Science.gov

Sample records for large classroom setting

  1. Active Learning in a Large Medical Classroom Setting for Teaching Renal Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.; Stevenson, Frazier T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an active learning exercise which has been used to replace some lecture hours in the renal portion of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum for first-year medical students. The exercise takes place in a large auditorium with ~150 students. The authors, who are faculty members, lead the discussions,…

  2. A Classroom Tariff-Setting Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Niven

    2006-01-01

    The author outlines a classroom tariff-setting game that allows students to explore the consequences of import tariffs imposed by large countries (countries able to influence world prices). Groups of students represent countries, which are organized into trading pairs. Each group's objective is to maximize welfare by choosing an appropriate ad…

  3. Improvement in Generic Problem-Solving Abilities of Students by Use of Tutor-Less Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klegeris, Andis; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Hurren, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was originally introduced in medical education programs as a form of small-group learning, but its use has now spread to large undergraduate classrooms in various other disciplines. Introduction of new teaching techniques, including PBL-based methods, needs to be justified by demonstrating the benefits of such…

  4. Implementing iPads in the Inclusive Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This column provides practical suggestions to help guide teachers in utilizing classroom sets of iPads. Following a brief introduction to tablet technology in inclusive classrooms and the origin of these recommendations from a case study focus group, important elements of setting up classroom iPad use, from finding funding to teaching apps, are…

  5. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

  6. Tangential Floor in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    This article examines floor management in two classroom sessions: a task-oriented computer lesson and a literature lesson. Recordings made in the computer lesson show the organization of floor when a task is given to students. Temporary or "incipient" side floors (Jones and Thornborrow, 2004) emerge beside the main floor. In the literature lesson,…

  7. Analyzing Multimodal Interaction within a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moura, Heloisa

    2006-01-01

    Human interactions are multimodal in nature. From simple to complex forms of transferal of information, human beings draw on a multiplicity of communicative modes, such as intonation and gaze, to make sense of everyday experiences. Likewise, the learning process, either within traditional classrooms or Virtual Learning Environments, is shaped by…

  8. Classroom Assessment Tools and Students' Affective Stances: KFL Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2005-01-01

    The growth of KFL (Korean-as-a-Foreign-Language) programmes in the US college setting has been truly remarkable in the last three decades. However, despite the gradual and steady growth of the non-heritage student population, the predominant group has been heritage students in most KFL programmes. In addition, teaching these two groups of students…

  9. Setting Variables, Classroom Interaction, and Multiple Pupil Outcomes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soar, Robert S.; Soar, Ruth, M.

    Four general problems (two substantive, two methodological) were addressed in a research project: (1) Does the nature of the pupil or the setting make a difference in the teaching style which is most effective? (2) Does the cognitive level of the learning objective make a difference? (3) How can relationships within the classroom be analyzed? and…

  10. Social Studies Instruction in a Non-Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Margaret M.

    Certain areas in the social studies can be effectively taught in a non-classroom setting. This experiment determined if, in a supermarket situation, consumer preferences (as measured in sales figures and augmented by questionnaire data) could be altered by the addition of nutritional information to the labels of sixteen items which had moderate…

  11. Observation Instrument of Play Behaviour in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to observe the play behaviour of a whole group of children from four to six years of age in a classroom setting on the basis of video recording. The instrument was developed in collaboration with experienced teachers and experts on play. Categories of play were derived from the literature…

  12. Examining the Effectiveness of Team-Based Learning (TBL) in Different Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuretich, Richard F.; Kanner, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of effective learning in college classrooms, especially in a large lecture setting, has been a topic of discussion for a considerable span of time. Most efforts to improve learning incorporate various forms of student-active learning, such as in-class investigations or problems, group discussions, collaborative examinations and…

  13. Teacher and Student Research Using Large Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    One of the objectives of teacher research experiences is to immerse the teacher in an authentic research situation to help the teacher understand what real research is all about: "to do science as scientists do." Experiences include doing experiments in laboratories, gathering data out in the field, and observing at professional observatories. However, a rapidly growing area of scientific research is in "data mining" increasingly large public data archives. In the earth and space sciences, such large archives are built around data from Landsat 7, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and in about seven years, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The LSST will re-photograph the entire night sky every three day, resulting in a data flow of about 20 terabytes per night. The resulting LSST archive will represent a huge challenge of simple storage and retrieval for professional scientists. It will be a much greater challenge to help K-12 teachers use such gargantuan files and collections of data effectively in the classroom and to understand and begin to practice the new research procedures involved in data mining. At NOAO we are exploring ways of using large data sets in formal educational settings like classrooms, and public settings like planetariums and museums. In our existing professional development programs, such as our Teacher leaders in Research Based Science Education, we have introduced teachers to research via on-site observing experiences and partnerships with active astronomers. To successfully initiate research in the classroom, we have found that teachers need training in specific science content, use of specialized software to work with the data, development of research questions and objectives, and explicit pedagogical strategies for classroom use. Our research projects are well defined, though not "canned," and incorporate specific types of data, such as solar images. These data can be replaced with new data from an archive for the classroom research experience. This is already a form of data mining that can be applied to large data sets. We are looking at ways to apply our experience with hands-on observation experiences to the relatively abstract world of data mining. We are also looking at ways to move beyond the well-defined application to training teachers to develop their own more open-ended research activities. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  14. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

  15. Implementing Concept-based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom

    E-print Network

    Article Implementing Concept-based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom David Morse of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course structured by concepts. Data were

  16. Radial sets: interactive visual analysis of large overlapping sets.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Aigner, Wolfgang; Miksch, Silvia; Hauser, Helwig

    2013-12-01

    In many applications, data tables contain multi-valued attributes that often store the memberships of the table entities to multiple sets such as which languages a person masters, which skills an applicant documents, or which features a product comes with. With a growing number of entities, the resulting element-set membership matrix becomes very rich of information about how these sets overlap. Many analysis tasks targeted at set-typed data are concerned with these overlaps as salient features of such data. This paper presents Radial Sets, a novel visual technique to analyze set memberships for a large number of elements. Our technique uses frequency-based representations to enable quickly finding and analyzing different kinds of overlaps between the sets, and relating these overlaps to other attributes of the table entities. Furthermore, it enables various interactions to select elements of interest, find out if they are over-represented in specific sets or overlaps, and if they exhibit a different distribution for a specific attribute compared to the rest of the elements. These interactions allow formulating highly-expressive visual queries on the elements in terms of their set memberships and attribute values. As we demonstrate via two usage scenarios, Radial Sets enable revealing and analyzing a multitude of overlapping patterns between large sets, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24051816

  17. Peer Educators in Classroom Settings: Effective Academic Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Involving undergraduates in the design, delivery, and evaluation of classroom-based learning enhances student ownership of the learning environment and stimulates peer interest in the transformative possibilities of education. As bell hooks (1994) eloquently describes, the process of honoring student voices in the classroom enhances "the…

  18. Interactive Discovery in Large Data Sets

    E-print Network

    is interesting? Novel? Big NASA data sets LSST: 28 TB/day SKA: 86 TB/day Explanations AI: actions + reasons Diverse sampling of data set System learns model System chooses item Interactive Discovery in Large Data! #12;ChemCam: Carbonates ChemCam: LIBS instrument on MSL Data set: 60 lab samples + 40 carbonates

  19. Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tips

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Audience response systems (ARS) or clickers, as they are commonly called, offer a management tool for engaging students in the large classroom. Basic elements of the technology are discussed. These systems have been used in a variety of fields and at all levels of education. Typical goals of ARS questions are discussed, as well as methods of compensating for the reduction in lecture time that typically results from their use. Examples of ARS use occur throughout the literature and often detail positive attitudes from both students and instructors, although exceptions do exist. When used in classes, ARS clickers typically have either a benign or positive effect on student performance on exams, depending on the method and extent of their use, and create a more positive and active atmosphere in the large classroom. These systems are especially valuable as a means of introducing and monitoring peer learning methods in the large lecture classroom. So that the reader may use clickers effectively in his or her own classroom, a set of guidelines for writing good questions and a list of best-practice tips have been culled from the literature and experienced users. PMID:17339389

  20. An Exploration of the Effectiveness of an Audit Simulation Tool in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelin, Robert C., II

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using an audit simulation product in a classroom setting. Many students and professionals feel that a disconnect exists between learning auditing in the classroom and practicing auditing in the workplace. It was hoped that the introduction of an audit simulation tool would help to…

  1. The Emergence of Student Creativity in Classroom Settings: A Case Study of Elementary Schools in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Younsoon; Chung, Hye Young; Choi, Kyoulee; Seo, Choyoung; Baek, Eunjoo

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the emergence of student creativity in classroom settings, specifically within two content areas: science and social studies. Fourteen classrooms in three elementary schools in Korea were observed, and the teachers and students were interviewed. The three types of student creativity emerging in the teaching and learning…

  2. Understanding Bystander Perceptions of Cyberbullying in Inclusive Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guckert, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a pervasive problem that puts students at risk of successful academic outcomes and the ability to feel safe in school. As most students with disabilities are served in inclusive classrooms, there is a growing concern that students with special needs are at an increased risk of online bullying harassment. Enhancing responsible…

  3. Setting of Classroom Environments for Hearing Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Zerrin

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to explain effects of acoustical environments in sound perception of hearing impaired people. Important aspects of sound and hearing impairment are explained. Detrimental factors in acoustic conditions for speech perception are mentioned. Necessary acoustic treatment in classrooms and use of FM systems to eliminate these factors…

  4. Experiences with Large Planetary Hyperspectral Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Albrecht; Schmidt, Frederic; Moussaoui, Sa

    The authors report on their experiences from implementing data analysis algorithms on large planetary data sets, mainly hyperspectral data sets from the Mars Express mission. A data preparation, calibration and organisation pipeline has to be set up before meaningful information can be extracted from the data algorithmically. Often, this represents a significant factor in overall time and cost. Especially when dealing with novel approaches this pipeline has to be particularly flexible to accommodate changes in data layout and semantics. The authors gathered their experiences in the field of implementation of non-negative matrix approximation (NNMA) algorithms, which in recent years have reached a level of maturity that makes them suitable for application on large planetary datasets. This implies that these algorithms can be used effectively to factor large collections of hyperspectral measurements into sources and abundances under linearity and non-negativity constraints with reasonable computational resources. The results include (semi-)automatic large-scale analysis of hyperspectral data sets with the focus on spectral and geographical summarisation. The method uses randomised algorithms to extract source spectra; these are then distributed on a virtual sphere and classified according to similarity and proximity; for each class of source, an abundance map is generated and presented to the user for interpretation. Results can be obtained with reasonable resources in minutes to hours, depending on the size of the dataset and the accuracy required.

  5. Participant Perspectives of Classroom Discourse. Part V: Attending to the Discourse of Classmates in Play Settings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morine-Dershimer, Greta; And Others

    Part of a year-long sociolinguistic study of teacher and pupil perceptions of classroom discourse, this study presents data on pupil perceptions of discourse in play settings. Subjects were 165 pupils from six second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in a lower socioeconomic, multiethnic elementary school. In each of the six classrooms six…

  6. Content-Based Instruction for English Language Learners: An Exploration across Multiple Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Seo Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the content-based literacy instruction of English language learners (ELLs) across multiple classroom settings in U.S. elementary schools. The following research questions guided the study: (a) How are ELLs taught English in two types of instructional settings: regular content-area literacy instruction in the all-English…

  7. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  8. Obtaining Maximal Concatenated Phylogenetic Data Sets from Large Sequence Databases

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    Obtaining Maximal Concatenated Phylogenetic Data Sets from Large Sequence Databases Michael J of tree reconstruction, phylogeneticists are extracting increasingly large multigene data sets from permits all such data sets to be obtained in reasonable computing times even for large numbers

  9. Teaching Methodology in a "Large Power Distance" Classroom: A South Korean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at South Korea as an example of a collectivist society having a rather large power distance dimension value. In a traditional Korean classroom the teacher is at the top of the classroom hierarchy, while the students are the passive participants. Gender and age play a role in the hierarchy between students themselves. Teaching…

  10. Strategies for Engaging FCS Learners in a Large-Format Classroom: Embedded Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Catherine Amoroso

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a method for utilizing technology to increase student engagement in large classroom formats. In their lives outside the classroom, students spend considerable time interfacing with media, and they are receptive to information conveyed in electronic formats. Research has shown that multimedia is an effective learning resource;…

  11. Civility in the University Classroom: An Opportunity for Faculty to Set Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Chris; Yates, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the types of uncivil behaviors frequently encountered in university classrooms. These behaviors range from walking in late to class, texting in class, and/or unprofessional emails. These behaviors can often undermine a professor's teaching. Setting reasonable and consistent expectations is a combination of university policy,…

  12. Turkish Special Education Teachers' Implementation of Functional Analysis in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Dilek; Yucesoy, Serife; Turan, Yasemin; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2006-01-01

    Three Turkish special education teachers conducted a functional analysis to identify variables that might initiate or maintain the problem behaviors of three children with developmental disabilities. The analysis procedures were conducted in natural classroom settings. In Phase 1, following initial training in functional analysis procedures, the…

  13. Improving Preschool Classroom Processes: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Trial Implemented in Head Start Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Li-Grining, Christine P.; Metzger, Molly; Champion, Kina M.; Sardin, Latriese

    2008-01-01

    A primary aim of the Chicago School Readiness Project was to improve teachers' emotionally supportive classroom practices in Head Start-funded preschool settings. Using a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the Chicago School Readiness Project randomly assigned a treatment versus control condition to 18 Head Start sites, which…

  14. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  15. Developing a Positive Mind-Set toward the Use of Technology for Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okojie, Mabel C. P. O.; Olinzock, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine various indicators associated with the development of a positive mind-set toward the use of technology for instruction. The paper also examines the resources available to help teachers keep pace with technological innovation. Electronic classrooms have some complexities associated with them; therefore, support…

  16. Sizable Sharks Swim Swiftly: Learning Correlations through Inference in a Classroom Setting

    E-print Network

    Love, Bradley C.

    Sizable Sharks Swim Swiftly: Learning Correlations through Inference in a Classroom Setting Yasuaki more properties of the shark categories acquired through inference than those acquired through, Tiger vs. Sixgill shark). classifying a series of animals presented to them. In the next class session

  17. Performance in an Online Introductory Course in a Hybrid Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aly, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the academic achievement between undergraduate students taking an introductory managerial accounting course online (N = 104) and students who took the same course in a hybrid classroom setting (N = 203). Student achievement was measured using scores from twelve weekly online assignments, two major online assignments, a final…

  18. Parallel visualization of large data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Robert O.; Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Chtchelkanova, Almadena; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2000-02-01

    In this paper we describe our efforts towards the parallel visualization of large data sets. We describe the fully threaded tree (FTT) structure developed at NRL to tackle the problem of massive parallel calculations using adaptive mesh refinement methods. All operations with FTT are performed in parallel and require only a small memory overhead. The FTT can be viewed as a data compression scheme that dramatically improves the performance of standard finite difference algorithms by performing calculations on the compressed data in situ. Because of the tremendous benefits of this type of data structure, it is of great interest to develop visualization algorithms that are native to the FTT. Using the FTT library, we convert the FTT data structure to an unstructured data set and discuss applications to both scatter dot visualization and parallel ray-tracing. The latter technique gives a good indication of the performance and scalability of the FTT algorithm for ray-tracking. We then discuss conversion of the FTT data structure for virtual reality visualization in an immersive room. Our results are presented using an example of a numerical calculation of a detonation in a rectangular cavity using from 1 to 2 million cells.

  19. Clustering Very Large Data Sets with Principal Direction Divisive Partitioning

    E-print Network

    Boley, Daniel

    Clustering Very Large Data Sets with Principal Direction Divisive Partitioning David Littau1 of very large data sets. We define a very large data set as a data set which will not fit into memory at once. Many clustering algorithms require that the data set be scanned many times during the clustering

  20. Use of Big-Screen Films in Multiple Childbirth Education Classroom Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Although two recent films, Orgasmic Birth and Pregnant in America, were intended for the big screen, they can also serve as valuable teaching resources in multiple childbirth education settings. Each film conveys powerful messages about birth and today's birthing culture. Depending on a childbirth educator's classroom setting (hospital, birthing center, or home birth environment), particular portions in each film, along with extra clips featured on the films' DVDs, can enhance an educator's curriculum and spark compelling discussions with class participants. PMID:21358831

  1. Online decision problems with large strategy sets

    E-print Network

    Kleinberg, Robert David

    2005-01-01

    In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the "strategy set") whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the ...

  2. Using Aggregation and Dynamic Queries for Exploring Large Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Derthick, Mark

    Using Aggregation and Dynamic Queries for Exploring Large Data Sets Jade Goldstein and Steven F­2145 Email: Jade.Goldstein@cs.cmu.edu, Steven.Roth@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT When working with large data sets interface. KEYWORDS: Interactive Techniques, Data Exploration, Data Visualization, Large Data Sets, Graphics

  3. Knowledge Discovery in Large Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Simas, Tiago; Silva, Gabriel; Miranda, Bruno; Ribeiro, Rita

    2008-12-05

    In this work we briefly address the problem of unsupervised classification on large datasets, magnitude around 100,000,000 objects. The objects are variable objects, which are around 10% of the 1,000,000,000 astronomical objects that will be collected by GAIA/ESA mission. We tested unsupervised classification algorithms on known datasets such as OGLE and Hipparcos catalogs. Moreover, we are building several templates to represent the main classes of variable objects as well as new classes to build a synthetic dataset of this dimension. In the future we will run the GAIA satellite scanning law on these templates to obtain a testable large dataset.

  4. Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes q

    E-print Network

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    Clickers in college classrooms: Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture s t r a c t What can be done to promote student­instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen

  5. Observations of Teacher-Child Interactions in Classrooms Serving Latinos and Dual Language Learners: Applicability of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Lopez, Michael L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hamagami, Aki; Pianta, Robert C.; Howes, Carollee

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of Latino and dual language learner (DLL) children attending pre-k and the importance of assessing the quality of their experiences in those settings, this study examined the extent to which a commonly used assessment of teacher-child interactions, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), demonstrated similar…

  6. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  7. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.

    2014-12-01

    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months with the installed 16Gb SD card. Initial designs and test results will be presented and discussed.

  8. Mixing times are hitting times of large sets Yuval Peres

    E-print Network

    Sousi, Perla

    Mixing times are hitting times of large sets Yuval Peres Perla Sousi April 21, 2013 Abstract We and hitting times are fundamental parameters of the chain. We relate them by showing that the mixing time of the lazy chain is equivalent to the maximum over initial states x and large sets A of the hitting time

  9. Implementing Concept-Based Learning in a Large Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David; Jutras, France

    2008-01-01

    An experiment explicitly introducing learning strategies to a large, first-year undergraduate cell biology course was undertaken to see whether awareness and use of strategies had a measurable impact on student performance. The construction of concept maps was selected as the strategy to be introduced because of an inherent coherence with a course…

  10. The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Using Coaching to Support Generalization to Real-World Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Newcomer, Lori L.; Herman, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of…

  11. Active Learning in a Large General Physics Classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trousil, Rebecca

    2008-04-01

    In 2004, we launched a new calculus-based, introductory physics sequence at Washington University. Designed as an alternative to our traditional lecture-based sequence, the primary objectives for this new course were to actively engage students in the learning process, to significantly strengthen students' conceptual reasoning skills, to help students develop higher level quantitative problem solving skills necessary for analyzing ``real world'' problems, and to integrate modern physics into the curriculum. This talk will describe our approach, using The Six Ideas That Shaped Physics text by Thomas Moore, to creating an active learning environment in large classes as well as share our perspective on key elements for success and challenges that we face in the large class environment.

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, SETTING LARGE CORE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM THE OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, SETTING LARGE CORE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM THE OVERHEAD RAIL CRANE IN BOX FLOOR MOLD AREA (WORKERS: DAN T. WELLS AND TRUMAN CARLISLE). - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. The Effects of a Teacher-Child Play Intervention on Classroom Compliance in Young Children in Child Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Darren G.; Ducharme, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of a teacher-conducted play intervention on preschool-aged children's compliance in child care settings. Study participants included 8 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years and 5 early childhood education teachers within 5 classrooms across 5 child care centers. A combination ABAB and multiple baseline…

  14. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  15. Adaptive, multiresolution visualization of large data sets using parallel octrees.

    SciTech Connect

    Freitag, L. A.; Loy, R. M.

    1999-06-10

    The interactive visualization and exploration of large scientific data sets is a challenging and difficult task; their size often far exceeds the performance and memory capacity of even the most powerful graphics work-stations. To address this problem, we have created a technique that combines hierarchical data reduction methods with parallel computing to allow interactive exploration of large data sets while retaining full-resolution capability. The hierarchical representation is built in parallel by strategically inserting field data into an octree data structure. We provide functionality that allows the user to interactively adapt the resolution of the reduced data sets so that resolution is increased in regions of interest without sacrificing local graphics performance. We describe the creation of the reduced data sets using a parallel octree, the software architecture of the system, and the performance of this system on the data from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability simulation.

  16. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Classrooms that Work: Teaching Generic Skills in Academic and Vocational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasz, Cathleen; And Others

    This report documents the second of two studies on teaching and learning generic skills in high schools. It extends the earlier work by providing a model for designing classroom instruction in both academic and vocational classrooms where teaching generic skills is an instructional goal. Ethnographic field methods were used to observe, record, and…

  18. Detecting Inconsistencies in Large Biological Networks with Answer Set Programming

    E-print Network

    Gebser, Martin; Thiele, Sven; Veber, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an approach to detecting inconsistencies in large biological networks by using Answer Set Programming (ASP). To this end, we build upon a recently proposed notion of consistency between biochemical/genetic reactions and high-throughput profiles of cell activity. We then present an approach based on ASP to check the consistency of large-scale data sets. Moreover, we extend this methodology to provide explanations for inconsistencies by determining minimal representations of conflicts. In practice, this can be used to identify unreliable data or to indicate missing reactions.

  19. Teaching and learning in an integrated curriculum setting: A case study of classroom practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMath, Sheryl Lynn

    Curriculum integration, while a commonly used educational term, remains a challenging concept to define and examine both in research and in classroom practice. Numerous types and definitions of curriculum integration exist in educational research, while, in comparison, teachers tend to focus on curriculum integration simply as a mixing of subject areas. To better understand curriculum integration in practice, this thesis details a case study that examines both teacher and student perspectives regarding a grade nine integrated unit on energy. Set in a public secondary school in Ontario, Canada, I comprehensively describe and analyze teacher understandings of, and challenges with, the implementation of an integrated unit, while also examining student perspectives and academic learning. My participants consisted of two high school teachers, a geography teacher and a science teacher, and their twenty-three students. Using data gathered from interviews before, during, and after the implementation of a 16-lesson unit, as well as observations throughout, I completed a case description and thematic analysis. My results illustrate the importance of examining why teachers choose to implement an integrated unit and the planning and scheduling challenges that exist. In addition, while the students in this study were academically successful, clarification is needed regarding whether student success can be linked to the integration of these two subjects or the types of activities these two teachers utilized.

  20. Multiview Registration for Large Data Sets Stanford University

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    ­ ware registration step is required to align the scans into a single coordinate system. Most publishedMultiview Registration for Large Data Sets Kari Pulli Stanford University Stanford, CA, U.S.A kapu@graphics.stanford.edu Abstract In this paper we present a multiview registration method for aligning range data. We first align

  1. Clusterability Detection and Initial Seed Selection in Large Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Bystroff, Chris

    Clusterability Detection and Initial Seed Selection in Large Data Sets Scott Epter \\Lambda Mukkai Krishnamoorthy Mohammed Zaki fepters,moorthy,zakig@cs.rpi.edu Paper # 368 Abstract The need for a preliminary useful seed input to a chosen clustering algorithm. We present a framework for the definition

  2. Detecting Inconsistencies in Large Biological Networks with Answer Set Programming

    E-print Network

    Schaub, Torsten

    with the analysis of high-throughput measurements in molec- ular biology, like microarray data or metabolic profiles of magnitude more data than was procurable before. Furthermore, there is an increas- ing number of biologicalDetecting Inconsistencies in Large Biological Networks with Answer Set Programming Martin Gebser1

  3. Intelligent Archiving and Physics Mining of Large Data Sets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, H.

    2009-12-01

    There are unique challenges in all aspects related to large data sets, from storage, search and access, to analysis and file sharing. With few exceptions, the adoption of the latest technologies to deal with the management and mining of large data sets has been slow in heliosciences. Web services such as CDAweb have been very successful and have been widely adopted by the community. There are also significant efforts going towards Virtual Observatories (VxOs). The main thrust of VxOs has so far been on data discovery, aggregation and uniform presentation. While work remains, many VxOs can now be used to access data. However data is not knowledge and the challenge of extracting physics from the large data sets remains. Here we review our efforts on (i) implementing advanced data mining techniques as part of the data-to-knowledge discovery pipeline, and (ii) use of social networking paradigm in the development of a science collaboratory environment that enables sharing of large files, creation of projects, among others. We will present new data mining software that works on a variety of data formats and demonstrate its capability through several examples of analysis of spacecraft data. The use of such techniques in intelligent archiving will be discussed. Finally, the use of our science collaboratory service and its unique sharing features such as universal accessibility of staged files will be illustrated.

  4. The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

  5. Increasing the Writing Performance of Urban Seniors Placed At-Risk through Goal-Setting in a Culturally Responsive and Creativity-Centered Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Brittany; Warren, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to support marginalized students require not only identifying systemic inequities, but providing a classroom infrastructure that supports the academic achievement of all students. This action research study examined the effects of implementing goal-setting strategies and emphasizing creativity in a culturally responsive classroom (CRC) on…

  6. Mobile Learning in a Large Blended Computer Science Classroom: System Function, Pedagogies, and Their Impact on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ruimin; Wang, Minjuan; Gao, Wanping; Novak, D.; Tang, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The computer science classes in China's institutions of higher education often have large numbers of students. In addition, many institutions offer "blended" classes that include both on-campus and online students. These large blended classrooms have long suffered from a lack of interactivity. Many online classes simply provide recorded instructor…

  7. STEME: a robust, accurate motif finder for large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Motif finding is a difficult problem that has been studied for over 20 years. Some older popular motif finders are not suitable for analysis of the large data sets generated by next-generation sequencing. We recently published an efficient approximation (STEME) to the EM algorithm that is at the core of many motif finders such as MEME. This approximation allows the EM algorithm to be applied to large data sets. In this work we describe several efficient extensions to STEME that are based on the MEME algorithm. Together with the original STEME EM approximation, these extensions make STEME a fully-fledged motif finder with similar properties to MEME. We discuss the difficulty of objectively comparing motif finders. We show that STEME performs comparably to existing prominent discriminative motif finders, DREME and Trawler, on 13 sets of transcription factor binding data in mouse ES cells. We demonstrate the ability of STEME to find long degenerate motifs which these discriminative motif finders do not find. As part of our method, we extend an earlier method due to Nagarajan et al. for the efficient calculation of motif E-values. STEME's source code is available under an open source license and STEME is available via a web interface. PMID:24625410

  8. Robust Coordination for Large Sets of Simple Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The ability to coordinate sets of rovers in an unknown environment is critical to the long-term success of many of NASA;s exploration missions. Such coordination policies must have the ability to adapt in unmodeled or partially modeled domains and must be robust against environmental noise and rover failures. In addition such coordination policies must accommodate a large number of rovers, without excessive and burdensome hand-tuning. In this paper we present a distributed coordination method that addresses these issues in the domain of controlling a set of simple rovers. The application of these methods allows reliable and efficient robotic exploration in dangerous, dynamic, and previously unexplored domains. Most control policies for space missions are directly programmed by engineers or created through the use of planning tools, and are appropriate for single rover missions or missions requiring the coordination of a small number of rovers. Such methods typically require significant amounts of domain knowledge, and are difficult to scale to large numbers of rovers. The method described in this article aims to address cases where a large number of rovers need to coordinate to solve a complex time dependent problem in a noisy environment. In this approach, each rover decomposes a global utility, representing the overall goal of the system, into rover-specific utilities that properly assign credit to the rover s actions. Each rover then has the responsibility to create a control policy that maximizes its own rover-specific utility. We show a method of creating rover-utilities that are "aligned" with the global utility, such that when the rovers maximize their own utility, they also maximize the global utility. In addition we show that our method creates rover-utilities that allow the rovers to create their control policies quickly and reliably. Our distributed learning method allows large sets rovers be used unmodeled domains, while providing robustness against rover failures and changing environments. In experimental simulations we show that our method scales well with large numbers of rovers in addition to being robust against noisy sensor inputs and noisy servo control. The results show that our method is able to scale to large numbers of rovers and achieves up to 400% performance improvement over standard machine learning methods.

  9. Optimizing distance-based methods for large data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Tobias; Brenner, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Distance-based methods for measuring spatial concentration of industries have received an increasing popularity in the spatial econometrics community. However, a limiting factor for using these methods is their computational complexity since both their memory requirements and running times are in {{O}}(n^2). In this paper, we present an algorithm with constant memory requirements and shorter running time, enabling distance-based methods to deal with large data sets. We discuss three recent distance-based methods in spatial econometrics: the D&O-Index by Duranton and Overman (Rev Econ Stud 72(4):1077-1106, 2005), the M-function by Marcon and Puech (J Econ Geogr 10(5):745-762, 2010) and the Cluster-Index by Scholl and Brenner (Reg Stud (ahead-of-print):1-15, 2014). Finally, we present an alternative calculation for the latter index that allows the use of data sets with millions of firms.

  10. Form invariance symmetry generates a large set of FRW cosmologies

    E-print Network

    Chimento, Luis P; G, Iván E Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    We show that Einstein's field equations for spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space times have a form invariance symmetry (FIS) realized by the form invariance transformations (FIT) which are indeed generated by an invertible function of the source energy density. These transformations act on the Hubble expansion rate, the energy density, and pressure of the cosmic fluid; likewise such transformations are endowed with a Lie group structure. Each representation of this group is associated with a particular fluid and consequently a determined cosmology, so that, the FIS defines a set of equivalent cosmological models. We focus our seek in the FIT generated by a linear function because it provides a natural framework to express the duality and also produces a large sets of cosmologies, starting from a seed one, in several contexts as for instance in the cases of a perfect fluid source and a scalar field driven by a potential depending linearly on the scalar field kinetic energy density.

  11. A large-scale crop protection bioassay data set

    PubMed Central

    Gaulton, Anna; Kale, Namrata; van Westen, Gerard J. P.; Bellis, Louisa J.; Bento, A. Patrícia; Davies, Mark; Hersey, Anne; Papadatos, George; Forster, Mark; Wege, Philip; Overington, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ChEMBL is a large-scale drug discovery database containing bioactivity information primarily extracted from scientific literature. Due to the medicinal chemistry focus of the journals from which data are extracted, the data are currently of most direct value in the field of human health research. However, many of the scientific use-cases for the current data set are equally applicable in other fields, such as crop protection research: for example, identification of chemical scaffolds active against a particular target or endpoint, the de-convolution of the potential targets of a phenotypic assay, or the potential targets/pathways for safety liabilities. In order to broaden the applicability of the ChEMBL database and allow more widespread use in crop protection research, an extensive data set of bioactivity data of insecticidal, fungicidal and herbicidal compounds and assays was collated and added to the database. PMID:26175909

  12. Negative Behavior of Teachers with Regard to High School Students in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Good behavior is a necessary condition for effective teaching. There are few children who come to school without problems. Children's behavior at school appears to be strongly affected by within school factors. In this qualitative case study, the teachers' negative behavior with regard to the high school last year students in the classroom

  13. Observing Students in Classroom Settings: A Review of Seven Coding Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; DiPerna, James C.; Hintze, John M.; Shapiro, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of coding schemes are available for direct observational assessment of student classroom behavior. These instruments have been used for a number of assessment tasks including screening children in need of further evaluation for emotional and behavior problems, diagnostic assessment of emotional and behavior problems, assessment of…

  14. Teachers on Television. Observing Teachers and Students in Diverse Classroom Settings through the Technology of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Coll. of Education.

