and socio-economic factors on displacement, stratified by war-affected and non-affected areas. The sample was restricted to adults who were at least 18 years old. We found that the intensity of the conflict as captured by the region of residence was understandably the most important variable in predicting displacement. The odds of displacement were higher for those who were younger in age, married or who had obtained a higher education. Females and those of Lebanese nationality had higher odds of displacement than their male and non-Lebanese counterparts, but only in war-damaged areas. Interestingly, household composition and size, economic standing and car ownership were not related to the odds of displacement. Findings from the present study may help policy-makers and humanitarian agencies in their planning efforts during emergencies, including wars. PMID:21331966

Khawaja, Marwan; Assaf, Shireen; Yamout, Rouham

2011-01-01

216

Higher-order Laue zone line contrast in large-angle convergent-beam electron diffraction around a dislocation.  

PubMed

The physical picture of higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) line contrast in a large-angle convergent-beam electron diffraction pattern around a dislocation, which is used for determining the Burgers vector, was examined. To evaluate the analytical expression of diffracted wave amplitude, we introduced an approximate form of the atomic displacement field of a dislocation. We showed that the four features of the HOLZ line contrast, that is, splitting, fading, bending and periodical contrast can be explained by analysis of the atomic displacement field. The localized lattice plane bending around a dislocation core made a HOLZ line split, fade and bend. However, we found that the periodical contrast of a HOLZ line was produced by the change of phase difference of the atomic displacement field between the crystals above and below the slip plane across the dislocation line. PMID:11555141

Toda, A; Ikarashi, N; Ono, H

2001-09-01

217

Electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing in a cold atomic ensemble with large optical depth  

E-print Network

We report on the delay of optical pulses using electromagnetically induced transparency in an ensemble of cold atoms with an optical depth exceeding 500. To identify the regimes in which four-wave mixing impacts on EIT behaviour, we conduct the experiment in both rubidium 85 and rubidium 87. Comparison with theory shows excellent agreement in both isotopes. In rubidium 87, negligible four-wave mixing was observed and we obtained one pulse-width of delay with 50% efficiency. In rubidium 85, four-wave-mixing contributes to the output. In this regime we achieve a delay-bandwidth product of 3.7 at 50% efficiency, allowing temporally multimode delay, which we demonstrate by compressing two pulses into the memory medium.

J. Geng; G. T. Campbell; J. Bernu; D. Higginbottom; B. M. Sparkes; S. M. Assad; W. P. Zhang; N. P. Robins; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler

2014-08-11

218

DISPLACEMENT CASCADE SIMULATION IN TUNGSTEN AT 1025 K  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulation was employed to investigate the irradiation damage properties of bulk tungsten at 1025 K (0.25 melting temperature). A comprehensive data set of primary cascade damage was generated up to primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies 100 keV. The dependence of the number of surviving Frenkel pairs (NFP) on the PKA energy (E) exhibits three different characteristic domains presumably related to the different cascade morphologies that form. The low-energy regime < 0.2 keV is characterized by a hit-or-miss type of Frenkel pair (FP) production near the displacement threshold energy of 128 eV. The middle regime 0.3 – 30 keV exhibits a sublinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) associated with compact cascade morphology with a slope of 0.73. Above 30 keV, the cascade morphology consists of complex branches or interconnected damage regions. In this extended morphology, large interstitial clusters form from superposition of interstitials from nearby damage regions. Strong clustering above 30 keV results in a superlinear dependence of log(NFP) vs log(E) with a slope of 1.365. At 100 keV, an interstitial cluster of size 92 and a vacancy cluster of size 114 were observed.

Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Roche, Kenneth J.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wirth, Brian D.

2013-09-30

219

Evolution of atomic rearrangements in deformation in metallic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic rearrangements induced by shear stress are fundamental for understanding deformation mechanisms in metallic glasses (MGs). Using molecular dynamic simulation, the atomic rearrangements characterized by nonaffine displacements (NADs) and their spatial distribution and evolution with tensile stress in Cu50Zr50 MG were investigated. It was found that in the elastic regime the atomic rearrangements with the largest NADs are relatively homogeneous in space, but exhibit strong spatial correlation, become localized and inhomogeneous, and form large clusters as strain increases, which may facilitate the so-called shear transformation zones. Furthermore, initially they prefer to take place around Cu atoms which have more nonicosahedral configurations. As strain increases, the preference decays and disappears in the plastic regime. The atomic rearrangements with the smallest NADs are preferentially located around Cu atoms, too, but with more icosahedral or icosahedral-like atomic configurations. The preference is maintained in the whole deformation process. In contrast, the atomic rearrangements with moderate NADs distribute homogeneously, and do not show explicit preference or spatial correlation, acting as matrix during deformation. Among the atomic rearrangements with different NADs, those with largest and smallest NADs are nearest neighbors initially, but separating with increasing strain, while those with largest and moderate NADs always avoid to each other. The correlations in the fluctuations of the NADs confirm the long-range strain correlation and the scale-free characteristic of NADs in both elastic and plastic deformation, which suggests a universality of the scaling in the plastic flow in MGs.

Shang, B. S.; Li, M. Z.; Yao, Y. G.; Lu, Y. J.; Wang, W. H.

2014-10-01

220

Perceived displacement explains wolfpack effect  

PubMed Central

We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent's body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent's orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas with agents pointing toward the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent's pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent's body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent's body. PMID:25566114

Šimkovic, Matúš; Träuble, Birgit

2014-01-01

221

Detection of a large fraction of atomic gas not associated with star-forming material in M17 SW  

E-print Network

We probe the column densities and masses traced by the ionized and neutral atomic carbon with spectrally resolved maps, and compare them to the diffuse and dense molecular gas traced by [C I] and low-$J$ CO lines toward the star-forming region M17SW. We mapped a 4.1pc x 4.7pc region in the [C I] 609 m$\\mu$ line using the APEX telescope, as well as the CO isotopologues with the IRAM 30m telescope. We analyze the data based on velocity channel maps that are 1 km/s wide. We correlate their spatial distribution with that of the [C II] map obtained with SOFIA/GREAT. Optically thin approximations were used to estimate the column densities of [C I] and [C II] in each velocity channel. The spatial distribution of the [C I] and all CO isotopologues emission was found to be associated with that of [C II] in about 20%-80% of the mapped region, with the high correlation found in the central (15-23 km/s ) velocity channels. The excitation temperature of [C I] ranges between 40 K and 100 K in the inner molecular region of ...

Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Ossenkopf, V; Spaans, M; Gusten, R; Wiesemeyer, H

2015-01-01

222

Job Displacement, Disability, and Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earnings shocks should affect divorce probability by changing a couple's expected gains from marriage. We find that the divorce hazard rises after a spouse's job displacement but does not change after a spousal disability. This difference casts doubt on a purely pecuniary motivation for divorce following earnings shocks, since both types of shocks exhibit similar long-run economic consequences. Furthermore, the

2004-01-01

223

Displacement meters for liquid measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive displacement (PD) meter. The emphasis will be on the factors influencing the design and performance of the meter for liquid petroleum measurement. However, these factors can be applied to other liquids as well. Also included are discussions on PD meter enhancements that will increase the PD meter`s performance.

Kalivoda, R.J. [Smith Meter Inc., Erie, PA (United States)

1995-12-01

224

PHON: A program to calculate phonons using the small displacement method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The program PHON calculates force constant matrices and phonon frequencies in crystals. From the frequencies it also calculates various thermodynamic quantities, like the Helmholtz free energy, the entropy, the specific heat and the internal energy of the harmonic crystal. The procedure is based on the small displacement method, and can be used in combination with any program capable to calculate forces on the atoms of the crystal. In order to examine the usability of the method, I present here two examples: metallic Al and insulating MgO. The phonons of these two materials are calculated using density functional theory. The small displacement method results are compared with those obtained using the linear response method. In the case of Al the method provides accurate phonon frequencies everywhere in the Brillouin Zone (BZ). In the case of MgO the longitudinal branch of the optical phonons near the centre of the BZ is incorrectly described as degenerate with the two transverse branches, because the non-analytical part of the dynamical matrix is ignored here; however, thermodynamic properties like the Helmholtz free are essentially unaffected. Program summaryProgram title: PHON Catalogue identifier: AEDP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19 580 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 612 193 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any Unix, Linux Operating system: Unix RAM: Depends on super-cell size, but usually negligible Classification: 7.8 External routines: Subprograms ZHEEV and DSYEV (Lapack); needs BLAS. A tutorial is provided with the distribution which requires the installation of the quantum-espresso package ( http://www.quantum-espresso.org) Nature of problem: Stable crystals at low temperature can be well described by expanding the potential energy around the atomic equilibrium positions. The movements of the atoms around their equilibrium positions can then be described using harmonic theory, and is characterised by global vibrations called phonons, which can be identified by vectors in the Brillouin zone of the crystal, and there are 3 phonon branches for each atom in the primitive cell. The problem is to calculate the frequencies of these phonons for any arbitrary choice of q-vector in the Brillouin zone. Solution method: The small displacement method: each atom in the primitive cell is displaced by a small amount, and the forces induced on all the other atoms in the crystal are calculated and used to construct the force constant matrix. Supercells of ˜100 atoms are usually large enough to describe the force constant matrix up to the range where its elements have fallen to negligibly small values. The force constant matrix is then used to compute the dynamical matrix at any chosen q-vector in the Brillouin zone, and the diagonalisation of the dynamical matrix provides the squares of the phonon frequencies. The PHON code needs external programs to calculate these forces, and it can be used with any program capable of calculating forces in crystals. The most useful applications are obtained with codes based on density functional theory, but there is no restriction on what can be used. Running time: Negligible, typically a few seconds (or at most a few minutes) on a PC. It can take longer if very dense meshes of q-points are needed, for example, to compute very accurate phonon density of states.

Alfè, Dario

2009-12-01

225

Gamma rays from atomic and molecular gas in the large complex of clouds in Orion and Monoceros  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of COS-B gamma-ray observations of the large complex of interstellar clouds in Orion and Monoceros with the Columbia CO and Berkeley H I surveys of this region reveals a good correlation between gamma-ray emission and total gas distribution. The observed gamma-ray emission is explainable in terms of interactions of cosmic rays that are uniformly distributed in this region with the interstellar gas. The correlation is used as the basis of a calibration of the ratio between H2 column density and the integrated CO line intensity; the value of (2.6 + or - 1.2) X 10 to the 20th mol/sq cm K km s thereby obtained is consistent with the value derived from a similar analysis for the inner galaxy.

Bloemen, J. B. G. M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Hermsen, W.; Lebrun, F.; Maddalena, R. J.; Strong, A. W.; Thaddeus, P.

1984-01-01

226

Atomic structure from large-area, low-dose exposures of materials: A new route to circumvent radiation damage?  

PubMed Central

Beam-induced structural modifications are a major nuisance in the study of materials by high-resolution electron microscopy. Here, we introduce a new approach to circumvent the radiation damage problem by a statistical treatment of large, noisy, low-dose data sets of non-periodic configurations (e.g. defects) in the material. We distribute the dose over a mixture of different defect structures at random positions and with random orientations, and recover representative model images via a maximum likelihood search. We demonstrate reconstructions from simulated images at such low doses that the location of individual entities is not possible. The approach may open a route to study currently inaccessible beam-sensitive configurations. PMID:24315660

Meyer, J.C.; Kotakoski, J.; Mangler, C.

2014-01-01

227

A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring  

PubMed Central

This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

2013-01-01

228

Dynamic displacement measurement of bridges using vision-based system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring the displacement of flexible bridges directly is difficult particularly on monumental suspension bridges. Since these bridges cross over sea channels or large rivers, installation of conventional devices for displacement measurement is technically not easy and costly, if not impossible. In this study, real-time displacement measurement of bridges was carried out by means of digital image processing techniques. This is innovative, highly cost-effective and easy to implement, and yet maintains the advantages of dynamic measurement and high resolution. First, the measurement point is marked on the bridge with a target panel of known geometry. A commercially available digital video camcorder is installed on a fixed point some distance from the bridge (e.g. on the coast) or on a pier (abutment) of the bridge which can be regarded as a fixed point. The camcorder with a telescopic device installed takes a motion picture of the target marked. Meanwhile, the displacement of the target is calculated using an image processing technique, which requires a target recognition algorithm, projection of the captured image, and calculation of the actual displacement using target geometry and the number of pixels moved. To measure the displacement at multiple locations on the bridge, an effective synchronized vision-based system was developed using master/slave system and wireless data communication. For the purpose of verification, the measured displacement by synchronized vision-based system was compared with the data measured by a contact-type sensor, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) from laboratory tests. The displacement measured by the proposed method showed a good agreement with the data from the conventional sensors. A field test on a pedestrian suspension bridge was also carried out to check the feasibility of the proposed system.

Lee, Jong-Jae; Fukuda, Yoshio; Shinozuka, Masanobu

2006-03-01

229

Software for determining the true displacement of faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

2014-03-01

230

Molecular and Atomic Gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud II. Three-dimensional Correlation between CO and HI  

E-print Network

We compare the CO (J =1–0) and HI emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in three dimensions, i.e. including a velocity axis in addition to the two spatial axes, with the aim of elucidating the physical connection between giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their surrounding HI gas. The CO J =1–0 dataset is from the second NANTEN CO survey and the HI dataset is from the merged Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Parkes Telescope surveys. The major findings of our analysis are: 1) GMCs are associated with an envelope of HI emission, 2) in GMCs [average CO intensity] ? [average HI intensity] 1.1±0.1 and 3) the HI intensity tends to increase with the star formation activity within GMCs, from Type I to Type III. An analysis of the HI envelopes associated with GMCs shows that their average linewidth is 14 km s ?1 and the mean density in the envelope is 10 cm ?3. We argue that the HI envelopes are gravitationally bound by GMCs. These findings are consistent with a continual increase in the mass of GMCs via HI accretion at an accretion rate of 0.05 M?yr ?1 over a time scale of 10 Myr. The growth of GMCs is terminated via dissipative ionization and/or stellar-wind disruption in the final stage of GMC evolution.

E. Staveley-smith

231

Cold Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter and the following one address collective effects of quantum particles, that is, the effects which are observed when we put together a large number of identical particles, for example, electrons, helium-4 or rubidium-85 atoms. We shall see that quantum particles can be classified into two categories, bosons and fermions, whose collective behavior is radically different. Bosons have a tendency to pile up in the same quantum state, while fermions have a tendency to avoid each other. We say that bosons and fermions obey two different quantum statistics, the Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively. Temperature is a collective effect, and in Section 5.1 we shall explain the concept of absolute temperature and its relation to the average kinetic energy of molecules. We shall describe in Section 5.2 how we can cool atoms down thanks to the Doppler effect, and explain how cold atoms can be used to improve the accuracy of atomic clocks by a factor of about 100. The effects of quantum statistics are prominent at low temperatures, and atom cooling will be used to obtain Bose-Einstein condensates at low enough temperatures, when the atoms are bosons.

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

232

Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents using alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

233

Measuring tidal displacement using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS is making possible high-precision, high-resolution measurements of tidal displacement that could not be achieved with other methods. Earth's surface deforms due to both body tides—the deformation of the solid Earth due to the pull of the Sun and the Moon—and ocean tides—the redistribution of water mass loading over Earth's surface. Body tides and ocean tides both have components that vary on semidiurnal, diurnal, and longer periods.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-06-01

234

Fixture for Linearly Variable Displacement Transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Original point of interest on shear panel tracked throughout loading. Technique and fixture measure out-of-plane displacements on shear panel using linearly variable displacement transducers (LVDT's) while tracking original panel location. Technique adaptable to any size shear panel.

Farley, G. L.; Baker, D. J.

1985-01-01

235

20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits...RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee...

2010-04-01

236

20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits...RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee...

2011-04-01

237

Meridional displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.  

PubMed

Observed long-term warming trends in the Southern Ocean have been interpreted as a sign of increased poleward eddy heat transport or of a poleward displacement of the entire Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) frontal system. The two-decade-long record from satellite altimetry is an important source of information for evaluating the mechanisms governing these trends. While several recent studies have used sea surface height contours to index ACC frontal displacements, here altimeter data are instead used to track the latitude of mean ACC transport. Altimetric height contours indicate a poleward trend, regardless of whether they are associated with ACC fronts. The zonally averaged transport latitude index shows no long-term trend, implying that ACC meridional shifts determined from sea surface height might be associated with large-scale changes in sea surface height more than with localized shifts in frontal positions. The transport latitude index is weakly sensitive to the Southern Annular Mode, but is uncorrelated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. PMID:24891396

Gille, Sarah T

2014-07-13

238

Miscible Displacement Simulation by Finite Element Methods in Distributed Memory  

E-print Network

Lauro Muller 455, Botafogo, 22290­160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil Alvaro L. G. A. Coutinho Deptamento de­970, Brazil Abstract Finite element methods taylored for large scale simulation of incompressible misci­ ble computationally intensive field in petroleum engineering. Miscible displacements which model enhanced oil recovery

Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

239

Poly(1,2,4-Triazoles) Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis involves nucleophilic displacement of monomers with activated aromatic dihalides. Polymers exhibited desirable physical and thermal properties. Synthesis of polymers provides high-molecular-weight PT of new chemical structures, potentially more economically favorable than other routes, and, because of availability of large variety of activated aromatic dihalides, provides for facile variation of chemical structure. Useful for producing films, moldings, adhesives, and composites.

Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Wolf, Peter

1993-01-01

240

Reconstructive elasticity imaging for large deformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented to reconstruct the elastic modulus of soft tissue based on ultrasonic displacement and strain images for comparatively large deformations. If the average deformation is too large to be described with a linear elastic model, nonlinear displacement-strain relations must be used and the mechanical equilibrium equations must include high order spatial derivatives of the displacement. Numerical methods

Andrei R. Skovoroda; L. A. Lubinski; Stanislav Y. Emelianov; M. O'Donnell

1999-01-01

241

20 CFR 627.230 - Displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement. 627.230 Section 627.230...Program Requirements § 627.230 Displacement. (a) No currently employed worker...any participant (including partial displacement such as a reduction in the hours...

2011-04-01

242

Water Mist Suppression in Conjunction with Displacement  

E-print Network

Water Mist Suppression in Conjunction with Displacement Ventilation By Benjamin Piers Hume-2758 #12;#12;Displacement Water Mist System Masters of Fire Engineering Thesis 2003 i A man of genius makes Water Mist System Masters of Fire Engineering Thesis 2003 ii #12;Displacement Water Mist System Masters

Hickman, Mark

243

Second-order Darboux displacements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potentials for a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation that are displaced along the x-axis under second-order Darboux transformations, called 2-SUSY invariant, are characterized in terms of a differential-difference equation. The solutions of the Schrödinger equation with such potentials are given analytically for any value of the energy. The method is illustrated by a two-soliton potential. It is proved that a particular case of the periodic Lamé-Ince potential is 2-SUSY invariant. Both Bloch solutions of the corresponding Schrödinger equation are found for any value of the energy. A simple analytic expression for a family of two-gap potentials is derived.

Samsonov, B. F.; Glasser, M. L.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L. M.

2003-10-01

244

Study of the fragmentation of a displacement cascade in subcascades within the Binary Collision Approximation framework  

SciTech Connect

When a material is subjected to irradiation, many primary defects are cre- ated at the atomic level by sequences of ballistic collision events to form highly disordered regions defined as displacement cascades. The long term evolution of materials under irradiation is dictated by the number and the spatial distribution of the surviving defects in the displacement cascade. The peculiar power law shape of collision cross sections is responsible for the frag- mentation of a displacement cascade into smaller subcascades. However, it remains difficult to define a subcascade. Within the fractal geometry frame- work, we demonstrate in this work that the set of atomic trajectories in a displacement cascade exhibit a fractal behavior. From this analysis, we present a new criterion to describe the fragmentation of a displacement cas- cade and to calculate the distribution and the number of defects from this fragmentation. Such an analysis provides the natural framework to estimate the number of defects created in a displacement cascade to integrate with results of MD simulations. From this defiintion of the fragmentation of a displacement cascade, this work gives some new insights to describe both the primary defects produced in a material under irradiation and then to compare different irradiations performed with different particles.

Luneville, Laurence [CEA, Saclay, France; Simone, David [CEA, Saclay, France; Weber, William J [ORNL

2011-01-01

245

A tale of three cities: Crime and displacement after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans in August 2005, it greatly disrupted both the physical and social structures of that community. One consequence of the hurricane was the displacement of large numbers of New Orleans residents to other cities, including Houston, San Antonio, and Phoenix. There has been media speculation that such a grand-scale population displacement led to increased crime

Sean P. Varano; Joseph A. Schafer; Jeffrey M. Cancino; Scott H. Decker; Jack R. Greene

2010-01-01

246

Displaced Children in U.S. History: Stories of Courage and Survival  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the experiences and survival of displaced children in four large migrations in U.S. history. The chaos and despair caused by Hurricane Katrina are reminders that the displacement and survival of children are timely and relevant topics for the social studies curriculum. Hurricane Katrina was the worst natural disaster in…

Betts, Brenda

2006-01-01

247

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

Farah, J.

1999-04-06

248

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

Farah, John (M.I.T. Branch P.O. Box 301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

1995-01-01

249

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

Farah, John (M.I.T. P.O. Box 397301, Cambridge, MA 02139)

1999-01-01

250

Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor  

DOEpatents

A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

Farah, J.

1995-05-30

251

A Theoretical Model to Predict Both Horizontal Displacement and Vertical Displacement for Electromagnetic Induction-Based Deep Displacement Sensors  

PubMed Central

Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency. PMID:22368467

Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong

2012-01-01

252

Role of W and Mn for reliable 1X nanometer-node ultra-large-scale integration Cu interconnects proved by atom probe tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used atom probe tomography (APT) to study the use of a Cu(Mn) as a seed layer of Cu, and a Co(W) single-layer as reliable Cu diffusion barriers for future interconnects in ultra-large-scale integration. The use of Co(W) layer enhances adhesion of Cu to prevent electromigration and stress-induced voiding failures. The use of Cu(Mn) as seed layer may enhance the diffusion barrier performance of Co(W) by stuffing the Cu diffusion pass with Mn. APT was used to visualize the distribution of W and Mn in three dimensions with sub-nanometer resolution. W was found to segregate at the grain boundaries of Co, which prevents diffusion of Cu via the grain boundaries. Mn was found to diffuse from the Cu(Mn) layer to Co(W) layer and selectively segregate at the Co(W) grain boundaries with W, reinforcing the barrier properties of Co(W) layer. Hence, a Co(W) barrier coupled with a Cu(Mn) seed layer can form a sufficient diffusion barrier with film that is less than 2.0-nm-thick. The diffusion barrier behavior was preserved following a 1-h annealing at 400 °C. The underlayer of the Cu interconnects requires a large adhesion strength with the Cu, as well as low electrical resistivity. The use of Co(W) has previously been shown to satisfy these requirements, and addition of Mn is not expected to deteriorate these properties.

Shima, K.; Tu, Y.; Takamizawa, H.; Shimizu, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Momose, T.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.

2014-09-01

253

Recording intramolecular mechanics during the manipulation of a large molecule.  

PubMed

The technique of single atom manipulation by means of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) applies to the controlled displacement of large molecules. By a combined experimental and theoretical work, we show that in a constant height mode of manipulation the STM current intensity carries detailed information on the internal mechanics of the molecule when guided by the STM tip. Controlling and time following the intramolecular behavior of a large molecule on a surface is the first step towards the design of molecular tunnel-wired nanorobots. PMID:11497988

Moresco, F; Meyer, G; Rieder, K H; Tang, H; Gourdon, A; Joachim, C

2001-08-20

254

Recording Intramolecular Mechanics during the Manipulation of a Large Molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of single atom manipulation by means of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) applies to the controlled displacement of large molecules. By a combined experimental and theoretical work, we show that in a constant height mode of manipulation the STM current intensity carries detailed information on the internal mechanics of the molecule when guided by the STM tip. Controlling and time following the intramolecular behavior of a large molecule on a surface is the first step towards the design of molecular tunnel-wired nanorobots.

Moresco, Francesca; Meyer, Gerhard; Rieder, Karl-Heinz; Tang, Hao; Gourdon, André; Joachim, Christian

2001-08-01

255

Recording Intramolecular Mechanics during the Manipulation of a Large Molecule  

SciTech Connect

The technique of single atom manipulation by means of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) applies to the controlled displacement of large molecules. By a combined experimental and theoretical work, we show that in a constant height mode of manipulation the STM current intensity carries detailed information on the internal mechanics of the molecule when guided by the STM tip. Controlling and time following the intramolecular behavior of a large molecule on a surface is the first step towards the design of molecular tunnel-wired nanorobots.

Moresco, Francesca; Meyer, Gerhard; Rieder, Karl-Heinz; Tang, Hao; Gourdon, Andre; Joachim, Christian

2001-08-20

256

Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass  

DOEpatents

Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

1982-09-02

257

Displacement measurement with intracavity interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a measuring technique for displacement and position sensing over a limited range with detection of standingwave pattern inside of a passive Fabry-Perot cavity. The concept considers locking of the laser optical frequency and the length of the Fabry-Perot cavity in resonance. Fixing the length of the cavity to e.g. a highly stable mechanical reference allows to stabilize wavelength of the laser in air and thus to eliminate especially the faster fluctuations of refractive index of air due to air flow and inhomogeneities. Sensing of the interference maxima and minima within the cavity along the beam axis has been tested and proven with a low loss photoresistive photodetector based on a thin polycrystalline silicon layer. Reduction of losses was achieved thanks to a design as an optimized set of interference layers acting as an antireflection coating. The principle is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Fejfar, Antonín.; Stuchlík, Ji?í; Ko?ka, Jan; Oulehla, Jind?ich; ?íp, Ond?ej

2014-05-01

258

Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

Connell, John W. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (inventor)

1995-01-01

259

Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

260

Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump  

SciTech Connect

A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

2001-01-01

261

An ion displacement membrame model.  

PubMed

The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented. PMID:6048876

Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

1967-09-01

262

Displaceable Gear Torque Controlled Driver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus are provided for a torque driver including a displaceable gear to limit torque transfer to a fastener at a precisely controlled torque limit. A biasing assembly biases a first gear into engagement with a second gear for torque transfer between the first and second gear. The biasing assembly includes a pressurized cylinder controlled at a constant pressure that corresponds to a torque limit. A calibrated gage and valve is used to set the desired torque limit. One or more coiled output linkages connect the first gear with the fastener adaptor which may be a socket for a nut. A gear tooth profile provides a separation force that overcomes the bias to limit torque at the desired torque limit. Multiple fasteners may be rotated simultaneously to a desired torque limit if additional output spur gears are provided. The torque limit is adjustable and may be different for fasteners within the same fastener configuration.

Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

263

Character displacement in the fighting colours of Hetaerina damselflies  

PubMed Central

Aggression between species is a seldom-considered but potentially widespread mechanism of character displacement in secondary sexual characters. Based on previous research showing that similarity in wing coloration directly influences interspecific territorial aggression in Hetaerina damselflies, we predicted that wing coloration would show a pattern of character displacement (divergence in sympatry). A geographical survey of four Hetaerina damselfly species in Mexico and Texas showed evidence for character displacement in both species pairs that regularly occurs sympatrically. Hetaerina titia, a species that typically has large black wing spots and small red wing spots, shifted to having even larger black spots and smaller red wing spots at sites where a congener with large red wing spots is numerically dominant (Hetaerina americana or Hetaerina occisa). Hetaerina americana showed the reverse pattern, shifting towards larger red wing spots where H. titia is numerically dominant. This pattern is consistent with the process of agonistic character displacement, but the ontogenetic basis of the shift remains to be demonstrated. PMID:20591870

Anderson, Christopher N.; Grether, Gregory F.

2010-01-01

264

Fiber optic multimode displacement sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater Optical Motion Sensor (OMS) based on a design first presented by W. B. Spillman, Schlieren multimode fiber-optic hydrophone, Applied Physics Letters 37(2), 15 July 1980, p. 145-146 is described. The displacement sensor uses the same acoustooptical intensity modulation mechanism as Spillman, however the sensing mechanism is isolated from the ambient fluid environment by a small cylindrical aluminum enclosure (1? OD×3/4?). The enclosure contains an inertial mass and the fiber collimators. The inertial mass is suspended in the center of the enclosure by three small wires rigidly mounted to the walls. The mass and wires act as a cantilever beam system with a mechanical resonance near 100 Hz. The transduction mechanism consists of two opposed optical gratings aligned and positioned between the fiber collimators. One grating is mounted on the inertial mass while the other is mounted on the lower end cap of the enclosure. Relative motion between the gratings causes a modulation of the light transmitted through the gratings. The modulated beam is focused onto a photodetector and converted to electric current. The frequency response is flat from 200 Hz-9 kHz with a minimum detectable displacement of 0.002 A and the dynamic range is 136 dB. The small size and light weight give the sensor an effective density of 1.08 g/cm3 making it almost neutrally buoyant in water. This in conjunction with the performance characteristics make this sensor suitable for use in acoustical sensing applications.

Fisher, Karl A.; Jarzynski, Jacek

1996-04-01

265

Topics in Coherent Atom-Field Interactions: I. Transverse Effects in Linear Pulse Propagation. I. Initiation of Superfluorescence in a Large Spherical Sample.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. The resonant propagation of a weak (small -area), sharp pulse through a two-level medium has been considered in detail. It is found that for a uniform density medium the excited Burnham-Chiao fluorescence pattern (J(,1)((alpha)SQRT.((tau)))/SQRT.((tau)) oscillations in time) is not modified when the input pulse is allowed to have an arbitrary cross-sectional amplitude dependence. This represents an exact decoupling of purely longitudinal energy exchange processes from the diffractional spreading, which, however, is destroyed if the medium has transversely non-uniform density. Two examples of such density variation, viz., a step-function dependence on one transverse Cartesian coordinate (say, x), and a Gaussian dependence on the transverse distance,. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). have been discussed at considerable length. Transverse propagation of energy can be viewed as causing either surface reflection and refraction waves (for step-function density profile) or a coupling of different longitudinal sections of the medium (for Gaussian or, in general, a smooth transverse density profile). The qualitative relevance of the latter example to observed superfluorescence ringing has also been explored. Part II. In this part we investigate the fully three-dimensional quantum initiation of superfluorescence from a large spherical sample of identical atoms which are initially all in their excited state. The initial polarization fluctuations, that characterize a fully inverted system and which trigger superfluorescence in the normal -ordering scheme, are found to cause amplification of only low-lying (lm) spherical harmonic multipole modes for which l < ak(,0)R (a (TURNEQ) 1, R: sample radius, ck(,0): atomic resonance frequency). The fluctuations obey the usual Gaussian statistics, a result that has been used to calculate the angular correlation of intensities observed along two directions. Oppositely circularly-polarized components of electric fields along any two directions are found to be uncorrelated and therefore exhibit no intensity-intensity (and higher-order) correlations. But field components of same circular polarization are correlated over an angular spread that is inversely proportional to k(,0)R in consistency with the uncertainty principle.

Prasad, Sudmakar

266

Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Louis, Ard A.

2015-03-01

267

Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.  

PubMed

We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. PMID:25762335

Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

2015-03-10

268

Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement  

E-print Network

We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.

Petr Šulc; Thomas E. Ouldridge; Flavio Romano; Jonathan P. K. Doye; Ard A. Louis

2014-11-12

269

Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations  

SciTech Connect

The theory of turbulent premixed flames is based on acharacterization of the flame as a discontinuous surface propagatingthrough the fluid. The displacement speed, defined as the local speed ofthe flame front normal to itself, relative to the unburned fluid,provides one characterization of the burning velocity. In this paper, weintroduce a geometric approach to computing displacement speed anddiscuss the efficacy of the displacement speed for characterizing aturbulent flame.

Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

2007-07-01

270

An improved displacement damage monitor LED  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency-domain technique for measuring carrier lifetime in GaAs light-emitting-diode (LED) displacement damage monitors capable of high sensitivity and repeatability is developed. Applications of this technique that take advantage of the high sensitivity of this method, including the measurement of the threshold energy for lattice displacement in GaAs, are described. The measured minimum electron energy for displacement damage was 270±15

A. L. Barry; R. Maxseiner; R. Wojcik; M. A. Briere; D. Braeunig

1990-01-01

271

Displacement, politics and governance : access to low-income housing in a Beirut suburb  

E-print Network

Lebanon witnessed large-scale phases of internal displacement during and after its civil war (1975-1990). This study analyzes access to low-income housing for a Lebanese Shiites group which has already experienced two ...

Bou Akar, Hiba

2005-01-01

272

Displacement damage-induced electrical and structural effects in gallium arsenide solar cells following ion irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For nearly two decades, deviations between experimental data and the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) have been observed for GaAs devices. In particular, previous data has suggested that electrical parameters associated with GaAs solar cells can follow different energy dependences with NIEL but only at the higher proton energies. In this paper, displacement damage-induced electrical and structural effects in GaAs solar cells were monitored before and after irradiation with various ions. The radiation-induced defects responsible for causing electrical changes were characterized using illuminated current-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and electron beam induced current (EBIC) while the structural changes were monitored using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The EBIC images showed the existence of radiation-induced active recombination volumes or defect clusters after irradiation with high energy protons (E ? 10 MeV) and 22 MeV silicon ions, which were not produced by lower energy protons. The TEM images revealed strain related defects that correspond to the same irradiation conditions for which the defect clusters were observed, and therefore, the defects in the TEM images are associated with those observed in the EBIC images. These defects were not observed prior to irradiation so the lattice strain in the material is definitely associated with irradiation-induced lattice defects. HRTEM imaging has shown that the disordered regions are not amorphous but probably most likely a cluster of vacancies and a surrounding region rich in interstitials, which is produced when a large number of neighboring atoms are displaced in collision cascades known as the displacement spike. The formation of the U-band defect as determined by DLTS seems to evolve under the same irradiation conditions as the defects in the images. This very broad U-band peak is consistent with what would be expected from defect clusters. From analyses of the recoil spectra, high energy recoils appear to be responsible for the formation of these disordered regions and these regions are independent of the total displacement damage energy deposited. This study has shown that NIEL scaling is only violated for incident ion energies when the defect clusters are observed.

Warner, Jeffrey Hamilton

273

Large-scale cortical displacement of a human retinotopic map  

E-print Network

indicates right hemisphere peri-ventricular heterotopia and dotted arrow indicates the locus of gray a shift of language representation to the right hemisphere [4,5]. In the visual domain, congenitally blind. Similar to control subjects, the upper right visual ¢eld mapped onto ventral left hemisphere

Slotnick, Scott D.