    Because most teacher preparation institutions have extensive needs for numerous field experiences, the Teachers on Television (TOT) project was first conceived to meet demands for observation opportunities through the use of television technology. The TOT project provided live direct observations via television broadcasts from classrooms located…

  15. Support vector machine classifiers for large data sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, E. M.; Griffin, J. D.

    2006-01-31

    This report concerns the generation of support vector machine classifiers for solving the pattern recognition problem in machine learning. Several methods are proposed based on interior point methods for convex quadratic programming. Software implementations are developed by adapting the object-oriented packaging OOQP to the problem structure and by using the software package PETSc to perform time-intensive computations in a distributed setting. Linear systems arising from classification problems with moderately large numbers of features are solved by using two techniques--one a parallel direct solver, the other a Krylov-subspace method incorporating novel preconditioning strategies. Numerical results are provided, and computational experience is discussed.

  16. JHelioviewer - Visualizing large sets of solar images using JPEG 2000

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Daniel; Caplins, Benjamin; Ortiz, Juan Pablo Garcia; Wamsler, Benjamin; Hughitt, Keith; Alexanderian, Alen; Ireland, Jack; Amadigwe, Desmond; Fleck, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Across all disciplines that work with image data - from astrophysics to medical research and historic preservation - there is a growing need for efficient ways to browse and inspect large sets of high-resolution images. We present the development of a visualization software for solar physics data based on the JPEG 2000 image compression standard. Our implementation consists of the JHelioviewer client application that enables users to browse petabyte-scale image archives and the JHelioviewer server, which integrates a JPIP server, metadata catalog and an event server. JPEG 2000 offers many useful new features and has the potential to revolutionize the way high-resolution image data are disseminated and analyzed. This is especially relevant for solar physics, a research field in which upcoming space missions will provide more than a terabyte of image data per day. Providing efficient access to such large data volumes at both high spatial and high time resolution is of paramount importance to support scientific ...

  17. Service user involvement in pre-registration mental health nurse education classroom settings: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Terry, J

    2012-11-01

    Service user involvement in pre-registration nurse education is now a requirement, yet little is known about how students engage with users in the classroom, how such initiatives are being evaluated, how service users are prepared themselves to teach students, or the potential influence on clinical practice. The aim of this literature review was to bring together published articles on service user involvement in classroom settings in pre-registration mental health nurse education programmes, including their evaluations. A comprehensive review of the literature was carried out via computer search engines and the Internet, as well as a hand search of pertinent journals and references. This produced eight papers that fitted the inclusion criteria, comprising four empirical studies and four review articles, which were then reviewed using a seven-item checklist. The articles revealed a range of teaching and learning strategies had been employed, ranging from exposure to users' personal stories, to students being required to demonstrate awareness of user perspectives in case study presentations, with others involving eLearning and assessment skills initiatives. This review concludes that further longitudinal research is needed to establish the influence of user involvement in the classroom over time. PMID:22296494

  18. Using Mobile Phones to Increase Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Stephanie; Heaney, Rose; Corcoran, Olivia; Henderson-Begg, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the possible benefits of using mobile phones to increase interaction and promote active learning in large classroom settings. First year undergraduate students studying Cellular Processes at the University of East London took part in a trial of a new text-based classroom interaction system and evaluated their experience by…

  19. Fitting semiparametric random effects models to large data sets.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Michael L; Dunson, David B

    2007-10-01

    For large data sets, it can be difficult or impossible to fit models with random effects using standard algorithms due to memory limitations or high computational burdens. In addition, it would be advantageous to use the abundant information to relax assumptions, such as normality of random effects. Motivated by data from an epidemiologic study of childhood growth, we propose a 2-stage method for fitting semiparametric random effects models to longitudinal data with many subjects. In the first stage, we use a multivariate clustering method to identify G

  20. Visualizing large data sets in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William; Santek, David

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the capabilities of McIDAS, an interactive visualization system that is vastly increasing the ability of earth scientists to manage and analyze data from remote sensing instruments and numerical simulation models. McIDAS provides animated three-dimensionsal images and highly interactive displays. The software can manage, analyze, and visualize large data sets that span many physical variables (such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind speed), as well as time and three spatial dimensions. The McIDAS system manages data from at least 100 different sources. The data management tools consist of data structures for storing different data types in files, libraries of routines for accessing these data structures, system commands for performing housekeeping functions on the data files, and reformatting programs for converting external data to the system's data structures. The McIDAS tools for three-dimensional visualization of meteorological data run on an IBM mainframe and can load up to 128-frame animation sequences into the workstations. A highly interactive version of the system can provide an interactive window into data sets containing tens of millions of points produced by numerical models and remote sensing instruments. The visualizations are being used for teaching as well as by scientists.

  1. Universal trees based on large combined protein sequence data sets.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Douady, C J; Italia, M J; Marshall, W E; Stanhope, M J

    2001-07-01

    Universal trees of life based on small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) support the separate mono/holophyly of the domains Archaea (archaebacteria), Bacteria (eubacteria) and Eucarya (eukaryotes) and the placement of extreme thermophiles at the base of the Bacteria. The concept of universal tree reconstruction recently has been upset by protein trees that show intermixing of species from different domains. Such tree topologies have been attributed to either extensive horizontal gene transfer or degradation of phylogenetic signals because of saturation for amino acid substitutions. Here we use large combined alignments of 23 orthologous proteins conserved across 45 species from all domains to construct highly robust universal trees. Although individual protein trees are variable in their support of domain integrity, trees based on combined protein data sets strongly support separate monophyletic domains. Within the Bacteria, we placed spirochaetes as the earliest derived bacterial group. However, elimination from the combined protein alignment of nine protein data sets, which were likely candidates for horizontal gene transfer, resulted in trees showing thermophiles as the earliest evolved bacterial lineage. Thus, combined protein universal trees are highly congruent with SSU rRNA trees in their strong support for the separate monophyly of domains as well as the early evolution of thermophilic Bacteria. PMID:11431701

  2. Parallel Analysis Tools for Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Robert; Krishna, Jayesh; Xu, Xiabing; Mickelson, Sheri; Wilde, Mike; Peterson, Kara; Bochev, Pavel; Latham, Robert; Tautges, Tim; Brown, David; Brownrigg, Richard; Haley, Mary; Shea, Dennis; Huang, Wei; Middleton, Don; Schuchardt, Karen; Yin, Jian

    2013-04-01

    While climate models have used parallelism for several years, the post-processing tools are still mostly single-threaded applications and many are closed source. These tools are becoming a bottleneck in the production of new climate knowledge when they confront terabyte-sized output from high-resolution climate models. The ParVis project is using and creating Free and Open Source tools that bring data and task parallelism to climate model analysis to enable analysis of large climate data sets. ParVis is using the Swift task-parallel language to implement a diagnostic suite that generates over 600 plots of atmospheric quantities. ParVis has also created a Parallel Gridded Analysis Library (ParGAL) which implements many common climate analysis operations in a data-parallel fashion using the Message Passing Interface. ParGAL has in turn been built on sophisticated packages for describing grids in parallel (the Mesh Oriented database (MOAB), performing vector operations on arbitrary grids (Intrepid) and reading data in parallel (PnetCDF). ParGAL is being used to implement a parallel version of the NCAR Command Language (NCL) called ParNCL. ParNCL/ParCAL not only speeds up analysis of large datasets but also allows operations to be performed on native grids, eliminating the need to transform data to latitude-longitude grids. All of the tools ParVis is creating are available as free and open source software.

  3. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    PubMed

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH. PMID:26172567

  4. Recruiting Participants for Large-Scale Random Assignment Experiments in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Gallagher, H. Alix; Murphy, Robert; Harris, Christopher; Kamdar, Danae; Trinidad, Gucci

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment is a key challenge for researchers conducting any large school-based study. Control is needed not only over the condition participants receive, but also over how the intervention is implemented, and may include restrictions in other areas of school and classroom functioning. We report here on our experiences in recruiting participants…

  5. A Day in Third Grade: A Large-Scale Study of Classroom Quality and Teacher and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary School Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Observations of 780 third-grade classrooms described classroom activities, child-teacher interactions, and dimensions of the global classroom environment, which were examined in relation to structural aspects of the classroom and child behavior. 1 child per classroom was targeted for observation in relation to classroom quality and teacher and…

  6. Web based visualization of large climate data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alder, Jay R.; Hostetler, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    We have implemented the USGS National Climate Change Viewer (NCCV), which is an easy-to-use web application that displays future projections from global climate models over the United States at the state, county and watershed scales. We incorporate the NASA NEX-DCP30 statistically downscaled temperature and precipitation for 30 global climate models being used in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and hydrologic variables we simulated using a simple water-balance model. Our application summarizes very large, complex data sets at scales relevant to resource managers and citizens and makes climate-change projection information accessible to users of varying skill levels. Tens of terabytes of high-resolution climate and water-balance data are distilled to compact binary format summary files that are used in the application. To alleviate slow response times under high loads, we developed a map caching technique that reduces the time it takes to generate maps by several orders of magnitude. The reduced access time scales to >500 concurrent users. We provide code examples that demonstrate key aspects of data processing, data exporting/importing and the caching technique used in the NCCV.

  7. Challenges Associated With Using Large Data Sets for Quality Assessment and Research in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bevin; Vawdrey, David K; Liu, Jianfang; Caplan, David; Furuya, E Yoko; Mis, Frederick W; Larson, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    The rapidly expanding use of electronic records in health-care settings is generating unprecedented quantities of data available for clinical, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness research. Several challenges are associated with using these data for clinical research, including issues surrounding access and information security, poor data quality, inconsistency of data within and across institutions, and a paucity of staff with expertise to manage and manipulate large clinical data sets. In this article, we describe our experience with assembling a data-mart and conducting clinical research using electronic data from four facilities within a single hospital network in New York City. We culled data from several electronic sources, including the institution's admission-discharge-transfer system, cost accounting system, electronic health record, clinical data warehouse, and departmental records. The final data-mart contained information for more than 760,000 discharges occurring from 2006 through 2012. Using categories identified by the National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge initiative as a framework, we outlined challenges encountered during the development and use of a domain-specific data-mart and recommend approaches to overcome these challenges. PMID:26351216

  8. Challenges Associated With Using Large Data Sets for Quality Assessment and Research in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bevin; Vawdrey, David K.; Liu, Jianfang; Caplan, David; Furuya, E. Yoko; Mis, Frederick W.; Larson, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding use of electronic records in health-care settings is generating unprecedented quantities of data available for clinical, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness research. Several challenges are associated with using these data for clinical research, including issues surrounding access and information security, poor data quality, inconsistency of data within and across institutions, and a paucity of staff with expertise to manage and manipulate large clinical data sets. In this article, we describe our experience with assembling a data-mart and conducting clinical research using electronic data from four facilities within a single hospital network in New York City. We culled data from several electronic sources, including the institution’s admission-discharge-transfer system, cost accounting system, electronic health record, clinical data warehouse, and departmental records. The final data-mart contained information for more than 760,000 discharges occurring from 2006 through 2012. Using categories identified by the National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge initiative as a framework, we outlined challenges encountered during the development and use of a domain-specific data-mart and recommend approaches to overcome these challenges. PMID:26351216

  9. Using JPEG 2000 interactive protocol to stream a large image or a large image set.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita; Pambrun, Jean-François

    2011-10-01

    The electronic health record (EHR) is expected to improve the quality of care by enabling access to relevant information at the diagnostic decision moment. During deployment efforts for including images in the EHR, a main challenge has come up from the need to compare old images with current ones. When old images reside in a different system, they need to be imported for visualization which leads to a problem related to persistency management and information consistency. A solution consisting in avoiding image import is achievable with image streaming. In this paper we present, evaluate, and discuss two medical-specific streaming use cases: displaying a large image such as a digital mammography image and displaying a large set of relatively small images such as a large CT series. PMID:20978921

  10. The UCI KDD Archive of Large Data Sets for Data Mining Research and Experimentation

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    The UCI KDD Archive of Large Data Sets for Data Mining Research and Experimentation Stephen D. Bay.ics.uci.eduwhich is a new online archive of large and complex data sets that encompasses a wide variety of data types on relatively small data sets. While it is clear that in the long run large data sets will eventually become

  11. Safety and science at sea: connecting science research settings to the classroom through live video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E.; Peart, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many science teachers start the year off with classroom safety topics. Annual repetition helps with mastery of this important and basic knowledge, while helping schools to meet their legal obligations for safe lab science. Although these lessons are necessary, they are often topical, rarely authentic and relatively dull. Interesting connections can, however, be drawn between the importance of safety in science classrooms and the importance of safety in academic laboratories, fieldwork, shipboard research, and commercial research. Teachers can leverage these connections through live video interactions with scientists in the field, thereby creating an authentic learning environment. During the School of Rock 2009, a professional teacher research experience aboard the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's research vessel JOIDES Resolution, safety and nature-of-science curricula were created to help address this need. By experimenting with various topics and locations on the ship that were accessible and applicable to middle school learning, 43 highly visual "safety signs" and activities were identified and presented "live" by graduate students, teachers, scientists; the ship's mates, doctor and technical staff. Students were exposed to realistic science process skills along with safety content from the world's only riserless, deep-sea drilling research vessel. The once-in-a-lifetime experience caused the students' eyes to brighten behind their safety glasses, especially as they recognized the same eye wash station and safety gear they have to wear and attended a ship's fire and safety drill along side scientists in hard hats and personal floatation devices. This collaborative and replicable live vide approach will connect basic safety content and nature-of-science process skills for a memorable and authentic learning experience for students.

  12. An Exploration Tool for Very Large Spectrum Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present an exploration tool for very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, and 4MOST data sets. The tool works in two stages: the first uses batch processing and the second runs interactively. The latter employs the NASA hyperwall, a configuration of 128 workstation displays (8x16 array) controlled by a parallelized software suite running on NASA's Pleiades supercomputer. The stellar subset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 was chosen to show how the tool may be used. In stage one, SDSS files for 569,738 stars are processed through our data pipeline. The pipeline fits each spectrum using an iterative continuum algorithm, distinguishing emission from absorption and handling molecular absorption bands correctly. It then measures 1659 discrete atomic and molecular spectral features that were carefully preselected based on their likelihood of being visible at some spectral type. The depths relative to the local continuum at each feature wavelength are determined for each spectrum: these depths, the local S/N level, and DR10-supplied variables such as magnitudes, colors, positions, and radial velocities are the basic measured quantities used on the hyperwall. In stage two, each hyperwall panel is used to display a 2-D scatter plot showing the depth of feature A vs the depth of feature B for all of the stars. A and B change from panel to panel. The relationships between the various (A,B) strengths and any distinctive clustering are immediately apparent when examining and inter-comparing the different panels on the hyperwall. The interactive software allows the user to select the stars in any interesting region of any 2-D plot on the hyperwall, immediately rendering the same stars on all the other 2-D plots in a unique color. The process may be repeated multiple times, each selection displaying a distinctive color on all the plots. At any time, the spectra of the selected stars may be examined in detail on a connected workstation display. We illustrate how our approach allows us to quickly isolate and examine such interesting stellar subsets as EMP stars, CV stars and C-rich stars.

  13. Impact of Abbreviated Lecture with Interactive Mini-cases vs Traditional Lecture on Student Performance in the Large Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Nykamp, Diane L.; Momary, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare the impact of 2 different teaching and learning methods on student mastery of learning objectives in a pharmacotherapy module in the large classroom setting. Design. Two teaching and learning methods were implemented and compared in a required pharmacotherapy module for 2 years. The first year, multiple interactive mini-cases with inclass individual assessment and an abbreviated lecture were used to teach osteoarthritis; a traditional lecture with 1 inclass case discussion was used to teach gout. In the second year, the same topics were used but the methods were flipped. Student performance on pre/post individual readiness assessment tests (iRATs), case questions, and subsequent examinations were compared each year by the teaching and learning method and then between years by topic for each method. Students also voluntarily completed a 20-item evaluation of the teaching and learning methods. Assessment. Postpresentation iRATs were significantly higher than prepresentation iRATs for each topic each year with the interactive mini-cases; there was no significant difference in iRATs before and after traditional lecture. For osteoarthritis, postpresentation iRATs after interactive mini-cases in year 1 were significantly higher than postpresentation iRATs after traditional lecture in year 2; the difference in iRATs for gout per learning method was not significant. The difference between examination performance for osteoarthritis and gout was not significant when the teaching and learning methods were compared. On the student evaluations, 2 items were significant both years when answers were compared by teaching and learning method. Each year, students ranked their class participation higher with interactive cases than with traditional lecture, but both years they reported enjoying the traditional lecture format more. Conclusion. Multiple interactive mini-cases with an abbreviated lecture improved immediate mastery of learning objectives compared to a traditional lecture format, regardless of therapeutic topic, but did not improve student performance on subsequent examinations. PMID:25657376

  14. Using Large Data Sets to Study College Education Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Hwang, Jihee

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents various considerations researchers undertook to conduct a quantitative study on low-income students using a national data set. Specifically, it describes how a critical quantitative scholar approaches guiding frameworks, variable operationalization, analytic techniques, and result interpretation. Results inform how…

  15. Setting Up an SSR Program in the Foreign Language Classroom: Some Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenewald, M. Jane

    1978-01-01

    A Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) program provides a way to upgrade reading instruction by stressing self-selection, independent practice, and the use of reading as a communication tool. Guidelines are offered for setting up SSR programs, a resource library, and scheduling SSR periods. (Author/SW)

  16. Intercultural Education Set Forward: Operational Strategies and Procedures in Cypriot Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajisoteriou, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in Cyprus are being called upon for the first time to teach within culturally diverse educational settings. Given the substantial role, teachers play in the implementation of intercultural education, this paper explores the intercultural strategies and procedures adopted by primary school teachers in Cyprus. Interviews were carried out…

  17. An Academic Approach to Stress Management for College Students in a Conventional Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, Robert E.; And Others

    Since the identification of stress and the relationship of individual stress responses to physical and mental health, medical and behavioral professionals have been training individuals in coping strategies. To investigate the possibility of teaching cognitive coping skills to a nonclinical population in an academic setting, 41 college students…

  18. Best in Class: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail K.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  19. BEST in CLASS: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  20. A Classroom Exercise in Spatial Analysis Using an Imaginary Data Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    One skill that elementary students need to acquire is the ability to analyze spatially distributed data. In this activity students are asked to complete the following tasks: (1) plot a set of data (related to "mud-sharks"--an imaginary fish) on a map of the state of Alabama, (2) identify trends in the data, (3) make graphs using the data…

  1. Teleconsultation in School Settings: Linking Classroom Teachers and Behavior Analysts Through Web-Based Technology

    PubMed Central

    Frieder, Jessica E; Peterson, Stephanie M; Woodward, Judy; Crane, JaeLee; Garner, Marlane

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a technically driven, collaborative approach to assessing the function of problem behavior using web-based technology. A case example is provided to illustrate the process used in this pilot project. A school team conducted a functional analysis with a child who demonstrated challenging behaviors in a preschool setting. Behavior analysts at a university setting provided the school team with initial workshop trainings, on-site visits, e-mail and phone communication, as well as live web-based feedback on functional analysis sessions. The school personnel implemented the functional analysis with high fidelity and scored the data reliably. Outcomes of the project suggest that there is great potential for collaboration via the use of web-based technologies for ongoing assessment and development of effective interventions. However, an empirical evaluation of this model should be conducted before wide-scale adoption is recommended. PMID:22477705

  2. Optimized Fixed-Size Kernel Models for Large Data Sets

    E-print Network

    a quadratic programming (QP) problem has to be solved in dual space in order to determine the SVM model to this reason SMO is considered as the current state-of-the-art QP solver for solving medium as well as large of the entropy based selection criterion is optimally determined according to the solve-the-equation plug

  3. Classroom Discourse and Reading Comprehension in Bilingual Settings: A Case Study of Collaborative Reasoning in a Chinese Heritage Language Learners' Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Hsiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the participation of one Chinese teacher and five 13 to 15 year-old Chinese heritage students in a classroom in a Chinese community school during group discussions about narrative texts. In this study, the teacher used Collaborative Reasoning (CR) (Anderson, et al., 2001) to help the Chinese heritage students extend…

  4. Classroom Response Systems for Implementing "Interactive Inquiry" in Large Organic Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Richard W.; Caughran, Joel A.; Sauers, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed "sequence response applications" for classroom response systems (CRSs) that allow instructors to engage and actively involve students in the learning process, probe for common misconceptions regarding lecture material, and increase interaction between instructors and students. "Guided inquiry" and…

  5. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  6. Out in the Classroom: Transgender Student Experiences at a Large Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Jonathan T.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty and peer interactions are 2 of the most important relationships for college students to foster (Astin, 1993). Transgender college students have an increasing visible presence on college campuses (Pusch, 2005), yet limited research exists on their experiences and struggles in the classroom environment (Garvey & Rankin, 2015; Renn,…

  7. Coaching as a Key Component in Teachers' Professional Development: Improving Classroom Practices in Head Start Settings. OPRE Report 2012-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Chrrishana M.; Modlin, Emmily L.

    2012-01-01

    Head Start CARES (Classroom-based Approaches and Resources for Emotion and Social Skill Promotion) is a large-scale, national research demonstration that was designed to test the effects of a one-year program aimed at improving pre-kindergarteners' social and emotional readiness for school. To facilitate the delivery of the program, teachers…

  8. On large sets of v -1 Lintersecting Steiner triple systems of order v

    E-print Network

    Franek, Frantisek

    is a set of cardinality v and B is a collection of 3­element subsets of V called blocks, such that each 2)/6. Some authors refer to the blocks as triples, but in this paper we wish to use the term ``triple. It is to be understood that subsequently throughout this paper the term ``large set'' means a ``minimal large set'' and

  9. Approximate Single Linkage Cluster Analysis of Large Data Sets in High

    E-print Network

    Approximate Single Linkage Cluster Analysis of Large Data Sets in High Dimensional Spaces William F 15213­3890 May 9, 1995 Abstract Motivated by a real­world data set of more than 40,000 observa­ tions, we consider single linkage clustering of large data sets in high di­ mensional spaces

  10. Director of Classroom Classroom Facilities

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Director of Classroom Management Classroom Facilities Coordination Classroom Technical Services Class Schedule Course Database Schedule Planning & Production Schedule Inquiries Web Viewer Utilization Williamson Reception Classroom Facilities Operations & Readiness Classroom Repair & Maintenance Classroom

  11. Assessing the Effectiveness of Inquiry-based Learning Techniques Implemented in Large Classroom Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

    2001-12-01

    Geoscience and education faculty at The University of Akron jointly developed a series of inquiry-based learning modules aimed at both non-major and major student populations enrolled in introductory geology courses. These courses typically serve 2500 students per year in four to six classes of 40-160 students each per section. Twelve modules were developed that contained common topics and assessments appropriate to Earth Science, Environmental Geology and Physical Geology classes. All modules were designed to meet four primary learning objectives agreed upon by Department of Geology faculty. These major objectives include: 1) Improvement of student understanding of the scientific method; 2) Incorporation of problem solving strategies involving analysis, synthesis, and interpretation; 3) Development of the ability to distinguish between inferences, data and observations; and 4) Obtaining an understanding of basic processes that operate on Earth. Additional objectives that may be addressed by selected modules include: 1) The societal relevance of science; 2) Use and interpretation of quantitative data to better understand the Earth; 3) Development of the students' ability to communicate scientific results; 4) Distinguishing differences between science, religion and pseudo-science; 5) Evaluation of scientific information found in the mass media; and 6) Building interpersonal relationships through in-class group work. Student pre- and post-instruction progress was evaluated by administering a test of logical thinking, an attitude toward science survey, and formative evaluations. Scores from the logical thinking instrument were used to form balanced four-person working groups based on the students' incoming cognitive level. Groups were required to complete a series of activities and/or exercises that targeted different cognitive domains based upon Bloom's taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of information). Daily assessments of knowledge-level learning included evaluations of student responses to pre- and post-instruction conceptual test questions, short group exercises and content-oriented exam questions. Higher level thinking skills were assessed when students completed exercises that required the completion of Venn diagrams, concept maps and/or evaluation rubrics both during class periods and on exams. Initial results indicate that these techniques improved student attendance significantly and improved overall retention in the course by 8-14% over traditional lecture formats. Student scores on multiple choice exam questions were slightly higher (1-3%) for students taught in the active learning environment and short answer questions showed larger gains (7%) over students' scores in a more traditional class structure.

  12. Processing large remote sensing image data sets on Beowulf clusters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Schmidt, Gail

    2003-01-01

    High-performance computing is often concerned with the speed at which floating- point calculations can be performed. The architectures of many parallel computers and/or their network topologies are based on these investigations. Often, benchmarks resulting from these investigations are compiled with little regard to how a large dataset would move about in these systems. This part of the Beowulf study addresses that concern by looking at specific applications software and system-level modifications. Applications include an implementation of a smoothing filter for time-series data, a parallel implementation of the decision tree algorithm used in the Landcover Characterization project, a parallel Kriging algorithm used to fit point data collected in the field on invasive species to a regular grid, and modifications to the Beowulf project's resampling algorithm to handle larger, higher resolution datasets at a national scale. Systems-level investigations include a feasibility study on Flat Neighborhood Networks and modifications of that concept with Parallel File Systems.

  13. Evaluation of Data Visualization Software for Large Astronomical Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Matthew; Taylor, Roger S.; Kanbur, Shashi; Schofield, Damian; Donalek, Ciro; Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Davidoff, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of a 3D visualization application used to classify various types of stars using data derived from large synoptic sky surveys. Evaluation methodology included a cognitive walkthrough that prompted participants to identify a specific star type (Supernovae, RR Lyrae or Eclipsing Binary) and retrieve variable information (MAD, magratio, amplitude, frequency) from the star. This study also implemented a heuristic evaluation that applied usability standards such as the Shneiderman Visual Information Seeking Mantra to the initial iteration of the application. Findings from the evaluation indicated that improvements could be made to the application by developing effective spatial organization and implementing data reduction techniques such as linking, brushing, and small multiples.

  14. Identification of a large set of rare complete human knockouts.

    PubMed

    Sulem, Patrick; Helgason, Hannes; Oddson, Asmundur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Zink, Florian; Hjartarson, Eirikur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar Th; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Magnusson, Olafur Th; Kong, Augustine; Helgason, Agnar; Holm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Masson, Gisli; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-05-01

    Loss-of-function mutations cause many mendelian diseases. Here we aimed to create a catalog of autosomal genes that are completely knocked out in humans by rare loss-of-function mutations. We sequenced the whole genomes of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed the sequence variants identified in this set into 101,584 additional chip-genotyped and phased Icelanders. We found a total of 6,795 autosomal loss-of-function SNPs and indels in 4,924 genes. Of the genotyped Icelanders, 7.7% are homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for loss-of-function mutations with a minor allele frequency (MAF) below 2% in 1,171 genes (complete knockouts). Genes that are highly expressed in the brain are less often completely knocked out than other genes. Homozygous loss-of-function offspring of two heterozygous parents occurred less frequently than expected (deficit of 136 per 10,000 transmissions for variants with MAF <2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10-261). PMID:25807282

  15. Value-based customer grouping from large retail data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehl, Alexander; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we propose OPOSSUM, a novel similarity-based clustering algorithm using constrained, weighted graph- partitioning. Instead of binary presence or absence of products in a market-basket, we use an extended 'revenue per product' measure to better account for management objectives. Typically the number of clusters desired in a database marketing application is only in the teens or less. OPOSSUM proceeds top-down, which is more efficient and takes a small number of steps to attain the desired number of clusters as compared to bottom-up agglomerative clustering approaches. OPOSSUM delivers clusters that are balanced in terms of either customers (samples) or revenue (value). To facilitate data exploration and validation of results we introduce CLUSION, a visualization toolkit for high-dimensional clustering problems. To enable closed loop deployment of the algorithm, OPOSSUM has no user-specified parameters. Thresholding heuristics are avoided and the optimal number of clusters is automatically determined by a search for maximum performance. Results are presented on a real retail industry data-set of several thousand customers and products, to demonstrate the power of the proposed technique.

  16. Experiments and other methods for developing expertise with design of experiments in a classroom setting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The only way to gain genuine expertise in Statistical Process Control (SPC) and the design of experiments (DOX) is with repeated practice, but not on canned problems with dead data sets. Rather, one must negotiate a wide variety of problems each with its own peculiarities and its own constantly changing data. The problems should not be of the type for which there is a single, well-defined answer that can be looked up in a fraternity file or in some text. The problems should match as closely as possible the open-ended types for which there is always an abundance of uncertainty. These are the only kinds that arise in real research, whether that be basic research in academe or engineering research in industry. To gain this kind of experience, either as a professional consultant or as an industrial employee, takes years. Vast amounts of money, not to mention careers, must be put at risk. The purpose here is to outline some realistic simulation-type lab exercises that are so simple and inexpensive to run that the students can repeat them as often as desired at virtually no cost. Simulations also allow the instructor to design problems whose outcomes are as noisy as desired but still predictable within limits. Also the instructor and the students can learn a great deal more from the postmortum conducted after the exercise is completed. One never knows for sure what the true data should have been when dealing only with real life experiments. To add a bit more realism to the exercises, it is sometimes desirable to make the students pay for each experimental result from a make-believe budget allocation for the problem.

  17. Response Grids: Practical Ways to Display Large Data Sets with High Visual Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Spreadsheets are useful for large data sets but they may be too wide or too long to print as conventional tables. Response grids offer solutions to the challenges posed by any large data set. They have wide application throughout science and for every subject and context where visual data displays are designed, within education and elsewhere.…

  18. A large scale, cross-disease family health history data set Hong Yu, George Hripcsak, MD

    E-print Network

    Yu, Hong

    A large scale, cross-disease family health history data set Hong Yu, George Hripcsak, MD Department to be evaluated before applying to the study of genetic diseases, genetic counseling, and epidemiological studies. We have obtained a large scale, cross-disease family health history data set (FhhDS) from electronic

  19. Parallel Methods for Scaling Data Mining Algorithms to Large Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Robert

    Parallel Methods for Scaling Data Mining Algorithms to Large Data Sets ROBERT GROSSMAN robert.grossman@acm.org Magnify, Inc. & Laboratory for Advanced Computing/National Center for Data Mining, University of Illinois Mining Algorithms to Large Data Sets, Hanndbook on Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, Jan M Zytkow

  20. Intelligent Simulation Tools for Mining Large Scienti c Data Sets 1 Intelligent Simulation Tools for Mining

    E-print Network

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Intelligent Simulation Tools for Mining Large Scienti#12;c Data Sets 1 Intelligent Simulation Tools for Mining Large Scienti#12;c Data Sets Feng ZHAO Xerox Palo Alto Research Center 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo. Keywords Intelligent simulation, Scienti#12;c data mining, Qualitative reasoning, Reasoning about physical

  1. Genomes & Developmental Control Defining a large set of full-length clones from a

    E-print Network

    Amaya, Enrique

    Genomes & Developmental Control Defining a large set of full-length clones from a Xenopus,000 clusters and 16,000 singletons. Furthermore, we developed a computational method to identify clones of approximately 7000 such clones, the full-length (FL) clone set. The entire EST set is cloned in a eukaryotic

  2. ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION OF LARGE SET OF UNORGANIZED DATA POINTS USING THE DISTANCE FUNCTION

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Hongkai

    ANALYSIS AND VISUALIZATION OF LARGE SET OF UNORGANIZED DATA POINTS USING THE DISTANCE FUNCTION contour is used for quick visualization of the data set on di#11;erent scale and resolution. Distance contours are also used to characterize and quantify topological and geometrical properties of the data set

  3. WEB-BASED VISUAL EXPLORATION AND ERROR DETECTION IN LARGE DATA SETS

    E-print Network

    Köbben, Barend

    WEB-BASED VISUAL EXPLORATION AND ERROR DETECTION IN LARGE DATA SETS: ANTARCTIC ICEBERG TRACKING can also be used to detect errors in the data set. We report on the method used to design data sets are used to search for (possibly causal) relationships with other phenomena, e.g. in global

  4. Classroom Management and the Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…

  5. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of the public to blogging birds and engaging with remote, rural communities to Spiegeltents. This presentation will share successful public engagement and outreach events alongside some less successful experiences and lessons learnt along the way.

  6. On large sets of v -1 L-intersecting Steiner triple systems of order v

    E-print Network

    Franek, Frantisek

    is a set of cardinality v and B is a collection of 3-element subsets of V called blocks, such that each 2)/6. Some authors refer to the blocks as triples, but in this paper we wish to use the term "triple" for any. It is to be understood that subsequently throughout this paper the term "large set" means a "minimal large set" and

  7. Operational Aspects of Dealing with the Large BaBar Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Trunov, Artem G

    2003-06-13

    To date, the BaBar experiment has stored over 0.7PB of data in an Objectivity/DB database. Approximately half this data-set comprises simulated data of which more than 70% has been produced at more than 20 collaborating institutes outside of SLAC. The operational aspects of managing such a large data set and providing access to the physicists in a timely manner is a challenging and complex problem. We describe the operational aspects of managing such a large distributed data-set as well as importing and exporting data from geographically spread BaBar collaborators. We also describe problems common to dealing with such large datasets.

  8. Science in the Classroom: Finding a Balance between Autonomous Exploration and Teacher-Led Instruction in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayfeld, Irena; Brenneman, Kimberly; Gelman, Rochel

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This paper reports on children's use of science materials in preschool classrooms during their free choice time. Baseline observations showed that children and teachers rarely spend time in the designated science area. An intervention was designed to "market" the science center by introducing children to 1 science tool, the…

  9. Child and Setting Characteristics Affecting the Adult Talk Directed at Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Dwight W.; Boyd, Brian A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulty with social competence is a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder. Research on typically developing children and children with disabilities, in general, suggests the adult talk received in the classroom is related to their social development. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the types and amounts of adult talk children with…

  10. Classroom-Based Interventions and Teachers' Perceived Job Stressors and Confidence: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Head Start Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C. Cybele; Li-Grining, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Preschool teachers' job stressors have received increasing attention but have been understudied in the literature. We investigated the impacts of a classroom-based intervention, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), on teachers' perceived job stressors and confidence, as indexed by their perceptions of job control, job resources, job…

  11. An Analogous Study of Children's Attitudes Toward School in an Open Classroom Environment as Opposed to a Conventional Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeli, Doris Conti

    A study sought to determine whether intermediate age children exposed to open classroom teaching strategy have a more positive attitude toward school than intermediate age children exposed to conventional teaching strategy. The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in attitude between the two groups. The study was limited to…

  12. Initial Validation of the Prekindergarten Classroom Observation Tool and Goal Setting System for Data-Based Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, April D.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Bhavsar, Vibhuti; Landry, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    Although coaching is a popular approach for enhancing the quality of Tier 1 instruction, limited research has addressed observational measures specifically designed to focus coaching on evidence-based practices. This study explains the development of the prekindergarten (pre-k) Classroom Observation Tool (COT) designed for use in a data-based…

  13. Analogies as Tools for Meaning Making in Elementary Science Education: How Do They Work in Classroom Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Ramos, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper there is a critical overview of the role of analogies as tools for meaning making in science education, their advantages and disadvantages. Two empirical studies on the use of analogies in primary classrooms are discussed and analysed. In the first study, the "string circuit" analogy was used in the teaching of electric circuits with…

  14. A Few More Large Sets of t-Designs Yeow Meng Chee,1

    E-print Network

    Chee, Yeow Meng

    . CCC 1063 8539/98/040293-16 293 #12;294 CHEE AND MAGLIVERAS design for all s, 0 s t, where µ = (v-s t an important part of combinatorial design theory. Teirlink's remarkable proof of the existence of t-designs for all t involves con- structing large sets of t-designs [37, 38]. Large sets of t-designs also have

  15. Graphical Methods for Reducing, Visualizing and Analyzing Large Data Sets Using Hierarchical Terminologies

    E-print Network

    Cimino, James J.

    Terminologies Xia Jing, MB, PhD1 , James J. Cimino, MD1, 2 1 National Library of Medicine, 2 Clinical Center large data sets in which the data are coded with a hierarchical terminology. Methods: We use a hierarchical terminology to organize a data set and display it in a graph. We reduce the size and complexity

  16. Any Questions? An Application of Weick's Model of Organizing to Increase Student Involvement in the Large-Lecture Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Saperstein, Adam K.; Cafferty, Lauren A.; McClintick, Stacey H.; Bernstein, Ethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Microblogs, with their interactive nature, can engage students in community building and sensemaking. Using Weick's model of organizing as a framework, we integrated the use of micromessaging to increase student engagement in the large-lecture classroom. Students asked significantly more questions and asked a greater diversity of questions…

  17. Listserv Lemmings and Fly-brarians on the Wall: A Librarian-Instructor Team Taming the Cyberbeast in the Large Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Ruth; McBride, Kari Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Computer technology can empower students if they have the tools to find their way through print and online sources. This article describes how a reference librarian and a faculty instructor collaborated to teach research strategies and critical thinking skills (including analysis and evaluation of resources) in a large university classroom using a…

  18. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors’ alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  19. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. PMID:26033871

  20. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to develop an interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth science observation and model data sets. We will use a standard scientific data storage format and a large capacity (greater than 20 GB) optical disk system for data management; develop libraries for coordinate transformation and regridding of data sets; modify the NCSA X Image and X DataSlice software for typical Earth observation data sets by including map transformations and missing data handling; develop analysis tools for common mathematical and statistical operations; integrate the components described above into a system for the analysis and comparison of observations and model results; and distribute software and documentation to the scientific community.

  1. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    We propose to develop an interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth science observation and model data sets. We will use a standard scientific data storage format and a large capacity (greater than 20 GB) optical disk system for data management; develop libraries for coordinate transformation and regridding of data sets; modify the NCSA X Image and X Data Slice software for typical Earth observation data sets by including map transformations and missing data handling; develop analysis tools for common mathematical and statistical operations; integrate the components described above into a system for the analysis and comparison of observations and model results; and distribute software and documentation to the scientific community.

  2. Science Teachers' Decision-Making in Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) Classrooms: Taboo Subjects and Discourses of Sex and Sexuality in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Puneet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sex education, especially in the southeastern USA, remains steeped in an Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) approach, which sets up barriers to the education of sexually active students. Research confirms that science education has the potential to facilitate discussion of controversial topics, including sex education. Science teachers in the…

  3. Taking Energy to the Physics Classroom from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Xabier; Cid, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the greatest experiment in history began. When in full operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate the greatest amount of information that has ever been produced in an experiment before. It will also reveal some of the most fundamental secrets of nature. Despite the enormous amount of information available on this…

  4. Clickers in College Classrooms: Fostering Learning with Questioning Methods in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Stull, Andrew; DeLeeuw, Krista; Almeroth, Kevin; Bimber, Bruce; Chun, Dorothy; Bulger, Monica; Campbell, Julie; Knight, Allan; Zhang, Hangjin

    2009-01-01

    What can be done to promote student-instructor interaction in a large lecture class? One approach is to use a personal response system (or "clickers") in which students press a button on a hand-held remote control device corresponding to their answer to a multiple choice question projected on a screen, then see the class distribution of answers on…

  5. An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

  6. Computing Steerable Principal Components of a Large Set of Images and Their Rotations

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Colin; Singer, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We present here an efficient algorithm to compute the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of a large image set consisting of images and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane. We do this by pointing out the block circulant structure of the covariance matrix and utilizing that structure to compute its eigenvectors. We also demonstrate the advantages of this algorithm over similar ones with numerical experiments. Although it is useful in many settings, we illustrate the specific application of the algorithm to the problem of cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:21536533

  7. Development of Graphical Indices for Displaying Large Scale Building Energy Data Sets 

    E-print Network

    Abbas, M.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    OF GRAPHICAL INDICES FOR DISPLAYING LARGE SCALE BUILDING ENERGY DATA SETS Mustafa Abbas Jeff Haberl Research Associate Assistant Professor Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University, College Station, TX ABSTRACT Graphs are an effective way... and efficiently analyze data, check for errors, or establish time and temperature related trends over a large period of time. Additional information about the detailed construction of these graphs is shown in Abbas (1993). GRAPHICAL INDICES OF BUILDING...

  8. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Teresa; De Gaetano, Yvonne; Weinstein-McShane, Ruth; Paez, Doris; McCarty, Laurie; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Bakken, Jeffrey P.

    1997-01-01

    This group of classroom tips discusses the benefits of peer coaching, peer group conversation about teachers' classroom experiences, using visual displays for collegial sharing, using cultural brokers in educational settings, and the role of picture books in developing literacy skills in diverse students with disabilities. (Author/CK)

  9. Classroom Assessment in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then provide…

  10. Evaluation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becnel, Shirley

    Six classroom research-based instructional projects funded under Chapter 2 are described, and their outcomes are summarized. The projects each used computer hardware and software in the classroom setting. The projects and their salient points include: (1) the Science Technology Project, in which 48 teachers and 2,847 students in 18 schools used…

  11. Reflective Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that music teachers should use a reflective approach to classroom management that enables them to examine their teaching practices. Offers a collection of questions for classroom management to determine and improve teachers' perceptiveness, creativity, and ability to set a good example. (CMK)

  12. DocCube: Multi-Dimensional Visualization and Exploration of Large Document Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothe, Josiane; Chrisment, Claude; Dousset, Bernard; Alaux, Joel

    2003-01-01

    Describes a user interface that provides global visualizations of large document sets to help users formulate the query that corresponds to their information needs. Highlights include concept hierarchies that users can browse to specify and refine information needs; knowledge discovery in databases and texts; and multidimensional modeling.…

  13. Using Content-Specific Lyrics to Familiar Tunes in a Large Lecture Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlin, Derek T.

    2009-01-01

    Music can be used in lectures to increase student engagement and help students retain information. In this paper, I describe my use of biochemistry-related lyrics written to the tune of the theme to the television show, The Flintstones, in a large class setting (400-800 students). To determine student perceptions, the class was surveyed several…

  14. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  15. Teaching Children to Organise and Represent Large Data Sets in a Histogram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Steven; Putt, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Although some bright students in primary school are able to organise numerical data into classes, most attend to the characteristics of individuals rather than the group, and "see the trees rather than the forest". How can teachers in upper primary and early high school teach students to organise large sets of data with widely varying values into…

  16. A Wavelet Toolkit for Visualization and Analysis of Large Data Sets In Earthquake Research

    E-print Network

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    A Wavelet Toolkit for Visualization and Analysis of Large Data Sets In Earthquake Research G in earthquake physics and other nonlinear problems in the solid earth geosciences. Keywords: wavelets, visualization, grid computing, collaboration, web-based maps, earthquakes 1 Introduction As in many other fields

  17. USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA) TO OBTAIN AUXILIARY VARIABLES FOR MISSING DATA IN LARGE DATA SETS

    E-print Network

    Howard, Waylon Justin

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this dissertation is to address an important issue in the imputation of missing data in large data sets. The issue can arise in any analysis in which auxiliary variables are used to inform a modern missing data handling procedure (e...

  18. Preschoolers' Nonsymbolic Arithmetic with Large Sets: Is Addition More Accurate than Subtraction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Chan, Cindy Ho-man; Coleman, Rhea; Moxom, Lauren; Yamamoto, Eri

    2009-01-01

    Adult and developing humans share with other animals analog magnitude representations of number that support nonsymbolic arithmetic with large sets. This experiment tested the hypothesis that such representations may be more accurate for addition than for subtraction in children as young as 3 1/2 years of age. In these tasks, the experimenter hid…

  19. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  20. Large-scale detection of metals with a small set of fluorescent DNA-like chemosensors.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Lik Hang; Franzini, Raphael M; Tan, Samuel S; Kool, Eric T

    2014-10-15

    An important advantage of pattern-based chemosensor sets is their potential to detect and differentiate a large number of analytes with only few sensors. Here we test this principle at a conceptual limit by analyzing a large set of metal ion analytes covering essentially the entire periodic table, employing fluorescent DNA-like chemosensors on solid support. A tetrameric "oligodeoxyfluoroside" (ODF) library of 6561 members containing metal-binding monomers was screened for strong responders to 57 metal ions in solution. Our results show that a set of 9 chemosensors could successfully discriminate the 57 species, including alkali, alkaline earth, post-transition, transition, and lanthanide metals. As few as 6 ODF chemosensors could detect and differentiate 50 metals at 100 ?M; sensitivity for some metals was achieved at midnanomolar ranges. A blind test with 50 metals further confirmed the discriminating power of the ODFs. PMID:25255102

  1. Taking energy to the physics classroom from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, Xabier; Cid, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the greatest experiment in history began. When in full operation, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate the greatest amount of information that has ever been produced in an experiment before. It will also reveal some of the most fundamental secrets of nature. Despite the enormous amount of information available on this topic, it is not easy for non-specialists to know where the data comes from. The aim of this article is to introduce at a secondary school level a few simple physical calculations about power phenomena that will be present in the LHC: stored beam energy, power and LHC dipole, energy stored in the compact muon solenoid (CMS), energy stored in the ATLAS solenoid and toroid, delivered energy for radiofrequency (RF) cavities, and energy dissipated in dump blocks. In addition, we will be talking about one of the most important scientific institutions in the world and introducing the greatest experiment in history. The calculations that you will find in this article are adapted from physics at secondary school level, and in most cases they are just very simple approaches to the correct results.

  2. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    NATS 101 A Geological Perspective is a general education course taken by non science majors. We offer 600 seats per semester, with four large lecture sections taught by different faculty members. In the past we have offered optional once a week study groups taught by graduate teaching assistants. Students often feel overwhelmed by the science and associated jargon, and many are prone to skipping lectures altogether. Optional study groups are only attended by ~50% of the students. Faculty members find the class to be a lot of work, mainly due to the grading it generates. Activities given in lecture are often short multiple choice or true false assignments, limiting the depth of understanding we can evaluate. Our students often lack math and critical thinking skills, and we spend a lot of time in lecture reintroducing ideas students should have already gotten from the text. In summer 2007 we were funded to redesign the course. Our goals were to 1) cut the cost of running the course, and 2) improve student learning. Under our redesign optional study groups were replaced by once a week mandatory break out sessions where students complete activities that have been introduced in lecture. Break out sessions substitute for one hour of lecture, and are run by undergraduate preceptors and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). During the lecture period, lectures themselves are brief with a large portion of the class devoted to active learning in small groups. Weekly reading quizzes are submitted via the online course management system. Break out sessions allow students to spend more time interacting with their fellow students, undergraduate preceptors, and GTAs. They get one on one help in break out sessions on assignments designed to enhance the lecture material. The active lecture format means less of their time is devoted to listening passively to a lecture, and more time is spent peer learning an interacting with the instructor. Completing quizzes online allows students more freedom in when and where they complete their work, and we provide instant feedback on their submitted work. The University of Wyoming Cognition in Astronomy, Physics and Earth sciences Research (CAPER) Team, who specialize in project evaluation, are leading the evaluation effort. We are comparing pre-test to post-test gains on the Geoscience Concept Inventory and Attitudes Toward Science surveys before and after the redesign, and inductive analysis of student interviews and reflective writing that describe student perceptions of the modified learning environment. The redesign has cut the cost of the class per student by more than half. This was achieved primarily in two ways: 1) by greatly reducing the number of hours spent by faculty and graduate teaching assistants on preparation, class time, and grading; and 2) reducing the number of graduate teaching assistants required for the class and replacing many of them with undergraduate preceptors. Undergraduate preceptors are not paid, but receive academic credit for their teaching service. The savings from the redesign is used to allow faculty more time to work on institutional priorities.

  3. An Analysis Framework Addressing the Scale and Legibility of Large Scientific Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, H R

    2006-11-20

    Much of the previous work in the large data visualization area has solely focused on handling the scale of the data. This task is clearly a great challenge and necessary, but it is not sufficient. Applying standard visualization techniques to large scale data sets often creates complicated pictures where meaningful trends are lost. A second challenge, then, is to also provide algorithms that simplify what an analyst must understand, using either visual or quantitative means. This challenge can be summarized as improving the legibility or reducing the complexity of massive data sets. Fully meeting both of these challenges is the work of many, many PhD dissertations. In this dissertation, we describe some new techniques to address both the scale and legibility challenges, in hope of contributing to the larger solution. In addition to our assumption of simultaneously addressing both scale and legibility, we add an additional requirement that the solutions considered fit well within an interoperable framework for diverse algorithms, because a large suite of algorithms is often necessary to fully understand complex data sets. For scale, we present a general architecture for handling large data, as well as details of a contract-based system for integrating advanced optimizations into a data flow network design. We also describe techniques for volume rendering and performing comparisons at the extreme scale. For legibility, we present several techniques. Most noteworthy are equivalence class functions, a technique to drive visualizations using statistical methods, and line-scan based techniques for characterizing shape.

  4. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    middleton, Don; Haley, Mary

    2014-12-10

    ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

  5. Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…

  6. Decision Tree Learning on Very Large Data Sets Lawrence O. Hall, Nitesh Chawla and Kevin W. Bowyer

    E-print Network

    Chawla, Nitesh V.

    Decision Tree Learning on Very Large Data Sets Lawrence O. Hall, Nitesh Chawla and Kevin W. Bowyer of data can be used to train a decision tree to label unseen data examples with a category of salience for an agent from a large training set. A set of decision trees are built in parallel on tractable size

  7. The search for structure - Object classification in large data sets. [for astronomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Research concerning object classifications schemes are reviewed, focusing on large data sets. Classification techniques are discussed, including syntactic, decision theoretic methods, fuzzy techniques, and stochastic and fuzzy grammars. Consideration is given to the automation of MK classification (Morgan and Keenan, 1973) and other problems associated with the classification of spectra. In addition, the classification of galaxies is examined, including the problems of systematic errors, blended objects, galaxy types, and galaxy clusters.

  8. A Scalable Approach for Protein False Discovery Rate Estimation in Large Proteomic Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Wilhelm, Mathias; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Bantscheff, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Calculating the number of confidently identified proteins and estimating false discovery rate (FDR) is a challenge when analyzing very large proteomic data sets such as entire human proteomes. Biological and technical heterogeneity in proteomic experiments further add to the challenge and there are strong differences in opinion regarding the conceptual validity of a protein FDR and no consensus regarding the methodology for protein FDR determination. There are also limitations inherent to the widely used classic target-decoy strategy that particularly show when analyzing very large data sets and that lead to a strong over-representation of decoy identifications. In this study, we investigated the merits of the classic, as well as a novel target-decoy-based protein FDR estimation approach, taking advantage of a heterogeneous data collection comprised of ?19,000 LC-MS/MS runs deposited in ProteomicsDB (https://www.proteomicsdb.org). The "picked" protein FDR approach treats target and decoy sequences of the same protein as a pair rather than as individual entities and chooses either the target or the decoy sequence depending on which receives the highest score. We investigated the performance of this approach in combination with q-value based peptide scoring to normalize sample-, instrument-, and search engine-specific differences. The "picked" target-decoy strategy performed best when protein scoring was based on the best peptide q-value for each protein yielding a stable number of true positive protein identifications over a wide range of q-value thresholds. We show that this simple and unbiased strategy eliminates a conceptual issue in the commonly used "classic" protein FDR approach that causes overprediction of false-positive protein identification in large data sets. The approach scales from small to very large data sets without losing performance, consistently increases the number of true-positive protein identifications and is readily implemented in proteomics analysis software. PMID:25987413

  9. Moving Large Data Sets Over High-Performance Long Distance Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, Stephen W; Poole, Stephen W; Ruwart, Thomas; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2011-04-01

    In this project we look at the performance characteristics of three tools used to move large data sets over dedicated long distance networking infrastructure. Although performance studies of wide area networks have been a frequent topic of interest, performance analyses have tended to focus on network latency characteristics and peak throughput using network traffic generators. In this study we instead perform an end-to-end long distance networking analysis that includes reading large data sets from a source file system and committing large data sets to a destination file system. An evaluation of end-to-end data movement is also an evaluation of the system configurations employed and the tools used to move the data. For this paper, we have built several storage platforms and connected them with a high performance long distance network configuration. We use these systems to analyze the capabilities of three data movement tools: BBcp, GridFTP, and XDD. Our studies demonstrate that existing data movement tools do not provide efficient performance levels or exercise the storage devices in their highest performance modes. We describe the device information required to achieve high levels of I/O performance and discuss how this data is applicable in use cases beyond data movement performance.

  10. Options in Education, Transcript for February 16, 1976: National Commitment to Equal Rights & Equal Educational Opportunity, Racial Conflict in the Classroom, Setting Up a Publishing Business, and Women in Education (Mathematics and Sex).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    "Options in Education" is a radio news program which focuses on issues and developments in education. This transcript contains discussions of the national commitment to desegregated education, racial conflict in the classroom, learning how to set up a publishing business, women in education (mathematics and sex) and education news highlights.…

  11. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom

  12. Using a Classroom Response System for Promoting Interaction to Teaching Mathematics to Large Groups of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morais, Adolfo; Barragués, José Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the design and evaluation of a proposal to use Classroom Response Systems (CRS), intended to promote participative classes of Mathematics at University. The proposal is based on Problem Based Learnig (PBL) and uses Robert's six hypotheses for mathematical teaching-learning. The results show that PBL is a relevant strategy to…

  13. Breeding and Genetics Symposium: really big data: processing and analysis of very large data sets.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Newman, S; Foertter, F; Aguilar, I; Coffey, M

    2012-03-01

    Modern animal breeding data sets are large and getting larger, due in part to recent availability of high-density SNP arrays and cheap sequencing technology. High-performance computing methods for efficient data warehousing and analysis are under development. Financial and security considerations are important when using shared clusters. Sound software engineering practices are needed, and it is better to use existing solutions when possible. Storage requirements for genotypes are modest, although full-sequence data will require greater storage capacity. Storage requirements for intermediate and results files for genetic evaluations are much greater, particularly when multiple runs must be stored for research and validation studies. The greatest gains in accuracy from genomic selection have been realized for traits of low heritability, and there is increasing interest in new health and management traits. The collection of sufficient phenotypes to produce accurate evaluations may take many years, and high-reliability proofs for older bulls are needed to estimate marker effects. Data mining algorithms applied to large data sets may help identify unexpected relationships in the data, and improved visualization tools will provide insights. Genomic selection using large data requires a lot of computing power, particularly when large fractions of the population are genotyped. Theoretical improvements have made possible the inversion of large numerator relationship matrices, permitted the solving of large systems of equations, and produced fast algorithms for variance component estimation. Recent work shows that single-step approaches combining BLUP with a genomic relationship (G) matrix have similar computational requirements to traditional BLUP, and the limiting factor is the construction and inversion of G for many genotypes. A naïve algorithm for creating G for 14,000 individuals required almost 24 h to run, but custom libraries and parallel computing reduced that to 15 m. Large data sets also create challenges for the delivery of genetic evaluations that must be overcome in a way that does not disrupt the transition from conventional to genomic evaluations. Processing time is important, especially as real-time systems for on-farm decisions are developed. The ultimate value of these systems is to decrease time-to-results in research, increase accuracy in genomic evaluations, and accelerate rates of genetic improvement. PMID:22100598

  14. Adaptation of Bharatanatyam Dance Pedagogy for Multicultural Classrooms: Questions and Relevance in a North American University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Suparna

    2013-01-01

    This article opens up questions around introducing Bharatanatyam, a form of Indian classical dance, to undergraduate learners within a North American university setting. The aim is to observe how the learners understood and received a particular cultural practice and to explore issues related to learning goals, curriculum content, approaches to…

  15. Training Health Service Technicians as Teacher Assistants in an Inpatient Residential Emotional/Behavior Disorder Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Walter E.

    2012-01-01

    Schools have identified that the use of Teacher Assistants often provides needed additional support in the school setting. In a Health Care Facility that provides inpatient psychiatric services, children ages 5-14 are required to engage in school activities. Currently there are no Teacher Assistants trained in the facility. This study focuses on…

  16. FY2006 Engineering Tech Base Report: Defect Detection in Large CT Image Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Poland, D N; Lopez, A; Manay, S; Sengupta, S

    2006-09-18

    This image analysis project is constructing a tool for performing computer assisted detection of defects in large CT data sets. We address two primary challenges: proving an algorithm that can reliably highlight the objects of interest, and coupling this algorithm to efficient and effective data management and interface routines. The goal of this project is to create an end to end tool that will efficiently extract from large CT data sets a manageable set of candidate defects that highlights 100% of the unambiguous (to a trained analyst) true defects and as many as possible of the ambiguous objects. Objective metrics for defect ambiguity are elusive given the ill defined nature of both the defects and their CT images (e.g., variations in size and contrast, defect/object density gradients). Therefore the true metric of success will be gaining the confidence of the Weapons Program NDE analysts in this tool, which will be a qualitative function of efficiency and accuracy. In consultation with Weapons Program NDE analysts voids it was decided to focus this initial effort on searching for small voids (order of tenths to tens of millimeters in extent). The program has produced a Tungsten ring with surrogate defects drilled into it (Figure 1) that they use for studying the ability of their systems and analysts to detect this class of defects.

  17. Tiny videos: a large data set for nonparametric video retrieval and frame classification.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, Alexandre; Aarabi, Parham

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a large database of over 50,000 user-labeled videos collected from YouTube. We develop a compact representation called "tiny videos" that achieves high video compression rates while retaining the overall visual appearance of the video as it varies over time. We show that frame sampling using affinity propagation-an exemplar-based clustering algorithm-achieves the best trade-off between compression and video recall. We use this large collection of user-labeled videos in conjunction with simple data mining techniques to perform related video retrieval, as well as classification of images and video frames. The classification results achieved by tiny videos are compared with the tiny images framework [24] for a variety of recognition tasks. The tiny images data set consists of 80 million images collected from the Internet. These are the largest labeled research data sets of videos and images available to date. We show that tiny videos are better suited for classifying scenery and sports activities, while tiny images perform better at recognizing objects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that combining the tiny images and tiny videos data sets improves classification precision in a wider range of categories. PMID:21252400

  18. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  19. Information Visualization, Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction and Sampling for Large and Complex Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesenson, Meyer Z.; Pesenson, I. Z.; McCollum, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent and forthcoming increases in the amount and complexity of astronomy data are creating data sets that are not amenable to the methods of analysis with which astronomers are familiar. Traditional methods are often inadequate not merely because the data sets are too large and too complex to fully be analyzed "manually", but because many conventional algorithms and techniques cannot be scaled up enough to work effectively on the new data sets. It is essential to develop new methods for organization, scientific visualization (as opposed to illustrative visualization) and analysis of heterogeneous, multiresolution data across application domains. Scientific utilization of highly complex and massive data sets poses significant challenges, and calls for some mathematical approaches more advanced than are now generally available. In this paper, we both give an overview of several innovative developments that address these challenges, and describe a few specific examples of algorithms we have developed, as well as the ones we are developing in the course of this ongoing work. These approaches will enhance scientific visualization and data analysis capabilities, thus facilitating astronomical research and enabling discoveries. This work was carried out with partial funding from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency University Research Initiative (NURI), grant HM1582-08-1-0019.

  20. Distributed Computation of the knn Graph for Large High-Dimensional Point Sets

    PubMed Central

    Plaku, Erion; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2009-01-01

    High-dimensional problems arising from robot motion planning, biology, data mining, and geographic information systems often require the computation of k nearest neighbor (knn) graphs. The knn graph of a data set is obtained by connecting each point to its k closest points. As the research in the above-mentioned fields progressively addresses problems of unprecedented complexity, the demand for computing knn graphs based on arbitrary distance metrics and large high-dimensional data sets increases, exceeding resources available to a single machine. In this work we efficiently distribute the computation of knn graphs for clusters of processors with message passing. Extensions to our distributed framework include the computation of graphs based on other proximity queries, such as approximate knn or range queries. Our experiments show nearly linear speedup with over one hundred processors and indicate that similar speedup can be obtained with several hundred processors. PMID:19847318

  1. Multifractal analysis of the irregular set for almost-additive sequences via large deviations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomfim, Thiago; Varandas, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a notion of free energy and large deviations rate function for asymptotically additive sequences of potentials via an approximation method by families of continuous potentials. We provide estimates for the topological pressure of the set of points whose non-additive sequences are far from the limit described through Kingman’s sub-additive ergodic theorem and give some applications in the context of Lyapunov exponents for diffeomorphisms and cocycles, and the Shannon-McMillan-Breiman theorem for Gibbs measures.

  2. My Classroom Physical Activity Pyramid: A Tool for Integrating Movement into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlowski, Marietta; Lorson, Kevin; Lyon, Anna; Minoughan, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The classroom teacher is a critical team member of a comprehensive school physical activity program and an activity-friendly school environment. Students spend more time in the classroom than in any other school setting or environment. Classrooms are busy places, and classroom teachers must make decisions about how to make the best use of their…

  3. A practical, bioinformatic workflow system for large data sets generated by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Jex, Aaron R.; Hall, Ross S.; Young, Neil D.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Joachim, Anja; Nolan, Matthew J.; Abubucker, Sahar; Sternberg, Paul W.; Ranganathan, Shoba; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gasser, Robin B.

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptomics (at the level of single cells, tissues and/or whole organisms) underpins many fields of biomedical science, from understanding the basic cellular function in model organisms, to the elucidation of the biological events that govern the development and progression of human diseases, and the exploration of the mechanisms of survival, drug-resistance and virulence of pathogens. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are contributing to a massive expansion of transcriptomics in all fields and are reducing the cost, time and performance barriers presented by conventional approaches. However, bioinformatic tools for the analysis of the sequence data sets produced by these technologies can be daunting to researchers with limited or no expertise in bioinformatics. Here, we constructed a semi-automated, bioinformatic workflow system, and critically evaluated it for the analysis and annotation of large-scale sequence data sets generated by NGS. We demonstrated its utility for the exploration of differences in the transcriptomes among various stages and both sexes of an economically important parasitic worm (Oesophagostomum dentatum) as well as the prediction and prioritization of essential molecules (including GTPases, protein kinases and phosphatases) as novel drug target candidates. This workflow system provides a practical tool for the assembly, annotation and analysis of NGS data sets, also to researchers with a limited bioinformatic expertise. The custom-written Perl, Python and Unix shell computer scripts used can be readily modified or adapted to suit many different applications. This system is now utilized routinely for the analysis of data sets from pathogens of major socio-economic importance and can, in principle, be applied to transcriptomics data sets from any organism. PMID:20682560

  4. Approaching the exa-scale: a real-world evaluation of rendering extremely large data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John M; Ahrens, James P; Lo, Li - Ta; Browniee, Carson S; Mitchell, Christopher J; Hansen, Chuck

    2010-10-15

    Extremely large scale analysis is becoming increasingly important as supercomputers and their simulations move from petascale to exascale. The lack of dedicated hardware acceleration for rendering on today's supercomputing platforms motivates our detailed evaluation of the possibility of interactive rendering on the supercomputer. In order to facilitate our understanding of rendering on the supercomputing platform, we focus on scalability of rendering algorithms and architecture envisioned for exascale datasets. To understand tradeoffs for dealing with extremely large datasets, we compare three different rendering algorithms for large polygonal data: software based ray tracing, software based rasterization and hardware accelerated rasterization. We present a case study of strong and weak scaling of rendering extremely large data on both GPU and CPU based parallel supercomputers using Para View, a parallel visualization tool. Wc use three different data sets: two synthetic and one from a scientific application. At an extreme scale, algorithmic rendering choices make a difference and should be considered while approaching exascale computing, visualization, and analysis. We find software based ray-tracing offers a viable approach for scalable rendering of the projected future massive data sizes.