274

MEMS-based hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism with completely encapsulated liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a MEMS-based hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) with completely encapsulated liquid that can be used in applications that require large-displacement micro-actuators, such as tactile displays and microvalves controlling large mass flows. The HDAM contains a microcavity that is sealed by easily deformable thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes encapsulating an incompressible fluid and whose input and output surfaces have different

T. Ninomiya; Y. Okayama; Y. Matsumoto; X. Arouette; K. Osawa; N. Miki

2011-01-01

275

Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.

F. Duan

2000-04-25

276

New displacement-based methods for optimal truss topology design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two alternate methods for maximum stiffness truss topology design are presented. The ground structure approach is used, and the problem is formulated in terms of displacements and bar areas. This large, nonconvex optimization problem can be solved by a simultaneous analysis and design approach. Alternatively, an equivalent, unconstrained, and convex problem in the displacements only can be formulated, and this problem can be solved by a nonsmooth, steepest descent algorithm. In both methods, the explicit solving of the equilibrium equations and the assembly of the global stiffness matrix are circumvented. A large number of examples have been studied, showing the attractive features of topology design as well as exposing interesting features of optimal topologies.

Bendsoe, Martin P.; Ben-Tal, Aharon; Haftka, Raphael T.

1991-01-01

277

Defect structures induced by high-energy displacement cascades in ? uranium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Displacement cascade simulations were conducted for the ? uranium system based on molecular dynamics. A recently developed modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was employed to replicate the atomic interactions while an embedded atom method (EAM) potential was adopted to help characterize the defect structures induced by the displacement cascades. The atomic displacement process was studied by providing primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 50 keV. The influence of the PKA incident direction was examined. The defect structures were analyzed after the systems were fully relaxed. The states of the self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) were categorized into various types of dumbbells, the crowdion, and the octahedral interstitial. The voids were determined to have a polyhedral shape with {1 1 0} facets. The size distribution of the voids was also obtained. The results of this study not only expand the knowledge of the microstructural evolution in irradiated ? uranium, but also provide valuable references for the radiation-induced defects in uranium alloy fuels.

Miao, Yinbin; Beeler, Benjamin; Deo, Chaitanya; Baskes, Michael I.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Stubbins, James F.

2015-01-01

278

Defect structures induced by high-energy displacement cascades in c uranium  

SciTech Connect

Displacement cascade simulations were conducted for the c uranium system based on molecular dynamics. A recently developed modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was employed to replicate the atomic interactions while an embedded atom method (EAM) potential was adopted to help characterize the defect structures induced by the displacement cascades. The atomic displacement process was studied by providing primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 50 keV. The influence of the PKA incident direction was examined. The defect structures were analyzed after the systems were fully relaxed. The states of the self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) were categorized into various types of dumbbells, the crowdion, and the octahedral interstitial. The voids were determined to have a polyhedral shape with {110} facets. The size distribution of the voids was also obtained. The results of this study not only expand the knowledge of the microstructural evolution in irradiated c uranium, but also provide valuable references for the radiation-induced defects in uranium alloy fuels. 2014 Elsevier

Yinbin Miao; Benjamin Beeler; Chaitanya Deo; Maria A. Okuniewski; James F. Stubbins

2015-01-01

279

Displacive radiation-induced structural contraction in nanocrystalline ZrN  

SciTech Connect

Nanocrystalline ZrN thin films with 5 nm grain size, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, maintained their isometric structure upon intensive displacive and ionizing irradiations, indicating an extremely high stability similar to bulk ZrN. However, a unique structural contraction up to 1.42% in lattice parameter occurred only in nano-sized ZrN upon displacive irradiations. A significant nitrogen loss occurred with reduced N:Zr atomic ratio to 0.88, probably due to the production of displaced nitrogen atoms and fast diffusion along grain boundaries in nanocrystalline ZrN matrix. The accumulation of nitrogen vacancies and related strain relaxation may be responsible for the structural contraction.

Lu Fengyuan; Sun Hongtao; Lian Jie [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytech Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Huang, Mengbing; Yaqoob, Faisal [Ion Beam Laboratory, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C. [Departments of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Materials Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States); Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

2012-07-23

280

Is Maxwell's Displacement Current a Current?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses in detail the claim that certain well-known physics experiments demonstrate the magnetic field produced by Maxwell's displacement current. Addresses the question of whether the displacement current acts as a source of magnetic field in the same way as a current in a wire would. (Contains 12 references.) (WRM)

French, A. P.

2000-01-01

281

Displacement and Knowledge Construction in Literature Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two literature reviews are interpreted to demonstrate how they are informed by what the author labels the "displacement story," that is, a story of how one prevailing professional paradigm is replaced by another. This study demonstrates how the narration, structure, and language in each review render particular tellings of the displacement story.…

Steinley, Gary

282

Horizontal displacements of rock foundations of dams  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses geodetic survey methods to assess the horizontal displacements of dam foundations for several hydroelectric power plants in the Soviet Union. The effects of filling the reservoirs are outlined and the dependence of the degree of displacement on dam height is analyzed. The results are tabulated.

Karlson, A.A.

1987-08-01

283

Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

Fisher, Carla Christine

2012-01-01

284

Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

Peltier, Wanda Jo

285

Using a 2D displacement sensor to derive 3D displacement information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2D displacement sensor is used to measure displacement in three dimensions. For example, the sensor can be used in conjunction with a pulse-modulated or frequency-modulated laser beam to measure displacement caused by deformation of an antenna on which the sensor is mounted.

Soares, Schubert F. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

286

New techniques for the non-contact measurement of displacer motion of a miniature split-Stirling cryocooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes optional methods to calibrate the static sensitivity of the measurement of displacer motion inside the cold finger of a split-Stirling cryocooler. The relative displacement measurement method, as previously proposed, required that the regenerator matrix material should have such a high magnetic permeability that the linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) could measure the displacer motion without large signal amplification. This would be impossible for low-permeability materials, e.g. stainless steel 316L and 304L, contained in the displacer. Therefore, three options are proposed for the calibration of static sensitivity: contact, purge or dynamic calibration methods. Temperature compensation is also found to be necessary to transfer the LVDT voltage to the true displacer displacement when performing the non-contact measurement of the displacer motion.

Yang, Y. P.; Huang, B. J.; Chen, F. M.; Chien, S. B.; Shieh, T. F.

287

Gumdrop Atoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use gumdrops and toothpicks to make lithium atom models. Using these models, they investigate the makeup of atoms, including their relative size. Students are then asked to form molecules out of atoms, much in the same way they constructed atoms out of the particles that atoms are made of. Students also practice adding and subtracting electrons from an atom and determining the overall charges on atoms.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

288

Systematic calculation of threshold displacement energies: Case study in rutile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generalized and systematic method of calculating threshold displacement energies (Ed) using molecular dynamics simulations has been developed and applied to rutile TiO2. Statistically representative results have been achieved through fine sampling of impact energy and trajectory for each atomic species. Each impact trajectory is drawn from a uniform distribution of points on a unit sphere, along which, primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with kinetic energies in the range of 20-200 eV were introduced into lattices equilibrated to 300 K. Various definitions of Ed are explored, with values presented as probabilities of defect formation. Results for the Ti PKA agree well with experimental data with a value of Ed at around 69 eV. Simulations of O PKAs contrast greatly with Ti PKAs, with displacements occurring at significantly lower energies, resulting in an O value of Ed at 19 eV. Analysis shows that replacement chains on the O sublattice are a common feature and play a significant role in governing defect formation in rutile.

Robinson, M.; Marks, N. A.; Whittle, K. R.; Lumpkin, G. R.

2012-03-01

289

On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean-Watson formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ? 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean-Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon-Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n? is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound-bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521, Ali-Haïmoud 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 023526).

Hey, J. D.

2014-08-01

290

Crustal Displacements Due to Continental Water Loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of long-wavelength (> 100 km), seasonal variability in continental water storage on vertical crustal motions are assessed. The modeled vertical displacements (delta-r(sub M)) have root-mean-square (RMS) values for 1994-1998 as large as 8 mm with ranges up to 30 mm, and are predominantly annual in character. Regional strains are on the order of 20 nanostrain for tilt and 5 nanostrain for horizontal deformation. We compare delta-r(sub M) with observed Global Positioning System (GPS) heights (delta-r(sub O)) (which include adjustments to remove estimated effects of atmospheric pressure and annual tidal and non-tidal ocean loading) for 147 globally distributed sites. When the delta-r(sub O) time series are adjusted by delta-r(sub M), their variances are reduced, on average, by an amount equal to the variance of the delta-r(sub M). Of the delta-r(sub O) time series exhibiting a strong annual signal, more than half are found to have an annual harmonic that is in phase and of comparable amplitude with the annual harmonic in the delta-r(sub M). The delta-r(sub M) time series exhibit long-period variations that could be mistaken for secular tectonic trends or post-glacial rebound when observed over a time span of a few years.

vanDam, T.; Wahr, J.; Milly, P. C. D.; Shmakin, A. B.; Blewitt, G.; Lavallee, D.; Larson, K. M.

2001-01-01

291

Effervescent atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effervescent atomization is a method of twin-fluid atomization that involves bubbling a small amount of gas into the liquid before it is ejected from the atomizer. The technique of bubbling gas directly into the liquid stream inside the atomizer body is essentially different from other methods of twin-fluid atomization (either internal or external mixing) and leads to significant improvements in

S. D Sovani; P. E Sojka; A. H Lefebvre

2001-01-01

292

Probing Baryogenesis with Displaced Vertices at the LHC  

E-print Network

The generation of the asymmetric cosmic baryon abundance requires a departure from thermal equilibrium in the early universe. In a large class of baryogenesis models, the baryon asymmetry results from the out-of-equilibrium decay of a new, massive particle. We highlight that in the interesting scenario where this particle has a weak scale mass, this out-of-equilibrium condition requires a proper decay length larger than O(1) mm. Such new fields are within reach of the LHC, at which they can be pair produced leaving a distinctive, displaced-vertex signature. This scenario is realized in the recently proposed mechanism of baryogenesis where the baryon asymmetry is produced through the freeze-out and subsequent decay of a meta-stable weakly interacting massive particle ("WIMP baryogenesis"). In analogy to missing energy searches for WIMP dark matter, the LHC is an excellent probe of these new long-lived particles responsible for baryogenesis via the low-background displaced vertex channel. In our paper, we estimate the limits on simplified models inspired by WIMP baryogenesis from two of the most sensitive collider searches by CMS and ATLAS with 8 TeV LHC data. We also estimate the LHC reach at 13 TeV using current strategies, and demonstrate that up to a factor of 100 improvement in cross-section limits can be achieved by requiring two displaced vertices while lowering kinematic thresholds. For meta-stable WIMPs produced through electroweak interactions, the high luminosity LHC is sensitive to masses up to 2.5 TeV for lifetimes around 1 cm, while for singlets pair-produced through the off-shell-Higgs portal, the LHC is sensitive to production cross sections of O(10) ab for benchmark masses around 150 GeV. Our analysis and proposals also generally apply to displaced vertex signatures from other new physics such as hidden valley models, twin Higgs models and displaced supersymmetry.

Yanou Cui; Brian Shuve

2015-01-06

293

Patterns of fault displacement and strain at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is the sole candidate site for underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The mountain is composed of Tertiary (12.8-11.6 Ma) volcanic tuff, cut by west-dipping normal faults that divide the mountain into north-trending, east-dipping cuestas. Geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on mapping lithostratigraphic units, faults (including single plane, small-displacement surfaces of discontinuity, and large-displacement fault zones), and fractures (quasi-planar zones that have experienced loss of cohesion, including joints, partially mineralized joints, veins, and small-displacement faults). Faults and fractures are important to repository design because they affect seismic hazard, rockfall, and fluid transmissivity in the surrounding rock mass. Geologic maps and detailed studies of rock pavements and tunnel walls reveal that faults and fractures within Yucca Mountain are not uniform in orientation or intensity. We investigate two aspects of distributed deformation arising from fault displacement patterns at Yucca Mountain. First, fault-parallel strains (elongation parallel to cutoff lines where stratigraphic horizons intersect fault planes) develop as a result of lateral fault displacement gradients. Using existing data, we analyze the likely state of strain in fault blocks at Yucca Mountain. Second, fault-strike-perpendicular strains can develop where two normal faults propagate past each other. A component of the total strain is distributed into the surrounding rock to produce synthetic layer dip or a network of smaller faults and fractures. We find that small-scale faulting and fracturing at Yucca Mountain is variable and is strongly controlled by larger scale fault system architecture.

Morris, Alan P.; Ferrill, David A.; Sims, Darrell W.; Franklin, Nathan; Waiting, Deborah J.

2004-09-01

294

Probing baryogenesis with displaced vertices at the LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of the asymmetric cosmic baryon abundance requires a departure from thermal equilibrium in the early universe. In a large class of baryogenesis models, the baryon asymmetry results from the out-of-equilibrium decay of a new, massive particle. We highlight that in the interesting scenario where this particle has a weak scale mass, this out-of-equilibrium condition requires a proper decay length larger than O(1) mm. Such new fields are within reach of the LHC, at which they can be pair produced leaving a distinctive, displaced-vertex signature. This scenario is realized in the recently proposed mechanism of baryogenesis where the baryon asymmetry is produced through the freeze-out and subsequent decay of a meta-stable weakly interacting massive particle ("WIMP baryogenesis"). In analogy to missing energy searches for WIMP dark matter, the LHC is an excellent probe of these new long-lived particles responsible for baryogenesis via the low-background displaced vertex channel. In our paper, we estimate the limits on simplified models inspired by WIMP baryogenesis from two of the most sensitive collider searches by CMS and ATLAS with 8 TeV LHC data. We also estimate the LHC reach at 13 TeV using current strategies, and demonstrate that up to a factor of 100 improvement in cross-section limits can be achieved by requiring two displaced vertices while lowering kinematic thresholds. For meta-stable WIMPs produced through electroweak interactions, the high luminosity LHC is sensitive to masses up to 2.5 TeV for lifetimes around 1 cm, while for singlets pair-produced through the off-shell-Higgs portal, the LHC is sensitive to production cross sections of O(10) ab for benchmark masses around 150 GeV. Our analysis and proposals also generally apply to displaced vertex signatures from other new physics such as hidden valley models, twin Higgs models and displaced supersymmetry.

Cui, Yanou; Shuve, Brian

2015-02-01

295

Fault displacement hazard for strike-slip faults  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper we present a methodology, data, and regression equations for calculating the fault rupture hazard at sites near steeply dipping, strike-slip faults. We collected and digitized on-fault and off-fault displacement data for 9 global strikeslip earthquakes ranging from moment magnitude M 6.5 to M 7.6 and supplemented these with displacements from 13 global earthquakes compiled byWesnousky (2008), who considers events up to M 7.9. Displacements on the primary fault fall off at the rupture ends and are often measured in meters, while displacements on secondary (offfault) or distributed faults may measure a few centimeters up to more than a meter and decay with distance from the rupture. Probability of earthquake rupture is less than 15% for cells 200 m??200 m and is less than 2% for 25 m??25 m cells at distances greater than 200mfrom the primary-fault rupture. Therefore, the hazard for off-fault ruptures is much lower than the hazard near the fault. Our data indicate that rupture displacements up to 35cm can be triggered on adjacent faults at distances out to 10kmor more from the primary-fault rupture. An example calculation shows that, for an active fault which has repeated large earthquakes every few hundred years, fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in the design of structures or lifelines that are located near the principal fault, within about 150 m of well-mapped active faults with a simple trace and within 300 m of faults with poorly defined or complex traces.

Petersen, M.D.; Dawson, T.E.; Chen, R.; Cao, T.; Wills, C.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Frankel, A.D.

2011-01-01

296

Development and Evolution of Character Displacement  

PubMed Central

Character displacement occurs when competition for either resources or successful reproduction imposes divergent selection on interacting species, causing divergence in traits associated with resource use or reproduction. Here, we describe how character displacement can be mediated either by genetically canalized changes (i.e., changes that reflect allelic or genotype frequency changes) or by phenotypic plasticity. We also discuss how these two mechanisms influence the tempo of character displacement. Specifically, we suggest that, under some conditions, character displacement mediated by phenotypic plasticity might occur more rapidly than that mediated by genetically canalized changes. Finally, we describe how these two mechanisms may act together and determine character displacement’s mode, such that it proceeds through an initial phase in which trait divergence is environmentally induced to a later phase in which divergence becomes genetically canalized. This plasticity-first hypothesis predicts that character displacement should be generally mediated by ancestral plasticity and that it will arise similarly in multiple, independently evolving populations. We conclude by highlighting future directions for research that would test these predictions. PMID:22257002

Pfennig, David W.; Pfennig, Karin S.

2012-01-01

297

Efficiency Improvements to the Displacement Based Multilevel Structural Optimization Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilevel Structural Optimization (MSO) continues to be an area of research interest in engineering optimization. In the present project, the weight optimization of beams and trusses using Displacement based Multilevel Structural Optimization (DMSO), a member of the MSO set of methodologies, is investigated. In the DMSO approach, the optimization task is subdivided into a single system and multiple subsystems level optimizations. The system level optimization minimizes the load unbalance resulting from the use of displacement functions to approximate the structural displacements. The function coefficients are then the design variables. Alternately, the system level optimization can be solved using the displacements themselves as design variables, as was shown in previous research. Both approaches ensure that the calculated loads match the applied loads. In the subsystems level, the weight of the structure is minimized using the element dimensions as design variables. The approach is expected to be very efficient for large structures, since parallel computing can be utilized in the different levels of the problem. In this paper, the method is applied to a one-dimensional beam and a large three-dimensional truss. The beam was tested to study possible simplifications to the system level optimization. In previous research, polynomials were used to approximate the global nodal displacements. The number of coefficients of the polynomials equally matched the number of degrees of freedom of the problem. Here it was desired to see if it is possible to only match a subset of the degrees of freedom in the system level. This would lead to a simplification of the system level, with a resulting increase in overall efficiency. However, the methods tested for this type of system level simplification did not yield positive results. The large truss was utilized to test further improvements in the efficiency of DMSO. In previous work, parallel processing was applied to the subsystems level, where the derivative verification feature of the optimizer NPSOL had been utilized in the optimizations. This resulted in large runtimes. In this paper, the optimizations were repeated without using the derivative verification, and the results are compared to those from the previous work. Also, the optimizations were run on both, a network of SUN workstations using the MPICH implementation of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and on the faster Beowulf cluster at ICASE, NASA Langley Research Center, using the LAM implementation of UP]. The results on both systems were consistent and showed that it is not necessary to verify the derivatives and that this gives a large increase in efficiency of the DMSO algorithm.

Plunkett, C. L.; Striz, A. G.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

2001-01-01

298

Atomic Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection provides a basic introduction to Atomic Physics. It reviews the building blocks of atomic structure, explores atomic isotopes, explains Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, and introduces the various types of radiation.

Christopher Griffith

299

Atomic-orbital close-coupling calculations for collisions involving fusion relevant highly charged impurity ions using very large basis sets  

SciTech Connect

The atomic-orbital close-coupling formalism is a well-known method for the semiclassical treatment of ion-atom collisions. Cross sections for these kinds of collisions are mainly needed in the analysis of certain spectroscopic data from nuclear fusion experiments as well as astrophysical data. We shall outline how the computational implementation can be improved in such a way that collisions involving heavy, highly charged impurity ions, such as Ar{sup 18+} can be treated. Furthermore we show and discuss exemplary results.

Igenbergs, Katharina; Wallerberger, Markus; Schweinzer, Josef; Aumayr, Friedrich [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr.8-10/134, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Max-Planck-Institute of Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr.2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr.8-10/134, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

2012-05-25

300

Probing neutrino mass with displaced vertices at the Fermilab Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model exhibiting bilinear R-parity violation can generate naturally the observed neutrino mass spectrum as well as mixings. One interesting feature of these scenarios is that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) is unstable, with several of its decay properties predicted in terms of neutrino mixing angles. A smoking gun of this model in colliders is the presence of displaced vertices due to LSP decays in large parts of the parameter space. In this work we focus on the simplest model of this type that comes from minimal supergravity with universal R-parity conserving soft breaking of supersymmetry augmented with bilinear R-parity breaking terms at the electroweak scale (RmSUGRA). We evaluate the potential of the Fermilab Tevatron to probe the RmSUGRA parameters through the analysis of events possessing two displaced vertices stemming from LSP decays. We show that requiring two displaced vertices in the events leads to a reach in m{sub 1/2} twice the one in the usual multilepton signals in a large fraction of the parameter space.

Campos, F. de [Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Guaratingueta-SP (Brazil); Eboli, O.J.P.; Magro, M.B. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Porod, W. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitat Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Restrepo, D. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Valle, J.W.F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2005-04-01

301

Atomic Structure: Investigating Atoms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of three Science Objects in the Atomic Structure SciPack. It discusses the

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

302

Disappearing charged tracks in association with displaced leptons from supersymmetry  

E-print Network

In this note we discuss a characteristic collider signature of models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking in which the selectron and smuon are mass-degenerate co-NLSP. In these models, all processes involving superpartners give rise to two NLSP selectrons or smuons, each of which subsequently decays to a nearly massless LSP gravitino and an electron or a muon. In a large region of the parameter space, the NLSPs travel macroscopic distances, of the order 0.1-1000 mm, before they decay. Hence, these models give rise to collider signatures involving charged tracks that end at vertices, which are inside the detector volume but displaced with respect to the original collision point, from which an electron or a muon is emitted. In order to probe this class of models we propose a search for disappearing charged tracks in association with displaced electrons or muons.

Christoffer Petersson

2014-11-03

303

Earthquake-induced soil displacements and their impact on rehabilitations.  

PubMed

A large earthquake can trigger long lasting geotechnical problems, which pose serious issues on both rehabilitations and land conservations. Therefore one of what required of us is to deduce as much hidden signs as possible from observable changes of landforms. Though serious, damage caused by the October 23rd 2004, Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake has given us a rare opportunity to study the landform changes in mountainous terrain hit by this earthquake. An attempt was made to convert changes in elevation in Eulerian description for images obtained from remote-sensing technologies to Lagrangian displacements, because Lagrangian displacements can directly describe behaviors of soils, which are typically history-dependent. This paper documents some big pictures of earthquake-inflicted landform changes obtained through this attempt. PMID:21986310

Konagai, Kazuo

2011-01-01

304

Earthquake-induced soil displacements and their impact on rehabilitations  

PubMed Central

A large earthquake can trigger long lasting geotechnical problems, which pose serious issues on both rehabilitations and land conservations. Therefore one of what required of us is to deduce as much hidden signs as possible from observable changes of landforms. Though serious, damage caused by the October 23rd 2004, Mid-Niigata Prefecture Earthquake has given us a rare opportunity to study the landform changes in mountainous terrain hit by this earthquake. An attempt was made to convert changes in elevation in Eulerian description for images obtained from remote-sensing technologies to Lagrangian displacements, because Lagrangian displacements can directly describe behaviors of soils, which are typically history-dependent. This paper documents some big pictures of earthquake-inflicted landform changes obtained through this attempt. PMID:21986310

KONAGAI, Kazuo

2011-01-01

305

Hirshfeld atom refinement  

PubMed Central

Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly–l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295?K, using Hartree–Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints – even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295?K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu’s), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2?csu’s. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009?Å for temperatures of 150?K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006?Å2 as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements – an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65?Å. PMID:25295177

Capelli, Silvia C.; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

2014-01-01

306

Theory of multicomponent gas/oil displacements  

SciTech Connect

Chromatographic separations that occur during two-phase flow in a porous medium are analyzed for one-dimensional, dispersion-free displacement of a liquid hydrocarbon mixture (oil) by a vapor phase mixture (gas). The authors show that displacement behavior is controlled by a set of key equilibrium the lines, all of which are determined by geometric constructions in composition space: two of the key tie lines are those that extend through the initial oil and injection gas compositions, and the remainder are tie lines that are located at intersections of ruled surfaces of tie lines. Very efficient displacement of oil by gas results if any of the key tie lines is a critical tie line. That high displacement efficiency is the basis of so-called miscible gas injection processes for enhanced oil recovery.

Orr, F.M. Jr.; Dindoruk, B.; Johns, R.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

1995-08-01

307

Micrograting Displacement Sensor with Integrated Electrostatic Actuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution micro-grating displacement sensor with diffraction-based and integrated electrostatic actuation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The Al reflecting membrane is fabricated at the bottom of a silicon moving part and the Au micro-gratings are patterned on a transparent substrate. This structure forms a phase sensitive diffraction grating, providing the displacement sensitivity of the micro-grating interferometer. It shows sensitivity adjustment and self-calibration capabilities with electrostatic actuation. Additional system components include a coherent light source, photodiodes, and required electronics. Experimental results show that the displacement sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.8 mV/nm and a resolution of less than 1 nm in the linear region. This displacement sensor is very promising in the fields requiring high sensitivity, broad dynamic range, and immunity to electromagnetic interference.

Yao, Bao-Yin; Feng, Li-Shuang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Wei-Fang; Liu, Mei-Hua

2014-07-01

308

Air Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits  

E-print Network

may (1) produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions when powered by electricity instead of gasoline gasoline prices, low- emissAir Emissions and Oil Displacement Benefits from Plug-in Vehicles The electrification of passenger

Michalek, Jeremy J.

309

Nano-displacement sensor based on photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer.  

PubMed

A stable nano-displacement sensor based on large mode area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) modal interferometer is presented. The compact setup requires simple splicing of a small piece of PCF with a single mode fiber (SMF). The excitation and recombination of modes is carried out in a single splice. The use of a reflecting target creates an extra cavity that discretizes the interference pattern of the mode interferometer, boosting the displacement resolution to nanometer level. The proposed modal interferometric based displacement sensor is highly stable and shows sensitivity of 32??pm/nm. PMID:25680126

Dash, Jitendra Narayan; Jha, Rajan; Villatoro, Joel; Dass, Sumit

2015-02-15

310

PDT - PARTICLE DISPLACEMENT TRACKING SOFTWARE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative velocity measurement technique for measuring instantaneous planar cross sections of a flow field. The technique offers very high precision (1%) directionally resolved velocity vector estimates, but its use has been limited by high equipment costs and complexity of operation. Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT) is an all-electronic PIV data acquisition and reduction procedure which is simple, fast, and easily implemented. The procedure uses a low power, continuous wave laser and a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera to electronically record the particle images. A frame grabber board in a PC is used for data acquisition and reduction processing. PDT eliminates the need for photographic processing, system costs are moderately low, and reduced data are available within seconds of acquisition. The technique results in velocity estimate accuracies on the order of 5%. The software is fully menu-driven from the acquisition to the reduction and analysis of the data. Options are available to acquire a single image or 5- or 25-field series of images separated in time by multiples of 1/60 second. The user may process each image, specifying its boundaries to remove unwanted glare from the periphery and adjusting its background level to clearly resolve the particle images. Data reduction routines determine the particle image centroids and create time history files. PDT then identifies the velocity vectors which describe the particle movement in the flow field. Graphical data analysis routines are included which allow the user to graph the time history files and display the velocity vector maps, interpolated velocity vector grids, iso-velocity vector contours, and flow streamlines. The PDT data processing software is written in FORTRAN 77 and the data acquisition routine is written in C-Language for 80386-based IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS v3.0 or higher. Machine requirements include 4 MB RAM (3 MB Extended), a single or multiple frequency RGB monitor (EGA or better), a math co-processor, and a pointing device. The printers supported by the graphical analysis routines are the HP Laserjet+, Series II, and Series III with at least 1.5 MB memory. The data acquisition routines require the EPIX 4-MEG video board and optional 12.5MHz oscillator, and associated EPIX software. Data can be acquired from any CCD or RS-170 compatible video camera with pixel resolution of 600hX400v or better. PDT is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. Due to the use of required proprietary software, executable code is not provided on the distribution media. Compiling the source code requires the Microsoft C v5.1 compiler, Microsoft QuickC v2.0, the Microsoft Mouse Library, EPIX Image Processing Libraries, the Microway NDP-Fortran-386 v2.1 compiler, and the Media Cybernetics HALO Professional Graphics Kernal System. Due to the complexities of the machine requirements, COSMIC strongly recommends the purchase and review of the documentation prior to the purchase of the program. The source code, and sample input and output files are provided in PKZIP format; the PKUNZIP utility is included. PDT was developed in 1990. All trade names used are the property of their respective corporate owners.

Wernet, M. P.

1994-01-01

311

Theory of multicomponent gas\\/oil displacements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatographic separations that occur during two-phase flow in a porous medium are analyzed for one-dimensional, dispersion-free displacement of a liquid hydrocarbon mixture (oil) by a vapor phase mixture (gas). The authors show that displacement behavior is controlled by a set of key equilibrium the lines, all of which are determined by geometric constructions in composition space: two of the key

Franklin M. Orr; Birol Dindoruk; Russell T. Johns

1995-01-01

312

40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. 86.419-78...Provisions § 86.419-78 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using...

2010-07-01

313

24 CFR 882.810 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...Homeless Individuals § 882.810 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. (1) Consistent with the...

2011-04-01

314

40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. 86.419-2006...Provisions § 86.419-2006 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using...

2011-07-01

315

24 CFR 583.310 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...Program Requirements § 583.310 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2010-04-01

316

20 CFR 218.30 - Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. 218.30...Beginning Date § 218.30 Separation, displacement or dismissal allowance. (a) General...an employee receives a separation, displacement or dismissal allowance from...

2011-04-01

317

7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944.667...Grants § 1944.667 Relocation and displacement. (a) Relocation. ...costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement. The applicant shall include...

2010-01-01

318

24 CFR 886.138 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.138 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2011-04-01

319

10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Exchanges by displacement. 590.209 Section 590.209...Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the...

2010-01-01

320

40 CFR 86.419-78 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. 86.419-78...Provisions § 86.419-78 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using...

2011-07-01

321

24 CFR 92.353 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...Federal Requirements § 92.353 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2011-04-01

322

24 CFR 583.310 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...Program Requirements § 583.310 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2011-04-01

323

40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. 86.419-2006...Provisions § 86.419-2006 Engine displacement, motorcycle classes. (a)(1) Engine displacement shall be calculated using...

2010-07-01

324

7 CFR 1944.667 - Relocation and displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Relocation and displacement. 1944.667 Section 1944.667...Grants § 1944.667 Relocation and displacement. (a) Relocation. ...costs proposed to be allowed. (b) Displacement. The applicant shall include...

2011-01-01

325

10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Exchanges by displacement. 590.209 Section 590.209...Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the...

2011-01-01

326

24 CFR 236.1001 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...Relocation Assistance § 236.1001 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2011-04-01

327

24 CFR 941.207 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...Program Requirements § 941.207 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2011-04-01

328

24 CFR 886.338 - Displacement, relocation, and acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement, relocation, and acquisition...HUD-Owned Projects § 886.338 Displacement, relocation, and acquisition. (a) Minimizing displacement. Consistent with the other...

2011-04-01

329

5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Notification of displaced employees. 330.706 Section 330...Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of §...

2010-01-01

330

Dependence of radiation damage accumulation in iron on underlying models of displacement cascades and subsequent defect migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groups of displacement cascades calculated independently with different simulation models and computer codes are compared on a statistical basis. The parameters used for this comparison are the number of Frenkel pairs (FP) produced, the percentages of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in clusters, the spatial extent and the aspect ratio of the vacancies and the SIAs formed in each cascade. One group of cascades was generated in the binary collision approximation (BCA) and all others by full molecular dynamics (MD). The MD results differ primarily due to the empirical interatomic potentials used and, to some extent, in code strategies. Cascades were generated in simulation boxes at different initial equilibrium temperatures. Only modest differences in the predicted numbers of FP are observed, but the other cascade parameters may differ by more than 100%. The consequences of these differences on long-term cluster growth in a radiation environment are examined by means of object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations. These were repeated with three different parameterizations of SIA and SIA cluster mobility. The differences encompassed low to high mobility, one- and three-dimensional migration of clusters, and complete immobility of large clusters. The OKMC evolution was followed until 0.1 dpa was reached. With the range of OKMC parameters used, cluster populations after 0.1 dpa differ by orders of magnitude. Using the groups of cascades from different sources induced no difference larger than a factor of 2 in the OKMC results. No correlation could be identified between the cascade parameters considered and the number densities of vacancies and SIAs predicted by OKMC to cluster in the long term. However, use of random point defect distributions instead of those obtained for displacement cascades as input for the OKMC modeling led to significantly different results. It is therefore suggested that although the displacement cascade characteristics considered do not correlate with cluster populations in the long term, other aspects of the internal structure of cascades do.

Souidi, A.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.; Terentyev, D.; Malerba, L.; Calder, A. F.; Bacon, D. J.; Stoller, R. E.; Osetsky, Yu. N.; Hou, M.

2006-09-01

331

Small-displacement measurements using high-order Hermite-Gauss modes  

SciTech Connect

We present a scheme for small-displacement measurements using high-order Hermite-Gauss modes and balanced homodyne detection. We demonstrate its use with experimental results of displacement measurements using fundamental transverse mode TEM{sub 00} and first order transverse mode TEM{sub 10} as signal modes. The results show a factor of 1.41 improvement in measurement precision with the TEM{sub 10} mode compared with that with the TEM{sub 00} mode. This scheme has potential applications in precision metrology, atomic force microscopy, and optical imaging.

Sun, Hengxin; Liu, Kui; Liu, Zunlong; Guo, Pengliang; Zhang, Junxiang; Gao, Jiangrui, E-mail: jrgao@sxu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

2014-03-24

332

Atomic Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students explore the structure and properties of atoms. They construct models of atoms with properties of particular mass and charge; create models of atoms with different stabilities by adding or subtracting neutrons, protons, and electrons to a model atom; and determine that the same element may have varying number of neutrons and these form isotopes.Students will be able to:

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

333

Atom Chips  

E-print Network

Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

Ron Folman; Peter Krüger; Donatella Cassettari; Björn Hessmo; Thomas Maier; Jörg Schmiedmayer

1999-12-23

334

Effect of Shear Displacement Rate on the Internal Shear Strength of GCLs J. S. McCartney1  

E-print Network

1 Effect of Shear Displacement Rate on the Internal Shear Strength of GCLs J. S. McCartney1 , J. G A series of large-scale direct shear strength tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of shear displacement rate on the internal shear strength of reinforced GCLs. Specifically, the tests were conducted

Zornberg, Jorge G.

335

Corporate Restructuring, Downsizing, and the Middle Class: The Process and Meaning of Worker Displacement in the “New” Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article conceptualizes, describes, and analyzes the phenomenon of corporate downsizing and the experience of worker displacement as a process of work and employment change that occurs within the context of structural changes in the economy, large firms and labor markets. The research is based on a case study of displaced IBM computer and Link aerospace workers in Binghamton, New

Charles Koeber

2002-01-01

336

Atom Interferometers  

E-print Network

Interference with atomic and molecular matter waves is a rich branch of atomic physics and quantum optics. It started with atom diffraction from crystal surfaces and the separated oscillatory fields technique used in atomic clocks. Atom interferometry is now reaching maturity as a powerful art with many applications in modern science. In this review we first describe the basic tools for coherent atom optics including diffraction by nanostructures and laser light, three-grating interferometers, and double wells on AtomChips. Then we review scientific advances in a broad range of fields that have resulted from the application of atom interferometers. These are grouped in three categories: (1) fundamental quantum science, (2) precision metrology and (3) atomic and molecular physics. Although some experiments with Bose Einstein condensates are included, the focus of the review is on linear matter wave optics, i.e. phenomena where each single atom interferes with itself.