  5. Home 2013 10 10 MU researchers can now move large data sets with new high-speed internet

    E-print Network

    Calyam, Prasad

    Home » 2013 » 10 » 10 » MU researchers can now move large data sets with new high-speed internet to move large data sets in a shorter amount of time using the high-speed Internet connection Internet2, in an announcement Thursday morning. The university has used Internet2 in the past, but it will now operate at a 100

  6. Twelve- to 14-Month-Old Infants Can Predict Single-Event Probability with Large Set Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas "et al.", 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A…

  7. Litho-kinematic facies model for large landslide deposits in arid settings

    SciTech Connect

    Yarnold, J.C.; Lombard, J.P.

    1989-04-01

    Reconnaissance field studies of six large landslide deposits in the S. Basin and Range suggest that a set of characteristic features is common to the deposits of large landslides in an arid setting. These include a coarse boulder cap, an upper massive zone, a lower disrupted zone, and a mixed zone overlying disturbed substrate. The upper massive zone is dominated by crackel breccia. This grades downward into a lower disrupted zone composed of a more matrix-rich breccia that is internally sheared, intruded by clastic dikes, and often contains a cataclasite layer at its base. An underlying discontinuous mixed zone is composed of material from the overlying breccia mixed with material entrained from the underlying substrate. Bedding in the substrate sometimes displays folding and contortion that die out downward. The authors work suggests a spatial zonation of these characteristic features within many landslide deposits. In general, clastic dikes, the basal cataclasite, and folding in the substrate are observed mainly in distal parts of landslides. In most cases, total thickness, thickness of the basal disturbed and mixed zones, and the degree of internal shearing increase distally, whereas maximum clast size commonly decreases distally. Zonation of these features is interpreted to result from kinematics of emplacement that cause generally increased deformation in the distal regions of the landslide.

  8. Innovation from within the Box: Evaluation of Online Problem Sets in a Series of Large Lecture Undergraduate Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Evonne; Bhargava, Tina; Nash, John; Kerns, Charles; Stocker, Scott

    A technology-mediated solution to enhance the learning experience for students in a large lecture setting was evaluated. Online problem sets were developed to engage students in the content of a human biology course and implemented in the classes of eight faculty coordinators. The weekly problem sets contained several multiple choice problems,…

  9. Fast 2D inversion of large borehole EM induction data sets with an efficient Frchet-derivative approximation

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Fast 2D inversion of large borehole EM induction data sets with an efficient Fréchet decomposition. Examples of application with synthetic data sets show that the new method is computer efficient also considered examples of application with field data sets that confirm the new method can

  10. Developing consistent Landsat data sets for large area applications: the MRLC 2001 protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Huang, C.; Yang, L.; Homer, C.; Larson, C.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major efforts in large area land cover mapping over the last two decades was the completion of two U.S. National Land Cover Data sets (NLCD), developed with nominal 1992 and 2001 Landsat imagery under the auspices of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. Following the successful generation of NLCD 1992, a second generation MRLC initiative was launched with two primary goals: (1) to develop a consistent Landsat imagery data set for the U.S. and (2) to develop a second generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). One of the key enhancements was the formulation of an image preprocessing protocol and implementation of a consistent image processing method. The core data set of the NLCD 2001 database consists of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images. This letter details the procedures for processing the original ETM+ images and more recent scenes added to the database. NLCD 2001 products include Anderson Level II land cover classes, percent tree canopy, and percent urban imperviousness at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat imagery. The products are freely available for download to the general public from the MRLC Consortium Web site at http://www.mrlc.gov.

  11. Fast maximum intensity projections of large medical data sets by exploiting hierarchical memory architectures.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Gundolf; Lehmann, Helko; Weese, Jürgen

    2006-04-01

    Maximum intensity projections (MIPs) are an important visualization technique for angiographic data sets. Efficient data inspection requires frame rates of at least five frames per second at preserved image quality. Despite the advances in computer technology, this task remains a challenge. On the one hand, the sizes of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are increasing rapidly. On the other hand, rendering algorithms do not automatically benefit from the advances in processor technology, especially for large data sets. This is due to the faster evolving processing power and the slower evolving memory access speed, which is bridged by hierarchical cache memory architectures. In this paper, we investigate memory access optimization methods and use them for generating MIPs on general-purpose central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs), respectively. These methods can work on any level of the memory hierarchy, and we show that properly combined methods can optimize memory access on multiple levels of the hierarchy at the same time. We present performance measurements to compare different algorithm variants and illustrate the influence of the respective techniques. On current hardware, the efficient handling of the memory hierarchy for CPUs improves the rendering performance by a factor of 3 to 4. On GPUs, we observed that the effect is even larger, especially for large data sets. The methods can easily be adjusted to different hardware specifics, although their impact can vary considerably. They can also be used for other rendering techniques than MIPs, and their use for more general image processing task could be investigated in the future. PMID:16617627

  12. Suffix tree searcher: exploration of common substrings in large DNA sequence sets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Large DNA sequence data sets require special bioinformatics tools to search and compare them. Such tools should be easy to use so that the data can be easily accessed by a wide array of researchers. In the past, the use of suffix trees for searching DNA sequences has been limited by a practical need to keep the trees in RAM. Newer algorithms solve this problem by using disk-based approaches. However, none of the fastest suffix tree algorithms have been implemented with a graphical user interface, preventing their incorporation into a feasible laboratory workflow. Results Suffix Tree Searcher (STS) is designed as an easy-to-use tool to index, search, and analyze very large DNA sequence datasets. The program accommodates very large numbers of very large sequences, with aggregate size reaching tens of billions of nucleotides. The program makes use of pre-sorted persistent "building blocks" to reduce the time required to construct new trees. STS is comprised of a graphical user interface written in Java, and four C modules. All components are automatically downloaded when a web link is clicked. The underlying suffix tree data structure permits extremely fast searching for specific nucleotide strings, with wild cards or mismatches allowed. Complete tree traversals for detecting common substrings are also very fast. The graphical user interface allows the user to transition seamlessly between building, traversing, and searching the dataset. Conclusions Thus, STS provides a new resource for the detection of substrings common to multiple DNA sequences or within a single sequence, for truly huge data sets. The re-searching of sequence hits, allowing wild card positions or mismatched nucleotides, together with the ability to rapidly retrieve large numbers of sequence hits from the DNA sequence files, provides the user with an efficient method of evaluating the similarity between nucleotide sequences by multiple alignment or use of Logos. The ability to re-use existing suffix tree pieces considerably shortens index generation time. The graphical user interface enables quick mastery of the analysis functions, easy access to the generated data, and seamless workflow integration. PMID:25053142

  13. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Foundations for Data Exploitation of Petabyte Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E

    2007-02-26

    The next generation of imaging surveys in astronomy, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), will require multigigapixel cameras that can process enormous amounts of data read out every few seconds. This huge increase in data throughput (compared to megapixel cameras and minute- to hour-long integrations of today's instruments) calls for a new paradigm for extracting the knowledge content. We have developed foundations for this new approach. In this project, we have studied the necessary processes for extracting information from large time-domain databases systematics. In the process, we have produced significant scientific breakthroughs by developing new methods to probe both the elusive time and spatial variations in astrophysics data sets from the SuperMACHO (Massive Compact Halo Objects) survey, the Lowell Observatory Near-Earth Object Search (LONEOS), and the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). This project continues to contribute to the development of the scientific foundations for future wide-field, time-domain surveys. Our algorithm and pipeline development has provided the building blocks for the development of the LSST science software system. Our database design and performance measures have helped to size and constrain LSST database design. LLNL made significant contributions to the foundations of the LSST, which has applications for large-scale imaging and data-mining activities at LLNL. These developments are being actively applied to the previously mentioned surveys producing important scientific results that have been released to the scientific community and more continue to be published and referenced, enhancing LLNL's scientific stature.

  14. Classroom Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankney, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions for the construction of a paper mache classroom planetarium and suggests several student activities using this planetarium model. Lists reasons why students have difficulties in transferring classroom instruction in astronomy to the night sky. (DS)

  15. Generating extreme weather event sets from very large ensembles of regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Neil; Guillod, Benoit; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Jones, Richard; Hall, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Generating extreme weather event sets from very large ensembles of regional climate models Neil Massey, Benoit P. Guillod, Friederike E. L. Otto, Myles R. Allen, Richard Jones, Jim W. Hall Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Extreme events can have large impacts on societies and are therefore being increasingly studied. In particular, climate change is expected to impact the frequency and intensity of these events. However, a major limitation when investigating extreme weather events is that, by definition, only few events are present in observations. A way to overcome this issue it to use large ensembles of model simulations. Using the volunteer distributed computing (VDC) infrastructure of weather@home [1], we run a very large number (10'000s) of RCM simulations over the European domain at a resolution of 25km, with an improved land-surface scheme, nested within a free-running GCM. Using VDC allows many thousands of climate model runs to be computed. Using observations for the GCM boundary forcings we can run historical "hindcast" simulations over the past 100 to 150 years. This allows us, due to the chaotic variability of the atmosphere, to ascertain how likely an extreme event was, given the boundary forcings, and to derive synthetic event sets. The events in these sets did not actually occur in the observed record but could have occurred given the boundary forcings, with an associated probability. The event sets contain time-series of fields of meteorological variables that allow impact modellers to assess the loss the event would incur. Projections of events into the future are achieved by modelling projections of the sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice boundary forcings, by combining the variability of the SST in the observed record with a range of warming signals derived from the varying responses of SSTs in the CMIP5 ensemble to elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in three RCP scenarios. Simulating the future with a range of SST responses, as well as a range of RCP scenarios, allows us to assess the uncertainty in the response to elevated GHG emissions that occurs in the CMIP5 ensemble. Numerous extreme weather events can be studied. Firstly, we analyse droughts in Europe with a focus on the UK in the context of the project MaRIUS (Managing the Risks, Impacts and Uncertainties of droughts and water Scarcity). We analyse the characteristics of the simulated droughts, the underlying physical mechanisms, and assess droughts observed in the recent past. Secondly, we analyse windstorms by applying an objective storm-identification and tracking algorithm to the ensemble output, isolating those storms that cause high loss and building a probabilistic storm catalogue, which can be used by impact modellers, insurance loss modellers, etc. Finally, we combine the model output with a heat-stress index to determine the detrimental effect on health of heat waves in Europe. [1] Massey, N. et al., 2014, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

  16. Ghost transmission: How large basis sets can make electron transport calculations worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Carmen; Solomon, Gemma C.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The Landauer approach has proven to be an invaluable tool for calculating the electron transport properties of single molecules, especially when combined with a nonequilibrium Green's function approach and Kohn-Sham density functional theory. However, when using large nonorthogonal atom-centered basis sets, such as those common in quantum chemistry, one can find erroneous results if the Landauer approach is applied blindly. In fact, basis sets of triple-zeta quality or higher sometimes result in an artificially high transmission and possibly even qualitatively wrong conclusions regarding chemical trends. In these cases, transport persists when molecular atoms are replaced by basis functions alone ("ghost atoms"). The occurrence of such ghost transmission is correlated with low-energy virtual molecular orbitals of the central subsystem and may be interpreted as a biased and thus inaccurate description of vacuum transmission. An approximate practical correction scheme is to calculate the ghost transmission and subtract it from the full transmission. As a further consequence of this study, it is recommended that sensitive molecules be used for parameter studies, in particular those whose transmission functions show antiresonance features such as benzene-based systems connected to the electrodes in meta positions and other low-conducting systems such as alkanes and silanes.

  17. Motif-based analysis of large nucleotide data sets using MEME-ChIP

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenxiu; Noble, William S; Bailey, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    MEME-ChIP is a web-based tool for analyzing motifs in large DNA or RNA data sets. It can analyze peak regions identified by ChIP-seq, cross-linking sites identified by cLIP-seq and related assays, as well as sets of genomic regions selected using other criteria. MEME-ChIP performs de novo motif discovery, motif enrichment analysis, motif location analysis and motif clustering, providing a comprehensive picture of the DNA or RNA motifs that are enriched in the input sequences. MEME-ChIP performs two complementary types of de novo motif discovery: weight matrix–based discovery for high accuracy; and word-based discovery for high sensitivity. Motif enrichment analysis using DNA or RNA motifs from human, mouse, worm, fly and other model organisms provides even greater sensitivity. MEME-ChIP’s interactive HTML output groups and aligns significant motifs to ease interpretation. this protocol takes less than 3 h, and it provides motif discovery approaches that are distinct and complementary to other online methods. PMID:24853928

  18. Motif-based analysis of large nucleotide data sets using MEME-ChIP.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxiu; Noble, William S; Bailey, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    MEME-ChIP is a web-based tool for analyzing motifs in large DNA or RNA data sets. It can analyze peak regions identified by ChIP-seq, cross-linking sites identified by CLIP-seq and related assays, as well as sets of genomic regions selected using other criteria. MEME-ChIP performs de novo motif discovery, motif enrichment analysis, motif location analysis and motif clustering, providing a comprehensive picture of the DNA or RNA motifs that are enriched in the input sequences. MEME-ChIP performs two complementary types of de novo motif discovery: weight matrix-based discovery for high accuracy; and word-based discovery for high sensitivity. Motif enrichment analysis using DNA or RNA motifs from human, mouse, worm, fly and other model organisms provides even greater sensitivity. MEME-ChIP's interactive HTML output groups and aligns significant motifs to ease interpretation. This protocol takes less than 3 h, and it provides motif discovery approaches that are distinct and complementary to other online methods. PMID:24853928

  19. Duplications in RB1CC1 are associated with schizophrenia; identification in large European sample sets.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, F; Priebe, L; Meier, S; Lennertz, L; Streit, F; Witt, S H; Hofmann, A; Becker, T; Mössner, R; Maier, W; Nenadic, I; Sauer, H; Mattheisen, M; Buizer-Voskamp, J; Ophoff, R A; Rujescu, D; Giegling, I; Ingason, A; Wagner, M; Delobel, B; Andrieux, J; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Heinz, A; Walter, H; Moebus, S; Corvin, A; Rietschel, M; Nöthen, M M; Cichon, S

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe and debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with an estimated heritability of ~80%. Recently, de novo mutations, identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, have been suggested to contribute to the risk of developing SCZ. Although these studies show an overall excess of de novo mutations among patients compared with controls, it is not easy to pinpoint specific genes hit by de novo mutations as actually involved in the disease process. Importantly, support for a specific gene can be provided by the identification of additional alterations in several independent patients. We took advantage of existing genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data sets to screen for deletions or duplications (copy number variations, CNVs) in genes previously implicated by NGS studies. Our approach was based on the observation that CNVs constitute part of the mutational spectrum in many human disease-associated genes. In a discovery step, we investigated whether CNVs in 55 candidate genes, suggested from NGS studies, were more frequent among 1637 patients compared with 1627 controls. Duplications in RB1CC1 were overrepresented among patients. This finding was followed-up in large, independent European sample sets. In the combined analysis, totaling 8461 patients and 112 871 controls, duplications in RB1CC1 were found to be associated with SCZ (P=1.29 × 10(-5); odds ratio=8.58). Our study provides evidence for rare duplications in RB1CC1 as a risk factor for SCZ. PMID:26151896

  20. Ghost transmission: How large basis sets can make electron transport calculations worse

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Carmen; Solomon, Gemma C.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The Landauer approach has proven to be an invaluable tool for calculating the electron transport properties of single molecules, especially when combined with a nonequilibrium Green’s function approach and Kohn–Sham density functional theory. However, when using large nonorthogonal atom-centered basis sets, such as those common in quantum chemistry, one can find erroneous results if the Landauer approach is applied blindly. In fact, basis sets of triple-zeta quality or higher sometimes result in an artificially high transmission and possibly even qualitatively wrong conclusions regarding chemical trends. In these cases, transport persists when molecular atoms are replaced by basis functions alone (“ghost atoms”). The occurrence of such ghost transmission is correlated with low-energy virtual molecular orbitals of the central subsystem and may be interpreted as a biased and thus inaccurate description of vacuum transmission. An approximate practical correction scheme is to calculate the ghost transmission and subtract it from the full transmission. As a further consequence of this study, it is recommended that sensitive molecules be used for parameter studies, in particular those whose transmission functions show antiresonance features such as benzene-based systems connected to the electrodes in meta positions and other low-conducting systems such as alkanes and silanes.

  1. Your Outdoor Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Physical education is still taught in outdoor settings in many warmer climates of the United States. Even when indoor facilities are available, physical education may be moved outside because of other curricular needs or facility issues. How can physical educators make the outdoor setting seem more like an indoor classroom? Outdoor teaching…

  2. A multivariate approach to filling gaps in large ecological data sets using probabilistic matrix factorization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrodt, F. I.; Shan, H.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P.; Banerjee, A.; Reichstein, M.

    2012-12-01

    With the advent of remotely sensed data and coordinated efforts to create global databases, the ecological community has progressively become more data-intensive. However, in contrast to other disciplines, statistical ways of handling these large data sets, especially the gaps which are inherent to them, are lacking. Widely used theoretical approaches, for example model averaging based on Akaike's information criterion (AIC), are sensitive to missing values. Yet, the most common way of handling sparse matrices - the deletion of cases with missing data (complete case analysis) - is known to severely reduce statistical power as well as inducing biased parameter estimates. In order to address these issues, we present novel approaches to gap filling in large ecological data sets using matrix factorization techniques. Factorization based matrix completion was developed in a recommender system context and has since been widely used to impute missing data in fields outside the ecological community. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of probabilistic matrix factorization techniques for imputing missing data in ecological matrices using two imputation techniques. Hierarchical Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (HPMF) effectively incorporates hierarchical phylogenetic information (phylogenetic group, family, genus, species and individual plant) into the trait imputation. Kernelized Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (KPMF) on the other hand includes environmental information (climate and soils) into the matrix factorization through kernel matrices over rows and columns. We test the accuracy and effectiveness of HPMF and KPMF in filling sparse matrices, using the TRY database of plant functional traits (http://www.try-db.org). TRY is one of the largest global compilations of plant trait databases (750 traits of 1 million plants), encompassing data on morphological, anatomical, biochemical, phenological and physiological features of plants. However, despite of unprecedented coverage, the TRY database is still very sparse, severely limiting joint trait analyses. Plant traits are the key to understanding how plants as primary producers adjust to changes in environmental conditions and in turn influence them. Forming the basis for Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), plant traits are also fundamental in global change studies for predicting future ecosystem changes. It is thus imperative that missing data is imputed in as accurate and precise a way as possible. In this study, we show the advantage of applying probabilistic matrix factorization techniques in incorporating hierarchical and environmental information for the prediction of missing plant traits as compared to conventional imputation techniques such as the complete case and mean approaches. We will discuss advantages of the proposed imputation techniques over other widely used methods such as multiple imputation (MI), as well as possible applications to other data sets.

  3. Stacking of large interferometric data sets in the image- and uv-domain - a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, L.; Knudsen, K. K.; Vlemmings, W.; Conway, J.; Martí-Vidal, I.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new algorithm for stacking radio interferometric data in the uv-domain. The performance of uv-stacking is compared to the stacking of fully imaged data using simulated Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) deep extragalactic surveys. We find that image- and uv-stacking produce similar results, however, uv-stacking is typically the more robust method. An advantage of the uv-stacking algorithm is the availability of uv-data post-stacking, which makes it possible to identify and remove problematic baselines. For deep VLA surveys uv-stacking yields a signal-to-noise ratio that is up to 20 per cent higher than image-stacking. Furthermore, we have investigated stacking of resolved sources with a simulated VLA data set where 1.5 arcsec (10-12 kpc at z ˜ 1-4) sources are stacked. We find that uv-stacking, where a model is fitted directly to the visibilities, significantly improves the accuracy and robustness of the size estimates. While scientific motivation for this work is studying faint, high-z galaxies, the algorithm analysed here would also be applicable in other fields of astronomy. Stacking of radio interferometric data is also expected to play a big role for future surveys with telescopes such as Low-Frequency Array and Square Kilometre Array.

  4. Prototype Tool for Interaction with Large Spectral Line GBT Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, Delia; NRAO

    2009-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope is often used for collecting large amounts of data. The software that is currently used for data analysis -GBTIDL- unfortunately displays one spectrum at a time. Under the supervision of Bob Garwood, I created a prototype tool that would make the analysis of large spectral line GBT data sets more efficient. The new program, GBTV, instead displays a 2D plot (or image) in which signal intensity is plotted as color intensity. The image is built such that the record number is on one axis, while the channel is on the other. We already have implemented ways to interact with the plot directly (e.g. flag chunks of data), yet the GBTV interface allows for much flexibility. Furthermore, since the number of channels always exceeds the number of pixels on the screen, we integrated a separate routine so that it does not zoom out on an image in a classical manner; instead, each pixel in the new image is a regional maximum of the original. This was done in order to facilitate the detection of weak signals or possible RFI. Currently, the new software can work well as an accessory for GBTIDL. Further work can be done so as to integrate more features, that would make it possible for GBTV to become a standalone data analysis software.

  5. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, Erik A.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set ({approx} 10{sup 5} galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy H{alpha} equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M{sub {circle_dot}} is {Lambda} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around M{sub r,0.1} = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has M{sub r,0.1} {approx} -21) are well fit by a universal {Lambda} {approx} 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These galaxies were identified by their extremely weak (< 150) [N {pi}] {lambda}6584 to H{alpha} emission line ratios. Abundance analysis from emission line fluxes reveals that these galaxies have gas phase oxygen abundances 12 + log(O/H) {approx} 7.7 to 7.9, not remarkably low, and near infrared imaging detects an old stellar population. However, the measured nitrogen to oxygen ratios log(N/O) < 1.7 are anomalously low for blue compact dwarf galaxies. These objects may be useful for understanding the chemical evolution of nitrogen.

  6. Measurement, visualization and analysis of extremely large data sets with a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birli, O.; Franke, K.-H.; Linß, G.; Machleidt, T.; Manske, E.; Schale, F.; Schwannecke, H.-C.; Sparrer, E.; Weiß, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines (NPM machines) developed at the Ilmenau University of Technology allow the measurement of micro- and nanostructures with nanometer precision in a measurement volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm (NMM-1) or 200 mm × 200 mm × 25 mm (NPMM-200). Various visual, tactile or atomic force sensors can all be used to measure specimens. Atomic force sensors have emerged as a powerful tool in nanotechnology. Large-scale AFM measurements are very time-consuming and in fact in a practical sense they are impossible over millimeter ranges due to low scanning speeds. A cascaded multi-sensor system can be used to implement a multi-scale measurement and testing strategy for nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines. This approach involves capturing an overview image at the limit of optical resolution and automatically scanning the measured data for interesting test areas that are suitable for a higher-resolution measurement. These "fields of interest" can subsequently be measured in the same NPM machine using individual AFM sensor scans. The results involve extremely large data sets that cannot be handled by off-the-shelf software. Quickly navigating within terabyte-sized data files requires preprocessing to be done on the measured data to calculate intermediate images based on the principle of a visualization pyramid. This pyramid includes the measured data of the entire volume, prepared in the form of discrete measurement volumes (spatial tiles or cubes) with certain edge lengths at specific zoom levels. The functionality of the closed process chain is demonstrated using a blob analysis for automatically selecting regions of interest on the specimen. As expected, processing large amounts of data places particularly high demands on both computing power and the software architecture.

  7. The Printout: Desktop Pulishing in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest; Link, Gordon

    1988-01-01

    Reviews software available to the classroom teacher for desktop publishing and describes specific classroom activities. Suggests using desktop publishing to produce large print texts for students with limited sight or for primary students.(NH)

  8. Efficient Implementation of an Optimal Interpolator for Large Spatial Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mount, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Scattered data interpolation is a problem of interest in numerous areas such as electronic imaging, smooth surface modeling, and computational geometry. Our motivation arises from applications in geology and mining, which often involve large scattered data sets and a demand for high accuracy. The method of choice is ordinary kriging. This is because it is a best unbiased estimator. Unfortunately, this interpolant is computationally very expensive to compute exactly. For n scattered data points, computing the value of a single interpolant involves solving a dense linear system of size roughly n x n. This is infeasible for large n. In practice, kriging is solved approximately by local approaches that are based on considering only a relatively small'number of points that lie close to the query point. There are many problems with this local approach, however. The first is that determining the proper neighborhood size is tricky, and is usually solved by ad hoc methods such as selecting a fixed number of nearest neighbors or all the points lying within a fixed radius. Such fixed neighborhood sizes may not work well for all query points, depending on local density of the point distribution. Local methods also suffer from the problem that the resulting interpolant is not continuous. Meyer showed that while kriging produces smooth continues surfaces, it has zero order continuity along its borders. Thus, at interface boundaries where the neighborhood changes, the interpolant behaves discontinuously. Therefore, it is important to consider and solve the global system for each interpolant. However, solving such large dense systems for each query point is impractical. Recently a more principled approach to approximating kriging has been proposed based on a technique called covariance tapering. The problems arise from the fact that the covariance functions that are used in kriging have global support. Our implementations combine, utilize, and enhance a number of different approaches that have been introduced in literature for solving large linear systems for interpolation of scattered data points. For very large systems, exact methods such as Gaussian elimination are impractical since they require 0(n(exp 3)) time and 0(n(exp 2)) storage. As Billings et al. suggested, we use an iterative approach. In particular, we use the SYMMLQ method, for solving the large but sparse ordinary kriging systems that result from tapering. The main technical issue that need to be overcome in our algorithmic solution is that the points' covariance matrix for kriging should be symmetric positive definite. The goal of tapering is to obtain a sparse approximate representation of the covariance matrix while maintaining its positive definiteness. Furrer et al. used tapering to obtain a sparse linear system of the form Ax = b, where A is the tapered symmetric positive definite covariance matrix. Thus, Cholesky factorization could be used to solve their linear systems. They implemented an efficient sparse Cholesky decomposition method. They also showed if these tapers are used for a limited class of covariance models, the solution of the system converges to the solution of the original system. Matrix A in the ordinary kriging system, while symmetric, is not positive definite. Thus, their approach is not applicable to the ordinary kriging system. Therefore, we use tapering only to obtain a sparse linear system. Then, we use SYMMLQ to solve the ordinary kriging system. We show that solving large kriging systems becomes practical via tapering and iterative methods, and results in lower estimation errors compared to traditional local approaches, and significant memory savings compared to the original global system. We also developed a more efficient variant of the sparse SYMMLQ method for large ordinary kriging systems. This approach adaptively finds the correct local neighborhood for each query point in the interpolation process.

  9. Assembly of large metagenome data sets using a Convey HC-1 hybrid core computer (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Copeland, Alex [DOE JGI

    2013-02-11

    Alex Copeland on "Assembly of large metagenome data sets using a Convey HC-1 hybrid core computer" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  10. Assembly of large metagenome data sets using a Convey HC-1 hybrid core computer (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Alex Copeland on "Assembly of large metagenome data sets using a Convey HC-1 hybrid core computer" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  11. Classroom Connectivity: Increasing Participation and Understanding Inside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how highly mobile computing, when used with new forms of network connectivity, can allow new forms of activities in the mathematics classroom. Examples are provided, such as the ability to share, harvest, and aggregate mathematical objects, and the ability for teachers and students to analyze the entire set of classroom

  12. Registering coherent change detection products associated with large image sets and long capture intervals

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, David Nikolaus; Gonzales, Antonio I

    2014-04-08

    A set of co-registered coherent change detection (CCD) products is produced from a set of temporally separated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of a target scene. A plurality of transformations are determined, which transformations are respectively for transforming a plurality of the SAR images to a predetermined image coordinate system. The transformations are used to create, from a set of CCD products produced from the set of SAR images, a corresponding set of co-registered CCD products.

  13. BACHSCORE. A tool for evaluating efficiently and reliably the quality of large sets of protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, E.; Zamuner, S.; Cossio, P.; Laio, A.; Seno, F.; Trovato, A.

    2013-12-01

    In protein structure prediction it is of crucial importance, especially at the refinement stage, to score efficiently large sets of models by selecting the ones that are closest to the native state. We here present a new computational tool, BACHSCORE, that allows its users to rank different structural models of the same protein according to their quality, evaluated by using the BACH++ (Bayesian Analysis Conformation Hunt) scoring function. The original BACH statistical potential was already shown to discriminate with very good reliability the protein native state in large sets of misfolded models of the same protein. BACH++ features a novel upgrade in the solvation potential of the scoring function, now computed by adapting the LCPO (Linear Combination of Pairwise Orbitals) algorithm. This change further enhances the already good performance of the scoring function. BACHSCORE can be accessed directly through the web server: bachserver.pd.infn.it. Catalogue identifier: AEQD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 130159 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 687 455 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer capable of running an executable produced by a g++ compiler (4.6.3 version). Operating system: Linux, Unix OS-es. RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes Classification: 3. Nature of problem: Evaluate the quality of a protein structural model, taking into account the possible “a priori” knowledge of a reference primary sequence that may be different from the amino-acid sequence of the model; the native protein structure should be recognized as the best model. Solution method: The contact potential scores the occurrence of any given type of residue pair in 5 possible contact classes (?-helical contact, parallel ?-sheet contact, anti-parallel ?-sheet contact, side-chain contact, no contact). The solvation potential scores the occurrence of any residue type in 2 possible environments: buried and solvent exposed. Residue environment is assigned by adapting the LCPO algorithm. Residues present in the reference primary sequence and not present in the model structure contribute to the model score as solvent exposed and as non contacting all other residues. Restrictions: Input format file according to the Protein Data Bank standard Additional comments: Parameter values used in the scoring function can be found in the file /folder-to-bachscore/BACH/examples/bach_std.par. Running time: Roughly one minute to score one hundred structures on a desktop PC, depending on their size.

  14. Is Our Classroom an Ecological Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Wang

    2006-01-01

    The essence of ecology is life and its diversity, integrity, openness and coexistence. When one contemplates and analyzes classroom from the perspective of ecology, classroom should contain open-ended and multiple goals instead of a single and pre-set goal; classroom is more flexible, allowing great diversity instead of being narrow-minded,…

  15. Information Theoretic Approaches to Rapid Discovery of Relationships in Large Climate Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Rossow, William B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mutual information as the asymptotic Bayesian measure of independence is an excellent starting point for investigating the existence of possible relationships among climate-relevant variables in large data sets, As mutual information is a nonlinear function of of its arguments, it is not beholden to the assumption of a linear relationship between the variables in question and can reveal features missed in linear correlation analyses. However, as mutual information is symmetric in its arguments, it only has the ability to reveal the probability that two variables are related. it provides no information as to how they are related; specifically, causal interactions or a relation based on a common cause cannot be detected. For this reason we also investigate the utility of a related quantity called the transfer entropy. The transfer entropy can be written as a difference between mutual informations and has the capability to reveal whether and how the variables are causally related. The application of these information theoretic measures is rested on some familiar examples using data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to identify relation between global cloud cover and other variables, including equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (SST), over seasonal and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles.

  16. Anomaly Detection in Large Sets of High-Dimensional Symbol Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budalakoti, Suratna; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Akella, Ram; Turkov, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. The approach taken uses unsupervised clustering of sequences using the normalized longest common subsequence (LCS) as a similarity measure, followed by detailed analysis of outliers to detect anomalies. As the LCS measure is expensive to compute, the first part of the paper discusses existing algorithms, such as the Hunt-Szymanski algorithm, that have low time-complexity. We then discuss why these algorithms often do not work well in practice and present a new hybrid algorithm for computing the LCS that, in our tests, outperforms the Hunt-Szymanski algorithm by a factor of five. The second part of the paper presents new algorithms for outlier analysis that provide comprehensible indicators as to why a particular sequence was deemed to be an outlier. The algorithms provide a coherent description to an analyst of the anomalies in the sequence, compared to more normal sequences. The algorithms we present are general and domain-independent, so we discuss applications in related areas such as anomaly detection.