Alexander D. Cronin; Joerg Schmiedmayer; David E. Pritchard

2007-12-21

337

cif core.dic 1 ATOM SITE Dictionary name: cif core.dic  

E-print Network

cif core.dic 1 ATOM SITE Dictionary name: cif core.dic Dictionary version: 2.2 Dictionary last updated: 2001-01-11 Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã? Data items in the ATOM SITE category record details about the atom sites in a crystal structure, such as the positional coordinates, atomic displacement parameters, magnetic mo- ments

Meagher, Mary

338

Implementation of 3D spatial indexing and compression in a large-scale molecular dynamics simulation database for rapid atomic contact detection  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer the ability to observe the dynamics and interactions of both whole macromolecules and individual atoms as a function of time. Taken in context with experimental data, atomic interactions from simulation provide insight into the mechanics of protein folding, dynamics, and function. The calculation of atomic interactions or contacts from an MD trajectory is computationally demanding and the work required grows exponentially with the size of the simulation system. We describe the implementation of a spatial indexing algorithm in our multi-terabyte MD simulation database that significantly reduces the run-time required for discovery of contacts. The approach is applied to the Dynameomics project data. Spatial indexing, also known as spatial hashing, is a method that divides the simulation space into regular sized bins and attributes an index to each bin. Since, the calculation of contacts is widely employed in the simulation field, we also use this as the basis for testing compression of data tables. We investigate the effects of compression of the trajectory coordinate tables with different options of data and index compression within MS SQL SERVER 2008. Results Our implementation of spatial indexing speeds up the calculation of contacts over a 1 nanosecond (ns) simulation window by between 14% and 90% (i.e., 1.2 and 10.3 times faster). For a 'full' simulation trajectory (51 ns) spatial indexing reduces the calculation run-time between 31 and 81% (between 1.4 and 5.3 times faster). Compression resulted in reduced table sizes but resulted in no significant difference in the total execution time for neighbour discovery. The greatest compression (~36%) was achieved using page level compression on both the data and indexes. Conclusions The spatial indexing scheme significantly decreases the time taken to calculate atomic contacts and could be applied to other multidimensional neighbor discovery problems. The speed up enables on-the-fly calculation and visualization of contacts and rapid cross simulation analysis for knowledge discovery. Using page compression for the atomic coordinate tables and indexes saves ~36% of disk space without any significant decrease in calculation time and should be considered for other non-transactional databases in MS SQL SERVER 2008. PMID:21831299

2011-01-01

339

Two-dimensional simulations of displacement accumulation incorporating shear strain.  

PubMed

Using ultrasound images to track large tissue deformations usually requires breaking up the deformation into steps and then summing the resulting displacement estimates. The accumulated displacement estimation error therefore depends not only on the error in each step but also on the statistical relationships between estimation steps. These relationships have not been thoroughly studied. Building on previous work with one-dimensional (1-D) simulations, the work reported here measured error variance for single-step and accumulated displacement estimates using two-dimensional (2-D) numerical simulations of ultrasound echo signals, subjected to both normal and axial shear strain as well as electronic noise. Previous results from 1-D simulations were confirmed, showing that errors due to electronic noise are negatively correlated between steps and accumulate slowly, while errors due to strain are positively correlated and accumulate quickly. These properties hold for both normal and axial shear strain. An analysis of 2-D kernel size for tissue under normal and axial shear strain was also performed. Under axial shear strain, error variance tends to increase with larger lateral kernel sizes but decrease for larger axial kernel sizes; the opposite relationship holds under normal strain. A combination of these two types of strain limits the practical kernel size in both dimensions. PMID:24275539

Bayer, Matthew; Hall, Timothy J; Neves, Lucio P; Carneiro, A A O

2014-01-01

340

Atom-by-atom assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic manipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip enables the construction of quantum structures on an atom-by-atom basis, as well as the investigation of the electronic and dynamical properties of individual atoms on a one-atom-at-a-time basis. An STM is not only an instrument that is used to ‘see’ individual atoms by means of imaging, but is also a tool that is used to ‘touch’ and ‘take’ the atoms, or to ‘hear’ their movements. Therefore, the STM can be considered as the ‘eyes’, ‘hands’ and ‘ears’ of the scientists, connecting our macroscopic world to the exciting atomic world. In this article, various STM atom manipulation schemes and their example applications are described. The future directions of atomic level assembly on surfaces using scanning probe tips are also discussed.

Hla, Saw Wai

2014-05-01

341

Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery research is conducted by the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center to advance the application of miscible carbon dioxide flooding. This research is an integral part of a multidisciplinary effort to improve the technology for producing additional oil from US resources. This report summarizes the problems of the technology and the 1986 results of the ongoing research that was conducted to solve those problems. Poor reservoir volumetric sweep efficiency is the major problem associated with gas flooding and all miscible displacements. This problem results from the channeling and viscous fingering that occur due to the large differences between viscosity or density of the displacing and displaced fluids (i.e., carbon dioxide and oil, respectively). Simple modeling and core flooding studies indicate that, because of differences in fluid viscosities, breakthrough can occur after only 30% of the total pore volume (PV) of the rock has been injected with gas, while field tests have shown breakthrough occurring much earlier. The differences in fluid densities lead to gravity segregation. The lower density carbon dioxide tends to override the residual fluids in the reservoir. This process would be considerably more efficient if a larger area of the reservoir could be contacted by the gas. Current research has focused on the mobility control, computer simulation, and reservoir heterogeneity studies. Three mobility control methods have been investigated: (1) the use of polymers for direct thickening of high-density carbon dioxide, (2) mobile ''foam-like dispersions'' of carbon dioxide and an aqueous surfactant, and (3) in situ deposition of chemical precipitates. 22 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1986-10-01

342

Ultra-Sensitive Magnetoresistive Displacement Sensing Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasensitive displacement sensing device for use in accelerometers, pressure gauges, temperature transducers, and the like, comprises a sputter deposited, multilayer, magnetoresistive field sensor with a variable electrical resistance based on an imposed magnetic field. The device detects displacement by sensing changes in the local magnetic field about the magnetoresistive field sensor caused by the displacement of a hard magnetic film on a movable microstructure. The microstructure, which may be a cantilever, membrane, bridge, or other microelement, moves under the influence of an acceleration a known displacement predicted by the configuration and materials selected, and the resulting change in the electrical resistance of the MR sensor can be used to calculate the displacement. Using a micromachining approach, very thin silicon and silicon nitride membranes are fabricated in one preferred embodiment by means of anisotropic etching of silicon wafers. Other approaches include reactive ion etching of silicon on insulator (SOI), or Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of silicon nitride films over silicon substrates. The device is found to be improved with the use of giant magnetoresistive elements to detect changes in the local magnetic field.

Olivas, John D. (Inventor); Lairson, Bruce M. (Inventor); Ramesham, Rajeshuni (Inventor)

2003-01-01

343

Molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in metallic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Molecular Dynamics Computer Simulations to investigate defect production induced by energetic displacement cascades up to 10 keV in pure metals (Cu, Ni) and in ordered intermetallic alloys NiAl, Ni 3Al. Various model potentials were employed to describe the many-body nature of the interactions: the RGL (Rosato-Guillope-Legrand) model was used in pure Cu and Ni simulations; the modified version of the Vitek, Ackland and Cserti potentials (due to Gao, Bacon and Ackland) in Ni 3Al and the EAM potentials of Foiles and Daw modified by Rubini and Ballone in NiAl, Ni 3Al were used in alloy simulations. Atomic mixing and disordering were studied into details owing to imaging techniques and determined at different phases of the cascades. Some mixing mechanisms were identified. Our results were compared with existing data and those obtained by similar Molecular Dynamics Simulations available in the literature.

Doan, N. V.; Tietze, H.

1995-08-01

344

Single- and Multi-Frequency Detection of Surface Displacements via Scanning Probe Microscopy.  

PubMed

Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) provides a novel opportunity to detect picometer-level displacements induced by an electric field applied through a conducting tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Recently, it was discovered that superb vertical sensitivity provided by PFM is high enough to monitor electric-field-induced ionic displacements in solids, the technique being referred to as electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). ESM has been implemented only in multi-frequency detection modes such as dual AC resonance tracking (DART) and band excitation, where the response is recorded within a finite frequency range, typically around the first contact resonance. In this paper, we analyze and compare signal-to-noise ratios of the conventional single-frequency method with multi-frequency regimes of measuring surface displacements. Single-frequency detection ESM is demonstrated using a commercial AFM. PMID:25555020

Romanyuk, Konstantin; Luchkin, Sergey Yu; Ivanov, Maxim; Kalinin, Arseny; Kholkin, Andrei L

2015-02-01

345

Rhetorics of Displacement: Constructing Identities in Forced Relocations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forced displacement has often involved the use of rhetoric, both by government institutions and by people who struggle not only to survive displacement, but also to resist it. In this article, the author offers first a theoretical framework that informs her thinking about displacement narratives. She briefly examines two published displacement

Powell, Katrina M.

2012-01-01

346

Do you believe that atoms stay in place when you observe them in HREM?  

PubMed

Recent advancements in aberration-corrected electron microscopy allow for an evaluation of unexpectedly large atom displacements beyond a resolution limit of ?0.5 Å, which are found to be dose-rate dependent in high resolution images. In this paper we outline a consistent description of the electron scattering process, which explains these unexpected phenomena. Our approach links thermal diffuse scattering to electron beam-induced object excitation and relaxation processes, which strongly contribute to the image formation process. The effect can provide an explanation for the well-known contrast mismatch ("Stobbs factor") between image calculations and experiments. PMID:25311646

Van Dyck, Dirk; Lobato, Ivan; Chen, Fu-Rong; Kisielowski, Christian

2015-01-01

347

Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

viscosity of 20 cp until water production from the sand pack was essentially KEY TO SCHEMATIC FOR CO2 FLOOD EOUIPMENT FIGURE 1 1. Core 2. Filter 3. Oil Pump 4. Mercury-Antifreeze Vessel 5. Pressure Gauge 6. Oil Reservoir 7. CO2 Source 8... of crude oil displaced from the three sand packs by CO as a function of pressure was essentially the same. For each of the sand packs three regions were recognized. A pressure region of (1) immiscible crude oil displacement, (2) near miscible crude oil...

Omole, Olusegun

1980-01-01

348

Computing Displacements And Strains From Video Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subpixel digital video image correlation (SDVIC) technique for measuring in-plane displacements on surfaces of objects under loads, without contact. Used for analyses of experimental research specimens or actual service structures of virtually any size or material. Only minimal preparation of test objects needed, and no need to isolate test objects from minor vibrations or fluctuating temperatures. Technique implemented by SDVIC software, producing color-graduated, full-field representations of in-plane displacements and partial derivatives with respect to position along both principal directions in each image plane. From representations, linear strains, shear strains, and rotation fields determined. Written in C language.

Russell, Samuel S.; Mcneill, Stephen R.; Lansing, Matthew D.

1996-01-01

349

Effect of Body Mass Index on Intrafraction Prostate Displacement Monitored by Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate, using real-time monitoring of implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafraction prostate displacement of patients as a function of body mass index (BMI). Methods and Materials: The motions of Beacon radiofrequency transponders (Calypso Medical Technologies, Seattle, WA) implanted in the prostate glands of 66 men were monitored throughout the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy. Data were acquired at 10 Hz from setup to the end of treatment, but only the 1.7 million data points with a 'beam on' tag were used in the analysis. There were 21 obese patients, with BMI {>=}30 and 45 nonobese patients in the study. Results: Mean displacements were least in the left-right lateral direction (0.56 {+-} 0.24 mm) and approximately twice that magnitude in the superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions. The net vector displacement was larger still, 1.95 {+-} 0.47 mm. Stratified by BMI cohort, the mean displacements per patient in the 3 Cartesian axes as well as the net vector for patients with BMI {>=}30 were slightly less (<0.2 mm) but not significantly different than the corresponding values for patients with lower BMIs. As a surrogate for the magnitude of oscillatory noise, the standard deviation for displacements in all measured planes showed no significant differences in the prostate positional variability between the lower and higher BMI groups. Histograms of prostate displacements showed a lower frequency of large displacements in obese patients, and there were no significant differences in short-term and long-term velocity distributions. Conclusions: After patients were positioned accurately using implanted radiofrequency transponders, the intrafractional displacements in the lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions as well as the net vector displacements were smaller, but not significantly so, for obese men than for those with lower BMI.

Butler, Wayne M., E-mail: wbutler@wheelinghospital.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Morris, Mallory N. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States) [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Kurko, Brian S.; Murray, Brian C. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)

2012-10-01

350

Hadronic Atoms  

E-print Network

We review the theory of hadronic atoms in QCD+QED. The non-relativistic effective Lagrangian approach, used to describe this type of bound states, is illustrated with the case of pi+pi- atoms. In addition, we discuss the evaluation of isospin-breaking corrections to hadronic atom observables by invoking chiral perturbation theory.

J. Gasser; V. E. Lyubovitskij; A. Rusetsky

2009-04-09

351

The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks  

PubMed Central

Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals’ understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and thus reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so due to their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply due to the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object’s location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species’ performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641

Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

2014-01-01

352

The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.  

PubMed

Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past. PMID:24611641

Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

2014-08-01

353

Forced and free displacement characterization of ionic polymer transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionic polymer transducers (IPT), sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, are known to generate a large bending strain and a moderate stress at low applied voltages (<5V). Recently Akle and Leo[1] reported extensional actuation in ionic polymer transducers. In this study, extensional IPTs are characterized under forced and free displacement boundary condition as a function of transducer architecture. The electrode thickness is varied from 10 ?m up to 40 ?m while three extensional actuators with Lithium, Cesium, and tetraethylammonium (TEA) mobile cations are characterized. Three fixtures are built in order to characterize the extensional actuation response. The first fixture measures the free displacement of an IPT sample sandwiched between two aluminum plates glued using the electrically conductive silver paste. In the second fixture a spring is compressed against the test sample with variable amounts to generate different levels of pre-stress and prevents the bending of the IPT. In the third fixture dead weights are placed on top of the sample in order to prevent bending. In the spring loaded fixture a thermocouple is placed in the proximity of the actuator and temperature is measured. The different transducers are characterized using a step voltage input and an alternating current (AC) sine wave input. The step input resulted in a logarithmic rise like displacement curve, while the low frequency (<0.1 Hz) AC excitation generated a sine wave displacement response with a strong first harmonic. The high frequency AC excitation generated a response similar to that of the step input. Comparing the measured temperature for step and AC response demonstrated that the sample is heating up when exited with a high frequency signal; which is leading to the expansion of the sample. Initial experimental results demonstrate a strong correlation between electrode architecture and the peak strain response. Strains on the order of 2% are observed with air stable ionic liquid based transducers. A correlation between the strain and charge buildup in the polymer is also characterized. Cesium (Cs) mobile cation outperformed all other tested mobile charges, while Potassium displaced the least. Keywords: Ionic Polymers, Transducer, Actuator, Electroactive Polymer, Extensional Actuator.

Akle, Barbar J.; Duncan, Andrew; Akle, Etienne; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Leo, Donald J.

2009-03-01

354

The Income Losses of Displaced Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use a new, matched worker-firm dataset for the United Kingdom to estimate the income loss resulting from firm closure and mass layoffs. We track workers for up to nine years after the displacement event, and the availability of predisplacement characteristics allows us to implement difference-in-differences estimators using propensity score…

Hijzen, Alexander; Upward, Richard; Wright, Peter W.

2010-01-01

355

Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.

Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.

2000-01-01

356

Ko Displacement Theory for Structural Shape Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of the Ko displacement theory for predictions of structure deformed shapes was motivated in 2003 by the Helios flying wing, which had a 247-ft (75-m) wing span with wingtip deflections reaching 40 ft (12 m). The Helios flying wing failed in midair in June 2003, creating the need to develop new technology to predict in-flight deformed shapes of unmanned aircraft wings for visual display before the ground-based pilots. Any types of strain sensors installed on a structure can only sense the surface strains, but are incapable to sense the overall deformed shapes of structures. After the invention of the Ko displacement theory, predictions of structure deformed shapes could be achieved by feeding the measured surface strains into the Ko displacement transfer functions for the calculations of out-of-plane deflections and cross sectional rotations at multiple locations for mapping out overall deformed shapes of the structures. The new Ko displacement theory combined with a strain-sensing system thus created a revolutionary new structure- shape-sensing technology.

Ko, William L.

2010-01-01

357

Character displacement and the origins of diversity  

PubMed Central

In The Origin of Species, Darwin proposed his ‘principle of divergence of character’ (a process now termed ‘character displacement’) to explain how new species arise and why they differ from one other phenotypically. Darwin maintained that the origin of species, and the evolution of differences between them, is ultimately caused by divergent selection acting to minimize competitive interactions between initially similar individuals, populations, and species. Here, we examine the empirical support for the various claims that constitute Darwin’s principle, specifically that: (1) competition promotes divergent trait evolution; (2) the strength of competitively mediated divergent selection increases with increasing phenotypic similarity between competitors; (3) divergence can occur within species; and (4) competitively mediated divergence can trigger speciation. We also explore aspects that Darwin failed to consider. In particular, we describe how: (1) divergence can arise from selection acting to lessen reproductive interactions; (2) divergence is fueled by the intersection of character displacement and sexual selection; and (3) phenotypic plasticity may play a key role in promoting character displacement. Generally, character displacement is well supported empirically, and it remains a vital explanation for how new species arise and diversify. PMID:21043778

Pfennig, David W.; Pfennig, Karin S.

2012-01-01

358

Retraining Displaced Workers--Barriers and Facilitators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although plant closings and layoffs have been happening for a long time, today's recessions, major changes in the structure of the economy, and a tight job market have combined to make plant closings a more serious problem. Workers are faced with unemployment from both traditional labor-displacing changes, such as the increasing use of robotics;…

Wolansky, William D.

359

ESTIMATION OF DISPLACEMENT LOCATION FOR ENHANCED  

E-print Network

Introduction Ultrasonic elasticity imaging spans a broad range of techniques that process ultrasound signals strain image sequences are analysed to infer material property estimates such as elastic [12, 32] and viscoelastic [2, 10] moduli. The cornerstone of elasticity imaging -- displacement tracking -- is easily

Drummond, Tom

360

ESTIMATION OF DISPLACEMENT LOCATION FOR ENHANCED  

E-print Network

Introduction Ultrasonic elasticity imaging spans a broad range of techniques that process ultrasound signals strain image sequences are analysed to infer material property estimates such as elastic [12, 32] and viscoelastic [2, 10] moduli. The cornerstone of elasticity imaging --- displacement tracking --- is easily

Drummond, Tom

361

Variable-Displacement Hydraulic Drive Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic power controlled through multiple feedback loops. In hydraulic drive unit, power closely matched to demand, thereby saving energy. Hydraulic flow to and from motor adjusted by motor-control valve connected to wobbler. Wobbler angle determines motor-control-valve position, which in turn determines motor displacement. Concept applicable to machine tools, aircraft controls, and marine controls.

Lang, D. J.; Linton, D. J.; Markunas, A.

1986-01-01

362

RECOVERY OF METALS USING ALUMINUM DISPLACEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The removal of typical metals (Cu, Pb, Sn, Ni) from printed circuit and metal finishing waste streams was evaluated using displacement with aluminum. he metal is recovered as non-hazardous metal particles and can be recycled by smelting. n acceptable aluminum metal configuration ...

363

RECOVERY OF METAL USING ALUMINUM DISPLACEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The removal of typical metals (Cu, Pb, Sn, Ni) from printed circuit and metal finishing waste streams was evaluated using displacement with aluminum. he metal is recovered as non-hazardous metal particles and can be recycled by smelting. n acceptable aluminum metal configuration ...

364

Job Displacement and the Rural Worker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High rates of unemployment in rural areas poses questions as what education can do with the problem. This report examines the effects of rural American economies as they grow away from agriculture and toward dependence on manufacturing and service industries. Using data from the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Displaced Worker Survey, the…

Podgursky, Michael

365

Maximizing Displacement: Mass, Volume and Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an indoor lab that uses a boat simulation to demonstrate the concepts of mass, volume and density, and their relationship to displacement. It is a problem solving activity that encourages student creativity resulting in a variety of valid solutions.

366

Ground Displacement by Strike-Slip Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This photograph illustrates strike-slip motion along a fault trace. The section of fence in the foreground has been offset 8.5 feet to the left relative to the segment in the background. The displacement occured in a rural area near Woodville, California, as a result of the San Francisco Earthquake on April 18, 1906.

367

Microstrain in tetragonal lead-zirconate-titanate: The effect of pressure on the ionic displacements  

SciTech Connect

Piezoelectric materials respond to external stimuli by adjusting atomic positions. In solid-solutions, the changes occurring in atomic scale are very complex since the short- and long-range order are different. Standard methods used in diffraction data analysis fail to model the short-range order accurately. Pressure-induced cation displacements in ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.45}Ti{sub 0.55})O{sub 3} perovskite oxide are modeled by starting from a short-range order. We show that the model gives the average structure correctly and properly describes the local structure. The origin of the microstrain in lead zirconate titanate is the spatially varying Zr and Ti concentration and atomic distances, which is taken into account in the simulation. High-pressure neutron powder diffraction and simulation techniques are applied for the determination of atomic positions and bond-valences as a function of pressure. Under hydrostatic pressure, the material loses its piezoelectric properties far before the transition to the cubic phase takes place. The total cation valence +6 is preserved up to 3.31 GPa by compensating the increasing B-cation valence by decreasing Pb-displacement from the high-symmetry position. At 3.31 GPa, Pb-displacement is zero and the material is no more ferroelectric. This is also the pressure at which the Pb-valence is minimized. The average structure is still tetragonal. The model for microstrain predicts that the transition occurs over a finite pressure range: Pb-displacements are spatially varying and follow the distribution of Zr and Ti ions.

Frantti, J., E-mail: Johannes.Frantti@fre.fi; Fujioka, Y. [Finnish Research and Engineering, Jaalaranta 9 B 42, 00180 Helsinki (Finland); Zhang, J.; Zhu, J.; Vogel, S. C.; Zhao, Y. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-08-15

368

Atomistic modeling of displacement cascades in La2Zr2O7 pyrochlore  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical potentials molecular dynamics method was used to simulate the alpha-recoil effects in the lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore La2Zr2O7, at 350 K, where a tetravalent uranium ion was used as the primary knock-on atom with a kinetic energy of 6 keV. The displacement cascades simulations have been carried out along four different crystallographic directions. A detailed analysis indicates that the

Alain Chartier; Constantin Meis; Jean-Paul Crocombette; Louis R. Corrales; William J. Weber

2003-01-01

369

MODERN RESONANT X-RAY STUDIES OF ALLOYS: Local Order and Displacements1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent availability of intense synchrotron sources with selectable X-ray energies permits high-precision measurements of chemically specific atomic-pair correlations in solid-solution alloys. Short-range chemical order can be accurately measured to identify one atom in a 100 for 10 or more shells, even in alloys with elements nearby in the periodic table, and chemically specific static displacements can be measured with 0.0001 nm resolution. This new information tests theoretical models of alloy phase stability and structure and gives new insights into the physical properties of alloys.

Ice, G. E.; Sparks, C. J.

1999-08-01

370

Atom interferometers and atom holography  

SciTech Connect

Various techniques of atom manipulation with a binary hologram are discussed and demonstrated experimentally. An atomic beam of metastable neon in the 1s{sub 3} state and a SiN thin film with holes that expresses the transmission function of the hologram are used to demonstrate this technique. The gray-scale holography of atoms is demonstrated for the first time. Other possibilities of holographic manipulation of atoms are also discussed.

Shimizu, Fujio; Mitake, Satoru [Institute for Laser Science and CREST, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu-shi 182-8585 (Japan); Fujita, Jun-ichi [NEC Fundamental Research Laboratories, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba 305-0841 (Japan); Morinaga, Makoto [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Kishimoto, Tetsuo [Institute for Laser Science and CREST, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu-shi 182-8585 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan)

1999-06-11

371

Simulation of neutron displacement damage in bipolar junction transistors using high-energy heavy ion beams.  

SciTech Connect

Electronic components such as bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are damaged when they are exposed to radiation and, as a result, their performance can significantly degrade. In certain environments the radiation consists of short, high flux pulses of neutrons. Electronics components have traditionally been tested against short neutron pulses in pulsed nuclear reactors. These reactors are becoming less and less available; many of them were shut down permanently in the past few years. Therefore, new methods using radiation sources other than pulsed nuclear reactors needed to be developed. Neutrons affect semiconductors such as Si by causing atomic displacements of Si atoms. The recoiled Si atom creates a collision cascade which leads to displacements in Si. Since heavy ions create similar cascades in Si we can use them to create similar damage to what neutrons create. This LDRD successfully developed a new technique using easily available particle accelerators to provide an alternative to pulsed nuclear reactors to study the displacement damage and subsequent transient annealing that occurs in various transistor devices and potentially qualify them against radiation effects caused by pulsed neutrons.

Doyle, Barney Lee; Buller, Daniel L.; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Fleming, Robert M; Bielejec, Edward Salvador; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy

2006-12-01

372

Electrode system for electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine in a repetitively pulsed oxygen - iodine laser with a large active volume  

SciTech Connect

Possibilities for increasing the active medium volume of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (CCOIL) with a pulsed electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine are studied. The reasons are analysed of the low stability of the transverse self-sustained volume discharge in electrode systems with metal cathodes under the conditions of the electric energy input into gas-discharge plasma that are typical for CCOILs: low pressure of mixtures containing a strongly electronegative component, low voltage of discharge burning, low specific energy depositions, and long duration of the current pulse. An efficient electrode system is elaborated with the cathode based on an anisotropically-resistive material, which resulted in a stable discharge in the mixtures of iodide (CH{sub 3}I, n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I) with oxygen and nitrogen at the specific energy depositions of {approx}5 J L{sup -1}, pressures of 10 - 25 Torr, and mixture volume of 2.5 L. (lasers)

Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-08-03

373

Pulsed focused ultrasound-induced displacements in confined in vitro blood clots.  

PubMed

Ultrasound has been shown to potentiate the effects of tissue plasminogen activator to improve clot lysis in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies as well as in clinical trials. One possible mechanism of action is acoustic radiation force-induced clot displacements. In this study, we investigate the temporal and spatial dynamics of clot displacements and strain initiated by focused ultrasound pulses. Displacements were produced by a 1.51 MHz f-number 1 transducer over a range of acoustic powers (1-85 W) in clots constrained within an agar vessel phantom channel. Displacements were tracked during and after a 5.45 ms therapy pulse using a 20 MHz high-frequency ultrasound imaging probe. Peak thrombus displacements were found to be linear as a function of acoustic power up to 60 W before leveling off near 128 ?m for the highest transmit powers. The time to peak displacement and recovery time of blood clots was largely independent of acoustic powers with measured values near 2 ms. A linear relationship between peak axial strain and transmit power was observed, reaching a peak value of 11% at 35 W. The peak strain occurred ~0.75 mm from the focal zone for all powers investigated in both lateral and axial directions. These results indicate that substantial displacements can be induced by focused ultrasound in confined blood clots, and that the spatial and temporal displacement patterns are complex and highly dependent on exposure conditions, which has implications for future work investigating their link to clot lysis and for developing approaches to exploit these effects. PMID:22194235

Wright, Cameron C; Hynynen, Kullervo; Goertz, David E

2012-03-01

374

Embedded-atom-method effective-pair-interaction study of the structural and thermodynamic properties of Cu-Ni, Cu-Ag, and Au-Ni solid solutions  

SciTech Connect

The structural and thermodynamic properties of Cu-Ni, Cu-Ag, and Au-Ni solid solutions have been studied using a computational approach which combines an embedded-atom-method (EAM) description of alloy energetics with a second-order-expansion (SOE) treatment of compositional and displacive disorder. It is discussed in detail how the SOE approach allows the EAM expression for the energy of a substitutional alloy to be cast in the form of a generalized lattice-gas Hamiltonian containing effective pair interactions with arbitrary range. Furthermore, we show how the SOE-EAM method can be combined with either mean-field or Monte Carlo statistical mechanics techniques in order to calculate short-range-order (SRO) parameters, average nearest-neighbor bond lengths, and alloy thermodynamic properties which include contributions from static displacive relaxations and dynamic atomic vibrations. We demonstrate that the contributions to alloy heats of mixing arising from displacive relaxations can be sizeable, and that the neglect of these terms can lead to large overestimations of calculated phase-transition temperatures. The effects of vibrational free-energy contributions on the results of composition-temperature phase diagram calculations are estimated to be relatively small for the phase-separating alloy systems considered in this study. It is shown that within the SOE approach displacive effects can act only to displace the peak in the Fourier-transformed SRO parameter away from Brillouin-zone-boundary special points and towards the origin. Consistent with this result, we show that the unusual SRO observed in diffuse scattering experiments for Au-Ni solid solutions can be understood as arising from a competition between chemical and displacive driving forces which favor ordering and clustering, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M. [Computational Materials Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 939, MS 9163, Livermore, California 94551-0939 (United States)] [Computational Materials Science Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 939, MS 9163, Livermore, California 94551-0939 (United States)

1996-02-01

375

Mathematic treatment of the miscible displacement problem  

SciTech Connect

Miscible displacement or solvent flooding is the basis of a wide range of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, both thermal and nonthermal. From a mathematic standpoint, it is a difficult problem, and an improper treatment of the miscible phenomena in the simulations of various EOR methods can produce erroneous results. This study points out the difficulties of the problem, in particular for the 2-dimensional case, and then offers recommendations for the solution schemes reviewed in this work. For a 2-dimensional geometry, the miscible displacement problem involves the solution of the combined convective-diffusion and Darcy-continuity equations. This work presents a series of computational examples, showing the importance of the problem, and gives practical guidelines concerning the solution of this important problem, which enters into many recovery simulations.

Farouq.Ali, S.M.; Oguztoreli, M.

1983-01-01

376

Evolution of character displacement in Darwin's finches.  

PubMed

Competitor species can have evolutionary effects on each other that result in ecological character displacement; that is, divergence in resource-exploiting traits such as jaws and beaks. Nevertheless, the process of character displacement occurring in nature, from the initial encounter of competitors to the evolutionary change in one or more of them, has not previously been investigated. Here we report that a Darwin's finch species (Geospiza fortis) on an undisturbed Galápagos island diverged in beak size from a competitor species (G. magnirostris) 22 years after the competitor's arrival, when they jointly and severely depleted the food supply. The observed evolutionary response to natural selection was the strongest recorded in 33 years of study, and close to the value predicted from the high heritability of beak size. These findings support the role of competition in models of community assembly, speciation, and adaptive radiations. PMID:16840700

Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary

2006-07-14

377

Remember Me: Displaced Children of the Holocaust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Holocaust Museum (USHM) has worked on a number of important projects, and this might be one of their most moving. Working with the archives of the World Jewish Congress (WJC), they have digitized approximately 1100 photographs of children who were displaced or orphaned as a result of the persecution carried out by the Nazis and their collaborators. The intent of this project is "to identify these children, piece together information about their wartime and postwar experiences, and facilitate renewed connections among these young survivors, their families, and other individuals who were involved in their care during and after the war." Visitors to the site can browse the photos by name or just by viewing the gallery as they see fit. The site also includes a 1945 BBC radio broadcast seeking relatives of displaced children and a section with updates on the project's progress.

378

Charge-displacement analysis for excited states  

SciTech Connect

We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy) [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)] [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

2014-02-07

379

Theory of multicontact miscible displacement with nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

Analytical solutions for displacement of mixtures of methane, butane and decane by nitrogen or nitrogen/methane mixtures are used to explain conflicting experimental observations concerning the sensitivity of minimum miscibility pressures to changes in the compositions of an initial oil or the injection gas. The solutions presented show why some investigators have reported weak dependence of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) on methane concentrations while others have reported significant sensitivity. The analysis of displacement composition routes indicates that either observation can be correct for some ranges of initial and injection fluid compositions, and shows that the sensitivity behavior depends on the relative positions in composition space of three key tie lines, the initial, injection, and crossover tie lines.

Dindoruk, B.; Orr, F.M. Jr.; Johns, R.T.

1995-12-31

380

Character displacement of Cercopithecini primate visual signals  

PubMed Central

Animal visual signals have the potential to act as an isolating barrier to prevent interbreeding of populations through a role in species recognition. Within communities of competing species, species recognition signals are predicted to undergo character displacement, becoming more visually distinctive from each other, however this pattern has rarely been identified. Using computational face recognition algorithms to model primate face processing, we demonstrate that the face patterns of guenons (tribe: Cercopithecini) have evolved under selection to become more visually distinctive from those of other guenon species with whom they are sympatric. The relationship between the appearances of sympatric species suggests that distinguishing conspecifics from other guenon species has been a major driver of diversification in guenon face appearance. Visual signals that have undergone character displacement may have had an important role in the tribe’s radiation, keeping populations that became geographically separated reproductively isolated on secondary contact. PMID:24967517

Allen, William L.; Stevens, Martin; Higham, James P.

2014-01-01

381

Computing Fault Displacements from Surface Deformations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simplex is a computer program that calculates locations and displacements of subterranean faults from data on Earth-surface deformations. The calculation involves inversion of a forward model (given a point source representing a fault, a forward model calculates the surface deformations) for displacements, and strains caused by a fault located in isotropic, elastic half-space. The inversion involves the use of nonlinear, multiparameter estimation techniques. The input surface-deformation data can be in multiple formats, with absolute or differential positioning. The input data can be derived from multiple sources, including interferometric synthetic-aperture radar, the Global Positioning System, and strain meters. Parameters can be constrained or free. Estimates can be calculated for single or multiple faults. Estimates of parameters are accompanied by reports of their covariances and uncertainties. Simplex has been tested extensively against forward models and against other means of inverting geodetic data and seismic observations. This work

Lyzenga, Gregory; Parker, Jay; Donnellan, Andrea; Panero, Wendy

2006-01-01

382

Study of ultrafine displacements by microdifferential holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a multiplexed form of phase-step interferometry suitable for measuring and mapping deformations at the nanometric and subnanometric level. Differential holograms of an object under stress are obtained by twin exposures sandwiched about a phase shift of (pi) (1 + 2(delta) ) or (pi) (1 - 2(delta) ) radians in the reference wave. Two reference waves are employed, and a conjugate pair of such holograms is recorded simultaneously, with (delta) < < 1, on high-resolution medium. The differential holograms of the pair are read individually. The interferograms reconstructed therefrom, once placed into accurate registration, are electronically reconstituted into an image in which small displacements are mapped linearly into intensity. An improved registration method used in the present work permits us to map displacements smaller than 0.4 nanometer within the optically sparse specimens that we use for calibration.