  17. Public-private partnerships with large corporations: setting the ground rules for better health.

    PubMed

    Galea, Gauden; McKee, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Public-private partnerships with large corporations offer potential benefits to the health sector but many concerns have been raised, highlighting the need for appropriate safeguards. In this paper we propose five tests that public policy makers may wish to apply when considering engaging in such a public-private partnership. First, are the core products and services provided by the corporation health enhancing or health damaging? In some cases, such as tobacco, the answer is obvious but others, such as food and alcohol, are contested. In such cases, the burden of proof is on the potential partners to show that their activities are health enhancing. Second, do potential partners put their policies into practice in the settings where they can do so, their own workplaces? Third, are the corporate social responsibility activities of potential partners independently audited? Fourth, do potential partners make contributions to the commons rather than to narrow programmes of their choosing? Fifth, is the role of the partner confined to policy implementation rather than policy development, which is ultimately the responsibility of government alone? PMID:24581699

  18. Perturbation corrections to Koopmans' theorem. V - A study with large basis sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chong, D. P.; Langhoff, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical ionization potentials of N2, F2 and H2O were calculated by perturbation corrections to Koopmans' theorem using six different basis sets. The largest set used includes several sets of polarization functions. Comparison is made with measured values and with results of computations using Green's functions.

  19. Linked Scatter Plots, A Powerful Exploration Tool For Very Large Sets of Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbon, Duane Francis; Henze, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    We present a new tool, based on linked scatter plots, that is designed to efficiently explore very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, APOGEE, LAMOST, GAIA, and RAVE data sets.The tool works in two stages: the first uses batch processing and the second runs interactively. In the batch stage, spectra are processed through our data pipeline which computes the depths relative to the local continuum at preselected feature wavelengths. These depths, and any additional available variables such as local S/N level, magnitudes, colors, positions, and radial velocities, are the basic measured quantities used in the interactive stage.The interactive stage employs the NASA hyperwall, a configuration of 128 workstation displays (8x16 array) controlled by a parallelized software suite running on NASA's Pleiades supercomputer. Each hyperwall panel is used to display a fully linked 2-D scatter plot showing the depth of feature A vs the depth of feature B for all of the spectra. A and B change from panel to panel. The relationships between the various (A,B) strengths and any distinctive clustering, as well as unique outlier groupings, are visually apparent when examining and inter-comparing the different panels on the hyperwall. In addition, the data links between the scatter plots allow the user to apply a logical algebra to the measurements. By graphically selecting the objects in any interesting region of any 2-D plot on the hyperwall, the tool immediately and clearly shows how the selected objects are distributed in all the other 2-D plots. The selection process may be repeated multiple times and, at each step, the selections can represent a sequence of logical constraints on the measurements, revealing those objects which satisfy all the constraints thus far. The spectra of the selected objects may be examined at any time on a connected workstation display.Using over 945,000,000 depth measurements from 569,738 SDSS DR10 stellar spectra, we illustrate how to quickly isolate and examine such interesting stellar subsets as EMP stars, C-rich EMP stars, and CV stars.

  20. Getting specific: making taxonomic and ecological sense of large sequencing data sets.

    PubMed

    Massana, Ramon

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic microbes comprise a diverse collection of phototrophic and heterotrophic creatures known to play fundamental roles in ecological processes. Some can be identified by light microscopy, generally the largest and with conspicuous shapes, while the smallest can be counted by epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry but remain largely unidentified. Microbial diversity studies greatly advanced with the analysis of phylogenetic markers sequenced from natural assemblages. Molecular surveys began in 1990 targeting marine bacterioplankton (Giovannoni et al. ) and first approached microbial eukaryotes in three studies published in 2001 (Díez et al. ; López-García et al. ; Moon-van der Staay et al. ). These seminal studies, based on cloning and Sanger sequencing the complete 18S rDNA, were critical for obtaining broad pictures of microbial diversity in contrasted habitats and for describing novel lineages by robust phylogenies, but were limited by the number of sequences obtained. So, inventories of species richness in a given sample and community comparisons through environmental gradients were very incomplete. These limitations have been overcome with the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods, initially 454-pyrosequencing, today Illumina and soon others to come. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Egge et al. () show a nice example of the use of HTS to study the biodiversity and seasonal succession of a particularly important group of marine microbial eukaryotes, the haptophytes. Temporal changes were analysed first at the community level, then at the clade level, and finally at the lowest rank comparable to species. Interesting and useful ecological insights were obtained at each taxonomic scale. Haptophyte diversity differed along seasons in a systematic manner, with some species showing seasonal preferences and others being always present. Many of these species had no correspondence with known species, pointing out the high level of novelty in microbial assemblages, only accessible by molecular tools. Moreover, the number of species detected was limited, agreeing with a putative scenario of constrained evolutionary diversification in free-living small eukaryotes. This study illustrates the potential of HTS to address ecological relevant questions in an accessible way by processing large data sets that, nonetheless, need to be treated with a fair understanding of their limitations. PMID:26095583

  1. Repulsive parallel MCMC algorithm for discovering diverse motifs from large sequence sets

    PubMed Central

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Yoshida, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The motif discovery problem consists of finding recurring patterns of short strings in a set of nucleotide sequences. This classical problem is receiving renewed attention as most early motif discovery methods lack the ability to handle large data of recent genome-wide ChIP studies. New ChIP-tailored methods focus on reducing computation time and pay little regard to the accuracy of motif detection. Unlike such methods, our method focuses on increasing the detection accuracy while maintaining the computation efficiency at an acceptable level. The major advantage of our method is that it can mine diverse multiple motifs undetectable by current methods. Results: The repulsive parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo (RPMCMC) algorithm that we propose is a parallel version of the widely used Gibbs motif sampler. RPMCMC is run on parallel interacting motif samplers. A repulsive force is generated when different motifs produced by different samplers near each other. Thus, different samplers explore different motifs. In this way, we can detect much more diverse motifs than conventional methods can. Through application to 228 transcription factor ChIP-seq datasets of the ENCODE project, we show that the RPMCMC algorithm can find many reliable cofactor interacting motifs that existing methods are unable to discover. Availability and implementation: A C++ implementation of RPMCMC and discovered cofactor motifs for the 228 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets are available from http://daweb.ism.ac.jp/yoshidalab/motif. Contact: ikebata.hisaki@ism.ac.jp, yoshidar@ism.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available from Bioinformatics online. PMID:25583120

  2. Goal Setting and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong

    2012-01-01

    The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…

  3. A Zebra in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Devin; Morvillo, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Describes the care and breeding of zebra fish, suggests various experiments and observations easily performed in a classroom setting, and provides some ideas to further student interest and exploration of these organisms. (DDR)

  4. The Impact of Brief Teacher Training on Classroom Management and Child Behavior in At-Risk Preschool Settings: Mediators and Treatment Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, James; Low, Sabina; Schultz, Tara; Barner, Stacy; Moreno, Desirae; Garst, Meladee; Leiker, Ryan; Swink, Nathan; Schrepferman, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Teachers from fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to an adaptation of Incredible Years (IY) teacher training or to teacher training-as-usual. Observations were made of the behavior of 136 target preschool boys and girls nominated by teachers as having many or few conduct problems. Peer and teacher behavior were observed at baseline and post…

  5. Navigating the Problem Space of Academia: Exploring Processes of Course Design and Classroom Teaching in Postsecondary Settings. WCER Working Paper No. 2014-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hora, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and educators alike increasing focus on faculty adoption of interactive teaching techniques as a way to improve undergraduate education. Yet, little empirical research exists that examines the processes whereby faculty make decisions about curriculum design and classroom teaching in real-world situations. In this study, I use the idea…

  6. Learning in Tomorrow's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching today remains the most individualistic of all the professions, with educators characteristically operating in a highly fragmented world of "their" courses, "their" skills, and "their" students. Learning will occur in the classrooms of the future through a sustainable set of complementary capabilities:…

  7. Outdoor Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  8. Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, Terri Sue

    This paper is a report of a middle-school teacher's study of classroom management. The teacher/researcher was interested in how some of the techniques in the Kovalik Integrated Thematic Instruction model of training would influence the teacher/researcher's classroom management; the effects of direct instruction within a community circle; the…

  9. Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Frances R.

    This pamphlet suggests activities that may be used in the elementary school classroom. Chapter I lists various short plays that children can easily perform which encourage their imagination. Chapter II details a few quiet classroom games such as "I Saw,""Corral the Wild Horse,""Who Has Gone from the Room," and "Six-Man-Football Checkers." A number…

  10. Tools for Analysis and Visualization of Large Time-Varying CFD Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelms, Jane; VanGelder, Allen

    1997-01-01

    In the second year, we continued to built upon and improve our scanline-based direct volume renderer that we developed in the first year of this grant. This extremely general rendering approach can handle regular or irregular grids, including overlapping multiple grids, and polygon mesh surfaces. It runs in parallel on multi-processors. It can also be used in conjunction with a k-d tree hierarchy, where approximate models and error terms are stored in the nodes of the tree, and approximate fast renderings can be created. We have extended our software to handle time-varying data where the data changes but the grid does not. We are now working on extending it to handle more general time-varying data. We have also developed a new extension of our direct volume renderer that uses automatic decimation of the 3D grid, as opposed to an explicit hierarchy. We explored this alternative approach as being more appropriate for very large data sets, where the extra expense of a tree may be unacceptable. We also describe a new approach to direct volume rendering using hardware 3D textures and incorporates lighting effects. Volume rendering using hardware 3D textures is extremely fast, and machines capable of using this technique are becoming more moderately priced. While this technique, at present, is limited to use with regular grids, we are pursuing possible algorithms extending the approach to more general grid types. We have also begun to explore a new method for determining the accuracy of approximate models based on the light field method described at ACM SIGGRAPH '96. In our initial implementation, we automatically image the volume from 32 equi-distant positions on the surface of an enclosing tessellated sphere. We then calculate differences between these images under different conditions of volume approximation or decimation. We are studying whether this will give a quantitative measure of the effects of approximation. We have created new tools for exploring the differences between images produced by various rendering methods. Images created by our software can be stored in the SGI RGB format. Our idtools software reads in pair of images and compares them using various metrics. The differences of the images using the RGB, HSV, and HSL color models can be calculated and shown. We can also calculate the auto-correlation function and the Fourier transform of the image and image differences. We will explore how these image differences compare in order to find useful metrics for quantifying the success of various visualization approaches. In general, progress was consistent with our research plan for the second year of the grant.

  11. The use of large healthcare data sets in pursuit of a clinical question.

    PubMed

    Arons, Raymond R; Taub, Leslie-Faith Morritt

    2015-05-01

    The use of large healthcare databases may be of interest to nurse practitioners who wish to answer clinical questions. This column will provide information about access to selected large healthcare databases, requirements for statistical software, and the skills required to utilize these databases. PMID:25772735

  12. On the performance of large Gaussian basis sets for the computation of total atomization energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The total atomization energies of a number of molecules have been computed using an augmented coupled-cluster method and (5s4p3d2f1g) and 4s3p2d1f) atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as well as the correlation consistent valence triple zeta plus polarization (cc-pVTZ) correlation consistent valence quadrupole zeta plus polarization (cc-pVQZ) basis sets. The performance of ANO and correlation consistent basis sets is comparable throughout, although the latter can result in significant CPU time savings. Whereas the inclusion of g functions has significant effects on the computed Sigma D(e) values, chemical accuracy is still not reached for molecules involving multiple bonds. A Gaussian-1 (G) type correction lowers the error, but not much beyond the accuracy of the G1 model itself. Using separate corrections for sigma bonds, pi bonds, and valence pairs brings down the mean absolute error to less than 1 kcal/mol for the spdf basis sets, and about 0.5 kcal/mol for the spdfg basis sets. Some conclusions on the success of the Gaussian-1 and Gaussian-2 models are drawn.

  13. Mountain rangesand other large-scale features of Earth's surface set basic patterns of climate, ecology, hydrology, and

    E-print Network

    Shuster, David L.

    Mountain rangesand other large-scale features of Earth's surface set basic patterns of climate-versus-depth profile helps determine the history of rocks exhumed to Earth's surface. Shown here are model isotherms. Beneath the surface (brown con- tour), temperature increases with depth at a rate of about 20­30 °C/km, so

  14. Use of Large-Scale Data Sets to Study Educational Pathways of American Indian and Alaska Native Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Alcantar, Cynthia M.; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses issues and challenges encountered in using large-scale data sets to study educational experiences and subsequent outcomes for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. In this chapter, we argue that the linguistic and cultural diversity of Native peoples, coupled with the legal and political ways in which education…

  15. Bridging the Gap Between Large-Scale Data Sets and Analyses: Semi-Automated Methods to Facilitate Amplified Fragment

    E-print Network

    Markert, Jeffrey Alan

    developed an R script to convert the raw peak intensity data output from GeneMarker® v1.6 (SoftGenetics LLC®, State College, PA) to a format compatible for AFLPScore. We developed a second R script to convert of our large AFLP data set. The line code for the R scripts also could be manually adjusted to convert

  16. Caught you: threats to confidentiality due to the public release of large-scale genetic data sets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Large-scale genetic data sets are frequently shared with other research groups and even released on the Internet to allow for secondary analysis. Study participants are usually not informed about such data sharing because data sets are assumed to be anonymous after stripping off personal identifiers. Discussion The assumption of anonymity of genetic data sets, however, is tenuous because genetic data are intrinsically self-identifying. Two types of re-identification are possible: the "Netflix" type and the "profiling" type. The "Netflix" type needs another small genetic data set, usually with less than 100 SNPs but including a personal identifier. This second data set might originate from another clinical examination, a study of leftover samples or forensic testing. When merged to the primary, unidentified set it will re-identify all samples of that individual. Even with no second data set at hand, a "profiling" strategy can be developed to extract as much information as possible from a sample collection. Starting with the identification of ethnic subgroups along with predictions of body characteristics and diseases, the asthma kids case as a real-life example is used to illustrate that approach. Summary Depending on the degree of supplemental information, there is a good chance that at least a few individuals can be identified from an anonymized data set. Any re-identification, however, may potentially harm study participants because it will release individual genetic disease risks to the public. PMID:21190545

  17. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four short articles are combined: "Adding Discourse-Level Practice to Sentence-Level Exercises" (Eric S. Nelson); "Presenting Picture Books in the ESL Classroom" (Lijun Shen); "Role Playing in a Large Class" (Ellen Rosen); and "Calvin and Hobbes and Other Icons of Americana" (Daniel J. Conrad). (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  18. A posteriori correction of camera characteristics from large image data sets

    PubMed Central

    Afanasyev, Pavel; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Matadeen, Rishi; De Carlo, Sacha; van Duinen, Gijs; Alewijnse, Bart; Peters, Peter J.; Abrahams, Jan-Pieter; Portugal, Rodrigo V.; Schatz, Michael; van Heel, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Large datasets are emerging in many fields of image processing including: electron microscopy, light microscopy, medical X-ray imaging, astronomy, etc. Novel computer-controlled instrumentation facilitates the collection of very large datasets containing thousands of individual digital images. In single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (“cryo-EM”), for example, large datasets are required for achieving quasi-atomic resolution structures of biological complexes. Based on the collected data alone, large datasets allow us to precisely determine the statistical properties of the imaging sensor on a pixel-by-pixel basis, independent of any “a priori” normalization routinely applied to the raw image data during collection (“flat field correction”). Our straightforward “a posteriori” correction yields clean linear images as can be verified by Fourier Ring Correlation (FRC), illustrating the statistical independence of the corrected images over all spatial frequencies. The image sensor characteristics can also be measured continuously and used for correcting upcoming images. PMID:26068909

  19. Large-Eddy Simulation of Breaking Waves Using Embedded-Boundary/Level-Set Method

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jianming

    using a boundary condition capturing method (ghost fluid method). The immersed bodies are treated using face of the wave; while the latter features the overturning of the front face of the wave, large splash

  20. A posteriori correction of camera characteristics from large image data sets.

    PubMed

    Afanasyev, Pavel; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Matadeen, Rishi; De Carlo, Sacha; van Duinen, Gijs; Alewijnse, Bart; Peters, Peter J; Abrahams, Jan-Pieter; Portugal, Rodrigo V; Schatz, Michael; van Heel, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Large datasets are emerging in many fields of image processing including: electron microscopy, light microscopy, medical X-ray imaging, astronomy, etc. Novel computer-controlled instrumentation facilitates the collection of very large datasets containing thousands of individual digital images. In single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy ("cryo-EM"), for example, large datasets are required for achieving quasi-atomic resolution structures of biological complexes. Based on the collected data alone, large datasets allow us to precisely determine the statistical properties of the imaging sensor on a pixel-by-pixel basis, independent of any "a priori" normalization routinely applied to the raw image data during collection ("flat field correction"). Our straightforward "a posteriori" correction yields clean linear images as can be verified by Fourier Ring Correlation (FRC), illustrating the statistical independence of the corrected images over all spatial frequencies. The image sensor characteristics can also be measured continuously and used for correcting upcoming images. PMID:26068909

  1. Teaching Cell Biology in the Large-Enrollment Classroom: Methods to Promote Analytical Thinking and Assessment of Their Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Bell, John D.; Reeve, Suzanne; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2003-01-01

    A large-enrollment, undergraduate cellular biology lecture course is described whose primary goal is to help students acquire skill in the interpretation of experimental data. The premise is that this kind of analytical reasoning is not intuitive for most people and, in the absence of hands-on laboratory experience, will not readily develop unless…

  2. Clickenomics: Using a Classroom Response System to Increase Student Engagement in a Large-Enrollment Principles of Economics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salemi, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important challenges facing college instructors of economics is helping students engage. Engagement is particularly important in a large-enrollment Principles of Economics course, where it can help students achieve a long-lived understanding of how economists use basic economic ideas to look at the world. The author reports how…

  3. Improved student engagement, satisfaction, and learning outcomes in a "flipped" large-lecture setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. S.; Bettis, E. A., III; Russell, J. E.; Van Horne, S.; Rocheford, M. K.; Sipola, M.; Colombo, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Large lecture courses are traditional teaching practices of most large institutions of public higher education. They have historically provided an efficient way to deliver content information to the large number of students with the least amount of faculty resources. However, research of student learning indicates that the traditional lecture format does not provide the best learning experience for students, and students learn better in the active learning environments in which students engage in meaningful learning activities rather than just listening. In this study, we compare two offerings of Introduction to Environmental Science, a large-lecture general education course, offered in two formats by the same instructors in subsequent years. In the first offering (Spring 2013) the course was offered as a traditional large-lecture course, with lecture to large audiences and a limited number of exams for assessment. In the second offering (Spring 2014), the course included small-group discussion periods, peer-review of writing assignments, guest lectures, and online learning with limited traditional lecture. Our primary objective was to quantify differences in student engagement and learning outcomes between the two course offerings. Results of our study show that the students in the transformed course indicated higher interest, engagement level, and satisfaction than the students in the traditional lecture course. Furthermore, students in the transformed course reported increased behavior, emotional, and cognitive engagement over those in the traditional course, and also increased satisfaction with the course.

  4. A Controlled Trial of Active versus Passive Learning Strategies in a Large Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidet, Paul; Morgan, Robert O.; O'Malley, Kimberly; Moran, Betty Jeanne; Richards, Boyd F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of active and didactic teaching strategies on learning- and process-oriented outcomes. Design: Controlled trial. Setting: After-hours residents' teaching session. Participants: Family and Community Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Pediatrics residents at two academic medical institutions. Interventions: We…

  5. Finding The Needle: Suppression of False Alarms in Large Intrusion Detection Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Thurimella, Ramki

    and software version, making the problem of creating generalized tools to separate true attacks from false have a high probability of being artifacts of genuine attacks. We evaluate a set of time the existence of all attacks which were manually identified by security personnel, drastically reduce the number

  6. Strategy Training in a Task-Based Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun; Lin, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature that examines the implementation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) in classroom settings has reported various challenges related to educational cultures, classroom management, teacher cognition and learner perceptions. To facilitate the smooth transition of TBLT from laboratory settings to classroom contexts, measures need…

  7. A Large-Scale Inquiry-Based Astronomy Intervention Project: Impact on Students' Content Knowledge Performance and Views of their High School Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena; Deehan, James

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a study of the impact on students involved in a large-scale inquiry-based astronomical high school education intervention in Australia. Students in this intervention were led through an educational design allowing them to undertake an investigative approach to understanding the lifecycle of stars more aligned with the `ideal' picture of school science. Through the use of two instruments, one focused on content knowledge gains and the other on student views of school science, we explore the impact of this design. Overall, students made moderate content knowledge gains although these gains were heavily dependent on the individual teacher, the number of times a teacher implemented and the depth to which an individual teacher went with the provided materials. In terms of students' views, there were significant global changes in their views of their experience of the science classroom. However, there were some areas where no change or slightly negative changes of which some were expected and some were not. From these results, we comment on the necessity of sustained long-period implementations rather than single interventions, the requirement for similarly sustained professional development and the importance of monitoring the impact of inquiry-based implementations. This is especially important as inquiry-based approaches to science are required by many new curriculum reforms, most notably in this context, the new Australian curriculum currently being rolled out.

  8. The PRRS Host Genomic Consortium (PHGC) Database: Management of large data sets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In any consortium project where large amounts of phenotypic and genotypic data are collected across several research labs, issues arise with maintenance and analysis of datasets. The PRRS Host Genomic Consortium (PHGC) Database was developed to meet this need for the PRRS research community. The sch...

  9. Design of Availability-Dependent Distributed Services in Large-Scale Uncooperative Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Ramses Victor

    2009-01-01

    Thesis Statement: "Availability-dependent global predicates can be efficiently and scalably realized for a class of distributed services, in spite of specific selfish and colluding behaviors, using local and decentralized protocols". Several types of large-scale distributed systems spanning the Internet have to deal with availability variations…

  10. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  11. New storage and presentation methods for rapid access to large sets of triggered records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Dieter

    1993-02-01

    The recent advent of high-capacity storage media for seismological measurement instruments has rendered traditional methods of storing and accessing triggered events obsolete. Traditionally, the user was faced with the burden of remembering where and how data sets were stored. With hundreds of megabytes to administer, this approach is no longer feasible. A new approach using a relational databasemanagement system is presented here. The system is implemented under Unix tm, using the commercially available INFORMIX® C/ISAM® DBMS. The new system is not only much faster and more convenient, but also offers new possibilities previously unavailable, such as direct access to data on the original recording media.

  12. High-throughput film-densitometry: An efficient approach to generate large data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Typke, Dieter; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Jones, Arthur; Lee, Juyoung; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2004-07-14

    A film-handling machine (robot) has been built which can, in conjunction with a commercially available film densitometer, exchange and digitize over 300 electron micrographs per day. Implementation of robotic film handling effectively eliminates the delay and tedium associated with digitizing images when data are initially recorded on photographic film. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the commercially available densitometer is significantly worse than that of a high-end, scientific microdensitometer. Nevertheless, its signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is quite excellent, allowing substantial restoration of the output to ''near-to-perfect'' performance. Due to the large area of the standard electron microscope film that can be digitized by the commercial densitometer (up to 10,000 x 13,680 pixels with an appropriately coded holder), automated film digitization offers a fast and inexpensive alternative to high-end CCD cameras as a means of acquiring large amounts of image data in electron microscopy.

  13. Generating mock data sets for large-scale Lyman-? forest correlation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov

    2012-01-01

    Massive spectroscopic surveys of high-redshift quasars yield large numbers of correlated Ly? absorption spectra that can be used to measure large-scale structure. Simulations of these surveys are required to accurately interpret the measurements of correlations and correct for systematic errors. An efficient method to generate mock realizations of Ly? forest surveys is presented which generates a field over the lines of sight to the survey sources only, instead of having to generate it over the entire three-dimensional volume of the survey. The method can be calibrated to reproduce the power spectrum and one-point distribution function of the transmitted flux fraction, as well as the redshift evolution of these quantities, and is easily used for modeling any survey systematic effects. We present an example of how these mock surveys are applied to predict the measurement errors in a survey with similar parameters as the BOSS quasar survey in SDSS-III.

  14. Parallel k-Means Clustering for Quantitative Ecoregion Delineation Using Large Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T; Hoffman, Forrest M; HargroveJr., William Walter

    2011-01-01

    Identification of geographic ecoregions has long been of interest to environmental scientists and ecologists for identifying regions of similar ecological and environmental conditions. Such classifications are important for predicting suitable species ranges, for stratification of ecological samples, and to help prioritize habitat preservation and remediation efforts. Hargrove and Hoffman (1999, 2009) have developed geographical spatio-temporal clustering algorithms and codes and have successfully applied them to a variety of environmental science domains, including ecological regionalization; environmental monitoring network design; analysis of satellite-, airborne-, and ground-based remote sensing, and climate model-model and model-measurement intercomparison. With the advances in state-of-the-art satellite remote sensing and climate models, observations and model outputs are available at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolutions. Long time series of these high resolution datasets are extremely large in size and growing. Analysis and knowledge extraction from these large datasets are not just algorithmic and ecological problems, but also pose a complex computational problem. This paper focuses on the development of a massively parallel multivariate geographical spatio-temporal clustering code for analysis of very large datasets using tens of thousands processors on one of the fastest supercomputers in the world.

  15. Teaching Cell Biology in the Large-Enrollment Classroom: Methods to Promote Analytical Thinking and Assessment of Their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Elizabeth; Bell, John D.; Reeve, Suzanne; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2003-01-01

    A large-enrollment, undergraduate cellular biology lecture course is described whose primary goal is to help students acquire skill in the interpretation of experimental data. The premise is that this kind of analytical reasoning is not intuitive for most people and, in the absence of hands-on laboratory experience, will not readily develop unless instructional methods and examinations specifically designed to foster it are employed. Promoting scientific thinking forces changes in the roles of both teacher and student. We describe didactic strategies that include directed practice of data analysis in a workshop format, active learning through verbal and written communication, visualization of abstractions diagrammatically, and the use of ancillary small-group mentoring sessions with faculty. The implications for a teacher in reducing the breadth and depth of coverage, becoming coach instead of lecturer, and helping students to diagnose cognitive weaknesses are discussed. In order to determine the efficacy of these strategies, we have carefully monitored student performance and have demonstrated a large gain in a pre- and posttest comparison of scores on identical problems, improved test scores on several successive midterm examinations when the statistical analysis accounts for the relative difficulty of the problems, and higher scores in comparison to students in a control course whose objective was information transfer, not acquisition of reasoning skills. A novel analytical index (student mobility profile) is described that demonstrates that this improvement was not random, but a systematic outcome of the teaching/learning strategies employed. An assessment of attitudes showed that, in spite of finding it difficult, students endorse this approach to learning, but also favor curricular changes that would introduce an analytical emphasis earlier in their training. PMID:14506506

  16. Large-Eddy Simulation of Premixed and Partially Premixed Turbulent Combustion Using a Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchamp de Lageneste, Laurent; Pitsch, Heinz

    2001-11-01

    Level-set methods (G-equation) have been recently used in the context of RANS to model turbulent premixed (Hermann 2000) or partially premixed (Chen 1999) combustion. By directly taking into account unsteady effects, LES can be expected to improve predictions over RANS. Since the reaction zone thickness of premixed flames in technical devices is usually much smaller than the LES grid spacing, chemical reactions completely occur on the sub-grid scales and hence have to be modeled entirely. In the level-set methodology, the flame front is represented by an arbitrary iso-surface G0 of a scalar field G whose evolution is described by the so-called G-equation. This equation is only valid at G=G_0, and hence decoupled from other G levels. Heat release is then modeled using a flamelet approach in which temperature is determined as a function of G and the mixture-fraction Z. In the present study, the proposed approach has been formulated for LES and validated using data from a turbulent Bunsen burner experiment (Chen, Peters 1996). Simulation of an experimental Lean Premixed Prevapourised (LPP) dump combustor (Besson, Bruel 1999, 2000) under different premixed or partially premixed conditions will also be presented.

  17. Plastic set of smooth large radii of curvature thermal conductance specimens at light loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal contact conductance test data at high vacuum were obtained from two Armco iron specimens having smooth, large radii of curvature, convex, one-half wave length surfaces. The data are compared with calculations based on two macroscopic elastic deformation theories and an empirical expression. Major disagreement with the theories and fair agreement with the empirical expression resulted. Plastic deformation of all the contacting surfaces was verified from surface analyzer statistics. These results indicate that the theoretical assumption of macroscopic elastic deformation is inadequate for accurate prediction of heat transfer with light loads for Armco iron specimens similar to those used in this investigation.

  18. Propagation of large uncertainty sets in orbital dynamics by automatic domain splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittig, Alexander; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Armellin, Roberto; Makino, Kyoko; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco; Berz, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to uncertainty propagation in astrodynamics mainly refer to linearized models or Monte Carlo simulations. Naive linear methods fail in nonlinear dynamics, whereas Monte Carlo simulations tend to be computationally intensive. Differential algebra has already proven to be an efficient compromise by replacing thousands of pointwise integrations of Monte Carlo runs with the fast evaluation of the arbitrary order Taylor expansion of the flow of the dynamics. However, the current implementation of the DA-based high-order uncertainty propagator fails when the non-linearities of the dynamics prohibit good convergence of the Taylor expansion in one or more directions. We solve this issue by introducing automatic domain splitting. During propagation, the polynomial expansion of the current state is split into two polynomials whenever its truncation error reaches a predefined threshold. The resulting set of polynomials accurately tracks uncertainties, even in highly nonlinear dynamics. The method is tested on the propagation of (99942) Apophis post-encounter motion.

  19. A new tool called DISSECT for analysing large genomic data sets using a Big Data approach.

    PubMed

    Canela-Xandri, Oriol; Law, Andy; Gray, Alan; Woolliams, John A; Tenesa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genetic and genomic data are increasingly available and the major bottleneck in their analysis is a lack of sufficiently scalable computational tools. To address this problem in the context of complex traits analysis, we present DISSECT. DISSECT is a new and freely available software that is able to exploit the distributed-memory parallel computational architectures of compute clusters, to perform a wide range of genomic and epidemiologic analyses, which currently can only be carried out on reduced sample sizes or under restricted conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of our new tool by addressing the challenge of predicting phenotypes from genotype data in human populations using mixed-linear model analysis. We analyse simulated traits from 470,000 individuals genotyped for 590,004 SNPs in ?4?h using the combined computational power of 8,400 processor cores. We find that prediction accuracies in excess of 80% of the theoretical maximum could be achieved with large sample sizes. PMID:26657010

  20. A new tool called DISSECT for analysing large genomic data sets using a Big Data approach

    PubMed Central

    Canela-Xandri, Oriol; Law, Andy; Gray, Alan; Woolliams, John A.; Tenesa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genetic and genomic data are increasingly available and the major bottleneck in their analysis is a lack of sufficiently scalable computational tools. To address this problem in the context of complex traits analysis, we present DISSECT. DISSECT is a new and freely available software that is able to exploit the distributed-memory parallel computational architectures of compute clusters, to perform a wide range of genomic and epidemiologic analyses, which currently can only be carried out on reduced sample sizes or under restricted conditions. We demonstrate the usefulness of our new tool by addressing the challenge of predicting phenotypes from genotype data in human populations using mixed-linear model analysis. We analyse simulated traits from 470,000 individuals genotyped for 590,004 SNPs in ?4?h using the combined computational power of 8,400 processor cores. We find that prediction accuracies in excess of 80% of the theoretical maximum could be achieved with large sample sizes. PMID:26657010

  1. Setting up a Rayleigh Scattering Based Flow Measuring System in a Large Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Gomez, Carlos R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering based air density measurement system has been built in a large nozzle testing facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The technique depends on the light scattering by gas molecules present in air; no artificial seeding is required. Light from a single mode, continuous wave laser was transmitted to the nozzle facility by optical fiber, and light scattered by gas molecules, at various points along the laser beam, is collected and measured by photon-counting electronics. By placing the laser beam and collection optics on synchronized traversing units, the point measurement technique is made effective for surveying density variation over a cross-section of the nozzle plume. Various difficulties associated with dust particles, stray light, high noise level and vibration are discussed. Finally, a limited amount of data from an underexpanded jet are presented and compared with expected variations to validate the technique.

  2. A hybrid structure for the storage and manipulation of very large spatial data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1982-01-01

    The map data input and output problem for geographic information systems is rapidly diminishing with the increasing availability of mass digitizing, direct spatial data capture and graphics hardware based on raster technology. Although a large number of efficient raster-based algorithms exist for performing a wide variety of common tasks on these data, there are a number of procedures which are more efficiently performed in vector mode or for which raster mode equivalents of current vector-based techniques have not yet been developed. This paper presents a hybrid spatial data structure, named the ?vaster' structure, which can utilize the advantages of both raster and vector structures while potentially eliminating, or greatly reducing, the need for raster-to-vector and vector-to-raster conversion. Other advantages of the vaster structure are also discussed.

  3. Extraction of tacit knowledge from large ADME data sets via pairwise analysis.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Christopher E; Chang, George; Kauffman, Gregory W

    2011-06-15

    Pharmaceutical companies routinely collect data across multiple projects for common ADME endpoints. Although at the time of collection the data is intended for use in decision making within a specific project, knowledge can be gained by data mining the entire cross-project data set for patterns of structure-activity relationships (SAR) that may be applied to any project. One such data mining method is pairwise analysis. This method has the advantage of being able to identify small structural changes that lead to significant changes in activity. In this paper, we describe the process for full pairwise analysis of our high-throughput ADME assays routinely used for compound discovery efforts at Pfizer (microsomal clearance, passive membrane permeability, P-gp efflux, and lipophilicity). We also describe multiple strategies for the application of these transforms in a prospective manner during compound design. Finally, a detailed analysis of the activity patterns in pairs of compounds that share the same molecular transformation reveals multiple types of transforms from an SAR perspective. These include bioisosteres, additives, multiplicatives, and a type we call switches as they act to either turn on or turn off an activity. PMID:21616672

  4. Data Mining on Large Data Set for Predicting Salmon Spawning Habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, YuLong; Murray, Christopher J.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.

    2008-07-01

    Hydraulic properties related to river flow affect salmon spawning habitat. Accurate prediction of salmon spawning habitat and understanding the influential properties on the spawning behavior are of great interest for hydroelectric dam management. Previous research predicted salmon spawning habitat through deriving river specific spawning suitability indices and employing a function estimate method like logistic regression on several static river flow related properties and had some success. The objective of this study was two-fold. First dynamic river flow properties associated with upstream dam operation were successfully derived from a huge set of time series of both water velocity and water depth for about one fifth of a million habitat cells through principal component analysis (PCA) using nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPLAS). The inclusion of dynamic variables in the models greatly improved the model prediction. Secondly, nine machine learning methods were applied to the data and it was found that decision tree and rule induction methods were generally outperformed usually used logistic regression. Specifically random forest, an advanced decision tree algorithm, provided unanimous better results. Over-prediction problem in previous studies were greatly alleviated.

  5. Rethinking the Christian Studies Classroom: Reflections on the Dynamics of Teaching Religion in Southern Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravett, Sandie; Hulsether, Mark; Medine, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    An extended set of conversations conducted by three religious studies faculty teaching at large public universities in the Southern United States spurred these reflections on how their institutional locations inflected issues such as the cultural expectations students bring to the classroom, how these expectations interact with the evolving…

  6. Mining unusual and rare stellar spectra from large spectroscopic survey data sets using the outlier-detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Pan, Jingchang; Tu, Liangping; Jiang, Bin; Kong, Xiao; Shi, Zhixin; Yi, Zhenping; Wang, Fengfei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Yongheng

    2013-05-01

    The large number of spectra obtained from sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the survey executed by the Large sky Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called GuoShouJing Telescope) provide us with opportunities to search for peculiar or even unknown types of spectra. In response to the limitations of existing methods, a novel outlier-mining method, the Monte Carlo Local Outlier Factor (MCLOF), is proposed in this paper, which can be used to highlight unusual and rare spectra from large spectroscopic survey data sets. The MCLOF method exposes outliers automatically and efficiently by marking each spectrum with a number, i.e. using outlier index as a flag for an unusual and rare spectrum. The Local Outlier Factor (LOF) represents how unusual and rare a spectrum is compared with other spectra and the Monte Carlo method is used to compute the global LOF for each spectrum by randomly selecting samples in each independent iteration. Our MCLOF method is applied to over half a million stellar spectra (classified as STAR by the SDSS Pipeline) from the SDSS data release 8 (DR8) and a total of 37 033 spectra are selected as outliers with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ? 3 and outlier index ?0.85. Some of these outliers are shown to be binary stars, emission-line stars, carbon stars and stars with unusual continuum. The results show that our proposed method can efficiently highlight these unusual spectra from the survey data sets. In addition, some relatively rare and interesting spectra are selected, indicating that the proposed method can also be used to mine rare, even unknown, spectra. The proposed method can be applicable not only to spectral survey data sets but also to other types of survey data sets. The spectra of all peculiar objects selected by our MCLOF method are available from a user-friendly website: http://sciwiki.lamost.org/Miningdr8/.

  7. Cytotoxicity evaluation of large cyanobacterial strain set using selected human and murine in vitro cell models.

    PubMed

    Hrouzek, Pavel; Kapu?cik, Aleksandra; Vacek, Jan; Vorá?ová, Kate?ina; Paichlová, Jind?iška; Kosina, Pavel; Voloshko, Ludmila; Ventura, Stefano; Kopecký, Ji?í

    2016-02-01

    The production of cytotoxic molecules interfering with mammalian cells is extensively reported in cyanobacteria. These compounds may have a use in pharmacological applications; however, their potential toxicity needs to be considered. We performed cytotoxicity tests of crude cyanobacterial extracts in six cell models in order to address the frequency of cyanobacterial cytotoxicity to human cells and the level of specificity to a particular cell line. A set of more than 100 cyanobacterial crude extracts isolated from soil habitats (mainly genera Nostoc and Tolypothrix) was tested by MTT test for in vitro toxicity on the hepatic and non-hepatic human cell lines HepG2 and HeLa, and three cell systems of rodent origin: Yac-1, Sp-2 and Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, a subset of the extracts was assessed for cytotoxicity against primary cultures of human hepatocytes as a model for evaluating potential hepatotoxicity. Roughly one third of cyanobacterial extracts caused cytotoxic effects (i.e. viability<75%) on human cell lines. Despite the sensitivity differences, high correlation coefficients among the inhibition values were obtained for particular cell systems. This suggests a prevailing general cytotoxic effect of extracts and their constituents. The non-transformed immortalized fibroblasts (Balb/c 3T3) and hepatic cancer line HepG2 exhibited good correlations with primary cultures of human hepatocytes. The presence of cytotoxic fractions in strongly cytotoxic extracts was confirmed by an activity-guided HPLC fractionation, and it was demonstrated that cyanobacterial cytotoxicity is caused by a mixture of components with similar hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties. The data presented here could be used in further research into in vitro testing based on human models for the toxicological monitoring of complex cyanobacterial samples. PMID:26519817

  8. A Large Set of Newly Created Interspecific Saccharomyces Hybrids Increases Aromatic Diversity in Lager Beers.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. PMID:26407881

  9. Can wide consultation help with setting priorities for large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs?

    PubMed

    Boivin, Frédéric; Simard, Anouk; Peres-Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada). The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession). The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1) a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2) a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high), but even then the influence was quite small. PMID:25525798

  10. Can Wide Consultation Help with Setting Priorities for Large-Scale Biodiversity Monitoring Programs?

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Frédéric; Simard, Anouk; Peres-Neto, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada). The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession). The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1) a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2) a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high), but even then the influence was quite small. PMID:25525798

  11. Job-related diseases and occupations within a large workers' compensation data set.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J P; Miller, T R

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this report is to describe workers' job-related diseases and the occupations associated with those diseases. The methods include aggregation and analysis of job-related disease and occupation data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Supplementary Data System (SDS) for 1985 and 1986--the last years of data available with workers' compensation categories: death, permanent total, permanent partial, and temporary total and partial. Diseases are ranked according to their contribution to the four workers' compensation (WC) categories and also ranked within occupations according to the number of cases. Occupations are ranked according to their contribution to specific diseases within one of the four categories. The following diseases comprise the greatest numbers of deaths: heart attacks, asbestosis, silicosis, and stroke. Within the permanent total category, the diseases with the greatest contributions are heart attack, silicosis, strokes, and inflammation of the joints. For the permanent partial category, they are hearing loss, inflammation of joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, and heart attacks. For the temporary total and partial category, they are: inflammation of joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, dermatitis, and toxic poisoning. Hearing loss or inflammation of joints are associated with more than 300 occupations. Circulatory diseases comprise a larger share of job-related diseases than is generally acknowledged. Occupations contributing the most heart attack deaths are truck drivers, managers, janitors, supervisors, firefighters, and laborers. Ratios of numbers of deaths to numbers of disabilities are far higher for illnesses than injuries. Occupations that are consistent in their high ranking on most lists involving a variety of conditions include nonconstruction laborers, janitors, and construction laborers. The large SDS, though dated, provides a tentative national look at the broad spectrum of occupational diseases as defined by WC and the occupations associated with those diseases in 1985 and 1986. Some description of the spectrum of diseases encountered today is possible especially for occupations, such as those mentioned above for which employment has expanded in the 1990s. PMID:9481418

  12. The Viking viewer for connectomics: scalable multi-user annotation and summarization of large volume data sets

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, JR; MOHAMMED, S; GRIMM, B; JONES, BW; KOSHEVOY, P; TASDIZEN, T; WHITAKER, R; MARC, RE

    2011-01-01

    Modern microscope automation permits the collection of vast amounts of continuous anatomical imagery in both two and three dimensions. These large data sets present significant challenges for data storage, access, viewing, annotation and analysis. The cost and overhead of collecting and storing the data can be extremely high. Large data sets quickly exceed an individual's capability for timely analysis and present challenges in efficiently applying transforms, if needed. Finally annotated anatomical data sets can represent a significant investment of resources and should be easily accessible to the scientific community. The Viking application was our solution created to view and annotate a 16.5 TB ultrastructural retinal connectome volume and we demonstrate its utility in reconstructing neural networks for a distinctive retinal amacrine cell class. Viking has several key features. (1) It works over the internet using HTTP and supports many concurrent users limited only by hardware. (2) It supports a multi-user, collaborative annotation strategy. (3) It cleanly demarcates viewing and analysis from data collection and hosting. (4) It is capable of applying transformations in real-time. (5) It has an easily extensible user interface, allowing addition of specialized modules without rewriting the viewer. PMID:21118201

  13. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  14. Designing Websites for Displaying Large Data Sets and Images on Multiple Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.; Wolf, V. G.; Garron, J.; Kirschner, M.

    2012-12-01

    The desire to build websites to analyze and display ever increasing amounts of scientific data and images pushes for web site designs which utilize large displays, and to use the display area as efficiently as possible. Yet, scientists and users of their data are increasingly wishing to access these websites in the field and on mobile devices. This results in the need to develop websites that can support a wide range of devices and screen sizes, and to optimally use whatever display area is available. Historically, designers have addressed this issue by building two websites; one for mobile devices, and one for desktop environments, resulting in increased cost, duplicity of work, and longer development times. Recent advancements in web design technology and techniques have evolved which allow for the development of a single website that dynamically adjusts to the type of device being used to browse the website (smartphone, tablet, desktop). In addition they provide the opportunity to truly optimize whatever display area is available. HTML5 and CSS3 give web designers media query statements which allow design style sheets to be aware of the size of the display being used, and to format web content differently based upon the queried response. Web elements can be rendered in a different size, position, or even removed from the display entirely, based upon the size of the display area. Using HTML5/CSS3 media queries in this manner is referred to as "Responsive Web Design" (RWD). RWD in combination with technologies such as LESS and Twitter Bootstrap allow the web designer to build web sites which not only dynamically respond to the browser display size being used, but to do so in very controlled and intelligent ways, ensuring that good layout and graphic design principles are followed while doing so. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Satellite Facility SAR Data Center (ASF) recently redesigned their popular Vertex application and converted it from a traditional, fixed-layout website into a RWD site built on HTML5, LESS and Twitter Bootstrap. Vertex is a data portal for remotely sensed imagery of the earth, offering Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data products from the global ASF archive. By using Responsive Web Design, ASF is able to provide access to a massive collection of SAR imagery and allow the user to use mobile devices and desktops to maximum advantage. ASF's Vertex web site demonstrates that with increased interface flexibility, scientists, managers and users can increase their personal effectiveness by accessing data portals from their preferred device as their science dictates.

  15. Knowledge and theme discovery across very large biological data sets using distributed queries: a prototype combining unstructured and structured data.

    PubMed

    Mudunuri, Uma S; Khouja, Mohamad; Repetski, Stephen; Venkataraman, Girish; Che, Anney; Luke, Brian T; Girard, F Pascal; Stephens, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    As the discipline of biomedical science continues to apply new technologies capable of producing unprecedented volumes of noisy and complex biological data, it has become evident that available methods for deriving meaningful information from such data are simply not keeping pace. In order to achieve useful results, researchers require methods that consolidate, store and query combinations of structured and unstructured data sets efficiently and effectively. As we move towards personalized medicine, the need to combine unstructured data, such as medical literature, with large amounts of highly structured and high-throughput data such as human variation or expression data from very large cohorts, is especially urgent. For our study, we investigated a likely biomedical query using the Hadoop framework. We ran queries using native MapReduce tools we developed as well as other open source and proprietary tools. Our results suggest that the available technologies within the Big Data domain can reduce the time and effort needed to utilize and apply distributed queries over large datasets in practical clinical applications in the life sciences domain. The methodologies and technologies discussed in this paper set the stage for a more detailed evaluation that investigates how various data structures and data models are best mapped to the proper computational framework. PMID:24312478

  16. Knowledge and Theme Discovery across Very Large Biological Data Sets Using Distributed Queries: A Prototype Combining Unstructured and Structured Data

    PubMed Central

    Repetski, Stephen; Venkataraman, Girish; Che, Anney; Luke, Brian T.; Girard, F. Pascal; Stephens, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    As the discipline of biomedical science continues to apply new technologies capable of producing unprecedented volumes of noisy and complex biological data, it has become evident that available methods for deriving meaningful information from such data are simply not keeping pace. In order to achieve useful results, researchers require methods that consolidate, store and query combinations of structured and unstructured data sets efficiently and effectively. As we move towards personalized medicine, the need to combine unstructured data, such as medical literature, with large amounts of highly structured and high-throughput data such as human variation or expression data from very large cohorts, is especially urgent. For our study, we investigated a likely biomedical query using the Hadoop framework. We ran queries using native MapReduce tools we developed as well as other open source and proprietary tools. Our results suggest that the available technologies within the Big Data domain can reduce the time and effort needed to utilize and apply distributed queries over large datasets in practical clinical applications in the life sciences domain. The methodologies and technologies discussed in this paper set the stage for a more detailed evaluation that investigates how various data structures and data models are best mapped to the proper computational framework. PMID:24312478

  17. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  18. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  19. Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Carmit

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  20. Classroom Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishtein, Ruth

    A school psychologist speaks of ways in which classroom teachers can use their training and experience to select the most effective options to help their students make the best use of their school experience. The first section of the book presents a brief analysis of eight major types of problem children (the hyperactive child, the aggressively…

  1. Development and Validation of Decision Forest Model for Estrogen Receptor Binding Prediction of Chemicals Using Large Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hui Wen; Doughty, Stephen W; Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2015-12-21

    Some chemicals in the environment possess the potential to interact with the endocrine system in the human body. Multiple receptors are involved in the endocrine system; estrogen receptor ? (ER?) plays very important roles in endocrine activity and is the most studied receptor. Understanding and predicting estrogenic activity of chemicals facilitates the evaluation of their endocrine activity. Hence, we have developed a decision forest classification model to predict chemical binding to ER? using a large training data set of 3308 chemicals obtained from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Estrogenic Activity Database. We tested the model using cross validations and external data sets of 1641 chemicals obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast project. The model showed good performance in both internal (92% accuracy) and external validations (?70-89% relative balanced accuracies), where the latter involved the validations of the model across different ER pathway-related assays in ToxCast. The important features that contribute to the prediction ability of the model were identified through informative descriptor analysis and were related to current knowledge of ER binding. Prediction confidence analysis revealed that the model had both high prediction confidence and accuracy for most predicted chemicals. The results demonstrated that the model constructed based on the large training data set is more accurate and robust for predicting ER binding of chemicals than the published models that have been developed using much smaller data sets. The model could be useful for the evaluation of ER?-mediated endocrine activity potential of environmental chemicals. PMID:26524122

  2. Combing rough set and RBF neural network for large-scale ship recognition in optical satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunyan, Lu; Huanxin, Zou; Hao, Sun; Shilin, Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Large scale ship recognition in optical remote sensing images is of great importance for many military applications. It aims to recognize the category information of the detected ships for effective maritime surveillance. The contributions of the paper can be summarized as follows: Firstly, based on the rough set theory, the common discernibility degree is used to compute the significance weight of each candidate feature and select valid recognition features automatically; Secondly, RBF neural network is constructed based on the selected recognition features. Experiments on recorded optical satellite images show the proposed method is effective and can get better classification rates at a higher speed than the state of the art methods.

  3. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom into Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbas, Maria Potes Santa-Clara

    2006-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project in the area of research. The main purpose of this mediated discourse was to implement, observe and analyse experiences of teachers in a training project developed for two different settings in the classroom. The first was between international classrooms through cyberspace and the second was a cyberspace…

  4. Application of Transcultural Themes in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of transcultural themes and images may help promote positive resonance in international settings, such as found in the traditional and online classrooms of globalizing higher education. Findings of transculturally resonant themes and images may be applied to international classroom pedagogy through such means as multimedia…

  5. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  6. Practical Classroom Applications of Language Experience: Looking Back, Looking Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Olga G., Ed.; Linek, Wayne M., Ed.

    The 38 essays in this book look back at language experience as an educational approach, provide practical classroom applications, and reconceptualize language experience as an overarching education process. Classroom teachers and reading specialists describe strategies in use in a variety of classroom settings and describe ways to integrate…

  7. The Social Context of Urban Classrooms: Measuring Student Psychological Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Stacy L.; Mehta, Tara G.; Atkins, Marc S.; Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip D.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Kim, Jong Bae; Chapman, Jason E.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Cua, Grace; Ogle, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Classrooms are unique and complex work settings in which teachers and students both participate in and contribute to classroom processes. This article describes the measurement phase of a study that examined the social ecology of urban classrooms. Informed by the dimensions and items of an established measure of organizational climate, we designed…

  8. Application of the new international geomagnetic reference field (IGRF80) to large sets of marine magnetometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnab, R.; Shih, K. G.; Srivastava, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field made over an interval of time must be corrected for secular variation before the data can be merged. The older versions of International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) failed to model secular variation adequately, and compilation of magnetic anomaly maps from different data sets often required numerous ad-hoc adjustments. With the superiority of the new IGRF at modelling secular variation, the merging of multi-year data sets has become much more practicable. This has been demonstrated in the consolidation of nearly 400 000 data points collected between 1972 and 1980 during 10 different survey cruises in the southwest Labrador Sea. Improvements in the IGRF have been achieved at a substantial cost in computing overhead. The new reference field expressions are more complicated than the old, and hence are slower to evaluate on digital computers. When processing large data sets, this can cause unacceptable delays. A third degree polynomial technique has been devised that approximates the total field portion of the full IGRF expression for a limited time and region. The method reduces processing time by a factor of 40, with little sacrifice in accuracy.

  9. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  10. A new wavelet-based approach for the automated treatment of large sets of lunar occultation data

    E-print Network

    O. Fors; A. Richichi; X. Otazu; J. Nunez

    2008-01-14

    The introduction of infrared arrays for lunar occultations (LO) work and the improvement of predictions based on new deep IR catalogues have resulted in a large increase in the number of observable occultations. We provide the means for an automated reduction of large sets of LO data. This frees the user from the tedious task of estimating first-guess parameters for the fit of each LO lightcurve. At the end of the process, ready-made plots and statistics enable the user to identify sources which appear to be resolved or binary and to initiate their detailed interactive analysis. The pipeline is tailored to array data, including the extraction of the lightcurves from FITS cubes. Because of its robustness and efficiency, the wavelet transform has been chosen to compute the initial guess of the parameters of the lightcurve fit. We illustrate and discuss our automatic reduction pipeline by analyzing a large volume of novel occultation data recorded at Calar Alto Observatory. The automated pipeline package is available from the authors.

  11. Classroom Management Study through

    E-print Network

    Douches, David S.

    Classroom Management Study through Michigan State Extension What is the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IYTCM) Program? This program is an evidence-based interven4on focused on improving teachers' skills in using classroom management

  12. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  13. Creating Learning Communities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Bryan K.; Lawrence, Natalie Kerr; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2012-01-01

    There are many ways to construct classroom-based learning communities. Nevertheless, the emphasis is always on cooperative learning. In this article, the authors focus on three teaching methods--interteaching, team-based learning, and cooperative learning in large, lecture-based courses--that they have used successfully to create classroom-based…

  14. New Ways of Classroom Assessment. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, J. D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In this revised edition in the popular New Ways Series, teachers have once again been given an opportunity to show how they do assessment in their classrooms on an everyday basis. Often feeling helpless when confronted with large-scale standardized testing practices, teachers here offer classroom testing created with the direct aim of helping…

  15. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  16. Possible calcium centers for hydrogen storage applications: An accurate many-body study by AFQMC calculations with large basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Wirawan; Krakauer, Henry; Zhang, Shiwei; Virgus, Yudistira

    2011-03-01

    Weak H2 physisorption energies present a significant challenge to first-principle theoretical modeling and prediction of materials for H storage. There has been controversy regarding the accuracy of DFT on systems involving Ca cations. We use the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method to accurately predict the binding energy of Ca + , - 4{H}2 . AFQMC scales as Nbasis3and has demonstrated accuracy similar to or better than the gold-standard coupled cluster CCSD(T) method. We apply a modified Cholesky decomposition to achieve efficient Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation in AFQMC at large basis sizes. We employ the largest correlation consistent basis sets available, up to Ca/cc-pCV5Z, to extrapolate to the complete basis limit. The calculated potential energy curve exhibits binding with a double-well structure. Supported by DOE and NSF. Calculations were performed at OLCF Jaguar and CPD.

  17. The Effects of Positive Verbal Reinforcement on the Time Spent outside the Classroom for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Residential Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Christina; Jolivette, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    To more effectively instruct the entire class, teachers of students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD) often choose to send students who display inappropriate behavior out of the room. A multiple baseline across settings was used to evaluate the effects of increasing teacher positive verbal reinforcement on the amount of time 2 students…

  18. Bag-Tanks for Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulfson, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using plastic bags as aquaria and terraria. Describes techniques for converting plastic sheets into aquaria, how to set them up for classroom use, and other uses for plastic bag aquaria. (DS)

  19. The ambient dose equivalent at flight altitudes: a fit to a large set of data using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Reginatto, M; Möller, T

    2010-09-01

    The problem of finding a simple, generally applicable description of worldwide measured ambient dose equivalent rates at aviation altitudes between 8 and 12 km is difficult to solve due to the large variety of functional forms and parametrisations that are possible. We present an approach that uses Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo methods to fit mathematical models to a large set of data and to compare the different models. About 2500 data points measured in the periods 1997-1999 and 2003-2006 were used. Since the data cover wide ranges of barometric altitude, vertical cut-off rigidity and phases in the solar cycle 23, we developed functions which depend on these three variables. Whereas the dependence on the vertical cut-off rigidity is described by an exponential, the dependences on barometric altitude and solar activity may be approximated by linear functions in the ranges under consideration. Therefore, a simple Taylor expansion was used to define different models and to investigate the relevance of the different expansion coefficients. With the method presented here, it is possible to obtain probability distributions for each expansion coefficient and thus to extract reliable uncertainties even for the dose rate evaluated. The resulting function agrees well with new measurements made at fixed geographic positions and during long haul flights covering a wide range of latitudes. PMID:20826891

  20. Teachers' perceptions of their experiences with including students with special needs in the general education classroom setting throughout public and private schools in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Finegan, Jane Elizabeth

    2005-02-17

    personnel and administrators, teacher communication and collaboration, and access to related services are necessary in order to meet the needs of their students with disabilities in the general education setting. v DEDICATION I dedicate this dissertation... collaborative team responsible for developing a student?s Individualized Education Plan (IEP), and consists of at least one general education and one special education teacher, a school administrator, and the student?s parents. 6. Full...

  1. WebViz:A Web-based Collaborative Interactive Visualization System for large-Scale Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; McArthur, E.; Weiss, R. M.; Zhou, J.; Yao, B.

    2010-12-01

    WebViz is a web-based application designed to conduct collaborative, interactive visualizations of large data sets for multiple users, allowing researchers situated all over the world to utilize the visualization services offered by the University of Minnesota’s Laboratory for Computational Sciences and Engineering (LCSE). This ongoing project has been built upon over the last 3 1/2 years .The motivation behind WebViz lies primarily with the need to parse through an increasing amount of data produced by the scientific community as a result of larger and faster multicore and massively parallel computers coming to the market, including the use of general purpose GPU computing. WebViz allows these large data sets to be visualized online by anyone with an account. The application allows users to save time and resources by visualizing data ‘on the fly’, wherever he or she may be located. By leveraging AJAX via the Google Web Toolkit (http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/), we are able to provide users with a remote, web portal to LCSE's (http://www.lcse.umn.edu) large-scale interactive visualization system already in place at the University of Minnesota. LCSE’s custom hierarchical volume rendering software provides high resolution visualizations on the order of 15 million pixels and has been employed for visualizing data primarily from simulations in astrophysics to geophysical fluid dynamics . In the current version of WebViz, we have implemented a highly extensible back-end framework built around HTTP "server push" technology. The web application is accessible via a variety of devices including netbooks, iPhones, and other web and javascript-enabled cell phones. Features in the current version include the ability for users to (1) securely login (2) launch multiple visualizations (3) conduct collaborative visualization sessions (4) delegate control aspects of a visualization to others and (5) engage in collaborative chats with other users within the user interface of the web application. These features are all in addition to a full range of essential visualization functions including 3-D camera and object orientation, position manipulation, time-stepping control, and custom color/alpha mapping.

  2. Hydraulic behavior of two areas of the Floridan aquifer system characterized by complex hydrogeologic settings and large groundwater withdrawals

    SciTech Connect

    Maslia, M.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Two areas of the Florida aquifer system (FAS) that are characterized by complex hydrogeologic settings and exceedingly large ground-water withdrawals are the Dougherty Plain area of southwest GA and the Glynn County area of southeast GA. In southwest GA, large scale withdrawals of ground water for agricultural and livestock irrigation amounted to about 148 million gallons per day (mg/d) during 1990. Large scale pumping in Glynn County, primarily used for industrial purposes and centered in the City of Brunswick, amounted to about 88 mg/d during 1990. In southwest GA, the FAS consists primarily of the Ocala Limestone (OL) of late Eocene age. Confining the aquifer from above is a residual layer (50 ft thick) of sand and clay containing silicified boulders which is derived from the chemical weathering of the OL. This area is characterized by karst topography marked by numerous depressions and sinkholes, high transmissivity (generally greater than 50,000 feet squared per day), and significant hydraulic connections to overlying streams and lakes. These characteristics, along with the seasonal nature of pumping and mean annual recharge of about 10 inches per year have prevented permanent, long-term water-level declines. In the Glynn County area, the FAS can be more than 2,600 ft thick, consisting of a sequence of calcareous and dolomitic rocks that are of Late Cretaceous to early Miocene in age. The aquifer system is confined above by clastic rocks of Middle Miocene age, having an average thickness of 400 ft. This area is characterized by post-depositional tectonic modification of the subsurface as opposed to simple karst development, thick confinement of the aquifer system, and significant amounts of vertical leakage of water from below. These characteristics and heavy-long term pumping from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) have caused a broad, shallow cone of depression to develop and the upward migration of saltwater to contaminate the freshwater zones of the UFA.

  3. Behavior Problems in Learning Activities and Social Interactions in Head Start Classrooms and Early Reading, Mathematics, and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Fernandez, Veronica; Dominguez, Ximena; Rouse, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Relations between early problem behavior in preschool classrooms and a comprehensive set of school readiness outcomes were examined for a stratified random sample (N = 256) of 4-year-old children enrolled in a large, urban school district Head Start program. A series of multilevel models examined the unique contribution of early problem behavior…

  4. All Together Now: Measuring Staff Cohesion in Special Education Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, Hilary E.; Locke, Jill; Piotrowski, Zinnia; Ouellette, Rachel R.; Xie, Ming; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to validate a new measure, the Classroom Cohesion Survey (CCS), designed to examine the relationship between teachers and classroom assistants in autism support classrooms. Teachers, classroom assistants, and external observers showed good inter-rater agreement on the CCS and good internal consistency for all scales. Simple factor structures were found for both teacher- and classroom assistant–rated scales, with one-factor solutions for both scales. Paired t tests revealed that on average, classroom assistants rated classroom cohesion stronger than teachers. The CCS may be an effective tool for measuring cohesion between classroom staff and may have an important impact on various clinical and implementation outcomes in school settings. PMID:26213443

  5. Global Internet Video Classroom: A Technology Supported Learner-Centered Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The Global Internet Video Classroom (GIVC) Project connected Chicago Civil Rights activists of the 1960s with Cape Town Anti-Apartheid activists of the 1960s in a classroom setting where learners from Cape Town and Chicago engaged activists in conversations about their motivation, principles, and strategies. The project was launched in order to…

  6. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  7. Classroom Management and Teachers' Coping Strategies: Inside Classrooms in Australia, China and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the degree to which recently reported relationships between the classroom management techniques and coping styles of Australian teachers apply in two other national settings: China and Israel. Little is known about which teacher characteristics relate to their approach to classroom management, although researchers in Australia…

  8. Classroom Management. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association Research Department, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In learning-centered classrooms, the emphasis of classroom management shifts from maintaining behavioral control to fostering student engagement and self-regulation as well as community responsibility. This brief describes classroom management in "learning centered" classrooms, where practices are consistent with recent research knowledge about…

  9. Simulation Studies as Designed Experiments: The Comparison of Penalized Regression Models in the “Large p, Small n” Setting

    PubMed Central

    Chaibub Neto, Elias; Bare, J. Christopher; Margolin, Adam A.

    2014-01-01

    New algorithms are continuously proposed in computational biology. Performance evaluation of novel methods is important in practice. Nonetheless, the field experiences a lack of rigorous methodology aimed to systematically and objectively evaluate competing approaches. Simulation studies are frequently used to show that a particular method outperforms another. Often times, however, simulation studies are not well designed, and it is hard to characterize the particular conditions under which different methods perform better. In this paper we propose the adoption of well established techniques in the design of computer and physical experiments for developing effective simulation studies. By following best practices in planning of experiments we are better able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of competing algorithms leading to more informed decisions about which method to use for a particular task. We illustrate the application of our proposed simulation framework with a detailed comparison of the ridge-regression, lasso and elastic-net algorithms in a large scale study investigating the effects on predictive performance of sample size, number of features, true model sparsity, signal-to-noise ratio, and feature correlation, in situations where the number of covariates is usually much larger than sample size. Analysis of data sets containing tens of thousands of features but only a few hundred samples is nowadays routine in computational biology, where “omics” features such as gene expression, copy number variation and sequence data are frequently used in the predictive modeling of complex phenotypes such as anticancer drug response. The penalized regression approaches investigated in this study are popular choices in this setting and our simulations corroborate well established results concerning the conditions under which each one of these methods is expected to perform best while providing several novel insights. PMID:25289666

  10. Comparison of large-scale global land precipitation from multisatellite and reanalysis products with gauge-based GPCC data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Satya; Gairola, R. M.; Mitra, A. K.