Sharnoff, Mark; Lin, Hungyi

1992-01-01

383

Wirelessly Interrogated Position or Displacement Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two simple position or displacement sensors based on inductance-capacitance resonant circuits have been conceived. These sensors are both powered and interrogated without use of wires and without making contact with other objects. Instead, excitation and interrogation are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. Both of the present position or displacement sensors consist essentially of variable rectangular parallel-plate capacitors electrically connected in series with fixed inductors. Simple inductance-capacitance circuits of the type used in these sensors are inherently robust; their basic mode of operation does not depend on maintenance of specific environmental conditions. Hence, these sensors can be used under such harsh conditions as cryogenic temperatures, high pressures, and radioactivity.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

2007-01-01

384

Displacement damage extremes in silicon depletion regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of proton induced dark current increases in a Si CID imager have been made following displacement damage by 12 and 63 MeV protons. Populations of 61,504 pixels optimize statistics and make possible the first detailed study of rare events. To this end, extreme value statistics enable a quantitative treatment and lead to characterization of a rare device-dependent mechanism. Data

P. W. Marshall; C. J. Dale; G. P. Summers; E. A. Burke; G. E. Bender

1989-01-01

385

Semen displacement as a sperm competition strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 652 college students, we examined several implications of the hypothesis that the shape of the human penis\\u000a evolved to enable males to substitute their semen for those of their rivals. The incidence of double mating by females appears\\u000a sufficient to make semen displacement adaptive (e.g., one in four females acknowledge infidelity, one in eight admit having

Gordon G. Gallup; Rebecca L. Burch; Tracy J. Berene Mitchell

2006-01-01

386

Embedded Capacitive Displacement Sensor for Nanopositioning Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale of nano-sized objects requires very precise position determination. The state-of-the-art manipulators involve accurate nanometer positioning. This paper presents the design, fabrication process, and testing of a capacitance-based displace- ment sensor. The nanopositioner application required active sens- ing area dimensions to be hundreds of micrometers, making it necessary to develop sensor electrodes that are a few micro- meters in

Svetlana Avramov-Zamurovic; Nicholas G. Dagalakis; Rae Duk Lee; Jae Myung Yoo; Yong Sik Kim; Seung Ho Yang

2011-01-01

387

Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

2008-07-01

388

Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

2014-08-01

389

Simultaneous muscle force and displacement transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A myocardial transducer for simultaneously measuring force and displacement within a very small area of myocardium is disclosed. The transducer comprised of an elongated body forked at one end to form an inverted Y shaped beam with each branch of the beam constituting a low compliant tine for penetrating the myocardium to a predetermined depth. Bonded to one of the low compliance tines is a small piezoresistive element for converting a force acting on the beam into an electrical signal. A third high compliant tine of the transducer, which measures displacement of the myocardium in a direction in line with the two low compliant tines, is of a length that just pierces the surface membrane. A small piezoresistive element is bonded to the third tine at its upper end where its bending is greatest. Displacement of the myocardium causes a deformation in curvature of the third tine, and the second small piezoresistive element bonded to the surface of its curved end converts its deformation into an electrical signal.

Feldstein, C.; Lewis, G. W.; Culler, V. H. (inventors)

1980-01-01

390

Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atomic-scale defects in graphene layers alter the physical and chemical properties of carbon nanostructures. Theoretical predictions have recently shown that energetic particles such as electrons and ions can induce polymorphic atomic defects in graphene layers as a result of knock-on atom displacements. However, the number of experimental reports on these defects is limited. The graphite network in single-walled carbon nanotubes

Ayako Hashimoto; Kazu Suenaga; Alexandre Gloter; Koki Urita; Sumio Iijima

2004-01-01

391

46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153...CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations...Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement....

2014-10-01

392

46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153...CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations...Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement....

2012-10-01

393

46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153...CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations...Transfer Procedures § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement....

2013-10-01

394

25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE...General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation Report and...

2011-04-01

395

5 CFR 351.701 - Assignment involving displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment involving displacement. 351.701 Section 351.701 Administrative Personnel...Bump and Retreat) § 351.701 Assignment involving displacement. (a) General. When a group I or...

2010-01-01

396

24 CFR 42.350 - Relocation assistance for displaced persons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development DISPLACEMENT, RELOCATION ASSISTANCE, AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION...reasonable out-of-pocket costs incurred in connection with a displacement, including moving expenses and increased housing...

2011-04-01

397

25 CFR 700.133 - Notice of displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of displacement. 700.133 Section 700.133 Indians THE OFFICE...General Relocation Requirements § 700.133 Notice of displacement. After the Commission's Relocation Report and...

2010-04-01

398

5 CFR 351.701 - Assignment involving displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignment involving displacement. 351.701 Section 351.701 Administrative Personnel...Bump and Retreat) § 351.701 Assignment involving displacement. (a) General. When a group I or...

2011-01-01

399

10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the prior authorization of the...

2013-01-01

400

10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the prior authorization of the...

2014-01-01

401

10 CFR 590.209 - Exchanges by displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATURAL GAS Applications for Authorization To Import or Export Natural Gas § 590.209 Exchanges by displacement. Any importer of natural gas may enter into an exchange by displacement agreement without the prior authorization of the...

2012-01-01

402

Probing Baryogenesis with Displaced Vertices at the LHC  

E-print Network

The generation of the asymmetric cosmic baryon abundance requires a departure from thermal equilibrium in the early universe. In a large class of baryogenesis models, the baryon asymmetry results from the out-of-equilibrium decay of a new, massive particle. We highlight that in the interesting scenario where this particle has a weak scale mass, this out-of-equilibrium condition requires a proper decay length larger than O(1) mm. Such new fields are within reach of the LHC, at which they can be pair produced leaving a distinctive, displaced-vertex signature. This scenario is realized in the recently proposed mechanism of baryogenesis where the baryon asymmetry is produced through the freeze-out and subsequent decay of a meta-stable weakly interacting massive particle ("WIMP baryogenesis"). In analogy to missing energy searches for WIMP dark matter, the LHC is an excellent probe of these new long-lived particles responsible for baryogenesis via the low-background displaced vertex channel. In our paper, we estim...

Cui, Yanou

2014-01-01

403

Nonlinear strain-displacement relations and flexible multibody dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamics of chains of flexible bodies undergoing large rigid body motions, but small elastic deflections are considered. The role of nonlinear strain-displacement relations in the development of the motion equations correct to first order in elastic deflections is investigated. The general form of these equations linearized only in the small elastic deflections is presented, and the relative significance of various nonlinear terms is studied both analytically and through the use of the numerical simulations. Numerical simulations are performed for a two link chain constrained to move in the plane, subject to hinge torques. Each link is modeled as a thin beam. Slew maneuver simulation results are compared for models with and without properly modeled kinematics of deformation. The goal of this case study is to quantify the importance of the terms in the equations of motion which arise from the inclusion of nonlinear strain-displacement relations. It is concluded that unless the consistently linearized equations in elastic deflections and speeds are available and necessary, the inconsistently (prematurely) linearized equations should be replaced in all cases by ruthlessly linearized equations: equations in which all nonlinear terms involving the elastic deflections and speeds are ignored.

Padilla, Carlos E.; Vonflotow, Andreas H.

1989-01-01

404

Are Children Really Inferior Goods? Evidence from Displacement-Driven Income Shocks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the causal link between income and fertility by analyzing women's fertility response to the large and permanent income shock generated by a husband's job displacement. I find that the shock reduces total fertility, suggesting that the causal effect of income on fertility is positive. A model that incorporates the time cost of…

Lindo, Jason M.

2010-01-01

405

MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE DISPLACEMENT CAUSED BY UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS BY DIFFERENTIAL SAR INTERFEROMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential synthetic aperture radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has nowadays become an important means for measuring and monitoring of surface displacements of various types. This paper focuses on investigating the capability of this technique for detection and characterization of past underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), especially the synergy with seismic data. By this analysis large scale surface subsidence

X. Conga

406

Perceived risk, displacement and refuging in brown bears: positive impacts of ecotourism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism is a rapidly growing industry with unknown impacts on viewed wildlife that may require novel management action. We examined the impact of viewing activities on the behaviour of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in coastal British Columbia.Domination of the best feeding sites and human avoidance by large male bears has consistently been reported. We, however, saw displacement in time rather

Owen T. Nevin; Barrie K. Gilbert

2005-01-01

407

Role of atomic collisions in fusion  

SciTech Connect

Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

Post, D.E.

1982-04-01

408

Atomic Mobile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make a mobile model of a carbon atom using clay, wire, and pipe cleaners. Learners will use the periodic table as a guide and explore how atoms are made up of a nucleus of protons and neutrons with orbiting electrons. The activity includes a PDF file of a periodic table and a guide for reading it.

American Museum of Natural History

2012-06-26

409

Atomic supersymmetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

Kostelecky, V. Alan

1993-01-01

410

Discrimination of spatial displacements by patients with retinitis pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared maximum displacement thresholds (Dmax) with minimum displacement thresholds (Dmin) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in order to characterize the nature of their visual disability, as well as to assess possible models of foveal vision loss. Thresholds for discriminating the direction of the spatial displacement of random dot patterns were measured in a group of 20 patients with

Kenneth R. Alexander; Deborah J. Derlacki; Wei Xie; Gerald A. Fishman; Janet P. Szlyk

1998-01-01

411

Tsunami mortality and displacement in Aceh province, Indonesia  

E-print Network

Tsunami mortality and displacement in Aceh province, Indonesia Abdur Rofi, MA Mercy Corps Indonesia of 388 Indonesian households displaced by the December 2004 tsunami was conducted in Aceh province in February 2005.Of tsunami-displaced households in Aceh Barat and Nagan Raya districts,61.8 per cent reported

Scharfstein, Daniel

412

A review of the recent empirical literature on displaced workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical literature on job displacement. Job displacement is widespread and strongly countercyclical (tending to peak during economic downturns), but concentrated in industries and states that are doing poorly, relative either to other industries and states or to their own prior performance. Displaced workers experience more nonemployment than do nondisplaced workers, but the difference fades after about

Bruce C. Fallick

1996-01-01

413

Industry-Specific Human Capital: Evidence from Displaced Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the Displaced Worker Surveys show that the wage cost of switching industries following displacement is strongly correlated with predisplacement measures of both work experience and tenure. Workers apparently receive compensation for some skills that are neither completely general nor firm-specific but rather specific to their industry or line of work. Further, among displaced workers who find new jobs

Derek Neal

1995-01-01

414

Direct Reconstruction of a Displaced Subdivision Surface from Unorganized Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the generation of a displaced subdivision surface directly from a set of unorganized points. The displaced subdivision surface is an efficient mesh representation that defines a detailed mesh with a displacement map over a smooth domain surface and has many benefits including compression, rendering, and animation, which overcome limitations of an irregular mesh produced by

Won-ki Jeong; Chang-hun Kim

2002-01-01

415

Direct Reconstruction of Displaced Subdivision Surface from Unorganized Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new mesh reconstruction al- gorithm that produces a displaced subdivision mesh directly from unorganized points. The displaced subdivision surface is a new mesh representation that defines a detailed mesh with a displacement map over a smooth domain surface. This mesh representation has several benefits — compact mesh size, piecewise regular connectivity — to overcome

Won-ki Jeong; Chang-hun Kim

2001-01-01

416

Evaluation of approximate methods to estimate maximum inelastic displacement demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Six approximate methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement demand of single-degree-of- freedom systems are evaluated. In all methods, the maximum displacement demand of inelastic systems is estimated from the maximum displacement demand of linear elastic systems. Of the methods evalu- ated herein, four are based on equivalent linearization in which the maximum deformation is estimated as the maximum

Eduardo Miranda

2002-01-01

417

46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153.966... § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo...authorize cargo discharge by liquid displacement unless the liquid supply line to...

2011-10-01

418

46 CFR 153.966 - Discharge by liquid displacement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Discharge by liquid displacement. 153.966 Section 153.966... § 153.966 Discharge by liquid displacement. The person in charge of cargo...authorize cargo discharge by liquid displacement unless the liquid supply line to...

2010-10-01

419

Research of micro\\/nano displacement sensor for piezoelectric actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro displacement measurement of the PZT actuator is a micro sensor which could measure the minute displacement in micron or nanometer level. In general, the sensor is required not to accommodate much space in order to save the room of measuring device. In this paper, a mechanical micro displacement sensor with smaller volume has been proposed. This paper focus on

Bo Song; Yong Yu; Weichao Yang; Yunjian Ge

2009-01-01

420

Very compact, high-stability electrostatic actuator featuring contact-free self-limiting displacement  

DOEpatents

A compact electrostatic actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator utilizes stationary and moveable electrodes, with the stationary electrodes being formed on a substrate and the moveable electrodes being supported above the substrate on a frame. The frame provides a rigid structure which allows the electrostatic actuator to be operated at high voltages (up to 190 Volts) to provide a relatively large actuation force compared to conventional electrostatic comb actuators which are much larger in size. For operation at its maximum displacement, the electrostatic actuator is relatively insensitive to the exact value of the applied voltage and provides a self-limiting displacement.

Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01

421

Glassy Interfacial Dynamics of Ni Nanoparticles: Part I Colored Noise, Dynamic Heterogeneity and Collective Atomic Motion  

PubMed Central

Most condensed materials exhibit a significant fraction of atoms, molecules or particles that are strongly interacting with each other, while being configured geometrically at any instant of time in an ‘amorphous’ state having a relatively uniform density. Recently, both simulations and experiments have revealed that the dynamics of diverse condensed amorphous materials is generally characterized by significant heterogeneity in the local mobility and by progressively increasing collective motion upon cooling that takes the form of string-like collective particle rearrangements. The direct experimental observation of this type of collective motion, which has been directly linked to the growing relaxation times of glass-forming materials, and its quantification under different thermodynamic conditions, has so far been restricted to colloidal and driven granular fluids. The present work addresses the fundamental problem of how to determine the scale of this type of collective motion in materials composed of molecules or atoms. The basic premise of our work is that large scale dynamic particle clustering in amorphous materials must give rise to large fluctuations in particle mobility so that transport properties, especially those related to particle mobility, should naturally exhibit noise related to the cooperative motion scale. In our initial exploratory study seeking a relationship of this kind, we find 1/f? or ‘colored noise’, in both potential energy and particle displacements fluctuations of the atoms within the glassy interfacial layer of Ni nanoparticles (NPs). A direct relation between the particle displacement (mobility) noise exponent ? and the average polymerization index of the string-like collective motion L is observed for a range of NP sizes, temperatures and for surface doping of the NPs with other metal atoms (Ag, Au, Pt) to change of fragility of the glassy interfacial layer at the surface of the Ni NPs. We also introduce a successful analytic model to understand this relationship between ? and L PMID:25170342

Zhang, Hao; Douglas, Jack F.

2014-01-01

422

Tracking log displacement during floods in the Tagliamento River using RFID and GPS tracker devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large pieces of in-channel wood can exert an important role on the ecological and morphological properties of gravel-bed rivers. On the other side, when transported during flood events, large wood can become a source of risk for sensitive structures such as bridges. However, wood displacement and velocity in river systems are still poorly understood, especially in large gravel-bed rivers. This study focuses on log transport in a valley reach of Tagliamento River (Italy). Log displacement during flood events of different magnitudes recorded from June 2010 to October 2011 has been analysed thanks to the installation of 113 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and 42 GPS tracker devices in logs of different dimensions. Recovery rates of logs equipped with RFID and GPS trackers were about 43% and 42%, respectively. The GPS devices allowed us to analyse in details the log displacement and transport overtime, indicating a higher log entrainment during rising limb of hydrographs. The threshold for the entrainment of logs from low bars is around 40% of bankfull water stage. No clear relationship was found between the peak of flood and log displacement length and velocity. However, log displacement length and velocity appear significantly correlated to the ratio between the peak of flow and the water stage exceeding the flow duration curve for 25% of time (i.e. the ratio hmax/h25 ratio). Log deposition was observed to occur at the peak flow, and logs transported during ordinary events are preferably deposited on low bars. This study reveals the potentials of GPS tracker devices to monitor the entrainment and movements of logs in large gravel-bed rivers during floods. These observations could be useful for better planning of river management practices and strategies involving the use of large wood pieces and could help for calibrating wood budgets at the reach scale.

Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

2015-01-01

423

atomic spectra 1 Atomic Spectra  

E-print Network

Physics, pp. 88-93 (Rutherford nuclear model), 93-106 (atomic structure and electron spectra) 2. D. Watomic spectra 1 Atomic Spectra '96, THK-MRM Object To become familiar with the construction and interpret spin-orbit doublets and triplets in alkali spectra. References 1. Serway, Moses and Moyer: Modern

Glashausser, Charles

424

Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation  

PubMed Central

In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

2015-01-01

425

Bogoliubov theory and bosonic atoms  

E-print Network

We formulate the Bogoliubov variational principle in a mathematical framework similar to the generalized Hartree-Fock theory. Then we analyze the Bogoliubov theory for bosonic atoms in details. We discuss heuristically why the Bogoliubov energy should give the first correction to the leading energy of large bosonic atoms.