    2015-07-01

    Reliable information of land precipitation along with other atmospheric variables is crucial for monsoon studies, ecosystem modelling, crop modelling and numerous other applications. In this paper, three multisatellite and three reanalysis precipitation products, namely Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), Climate Prediction Center Mapping of Precipitation (CMAP1 and CMAP2), European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP1 and NCEP2), are compared with the recent version of gauge-based gridded Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) data sets over the global land region. The analysis is done at monthly scale and at 2.5° latitude × 2.5° longitude resolution for a 25-year (1986-2010) period. Large-scale prominent features of precipitation and its variability are qualitatively represented by all the precipitation products. However, the magnitudes considerably differ among themselves. Among the six precipitation products, GPCP performs better than the others when compared to the gridded GPCC data sets. Among the three reanalysis precipitation products, ERA-I is better than NCEP1 and NCEP2 in general. Even though NCEP2 is improved over NCEP1 over the mid-latitudes, NCEP2 has more serious problem over the orographic regions than that of NCEP1. Moreover, all the precipitation estimates exhibit similar kind of interannual variability over the global and tropical land regions. Additionally, the comparison is done for the six global monsoon regions for the regional analysis which shows that all the precipitation estimates exhibit similar kind of interannual variability in the seasonal monsoon precipitation. However, there are some regional differences among these precipitation products in the representation of monsoon variability.

  11. Massive Data Streams in Graph Theory and Computational Geometry Streaming is an important paradigm for handling data sets that are too large to fit

    E-print Network

    Feigenbaum, Joan

    Abstract Massive Data Streams in Graph Theory and Computational Geometry Jian Zhang 2005 Streaming is an important paradigm for handling data sets that are too large to fit in main memory. In the streaming. The massive data set is accessed in a sequential fashion and, therefore, can be viewed as a stream of data

  12. Early Miocene Kirka-Phrigian caldera, western Anatolia - an example of large volume silicic magma generation in extensional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvac?, Cahit

    2014-05-01

    Large rhyolitic ignimbrite occurrences are close connected to the Early Miocene initiation of extensional processes in the central-west Anatolia along Ta?vanl?-Afyon zones. Field correlations, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data lead to a substantial reinterpretation of the ignimbrite surrounding K?rka area, known from its world-class borate deposits, as representing the climatic event of a caldera collapse, unknown up to now and newly named "K?rka-Phrigian caldera". The caldera, which is roughly oval (24 km x 15km) in shape, one of the largest in Turkey, is supposed to have been formed in a single stage collapse event, at ~19 Ma that generated huge volume extracaldera outflow ignimbrites. Transtensive/distensive tectonic stresses since 25 Ma ago resulted in the NNW-SSE elongation of the magma chamber and influenced the roughly elliptical shape of the subsided block (caldera floor) belonging to the apex of Eski?ehir-Afyon-Isparta volcanic area. Intracaldera post-collapse sedimentation and volcanism (at ~ 18 Ma) was controlled through subsidence-related faults with generation of a series of volcanic structures (mainly domes) showing a large compositional range from saturated silicic rhyolites and crystal-rich trachytes to undersaturated lamproites. Such volcanic rock association is typical for lithospheric extension. In this scenario, enriched mantle components within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle will begin to melt via decompression melting during the initiation of extension. Interaction of these melts with crustal rocks, fractionation processes and crustal anatexis driven by the heat contained in the ascending mantle melts produced the silicic compositions in a large crustal reservoir. Such silicic melts generated the initial eruptions of K?rka-Phrigian caldera ignimbrites. The rock volume and geochemical evidence suggests that silicic volcanic rocks come from a long-lived magma chamber that evolved episodically; after caldera generation there is a shift to small volume episodic rhyolitic, trachytic and lamproitic volcanism, the last ones indicating a more primitive magma input with evident origin in an enriched mantle lithosphere. The volcanic rock succession provides a direct picture of the state of the magmatic system at the time of eruptions that generated caldera and post-caldera structures and offer an excellent example for silicic magma generation and associated potassic and ultrapotassic intermediate-mafic rocks in post-collisional extensional setting.

  13. Spatial Fingerprints of Community Structure in Human Interaction Network for an Extensive Set of Large-Scale Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization. PMID:25993329

  14. Global Nonlinear Kernel Prediction for Large Data Set With a Particle Swarm-Optimized Interval Support Vector Regression.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongsheng; Cheng, Lijun; Pedrycz, Witold; Hao, Kuangrong

    2015-10-01

    A new global nonlinear predictor with a particle swarm-optimized interval support vector regression (PSO-ISVR) is proposed to address three issues (viz., kernel selection, model optimization, kernel method speed) encountered when applying SVR in the presence of large data sets. The novel prediction model can reduce the SVR computing overhead by dividing input space and adaptively selecting the optimized kernel functions to obtain optimal SVR parameter by PSO. To quantify the quality of the predictor, its generalization performance and execution speed are investigated based on statistical learning theory. In addition, experiments using synthetic data as well as the stock volume weighted average price are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed models. The experimental results show that the proposed PSO-ISVR predictor can improve the computational efficiency and the overall prediction accuracy compared with the results produced by the SVR and other regression methods. The proposed PSO-ISVR provides an important tool for nonlinear regression analysis of big data. PMID:25974954

  15. Identifying Cognate Binding Pairs among a Large Set of Paralogs: The Case of PE/PPE Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  16. RelMon: A General Approach to QA, Validation and Physics Analysis through Comparison of large Sets of Histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piparo, Danilo

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of the compatibility of large amounts of histogram pairs is a recurrent problem in high energy physics. The issue is common to several different areas, from software quality monitoring to data certification, preservation and analysis. Given two sets of histograms, it is very important to be able to scrutinize the outcome of several goodness of fit tests, obtain a clear answer about the overall compatibility, easily spot the single anomalies and directly access the concerned histogram pairs. This procedure must be automated in order to reduce the human workload, therefore improving the process of identification of differences which is usually carried out by a trained human mind. Some solutions to this problem have been proposed, but they are experiment specific. RelMon depends only on ROOT and offers several goodness of fit tests (e.g. chi-squared or Kolmogorov-Smirnov). It produces highly readable web reports, in which aggregations of the comparisons rankings are available as well as all the plots of the single histogram overlays. The comparison procedure is fully automatic and scales smoothly towards ensembles of millions of histograms. Examples of RelMon utilisation within the regular workflows of the CMS collaboration and the advantages therewith obtained are described. Its interplay with the data quality monitoring infrastructure is illustrated as well as its role in the QA of the event reconstruction code, its integration in the CMS software release cycle process, CMS user data analysis and dataset validation.

  17. Identifying cognate binding pairs among a large set of paralogs: the case of PE/PPE proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  18. Determination of counterfeit medicines by Raman spectroscopy: Systematic study based on a large set of model tablets.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Sabine; Neusüß, Christian

    2015-08-10

    In the last decade, counterfeit pharmaceutical products have become a widespread issue for public health. Raman spectroscopy which is easy, non-destructive and information-rich is particularly suitable as screening method for fast characterization of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Combined with chemometric techniques, it provides a powerful tool for the analysis and determination of counterfeit medicines. Here, for the first time, a systematic study of the benefits and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of pharmaceutical samples on a large set of model tablets, varying with respect to chemical and physical properties, was performed. To discriminate between the different mixtures, a combination of dispersive Raman spectroscopy performing in backscattering mode and principal component analysis was used. The discrimination between samples with different coatings, a varying amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients and a diversity of excipients were possible. However, it was not possible to distinguish between variations of the press power, mixing quality and granulation. As a showcase, the change in Raman signals of commercial acetylsalicylic acid effervescent tablets due to five different storage conditions was monitored. It was possible to detect early small chemical changes caused by inappropriate storage conditions. These results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis provides a powerful methodology for the fast and easy characterization of genuine and counterfeit medicines. PMID:25956227

  19. "Did Ronald McDonald also Tend to Scare You as a Child?": Working to Emplace Consumption, Commodities and Citizen-Students in a Large Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    So-called "radical" and "critical"pedagogy seems to be everywhere these days on the landscapes of geographical teaching praxis and theory. Part of the remit of radical/critical pedagogy involves a de-centring of the traditional "banking" method of pedagogical praxis. Yet, how do we challenge this "banking" model of knowledge transmission in both a…

  20. Empirical Mining of Large Data Sets Already Helps to Solve Practical Ecological Problems; A Panoply of Working Examples (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present diverse examples where empirical mining and statistical analysis of large data sets have already been shown to be useful for a wide variety of practical decision-making problems within the realm of large-scale ecology. Because a full understanding and appreciation of particular ecological phenomena are possible only after hypothesis-directed research regarding the existence and nature of that process, some ecologists may feel that purely empirical data harvesting may represent a less-than-satisfactory approach. Restricting ourselves exclusively to process-driven approaches, however, may actually slow progress, particularly for more complex or subtle ecological processes. We may not be able to afford the delays caused by such directed approaches. Rather than attempting to formulate and ask every relevant question correctly, empirical methods allow trends, relationships and associations to emerge freely from the data themselves, unencumbered by a priori theories, ideas and prejudices that have been imposed upon them. Although they cannot directly demonstrate causality, empirical methods can be extremely efficient at uncovering strong correlations with intermediate "linking" variables. In practice, these correlative structures and linking variables, once identified, may provide sufficient predictive power to be useful themselves. Such correlation "shadows" of causation can be harnessed by, e.g., Bayesian Belief Nets, which bias ecological management decisions, made with incomplete information, toward favorable outcomes. Empirical data-harvesting also generates a myriad of testable hypotheses regarding processes, some of which may even be correct. Quantitative statistical regionalizations based on quantitative multivariate similarity have lended insights into carbon eddy-flux direction and magnitude, wildfire biophysical conditions, phenological ecoregions useful for vegetation type mapping and monitoring, forest disease risk maps (e.g., sudden oak death), global aquatic ecoregion risk maps for aquatic invasives, and forest vertical structure ecoregions (e.g., using extensive LiDAR data sets). Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering, which quantitatively places alternative future conditions on a common footing with present conditions, allows prediction of present and future shifts in tree species ranges, given alternative climatic change forecasts. ForWarn, a forest disturbance detection and monitoring system mining 12 years of national 8-day MODIS phenology data, has been operating since 2010, producing national maps every 8 days showing many kinds of potential forest disturbances. Forest resource managers can view disturbance maps via a web-based viewer, and alerts are issued when particular forest disturbances are seen. Regression-based decadal trend analysis showing long-term forest thrive and decline areas, and individual-based, brute-force supercomputing to map potential movement corridors and migration routes across landscapes will also be discussed. As significant ecological changes occur with increasing rapidity, such empirical data-mining approaches may be the most efficient means to help land managers find the best, most-actionable policies and decision strategies.

  1. Rates and Mechanisms of Solidification in Large Magma Bodies: Implications for Melt Extraction in all Tectonic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanTongeren, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    As is observed in both experiment and theory, in the absence of hydrothermal convection, the majority of magma chamber heat loss occurs via conduction through the roof of the intrusion and into the cold country rock above. The formation of an upper solidification front (or Upper Border Series, UBS), recorded in the rocks both geochemically and texturally, is a natural outcome of the progression of the solidification front from the cold roof to the hot center of the magma chamber. There are, however, a few unique layered mafic intrusions for which little or no UBS exists. In this study, I examine the thermal evolution and crystallization rates of several classic layered intrusions as it is recorded in the extent of the preserved UBS. For those intrusions that have experienced crystallization at the roof, such as the Skaergaard Intrusion, the development of a UBS reduces the temperature gradient at the roof and effectively slows the rate of heat loss from the main magma body. However, for those intrusions that do not have an UBS, such as the Bushveld Complex, the cooling rate is controlled only by the maximum rate of conductive heat loss through the overlying roof rocks, which decreases with time. The implications are two-fold: (1) The relative thickness of the UBS in large intrusions may be the key to quantifying their cooling and solidification rates; and (2) The nature of the magma mush zone near the roof of an intrusion may depend principally on the long-term thermal evolution of the magma body. Particularly at the end stages of crystallization, when the liquids are likely to be highly evolved and high viscosities may inhibit convection, intrusions lacking a well-defined UBS may provide important insights into the mechanics of crystal-liquid separation, melt extraction, and compaction in felsic plutons as well as mafic intrusions. These results are important for long-lived (>500 kyr) or repeatedly replenished magma chambers in all tectonic settings.

  2. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  3. Photonics Explorer: revolutionizing photonics in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Amrita; Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Fischer, Robert; Vlekken, Johan; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-10-01

    The `Photonics Explorer' is a unique intra-curricular optics kit designed to engage, excite and educate secondary school students about the fascination of working with light - hands-on, in their own classrooms. Developed with a pan European collaboration of experts, the kit equips teachers with class sets of experimental material provided within a supporting didactic framework, distributed in conjunction with teacher training courses. The material has been specifically designed to integrate into European science curricula. Each kit contains robust and versatile components sufficient for a class of 25-30 students to work in groups of 2-3. The didactic content is based on guided inquiry-based learning (IBL) techniques with a strong emphasis on hands-on experiments, team work and relating abstract concepts to real world applications. The content has been developed in conjunction with over 30 teachers and experts in pedagogy to ensure high quality and ease of integration. It is currently available in 7 European languages. The Photonics Explorer allows students not only to hone their essential scientific skills but also to really work as scientists and engineers in the classroom. Thus, it aims to encourage more young people to pursue scientific careers and avert the imminent lack of scientific workforce in Europe. 50 Photonics Explorer kits have been successfully tested in 7 European countries with over 1500 secondary school students. The positive impact of the kit in the classroom has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. A non-profit organisation, EYESTvzw [Excite Youth for Engineering Science and Technology], is responsible for the large scale distribution of the Photonics Explorer.

  4. Twelve tips for "flipping" the classroom.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. The following tips outline the steps involved in making a successful transition to a flipped classroom approach. The tips are based on the available literature alongside the author's experience of using the approach in a medical education setting. Flipping a classroom has a number of potential benefits, for example increased educator-student interaction, but must be planned and implemented carefully to support effective learning. PMID:25154646

  5. A review of sea-spray aerosol source functions using a large global set of sea salt aerosol concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grythe, H.; Ström, J.; Krejci, R.; Quinn, P.; Stohl, A.

    2014-02-01

    Sea-spray aerosols (SSA) are an important part of the climate system because of their effects on the global radiative budget - both directly as scatterers and absorbers of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) influencing cloud formation, lifetime, and precipitation. In terms of their global mass, SSA have the largest uncertainty of all aerosols. In this study we review 21 SSA source functions from the literature, several of which are used in current climate models. In addition, we propose a~new function. Even excluding outliers, the global annual SSA mass produced spans roughly 3-70 Pg yr-1 for the different source functions, for particles with dry diameter Dp < 10 ?m, with relatively little interannual variability for a given function. The FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model was run in backward mode for a large global set of observed SSA concentrations, comprised of several station networks and ship cruise measurement campaigns. FLEXPART backward calculations produce gridded emission sensitivity fields, which can subsequently be multiplied with gridded SSA production fluxes in order to obtain modeled SSA concentrations. This allowed us to efficiently and simultaneously evaluate all 21 source functions against the measurements. Another advantage of this method is that source-region information on wind speed and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) could be stored and used for improving the SSA source function parameterizations. The best source functions reproduced as much as 70% of the observed SSA concentration variability at several stations, which is comparable with "state of the art" aerosol models. The main driver of SSA production is wind, and we found that the best fit to the observation data could be obtained when the SSA production is proportional to U103.5, where U10 is the source region averaged 10 m wind speed. A strong influence of SST on SSA production, with higher temperatures leading to higher production, could be detected as well, although the underlying physical mechanisms of the SST influence remains unclear. Our new source function with wind speed and temperature dependence gives a global SSA production for particles smaller than Dp < 10 ?m of 9 Pg yr-1, and is the best fit to the observed concentrations.

  6. Using short forms of classroom climate instruments to assess and improve classroom psychosocial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    Despite international interest in research in the area of classroom environment, very little attention has been given to exploring how science teachers might apply ideas from the field of classroom environment in guiding practical improvements in science classrooms. In order to facilitate science teachers' use of classroom climate assessments, we developed economical short forms of the Classroom Environment Scale (CES), Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), and My Class Inventory (MCI) which contain only approximately 25 items each and which are amenable to easy hand scoring. When each instrument was administered to a large sample of science classes, results supported each scale's internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and ability to differentiate between the perceptions of students in different classrooms. The methods for improving classrooms are illustrated by reporting some case studies of change attempts. For example, when the CES was used in an attempt to improve the environment of a ninth grade science class, the steps followed were, first, assessment of actual and preferred classroom environment in order to identify discrepancies between actual and preferred environment and, second, introducing interventions aimed at reducing these discrepancies. The interesting finding was that significant improvements occurred for the two dimensions on which change had been attempted.

  7. The Networked Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Penuel, William R.; Abrahamson, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Classroom network requires every student to think actively, which enhances student participation in mathematics and science. Classroom-specific networks use software designed to enhance communication between teacher and students.

  8. Inside the Primary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Brian

    1980-01-01

    Presents some of the findings of the ORACLE research program (Observational Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation), a detailed observational study of teacher-student interaction, teaching styles, and management methods within a sample of primary classrooms. (Editor/SJL)

  9. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  10. Classroom Use and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how classrooms are distributed by size on a campus, how well they are used, and how their use changes with faculty and student needs and desires. Details how to analyze classroom space, use, and utilization, taking into account such factors as scheduling and classroom stations. (EV)

  11. Classroom Management for Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, William I.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses topics essential to good classroom management for ensemble music teachers. Explores the importance of planning and preparation, good teaching practice within the classroom, and using an effective discipline plan to deal with any behavior problems in the classroom. Includes a bibliography of further resources. (CMK)

  12. Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Maeetta B.

    Educators have become so involved with delivering the curricula that they fail to acknowledge "how" they deliver the curricula. This paper considers the different forms of verbal and nonverbal communications in the classroom, cultural communications in the classroom, and communication enhancers for the classroom--issues which are major crossroads…

  13. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  14. Classrooms 2000: Innovative Approaches to Classroom Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoomer, Elia

    2000-01-01

    Describes the next generation of technology classrooms based on experiences at Lehigh University (Pennsylvania). Topics include learner-centered rather than instructor-centered instruction; size; interactivity; and technology features, emphasizing flexibility and interactive technology. An appendix lists selected classroom technology Web sites and…

  15. Edifying Teachers in the Networked Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisser, Christian

    Most instructors today feel that using computers in classrooms to create electronic forums automatically results in a more egalitarian setting, but technology can become an effective cloak for otherwise oppressive practices. These settings can potentially reinscribe dominant ideologies, stifling students rather than empowering them. These…

  16. Self-Contained Classrooms. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Determining the ideal academic setting in which students can be successful continues to be one of the primary goals of educators. Is there a best classroom structure in which students can be successful? Although there is research on the academic gains in the block schedule and in traditional departmentalized settings, both of which are common in…

  17. Developing a "Semi-Systematic" Approach to Using Large-Scale Data-Sets for Small-Scale Interventions: The "Baby Matterz" Initiative as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The appropriateness of using statistical data to inform the design of any given service development or initiative often depends upon judgements regarding scale. Large-scale data sets, perhaps national in scope, whilst potentially important in informing the design, implementation and roll-out of experimental initiatives, will often remain unused…

  18. explored the impact of a single massage session on self-reported symptoms in an outpatient setting at a large academic cancer

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Eric L.

    explored the impact of a single massage session on self-reported symptoms in an outpatient setting at a large academic cancer center. Methods: Data were reviewed from massage sessions (30 or 60 minute. Participants completed a pre- and post-massage symptom assessment in- strument, the Edmonton Symptom Assessment

  19. Key Issues and Strategies for Recruitment and Implementation in Large-Scale Randomized Controlled Trial Studies in Afterschool Settings. Afterschool Research Brief. Issue No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Debra Hughes; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Rudo, Zena; Fitzgerald, Robert; Hartry, Ardice; Chambers, Bette; Smith, Dewi; Muller, Patricia; Moss, Marcey A.

    2008-01-01

    Under the larger scope of the National Partnership for Quality Afterschool Learning, SEDL funded three awardees to carry out large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the efficacy of promising literacy curricula in afterschool settings on student academic achievement. SEDL provided analytic and technical support to the RCT studies…

  20. Publications of Peter Gacs [1] Peter Gacs. Packing of convex sets in the plane with a large number of neighbors. Acta

    E-print Network

    Gacs, Peter

    Publications of P´eter G´acs [1] Peter G´acs. Packing of convex sets in the plane with a large number of neighbors. Acta Mathematica Hungarica, 23:383­388, 1972. [2] Peter G´acs and J´anos K. [3] Peter G´acs. Hausdorff-dimension and probability distributions. Periodica Math. Hung., 3

  1. Designing for the Active Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Donohue, Amy; Davis, Robert G.

    2015-02-01

    The article discusses trends in classroom design and then transitions to a discussion of the future of the classroom and how the lighting industry needs to be preparing to meet the needs of the future classroom. The OSU Classroom building as an example throughout, first discussing how trends in classroom design were incorporated into the Classroom Building and then discussing how future lighting systems could enhance the Classroom Building, which is a clear departure from the actual lighting design and current technology.

  2. Becoming urban science teachers by transforming middle-school classrooms: A study of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Melina Gabriela

    The current scenario in American education shows a large achievement and opportunity gap in science between urban children in poverty and more privileged youth. Research has shown that one essential factor that accounts for this gap is the shortage of qualified science teachers in urban schools. Teaching science in a high poverty school presents unique challenges to beginner teachers. Limited resources and support and a significant cultural divide with their students are some of the common problems that cause many novice teachers to quit their jobs or to start enacting what has been described as "the pedagogy of poverty." In this study I looked at the case of the Urban Science Education Fellows Program. This program aimed to prepare preservice teachers (i.e. "fellows") to enact socially just science pedagogies in urban classrooms. I conducted qualitative case studies of three fellows. Fellows worked over one year with science teachers in middle-school classrooms in order to develop transformative action research studies. My analysis focused on how fellows coauthored hybrid spaces within these studies that challenged the typical ways science was taught and learned in their classrooms towards a vision of socially just teaching. By coauthoring these hybrid spaces, fellows developed grounded generativity, i.e. a capacity to create new teaching scenarios rooted in the pragmatic realities of an authentic classroom setting. Grounded generativity included building upon their pedagogical beliefs in order to improvise pedagogies with others, repositioning themselves and their students differently in the classroom and constructing symbols of possibility to guide their practice. I proposed authentic play as the mechanism that enabled fellows to coauthor hybrid spaces. Authentic play involved contexts of moderate risk and of distributed expertise and required fellows to be positioned at the intersection of the margins and the center of the classroom community of practice. In all, this study demonstrates that engaging in classroom reform can support preservice teachers in developing specialized tools to teach science in urban classrooms.

  3. Just in Time to Flip Your Classroom

    E-print Network

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Charles, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    With advocates like Sal Khan and Bill Gates, flipped classrooms are attracting an increasing amount of media and research attention. We had heard Khan's TED talk and were aware of the concept of inverted pedagogies in general. Yet, it really hit home when we accidentally flipped our classroom. Our objective was to better prepare our students for class. We set out to effectively move some of our course content outside of class and decided to tweak the Just-in-Time-Teaching approach (JiTT). To our surprise, this tweak - which we like to call the flip-JiTT - ended up completely flipping our classroom. What follows is narrative of our experience and a procedure that any teacher can use to extend JiTT to a flipped classroom.

  4. Just in Time to Flip Your Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Dugdale, Michael; Charles, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    With advocates like Sal Khan and Bill Gates, flipped classrooms are attracting an increasing amount of media and research attention.2 We had heard Khan's TED talk and were aware of the concept of inverted pedagogies in general. Yet it really hit home when we accidentally flipped our classroom. Our objective was to better prepare our students for class. We set out to effectively move some of our course content outside of class and decided to tweak the Just-in-Time Teaching approach (JiTT).3 To our surprise, this tweak—which we like to call the flip-JiTT—ended up completely flipping our classroom. What follows is narrative of our experience and a procedure that any teacher can use to extend JiTT to a flipped classroom.

  5. The Tele-Immersive Data Explorer: A Distributed Architecture for Collaborative Interactive Visualization of Large Data-sets

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Robert

    The Tele-Immersive Data Explorer: A Distributed Architecture for Collaborative Interactive. This paper discusses the Tele-Immersive Data Explorer a generalizable framework to facilitate to visualize massive data-sets immersively and collaboratively. In the paper we describe the framework

  6. The Social Network Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  7. New technique for real-time interface pressure analysis: getting more out of large image data sets.

    PubMed

    Bogie, Kath; Wang, Xiaofeng; Fei, Baowei; Sun, Jiayang

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological improvements have led to increasing clinical use of interface pressure mapping for seating pressure evaluation, which often requires repeated assessments. However, clinical conditions cannot be controlled as closely as research settings, thereby creating challenges to statistical analysis of data. A multistage longitudinal analysis and self-registration (LASR) technique is introduced that emphasizes real-time interface pressure image analysis in three dimensions. Suitable for use in clinical settings, LASR is composed of several modern statistical components, including a segmentation method. The robustness of our segmentation method is also shown. Application of LASR to analysis of data from neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) experiments confirms that NMES improves static seating pressure distributions in the sacral-ischial region over time. Dynamic NMES also improves weight-shifting over time. These changes may reduce the risk of pressure ulcer development. PMID:18712638

  8. Growth in Reading as a Correlate of Student Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Homer; Lorentz, Jeffrey L.

    Systematic classroom observation instruments were used to study the relationship between student coping style and student growth in reading. Classrom behaviors were recorded in the fall and the following spring with the Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES). Data were analyzed separately for two types of classroom setings:…

  9. An Annotated Bibliography for the Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, James R.

    This annotated bibliography contains a record of the evolution of a system for evaluating children in the classroom setting. The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory is a needs assessment system in the affective-social domain. It is unique in that it taps three inputs, self-report, peer judgements and teacher expectations. These inputs are blended…

  10. Classroom Application of a Trial-Based Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Sarah E.; Iwata, Brian A.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Carreau, Abbey B.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a trial-based approach to conducting functional analyses in classroom settings. Ten students referred for problem behavior were exposed to a series of assessment trials, which were interspersed among classroom activities throughout the day. Results of these trial-based functional analyses were compared to those of more traditional…

  11. Learning Environments in Information and Communications Technology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvliet, David B.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2004-01-01

    The study of learning environments provides a useful research framework for investigating the effects of educational innovations such as those which are associated with the use of the Internet in classroom settings. This study reports an investigation into the use of Internet technologies in high-school classrooms in Australia and Canada.…

  12. Physical and Psychosocial Environments Associated with Networked Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvliet, David B.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of the learning environments in computer networked classrooms. The study is unique in that it involved an evaluation of both the physical and psychosocial classroom environments in these computerised settings through the use of a combination of questionnaires and ergonomic evaluations. The study involved administering…

  13. Creating Discussions with Classroom Voting in Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Duncan, Jonathan; Stewart, Ann; Snipes, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of classroom voting in linear algebra, in which the instructors posed multiple-choice questions to the class and then allowed a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion. After each student in the class voted on the correct answer using a classroom response system, a set of clickers, the instructor then guided a…

  14. Social-Emotional Environments: Teacher Practices in Two Toddler Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Niemeyer, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative report is taken from a larger U.S. study on the influences of teacher practices on the early development of emotion regulation in toddlers. This report focuses on the classroom practices of two teachers in separate toddler classrooms. During a week of observations in each setting, the authors collected data on how the…

  15. Shared-Reading Volume in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Justice, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes book reading practices occurring in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms in comparison to early childhood education (ECE) classrooms. Reading logs submitted by 19 ECSE teachers and 13 ECE teachers over one academic year included all books read in whole class settings; these logs were analyzed to assess the…

  16. Classroom-Based Interdependent Group Contingencies Increase Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Sarah; Rudrud, Eric H.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Schulze, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 2 interdependent group contingencies (individual vs. cumulative classroom goal setting) on the number of pedometer-recorded steps taken per day. Thirty third-grade students in 2 classrooms participated. An ABACX design was conducted in which the X phase referred to a replication of the most successful phase…

  17. Critical Conversations: Tensions and Opportunities of the Dialogical Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecho, Bob; Collier, Nicole D.; Friese, Elizabeth E. G.; Wilson, Amy Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    English teachers and educators of English teachers should work within rather than against the tensions present in their classrooms. For us, nothing could be more key. Until university teacher educators construct and enact classrooms that embrace the dialogical tensions and possibilities within those settings, new and veteran teachers in the…

  18. Dialogical Patterns of Interaction in Pre-School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Siekkinen, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The present study set out to identify and examine dialogic educational interactions in Finnish pre-school classrooms. Video recordings of five observed pre-school classrooms that had shown a high or moderate quality of instructional support in literacy, maths and science studies were transcribed for micro-scale qualitative content analysis. Three…

  19. Classroom Crisis Intervention through Contracting: A Moral Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Tamminen, Armas W.

    1981-01-01

    A counselor can arbitrate problem situations using a systematic approach to classroom intervention which includes meetings with the teacher and students. This crisis intervention model based on moral development can be more effective than reliance on guidance activities disconnected from the actual classroom settings where the problems arise.…

  20. Children's Perceptions of Their Reading Ability and Epistemic Roles in Monologically and Dialogically Organized Bilingual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aukerman, Maren; Chambers Schuldt, Lorien

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how bilingual second-grade students perceived of their reading competence and of the work of reading in two contrasting settings where texts were regularly discussed: a monologically organized classroom (MOC) and a dialogically organized classroom (DOC; as determined by prior analysis of classroom discourse). Interview data…

  1. Using Representational Tools to Learn about Complex Systems: A Tale of Two Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Liu, Lei; Gray, Steven; Jordan, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Orchestrating inquiry-based science learning in the classroom is a complex undertaking. It requires fitting the culture of the classroom with the teacher's teaching and inquiry practices. To understand the interactions between these variables in relation to student learning, we conducted an investigation in two different classroom settings to…

  2. Critical Health Literacy: Shifting Textual-Social Practices in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renwick, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    This paper will consider ways in which students are constructed as aliens in health classrooms. Creating the classroom as a setting for health promotion requires closer attention to those who make use of such space. If classrooms are places where diversity exists and is recognised, then health educators are challenged to consider how students are…

  3. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom

  4. Statistical Analysis of a Large Sample Size Pyroshock Test Data Set Including Post Flight Data Assessment. Revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on its mission to observe planet Earth in late 1999. Prior to launch, the new design of the spacecraft's pyroshock separation system was characterized by a series of 13 separation ground tests. The analysis methods used to evaluate this unusually large amount of shock data will be discussed in this paper, with particular emphasis on population distributions and finding statistically significant families of data, leading to an overall shock separation interface level. The wealth of ground test data also allowed a derivation of a Mission Assurance level for the flight. All of the flight shock measurements were below the EOS Terra Mission Assurance level thus contributing to the overall success of the EOS Terra mission. The effectiveness of the statistical methodology for characterizing the shock interface level and for developing a flight Mission Assurance level from a large sample size of shock data is demonstrated in this paper.

  5. The large karstic holes at the top of the Syrian coastal Mountain Range. Importance of structural setting for the karstogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocochain, Ludovic; Blanpied, Christian; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Peyronel, Olivier; Gorini, Christian; Abdalla, Abdelkarim Al; Azki, Fawaz

    2015-04-01

    Along the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Syria Coastal Mountain Range spreads from north to south over 150 km of long. This range is a monocline structure stopped by a major escarpment that domines Al-Gahb Graben to the East. The Coastal Mountain Range is mainly formed by Mesozoic limestone that show a major unconformity between the Upper Jurassic and Aptien deposits, and important erosions in the Upper Cretaceous deposits. Locally, the Juro-Cretaceous unconformity is characterized by a layer of continental basalts with fossil woods that reveal a long emersion of the platform. The most recent carbonate deposits at the top of the Coastal Mountain Range are Turonian age. In the center part of the Coastal Mountain Range, in a small area, the Cretaceous carbonates are affected by large karstic dolines. These dolines are curiously located at the top of the mountain range. This position is not beneficial for the development of large karstic holes.