Phan Thanh Nam

2011-09-13

426

Neutral atom imaging at Mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of neutral atom detection and imaging in the Hermean environment is discussed in this study. In particular, we consider those energetic neutral atoms (ENA) whose emission is directly related to solar wind entrance into Mercury's magnetosphere. In fact, this environment is characterised by a weak magnetic field; thus, cusp regions are extremely large if compared to the Earth's

A. Mura; S. Orsini; A. Milillo; A. M. Di Lellis; E. De Angelis

2006-01-01

427

Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100??T, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2?K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

Vinante, A., E-mail: anvinante@fbk.eu [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

2014-07-21

428

Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 $\\mu$T, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at $4.2$ K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

Andrea Vinante

2014-05-14

429

Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 ?T, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

Vinante, A.

2014-07-01

430

Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

Connell, John W. (inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (inventor); Wolf, Peter (inventor)

1992-01-01

431

Preferential rifting of continents - A source of displaced terranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithospheric rifting, while prevalent in the continents, rarely occurs in oceanic regions. To explain this preferential rifting of continents, the total strength of different lithospheres is compared by integrating the limits of lithospheric stress with depth. Comparisons of total strength indicate that continental lithosphere is weaker than oceanic lithosphere by about a factor of three. Also, a thickened crust can halve the total strength of normal continental lithosphere. Because the weakest area acts as a stress guide, any rifting close to an ocean-continent boundary would prefer a continental pathway. This results in the formation of small continental fragments or microplates that, once accreted back to a continent during subduction, are seen as displaced terranes. In addition, the large crustal thicknesses associated with suture zones would make such areas likely locations for future rifting episodes. This results in the tendency of new oceans to open along the suture where a former ocean had closed.

Vink, G. E.; Morgan, W. J.; Zhao, W.-L.

1984-01-01

432

3D displacement and strain measurements using simultaneously three lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present an extension of the use of three different lasers and only one high resolution monochrome sensor. Besides the advantage to obtain the 3D deformation in just two images it is now possible due the geometry of the optical setup to obtain the strain gradients in the object. The system records two consecutive images where each one contains three holograms in it. This configuration gives the opportunity to use long coherence length lasers which allows the measurement of large object areas. A series of digital holographic interferograms are recorded for a particular metallic sample during a well known mechanical deformation. From the system it is possible to obtain in just a couple of images the orthogonal displacement components u, v and w and then the strain gradient maps. Latter gives more information about the mechanical response for an object during a micro deformation.

Sanchez-A., Araceli; de La Torre-Ibarra, M. H.; Saucedo-A., Tonatiuh; Mendoza Santoyo, F.

2011-08-01

433

Molecule-displacive ferroelectricity in organic supramolecular solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferroelectricity is essential to many forms of current technology, ranging from sensors and actuators to optical or memory devices. In this circumstance, organic ferroelectrics are of particular importance because of their potential application in tomorrow's organic devices, and several pure organic ferroelectrics have been recently developed. However, some problems, such as current leakage and/or low working frequencies, make their application prospects especially for ferroelectric memory (FeRAM) not clear. Here, we describe the molecule-displacive ferroelectricity of supramolecular adducts of tartaric acid and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane N,N'-dioxide. The adducts show large spontaneous polarization, high rectangularity of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops even at high operation frequency (10 kHz), and high performance in polarization switching up to 1 × 106 times without showing fatigue. It opens great perspectives in terms of applications, especially in organic FeRAM.

Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Noro, Shin-Ichiro; Kubo, Kazuya; Yoshitake, Masashi; Liu, Zun-Qi; Cai, Hong-Ling; Fu, Da-Wei; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio; Xiong, Ren-Gen; Nakamura, Takayoshi

2013-07-01

434

Interpretation of Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR in Terms of Molecular Displacements  

E-print Network

The relationship for Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR between the amplitude $I(t)$ of the spin echo and the molecular displacement ${\\bf X}(t)$ is examined. $I(t)$ of a single species in a simple solution is determined by the mean-square displacement $\\bar{X(t)^{2}}$. With polydisperse species, or molecular probes in complex fluids showing memory effects, $I(t)$ in general includes large contributions from all higher even moments $\\bar{X(t)^{2n}}$. Conditions under which the NMR signal is indeed determined by the molecular mean-square displacement are noted. A diagnostic that sometimes identifies when these conditions are not met is presented.

George D. J. Phillies

2011-02-22

435

Practical Fabry-Perot displacement interferometry in ambient air conditions with subnanometer accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabry-Perot displacement interferometry (FPI) offers high sensitivity and resolution with direct traceability to optical frequency standards. FPI can provide means for demanding calibration tasks in precision engineering and high-tech systems. We report on our investigation of the measurement methodology applied to highest precision capacitive displacement sensors. We use a dedicated metrological FPI instrumentation that provides an actuated reference target with a relatively large traceable displacement stroke. The envisaged sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty seems very challenging under practical ambient atmospheric conditions and with the necessary sensor mounting components. In anticipation of these limitations, we propose a new FPI instrumental configuration with a very short cavity and discuss expected benefits, most importantly the very low sensitivity to air refractive index variations and the versatility for practical calibration purposes. We aim again for sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty and report on the status of the experimental set-up for this short cavity FPI.

Voigt, Dirk; van de Nes, Arthur S.; van den Berg, Steven A.

2014-07-01

436

Displacement measurements over a square meter area using digital holographic interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current industrial demand for optical nondestructive testing includes the displacement analysis of large object areas. This paper reports on the use of a digital holographic interferometer to measure displacements over an area of 1.14 m2. The object under study is a framed working table covered with a Formica layer fixed to a granite bench, and it is observed and illuminated employing a high speed and high resolution camera and a continuous wave high output power laser, respectively. A stabilization procedure needs to be established as long illumination distances are required in order to retrieve the entire surface optical phase during a series of continuous deformations. As a proof of principle, two different tests are presented: the first involves a slow continuous loading process and the second a vibration condition. The wrapped phase and displacement maps are both displayed.

De la Torre Ibarra, Manuel H.; Flores Moreno, J. Mauricio; Aguayo, Daniel D.; Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Pérez-López, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

2014-09-01

437

Pulse tube stirling machine with warm gas-driven displacer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulse tube type stirling machine with warm gas-driven displacer which has a displacer rod is discussed with numerical simulation when it is used as a cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. It has both the advantages of gas-driven-stirling machine with high efficiency and simplicity and the advantages of pulse tube machine with no moving parts at low temperatures. A nodal analysis method that includes the linear motor and the displacer in the machine is introduced. Numerical results show that it has high potential to be used as the cryogenic refrigerator, room temperature refrigerator and engine. In this type of machine, there is an optimum phase angle between displacer and piston, and an optimum swept volume ratio of displacer over compressor for efficiency. The phase angle and swept volume ratio can be adjusted by the natural frequency of the displacer and the diameter of the displacer rod when it is used as a refrigerator.

Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi

2010-05-01

438

Acting Atoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

Farin, Susan Archie

1997-01-01

439

Kinetic Atom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

Wilson, David B.

1981-01-01

440

Behavior of full-scale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concrete pipelines are one of the most popular underground lifelines used for the transportation of water resources. Unfortunately, this critical infrastructure system remains vulnerable to ground displacements during seismic and landslide events. Ground displacements may induce significant bending, shear, and axial forces to concrete pipelines and eventually lead to joint failures. In order to understand and model the typical failure mechanisms of concrete segmented pipelines, large-scale experimentation is necessary to explore structural and soil-structure behavior during ground faulting. This paper reports on the experimentation of a reinforced concrete segmented concrete pipeline using the unique capabilities of the NEES Lifeline Experimental and Testing Facilities at Cornell University. Five segments of a full-scale commercial concrete pressure pipe (244 cm long and 37.5 cm diameter) are constructed as a segmented pipeline under a compacted granular soil in the facility test basin (13.4 m long and 3.6 m wide). Ground displacements are simulated through translation of half of the test basin. A dense array of sensors including LVDT's, strain gages, and load cells are installed along the length of the pipeline to measure the pipeline response while the ground is incrementally displaced. Accurate measures of pipeline displacements and strains are captured up to the compressive and flexural failure of the pipeline joints.

Kim, Junhee; O'Connor, Sean; Nadukuru, Srinivasa; Lynch, Jerome P.; Michalowski, Radoslaw; Green, Russell A.; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammed; Weiss, W. Jason; Bradshaw, Aaron

2010-03-01

441

Model of delocalized atoms in the physics of the vitreous state  

SciTech Connect

A development of the model of delocalized atoms of liquids and glasses is proposed. It is shown that the basic equation of the model for the probability of delocalization (excitation) of an atom can be obtained not only from the Clausius relation but also by other methods of statistical physics. Techniques for calculating the parameters of the model are developed. The critical displacement of an atom from the equilibrium position, which corresponds to the maximum interatomic attraction force, can be considered as a delocalization (local excitation) of this atom in an elastic continuum. The energy of the critical displacement of an atom calculated as the work of the limit elastic deformation of the interatomic bond in an elastic continuum is in agreement with the results of calculation by the model of delocalized atoms. This energy can also be calculated from the data on surface tension and atomic volume. In silicate glasses, the process of delocalization of an atom represents the critical displacement of a bridging oxygen atom in the structural fragment of a silicon-oxygen (Si-O-Si) network before the switching of the valence bond, whereas, in amorphous organic polymers, the delocalization of an atom corresponds to the limit displacement of a fragment of the main chain of a macromolecule (a group of atoms in the connecting link).

Sanditov, D. S., E-mail: Sanditov@bsu.ru [Buryat State University (Russian Federation)

2012-07-15

442

Do alternative energy sources displace fossil fuels?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental, generally implicit, assumption of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and many energy analysts is that each unit of energy supplied by non-fossil-fuel sources takes the place of a unit of energy supplied by fossil-fuel sources. However, owing to the complexity of economic systems and human behaviour, it is often the case that changes aimed at reducing one type of resource consumption, either through improvements in efficiency of use or by developing substitutes, do not lead to the intended outcome when net effects are considered. Here, I show that the average pattern across most nations of the world over the past fifty years is one where each unit of total national energy use from non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel energy use and, focusing specifically on electricity, each unit of electricity generated by non-fossil-fuel sources displaced less than one-tenth of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These results challenge conventional thinking in that they indicate that suppressing the use of fossil fuel will require changes other than simply technical ones such as expanding non-fossil-fuel energy production.

York, Richard

2012-06-01

443

An interferometric strain-displacement measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for measuring the relative in-plane displacement over a gage length as short as 100 micrometers is described. Two closely spaced indentations are placed in a reflective specimen surface with a Vickers microhardness tester. Interference fringes are generated when they are illuminated with a He-Ne laser. As the distance between the indentations expands or contracts with applied load, the fringes move. This motion is monitored with a minicomputer-controlled system using linear diode arrays as sensors. Characteristics of the system are: (1) gage length ranging from 50 to 500 micrometers, but 100 micrometers is typical; (2) least-count resolution of approximately 0.0025 micrometer; and (3) sampling rate of 13 points per second. In addition, the measurement technique is non-contacting and non-reinforcing. It is useful for strain measurements over small gage lengths and for crack opening displacement measurements near crack tips. This report is a detailed description of a new system recently installed in the Mechanisms of Materials Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The intent is to enable a prospective user to evaluate the applicability of the system to a particular problem and assemble one if needed.

Sharpe, William N., Jr.

1989-01-01

444

Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers  

DOEpatents

A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board. 16 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1996-05-21

445

Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers  

DOEpatents

A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

446

Long-time mean-square displacements in proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long-time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns, and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, Iinc(Q,t), for finite times. The infinite-time MSD, , appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite-time Iinc(Q,t). Specifically, the is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as I(Q,t=?)=exp(-Q2/3). The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of hydrated lysozyme powder (h=0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic obtained from data out to 1 and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsic is approximately twice the value of the MSD that is reached in simulations after times of 1 ns which correspond to those observed using neutron instruments that have an energy resolution width of 1 ?eV.

Vural, Derya; Hong, Liang; Smith, Jeremy C.; Glyde, Henry R.

2013-11-01

447

Estimating Hydrologic Processes from Subsurface Soil Displacements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture and the processes that control it are important components of the hydrologic cycle, but measuring these processes remains challenging. We have developed a new measurement method that offers flexibility compared to existing technology. The approach is to measure small vertical displacements in the soil which responds proportionally to distributed surface load changes such as variation in the near-surface water content. The instrument may be installed at a depth of several meters to hundreds of meters below the surface. Because the measurement averaging region scales with the depth of the displacement measurements, this approach provides the means for estimating the soil moisture time series over tens of square meters to tens of thousands of square meters. The instrument developed for this application is called a Sand-X, which is short for Sand Extensometer. It is designed for applications in unconsolidated material, ranging from clay to sand. The instrument is simple and relatively inexpensive, and it can be installed in a boring made with a hand auger or with a small drill rig. Studies at the field scale are ongoing at a field site near Clemson, SC. The site is underlain by saprolite weathered primarily from biotite gneiss. Several Sand-X devices are installed at a field site that is instrumented for validating soil moisture, precipitation, and evapotranspiration estimates. These instruments are emplaced at a depth of 6 m and respond to the weight of a vehicle out to 18 m from the well. Calibration is performed by comparing precipitation measurements to the soil displacement response. For example, the coefficient for one installation is roughly 185 nm soil displacement/mm water content change. The resolution of the instrument is approximately 10 nm, so the Sand-X is capable of detecting changes of soil moisture on the order of tenths of one mm in compliant soils like saprolite. A typical soil displacement time series shows alternating periods of abrupt compression and gradual extension of the soil corresponding to periods of rainfall and evaporation respectively. ET estimates based on local, historic, pan evaporation data range from about 1 to 4 mm/da, and estimates of ET based on the Sand-X data track within 25% of these averages for the first half of 2012. Daily ET averages reveal periods of ET at double the monthly average during the rainy season consistent with the increased availability of soil water for evaporation. In addition to ET, the Sand-X is sensitive to changes in barometric pressure and infiltration of soil water. For example, diurnal barometric variations create a signal that is more than 10 times greater than the sensor resolution. We have developed a poroelastic model to characterize the effect of barometric loading. This analysis is used to remove the effect of barometric fluctuations and improve the resolution of hydrologic processes. Other applications for the instrument include characterizing the accumulation or removal of sediments, snow, ice, biomass, etc.

Freeman, C. E.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; MIller, S.

2012-12-01

448

Combining solvent thermodynamic profiles with functionality maps of the Hsp90 binding site to predict the displacement of water molecules.  

PubMed

Intermolecular interactions in the aqueous phase must compete with the interactions between the two binding partners and their solvating water molecules. In biological systems, water molecules in protein binding sites cluster at well-defined hydration sites and can form strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with backbone and side-chain atoms. Displacement of such water molecules is only favorable when the ligand can form strong compensating hydrogen bonds. Conversely, water molecules in hydrophobic regions of protein binding sites make only weak interactions, and the requirements for favorable displacement are less stringent. The propensity of water molecules for displacement can be identified using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IFST), a statistical mechanical method that decomposes the solvation free energy of a solute into the contributions from different spatial regions and identifies potential binding hotspots. In this study, we employed IFST to study the displacement of water molecules from the ATP binding site of Hsp90, using a test set of 103 ligands. The predicted contribution of a hydration site to the hydration free energy was found to correlate well with the observed displacement. Additionally, we investigated if this correlation could be improved by using the energetic scores of favorable probe groups binding at the location of hydration sites, derived from a multiple copy simultaneous search (MCSS) method. The probe binding scores were not highly predictive of the observed displacement and did not improve the predictivity when used in combination with IFST-based hydration free energies. The results show that IFST alone can be used to reliably predict the observed displacement of water molecules in Hsp90. However, MCSS can augment IFST calculations by suggesting which functional groups should be used to replace highly displaceable water molecules. Such an approach could be very useful in improving the hit-to-lead process for new drug targets. PMID:24070451

Haider, Kamran; Huggins, David J

2013-10-28

449

Combining Solvent Thermodynamic Profiles with Functionality Maps of the Hsp90 Binding Site to Predict the Displacement of Water Molecules  

PubMed Central

Intermolecular interactions in the aqueous phase must compete with the interactions between the two binding partners and their solvating water molecules. In biological systems, water molecules in protein binding sites cluster at well-defined hydration sites and can form strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with backbone and side-chain atoms. Displacement of such water molecules is only favorable when the ligand can form strong compensating hydrogen bonds. Conversely, water molecules in hydrophobic regions of protein binding sites make only weak interactions, and the requirements for favorable displacement are less stringent. The propensity of water molecules for displacement can be identified using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IFST), a statistical mechanical method that decomposes the solvation free energy of a solute into the contributions from different spatial regions and identifies potential binding hotspots. In this study, we employed IFST to study the displacement of water molecules from the ATP binding site of Hsp90, using a test set of 103 ligands. The predicted contribution of a hydration site to the hydration free energy was found to correlate well with the observed displacement. Additionally, we investigated if this correlation could be improved by using the energetic scores of favorable probe groups binding at the location of hydration sites, derived from a multiple copy simultaneous search (MCSS) method. The probe binding scores were not highly predictive of the observed displacement and did not improve the predictivity when used in combination with IFST-based hydration free energies. The results show that IFST alone can be used to reliably predict the observed displacement of water molecules in Hsp90. However, MCSS can augment IFST calculations by suggesting which functional groups should be used to replace highly displaceable water molecules. Such an approach could be very useful in improving the hit-to-lead process for new drug targets. PMID:24070451

2013-01-01