  6. Fast 2D inversion of large borehole EM induction data sets with a domain-decomposition method Gong Li Wang, Carlos Torres-Verdin, Jesus M. Salazar, and Benjamin Voss, The University of Texas at Austin

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Fast 2D inversion of large borehole EM induction data sets with a domain-decomposition method Gong inversion of large data sets in an efficient and reliable manner. When the number of formation beds sensitivities. Examples of application with noisy synthetic and field data sets confirm the efficiency

  7. Approaching the complete basis set limit of CCSD(T) for large systems by the third-order incremental dual-basis set zero-buffer F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun Dolg, Michael

    2014-01-28

    The third-order incremental dual-basis set zero-buffer approach was combined with CCSD(T)-F12x (x = a, b) theory to develop a new approach, i.e., the inc3-db-B0-CCSD(T)-F12 method, which can be applied as a black-box procedure to efficiently obtain the near complete basis set (CBS) limit of the CCSD(T) energies also for large systems. We tested this method for several cases of different chemical nature: four complexes taken from the standard benchmark sets S66 and X40, the energy difference between isomers of water hexamer and the rotation barrier of biphenyl. The results show that our method has an error relative to the best estimation of CBS energy of only 0.2 kcal/mol or less. By parallelization, our method can accomplish the CCSD(T)-F12 calculations of about 60 correlated electrons and 800 basis functions in only several days, which by standard implementation are impossible for ordinary hardware. We conclude that the inc3-db-B0-CCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ method, which is of CCSD(T)/AV5Z quality, is close to the limit of accuracy that one can achieve for large systems currently.

  8. Flipping the classroom with team-based learning in undergraduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Della Ratta, Carol B

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of team-based learning (TBL) within a flipped classroom setting in an undergraduate nursing course. TBL facilitates active learning through the use of small group, classroom activities. Students used classroom time to solve problems while developing important professional competencies. A preclass PowerPoint lecture with narration, a component of the flipped classroom, was added to address student feedback. Despite mediocre course evaluations, improved student performance on the final course examination was noted. PMID:25402712

  9. Improving the speech intelligibility in classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Choi Ling Coriolanus

    One of the major acoustical concerns in classrooms is the establishment of effective verbal communication between teachers and students. Non-optimal acoustical conditions, resulting in reduced verbal communication, can cause two main problems. First, they can lead to reduce learning efficiency. Second, they can also cause fatigue, stress, vocal strain and health problems, such as headaches and sore throats, among teachers who are forced to compensate for poor acoustical conditions by raising their voices. Besides, inadequate acoustical conditions can induce the usage of public address system. Improper usage of such amplifiers or loudspeakers can lead to impairment of students' hearing systems. The social costs of poor classroom acoustics will be large to impair the learning of children. This invisible problem has far reaching implications for learning, but is easily solved. Many researches have been carried out that they have accurately and concisely summarized the research findings on classrooms acoustics. Though, there is still a number of challenging questions remaining unanswered. Most objective indices for speech intelligibility are essentially based on studies of western languages. Even several studies of tonal languages as Mandarin have been conducted, there is much less on Cantonese. In this research, measurements have been done in unoccupied rooms to investigate the acoustical parameters and characteristics of the classrooms. The speech intelligibility tests, which based on English, Mandarin and Cantonese, and the survey were carried out on students aged from 5 years old to 22 years old. It aims to investigate the differences in intelligibility between English, Mandarin and Cantonese of the classrooms in Hong Kong. The significance on speech transmission index (STI) related to Phonetically Balanced (PB) word scores will further be developed. Together with developed empirical relationship between the speech intelligibility in classrooms with the variations of the reverberation time, the indoor ambient noise (or background noise level), the signal-to-noise ratio, and the speech transmission index, it aims to establish a guideline for improving the speech intelligibility in classrooms for any countries and any environmental conditions. The study showed that the acoustical conditions of most of the measured classrooms in Hong Kong are unsatisfactory. The selection of materials inside a classroom is important for improving speech intelligibility at design stage, especially the acoustics ceiling, to shorten the reverberation time inside the classroom. The signal-to-noise should be higher than 11dB(A) for over 70% of speech perception, either tonal or non-tonal languages, without the usage of address system. The unexpected results bring out a call to revise the standard design and to devise acceptable standards for classrooms in Hong Kong. It is also demonstrated a method for assessment on the classroom in other cities with similar environmental conditions.

  10. Control of tectonic setting and large-scale faults on the basin-scale distribution of deformation bands in porous sandstone (Provence, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballas, G.; Soliva, R.; Benedicto, A.; Sizun, J.

    2013-12-01

    From outcrops located in Provence (South-East France), we describe the distribution, the microstructures, and the petrophysical properties of deformation bands networks related to different tectonic events. In contractional setting, pervasively distributed networks of reverse-sense compactional-shear bands are observed in all the folded-sand units of the foreland, whereas localized networks of clustered reverse-sense shear bands are only observed close to a large-scale thrust. In extensional setting, networks of clustered normal-sense shear bands are generally observed adjacent to large-scale faults, although few and randomly distributed bands are also observed between these faults. Normal-sense cataclastic faults are also observed restricted to sand units, suggesting that faults can initiate in the sands in extension, which is not observed in contraction. Shear bands and faults show cataclastic microstructures of low-permeability whereas compactional-shear bands show crush microbreccia or protocataclastic microstructures of moderate permeability. This basin-scale analysis underlines the major role of tectonic settings (thrust-fault versus normal-fault andersonian-stress regime) and the influence of inherited large-scale faults on the formation of low-permeability shear bands. We also provide a geometrical analysis of the band network properties (spacing, thickness, shear/compaction ratio, degree of cataclasis, petrophysical properties) with respect to the host sand granulometry. This analysis suggests that granulometry, although less important than tectonic setting and the presence of large-scale faults, has however a non-negligible effect on the band networks geometry.

  11. Estimation of comprehensive forest variable sets from multiparameter SAR data over a large area with diverse species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam, M.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric and multifrequency data from the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) have been used in a multi-tier estimation algorithm to calculate a comprehensive set of forest canopy properties including branch layer moisture and thickness, trunk density, trunk water content and diameter, trunk height, and subcanapy soil moisture. The estimation algorithm takes advantage of species-specific allometric relations, and is applied to a 100Km x 100Km area in the Canadian boreal region containing many different vegetation species types. The results show very good agreement with ground measurements taken at several focused and auxiliary study sites. This paper expands on the results reported in [1] and applies the algorithm on the regional scale.

  12. PhyloMap: an algorithm for visualizing relationships of large sequence data sets and its application to the influenza A virus genome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Results of phylogenetic analysis are often visualized as phylogenetic trees. Such a tree can typically only include up to a few hundred sequences. When more than a few thousand sequences are to be included, analyzing the phylogenetic relationships among them becomes a challenging task. The recent frequent outbreaks of influenza A viruses have resulted in the rapid accumulation of corresponding genome sequences. Currently, there are more than 7500 influenza A virus genomes in the database. There are no efficient ways of representing this huge data set as a whole, thus preventing a further understanding of the diversity of the influenza A virus genome. Results Here we present a new algorithm, "PhyloMap", which combines ordination, vector quantization, and phylogenetic tree construction to give an elegant representation of a large sequence data set. The use of PhyloMap on influenza A virus genome sequences reveals the phylogenetic relationships of the internal genes that cannot be seen when only a subset of sequences are analyzed. Conclusions The application of PhyloMap to influenza A virus genome data shows that it is a robust algorithm for analyzing large sequence data sets. It utilizes the entire data set, minimizes bias, and provides intuitive visualization. PhyloMap is implemented in JAVA, and the source code is freely available at http://www.biochem.uni-luebeck.de/public/software/phylomap.html PMID:21689434

  13. Hearing impaired speech in noisy classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, Kimary; McKellin, William H.; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    Noisy classrooms have been shown to induce among students patterns of interaction similar to those used by hearing impaired people [W. H. McKellin et al., GURT (2003)]. In this research, the speech of children in a noisy classroom setting was investigated to determine if noisy classrooms have an effect on students' speech. Audio recordings were made of the speech of students during group work in their regular classrooms (grades 1-7), and of the speech of the same students in a sound booth. Noise level readings in the classrooms were also recorded. Each student's noisy and quiet environment speech samples were acoustically analyzed for prosodic and segmental properties (f0, pitch range, pitch variation, phoneme duration, vowel formants), and compared. The analysis showed that the students' speech in the noisy classrooms had characteristics of the speech of hearing-impaired persons [e.g., R. O'Halpin, Clin. Ling. and Phon. 15, 529-550 (2001)]. Some educational implications of our findings were identified. [Work supported by the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  14. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on the earthworm. Reviews basic anatomical, behavioral, and reproductive facts. Offers suggestions for procuring, maintaining, and breeding colonies for classroom use. (ML)

  15. Calling All Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents examples of innovative public/private partnerships that have successfully provided affordable telephone access to school classrooms. Contact information for each of the programs is provided. (GR)

  16. Pressures of the Season: A Descriptive Look at Classroom Quality in Second and Third Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Condliffe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This report presents findings from two years of classroom observation designed to help understand the in-school experiences of students who had been first graders in eight Baltimore public schools in 2007-08. During the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years, the authors conducted fieldwork to understand learning opportunities and settings for a set of…

  17. Statistical Inference when Classroom Quality Is Measured with Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Sadoff, Sally

    2008-01-01

    A dramatic shift in research priorities has recently produced a large number of ambitious randomized trials in K-12 education. In most cases, the aim is to improve student academic learning by improving classroom instruction. Embedded in these studies are theories about how the quality of classroom must improve if these interventions are to…

  18. Color Your Classroom VII: A Curriculum Guide for Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Materials & Resource Center, Gulfport.

    This guide provides illustrated examples of classroom learning centers designed for use with migrant students. Designating learning centers in the classroom is an effective way to introduce, develop, and reinforce skills in an enjoyable way. The learning centers described in this guide can be made from: (1) fabric boards (large); (2) fabric boards…

  19. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  20. Visual Motivation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazzard, Peggy H.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the use of visual motivation (for instance, the classroom bulletin board) in classrooms of orthopedically handicapped, learning disabled, and emotionally disturbed children. (PHR)

  1. Discovery of a large set of SNP and SSR genetic markers by high-throughput sequencing of pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, M; Pisani, C; Bouchet, J-P; Vuylsteke, M; Palloix, A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are in increasing demand for genome mapping and fingerprinting of breeding populations in crop plants. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity for whole-genome resequencing and identification of allelic variants by mapping the reads to a reference genome. However, for many species, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum), a reference genome sequence is not yet available. To this end, we sequenced the C. annuum cv. "Yolo Wonder" transcriptome using Roche 454 pyrosequencing and assembled de novo 23,748 isotigs and 60,370 singletons. Mapping of 10,886,425 reads obtained by the Illumina GA II sequencing of C. annuum cv. "Criollo de Morelos 334" to the "Yolo Wonder" transcriptome allowed for SNP identification. By setting a threshold value that allows selecting reliable SNPs with minimal loss of information, 11,849 reliable SNPs spread across 5919 isotigs were identified. In addition, 853 single sequence repeats were obtained. This information has been made available online. PMID:22911599

  2. Teacher Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Regina M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large research base grounded in behavioral theory for strategies to increase appropriate behavior and prevent or decrease inappropriate behavior in the classroom, a systematic review of multi-component universal classroom management research is necessary to establish the effects of teachers' universal classroom management approaches.…

  3. Mobile Phone Application Development for the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, P.; Oostra, D.; Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    With smartphone sales currently surpassing laptop sales, it is hard not to think that these devices will have a place in the classroom. More specifically, with little to no monetary investment, classroom-centric mobile applications have the ability to suit the needs of teachers. Previously, programming such an item was a daunting task to the classroom teacher. But now, through the use of online visual tools, anyone has the ability to generate a mobile application to suit individual classroom needs. The "MY NASA DATA" (MND) project has begun work on such an application. Using online tools that are directed at the non-programmer, the team has developed two usable mobile applications ("apps") that fit right into the science classroom. The two apps generated include a cloud dichotomous key for cloud identification in the field, and an atmospheric science glossary to help with standardized testing key vocabulary and classroom assignments. Through the use of free online tools, teachers and students now have the ability to customize mobile applications to meet their individual needs. As an extension of the mobile applications, the MND team is planning web-based application programming interfaces (API's) that will be generated from data that is currently included in the MND Live Access Server. This will allow teachers and students to choose data sets that they want to include in the mobile application without having to populate the API themselves. Through the use of easy to understand online mobile app tutorials and MND data sets, teachers will have the ability to generate unit-specific mobile applications to further engage and empower students in the science classroom.

  4. Experimenting with Classroom Formats To Encourage Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eileen; Kazimir, Jessica; Vandemeulebroeke, Lynn; Burgos, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Describes how modifying familiar classroom formats in a college geometry class helped encourage student problem solving. Demonstrates these modified formats in the context of problems students explored, which resemble the problem-solving settings of mathematicians. (KHR)

  5. Assessment of amyloid ?-protein precursor gene mutations in a large set of familial and sporadic Alzheimer disease cases

    PubMed Central

    Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Vaula, Giovanna; Romano, Donna M.; Mortilla, Marzia; Huang, Tricia L.; Tupler, Rossella G.; Wasco, Wilma; Hyman, Bradley T.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Jenkins, Barbara J.; Kalaitsidaki, Marianna; Warren, Andrew C.; McInnis, Melvin C.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Karlinsky, Harry; Percy, Maire E.; Connor, Linda; Growdon, John; Crapper-McIachlan, Donald R.; Gusella, James F.; George-Hyslop, Peter H. St

    1992-01-01

    A genetic locus associated with familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) and a candidate gene, APP, encoding the amyloid protein precursor have both been assigned previously to chromosome 21, and, in a few FAD families, mutations of APP have been detected. However, obligate crossovers between APP and FAD have also been reported in several FAD pedigrees, including FAD4, a large kindred showing highly suggestive evidence for linkage of the disorder to chromosome 21. In case the apparent APP crossover in FAD4 actually represented an intragenic recombination event or segregation of different mutations in different family branches, we have performed a more detailed assessment of APP as a candidate gene in this family. The entire coding region of the APP gene was sequenced for FAD4 and for FAD1, a second large kindred. No mutations were found, indicating that, in at least one chromosome 21–linked FAD pedigree, the gene defect is not accounted for by a mutation in the known coding region of the APP gene. A total of 25 well-characterized early- and late-onset FAD pedigrees were typed for genetic linkage to APP, to assess the percentage of FAD families predicted to carry mutations in the APP gene. None of the FAD families yielded positive lod scores at a recombination fraction of 0.0. To estimate the overall prevalence of FAD-associated mutations in the ?A4 domain of APP, we sequenced exons 16 and 17 in 30 (20 early- and 10 late-onset) FAD kindreds and in 11 sporadic AD cases, and we screened 56 FAD kindreds and 81 cases of sporadic AD for the presence of the originally reported FAD-associated mutation, APP717 Val?Ile (by BclI digestion). No APP gene mutations were found in any of the FAD families or sporadic-AD samples examined in this study, suggesting that the mutations in exons 16 and 17 are a rare cause of FAD. Overall, these data suggest that APP gene mutations account for a very small portion of FAD. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:1642228

  6. Teaching Cockpit Automation in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the idea of teaching fundamental cockpit automation concepts and skills to aspiring professional pilots in a classroom setting, without the use of sophisticated aircraft or equipment simulators. Pilot participants from a local professional pilot academy completed eighteen hours of classroom instruction that placed a strong emphasis on understanding the underlying principles of cockpit automation systems and their use in a multi-crew cockpit. The instructional materials consisted solely of a single textbook. Pilots received no hands-on instruction or practice during their training. At the conclusion of the classroom instruction, pilots completed a written examination testing their mastery of what had been taught during the classroom meetings. Following the written exam, each pilot was given a check flight in a full-mission Level D simulator of a Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Pilots were given the opportunity to fly one practice leg, and were then tested on all concepts and skills covered in the class during a second leg. The results of the written exam and simulator checks strongly suggest that instruction delivered in a traditional classroom setting can lead to high levels of preparation without the need for expensive airplane or equipment simulators.

  7. Mainstream Literature for Full, Inclusive Secondary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFall, Lindsey; Fitzpatrick, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (2000) reported that approximately 80% of students identified with learning disabilities (LD) received half of their instruction within the general education classroom setting. Therefore, it is important that general education teachers implement teaching strategies and practices that meet the distinct educational…

  8. Promoting Gender Equity within the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Joy; Fisher, Meg; Martin, Cindy; Morris, Marcia

    This report describes a program for heightening awareness of gender bias within the classroom. The targeted population consists of ages 3 to 18 from elementary and high school settings in the Midwest. The problem of gender bias has been well documented for many years. The solution strategy resulted in the implementation of activities to promote…

  9. Bully Prevention in the Physical Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Brett; Gulbrandson, Kim; Herman-Ukasick, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Bullying takes on many forms and occurs in all classrooms, and the activities found in physical education often provide fertile ground for these behaviors. For example, dodgeball is often played in physical education settings, even though the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance has clearly stated that dodgeball…

  10. Classroom Management Challenges in the Dance Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Teaching dance can be a challenge because of the unique classroom-management situations that arise from the dynamic nature of the class content. Management is a delicate navigation of advance planning; rule setting; the establishment and implementation of daily protocols, routines, and interventions; and the teacher's own presentation. This…

  11. Negotiated Interaction in the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerth, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports on an approximate replication of Foster's (1998) study on the negotiation of meaning. Foster investigated the interactional adjustments produced by L2 English learners working on different types of language learning tasks in a classroom setting. The replication study duplicates the methods of data collection and data…

  12. Computers in the Home Economics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Ruth; Durbin, Sandra

    This guide for teachers focuses on how microcomputers may be used in the home economics classroom and how the computer is affecting and changing family life. A brief discussion of potential uses of the microcomputer in educational settings is followed by seven major sections. Sections 1 and 2 provide illustrations and definitions for microcomputer…

  13. Multidimensional Scaling of Classroom Interaction Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumery, Robert E.; Hartnett, Barbara M.

    The use of Kruskal's nonmetric multidimensional scaling model for analysis of classroom interaction data is discussed. Four distance models are proposed which lead to multidimensional representation of single sequences, sets of sequences, and behavior categories using symmetric and conditional proximity options of the model. Results of application…

  14. Preschool Teachers' Exposure to Classroom Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid

    2006-01-01

    This research examined exposure to classroom noise of 25 full-time teaching staff in 14 preschool settings located across Western Sydney. The results indicated that one teacher exceeded the maximum permissible level of daily noise exposure for employees under the health and safety legislation. Three staff approached this level and 92% of teachers…

  15. The Gay Word in a Junior Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Ann; Bowers, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Teachers concerned with issues of social justice are sometimes confronted by classroom incidents that compel them to take action. This article draws on an incident in a primary school setting where deprecating language, used toward a child of lesbian parents, challenged the teacher to confront the issue of homophobic language. The teacher worked…

  16. Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Allen, Justin P.

    2012-01-01

    A commonly advocated best practice for classroom assessment is to make the assessments authentic. Authentic is often used as meaning the mirroring of real-world tasks or expectations. There is no consensus, however, in the actual definition of the term or the characteristics of an authentic classroom assessment. Sometimes, the realistic component…

  17. Ideas for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching Incorporating Micromath, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some of the activities for the classroom invented by Gill Hatch. One of those activities is the activity for older students, which is for the five-year-olds through to post-graduates. Card-sorting game, geometry games, algebra games, and loop games are also some of those activities for the classroom invented by…

  18. For the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartig, Gordon; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four games for use in the foreign language classroom are described. The first, "A Shopping Game," by Gordon Hartig, is played on a game board in the German classroom and provides practice in producing sentences with the preposition "in," which in some instances takes the dative and in others takes the accusative. A diagram of the game board is…

  19. Sociolinguistics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Bethany K.

    The application of sociolinguistic principles should be the concern of every professional person who has any control over what goes on inside a classroom, particularly the teacher, who has the most regular, if not the closest contact with the student. It sometimes seems, however, that in their approach to multidialects in the classroom, teachers…

  20. Responsive classroom management 

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Responsive classroom management.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Responsive classroom management.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Speaking in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Too much speaking and indiscipline in class is an on-going problem for any teacher, it is at its least disruptive and at most it destroys a good positive classroom atmosphere. This article recognizes this and continues this debate and suggests key clues to support teachers in their efforts to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere and discipline…

  2. Eruptive history and tectonic setting of Medicine Lake Volcano, a large rear-arc volcano in the southern Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T.L.; Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    Medicine Lake Volcano (MLV), located in the southern Cascades ??? 55??km east-northeast of contemporaneous Mount Shasta, has been found by exploratory geothermal drilling to have a surprisingly silicic core mantled by mafic lavas. This unexpected result is very different from the long-held view derived from previous mapping of exposed geology that MLV is a dominantly basaltic shield volcano. Detailed mapping shows that < 6% of the ??? 2000??km2 of mapped MLV lavas on this southern Cascade Range shield-shaped edifice are rhyolitic and dacitic, but drill holes on the edifice penetrated more than 30% silicic lava. Argon dating yields ages in the range ??? 475 to 300??ka for early rhyolites. Dates on the stratigraphically lowest mafic lavas at MLV fall into this time frame as well, indicating that volcanism at MLV began about half a million years ago. Mafic compositions apparently did not dominate until ??? 300??ka. Rhyolite eruptions were scarce post-300??ka until late Holocene time. However, a dacite episode at ??? 200 to ??? 180??ka included the volcano's only ash-flow tuff, which was erupted from within the summit caldera. At ??? 100??ka, compositionally distinctive high-Na andesite and minor dacite built most of the present caldera rim. Eruption of these lavas was followed soon after by several large basalt flows, such that the combined area covered by eruptions between 100??ka and postglacial time amounts to nearly two-thirds of the volcano's area. Postglacial eruptive activity was strongly episodic and also covered a disproportionate amount of area. The volcano has erupted 9 times in the past 5200??years, one of the highest rates of late Holocene eruptive activity in the Cascades. Estimated volume of MLV is ??? 600??km3, giving an overall effusion rate of ??? 1.2??km3 per thousand years, although the rate for the past 100??kyr may be only half that. During much of the volcano's history, both dry HAOT (high-alumina olivine tholeiite) and hydrous calcalkaline basalts erupted together in close temporal and spatial proximity. Petrologic studies indicate that the HAOT magmas were derived by dry melting of spinel peridotite mantle near the crust mantle boundary. Subduction-derived H2O-rich fluids played an important role in the generation of calcalkaline magmas. Petrology, geochemistry and proximity indicate that MLV is part of the Cascades magmatic arc and not a Basin and Range volcano, although Basin and Range extension impinges on the volcano and strongly influences its eruptive style. MLV may be analogous to Mount Adams in southern Washington, but not, as sometimes proposed, to the older distributed back-arc Simcoe Mountains volcanic field.

  3. Observed Classroom Quality Profiles of Kindergarten Classrooms in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen, Jenni; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Pakarinen, Eija; Siekkinen, Martti; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to examine classroom quality profiles of kindergarten classrooms using a person-centered approach and to analyze these patterns in regard to teacher and classroom characteristics. Observations of the domains of Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support were conducted in…

  4. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  5. Antithrombotic Utilization Trends after Noncardioembolic Ischemic Stroke or TIA in the Setting of Large Antithrombotic Trials (2002–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Amir S.; Qureshi, Adnan I.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Several large trials published over the last decade have significantly altered recommended guidelines for therapy following a noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The impact of these studies on patient usage of alternative antithrombotic agents has hitherto not been evaluated. We examined the usage of these agents in the United States over the last decade, with regard to the publication of the Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients (MATCH), European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT), and Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) clinical trials, in order to test the hypothesis that resulting recommendations are reflected in usage trends. Methods Antithrombotic utilization was prospectively collected as part of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) on a total of 53,608,351 patients in the United States between 2002 and 2009. Patients with a history of ischemic stroke or TIA were included. Patients were excluded if there was a prior history of subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage, or if other indications for antithrombotic treatment were present, including deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation or flutter, mechanical cardiac valve replacement, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Annual utilization of the following antithrombotic strategies was compared in 53,608,351 patients: 1) aspirin monotherapy, 2) clopidogrel monotherapy, 3) combined clopidogrel and aspirin, 4) combined extended-release dipyridamole (ERDP) and aspirin, and 5) warfarin. Annual utilization was compared before and after publication of MATCH, ESPRIT, and PRoFESS in 2004, 2006, and 2008, respectively. Trend analysis was performed with the Mantel–Haenszel test for trends. Sensitivity analysis of demographic and clinical characteristics stratified by antithrombotic-usage group was performed using the Wald Chi-square test. Results Utilization of combined clopidogrel and aspirin increased from 3.3% to 6.7% after the MATCH trial (p<0.0001). Following the results of the ESPRIT trial, utilization of combination ERDP and aspirin decreased from 4% to 3% (p<0.0001), utilization of clopidogrel declined from 6.8% to 6% (p<0.0001), and utilization of aspirin remained essentially unchanged. After the PRoFESS trial, utilization of clopidogrel increased from 5% to 9% (p<0.0001), utilization of ERDP-aspirin increased from 3 % to 4.6% (p<0.0001), and utilization of aspirin increased from 15.6% to 17.8% (p<0.0001). The proportion of patients on none of the five antithrombotic secondary prevention strategies steadily declined from a peak of 74% in 2003 to 57% by 2009. Conclusions The impact of the MATCH, ESPRIT, and PRoFESS trials on antithrombotic utilization has been variable. These findings highlight the importance of addressing factors that affect the implementation of findings from major clinical trials. PMID:25825628

  6. Towards Perceptual Interface for Visualization Navigation of Large Data Sets Using Gesture Recognition with Bezier Curves and Registered 3-D Data

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, M C; Tsap, L V; Goldgof, D B

    2003-03-20

    This paper presents a gesture recognition system for visualization navigation. Scientists are interested in developing interactive settings for exploring large data sets in an intuitive environment. The input consists of registered 3-D data. A geometric method using Bezier curves is used for the trajectory analysis and classification of gestures. The hand gesture speed is incorporated into the algorithm to enable correct recognition from trajectories with variations in hand speed. The method is robust and reliable: correct hand identification rate is 99.9% (from 1641 frames), modes of hand movements are correct 95.6% of the time, recognition rate (given the right mode) is 97.9%. An application to gesture-controlled visualization of 3D bioinformatics data is also presented.

  7. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  8. Tectonic stress inversion of large multi-phase fracture data sets: application of Win-Tensor to reveal the brittle tectonic history of the Lufilan Arc, DRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien; Kipata, Louis; Sintubin, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Large fault-slip data sets from multiphase orogenic regions present a particular challenge in paleostress reconstructions. The Lufilian Arc is an arcuate fold-and-thrust belt that formed during the late Pan-African times as the result of combined N-S and E-W amalgamation of Gondwana in SE-DRCongo and N-Zambia. We studied more than 22 sites in the Lufilian Arc, and its foreland and correlated the results obtained with existing result in the Ubende belt of W-Tanzania. Most studied sites are characterized by multiphase brittle deformation in which the observed brittle structures are the result of progressive saturation of the host rock by neoformed fractures and the reactivation of early formed fractures. They correspond to large mining exploitations with multiple large and continuous outcrops that allow obtaining datasets sufficiently large to be of statistical significance and often corresponding to several successive brittle events. In this context, the reconstruction of tectonic stress necessitates an initial field-base separation of data, completed by a dynamic separation of the original data set into subsets. In the largest sites, several parts of the deposits have been measured independently and are considered as sub-sites that are be processed separately in an initial stage. The procedure used for interactive fault-slip data separation and stress inversion will be illustrated by field examples (Luiswishi and Manono mining sites). This principle has been applied to all result in the reconstruction of the brittle tectonic history of the region, starting with two major phases of orogenic compression, followed by late orogenic extension and extensional collapse. A regional tectonic inversion during the early Mesozoic, as a result of far- field stresses mark the transition towards rift-related extension. More details in Kipata, Delvaux et al.(2013), Geologica Belgica 16/1-2: 001-017 Win-Tensor can be downloaded at: http://users.skynet.be/damien.delvaux/Tensor/tensor-index.html

  9. A geometrical correction for the inter- and intra-molecular basis set superposition error in Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations for large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Holger; Grimme, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    A semi-empirical counterpoise-type correction for basis set superposition error (BSSE) in molecular systems is presented. An atom pair-wise potential corrects for the inter- and intra-molecular BSSE in supermolecular Hartree-Fock (HF) or density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This geometrical counterpoise (gCP) denoted scheme depends only on the molecular geometry, i.e., no input from the electronic wave-function is required and hence is applicable to molecules with ten thousands of atoms. The four necessary parameters have been determined by a fit to standard Boys and Bernadi counterpoise corrections for Hobza's S66×8 set of non-covalently bound complexes (528 data points). The method's target are small basis sets (e.g., minimal, split-valence, 6-31G*), but reliable results are also obtained for larger triple-? sets. The intermolecular BSSE is calculated by gCP within a typical error of 10%-30% that proves sufficient in many practical applications. The approach is suggested as a quantitative correction in production work and can also be routinely applied to estimate the magnitude of the BSSE beforehand. The applicability for biomolecules as the primary target is tested for the crambin protein, where gCP removes intramolecular BSSE effectively and yields conformational energies comparable to def2-TZVP basis results. Good mutual agreement is also found with Jensen's ACP(4) scheme, estimating the intramolecular BSSE in the phenylalanine-glycine-phenylalanine tripeptide, for which also a relaxed rotational energy profile is presented. A variety of minimal and double-? basis sets combined with gCP and the dispersion corrections DFT-D3 and DFT-NL are successfully benchmarked on the S22 and S66 sets of non-covalent interactions. Outstanding performance with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 0.51 kcal/mol (0.38 kcal/mol after D3-refit) is obtained at the gCP-corrected HF-D3/(minimal basis) level for the S66 benchmark. The gCP-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-31G* model chemistry yields MAD=0.68 kcal/mol, which represents a huge improvement over plain B3LYP/6-31G* (MAD=2.3 kcal/mol). Application of gCP-corrected B97-D3 and HF-D3 on a set of large protein-ligand complexes prove the robustness of the method. Analytical gCP gradients make optimizations of large systems feasible with small basis sets, as demonstrated for the inter-ring distances of 9-helicene and most of the complexes in Hobza's S22 test set. The method is implemented in a freely available FORTRAN program obtainable from the author's website.

  10. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  11. Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

  12. Flipping the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-11-01

    A recent trend in education is the ``flipped'' or ``reversed'' classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

  13. Flipping the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    A recent trend in education is the "flipped" or "reversed" classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

  14. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous hurdles that we did not anticipate, and often required a change in plan. In this study we summarize these key hurdles faced and offer a step by step approach to setting up river models for large ungauged river basins. Such a guide can be useful for the community wishing to set up RAS type models in basins such as Niger, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Indus etc.

  15. Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  16. Examining the large-scale convergence of photosynthesis-weighted tree leaf temperatures through stable oxygen isotope analysis of multiple data sets.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Barbour, Margaret M; Saurer, Matthias; Helliker, Brent R

    2011-12-01

    The idea that photosynthesis-weighted tree canopy leaf temperature (T(can?)) can be resolved through analysis of oxygen isotope composition in tree wood cellulose (?(18) O(wc)) has led to the observation of boreal-to-subtropical convergence of T(can?) to c. 20°C. To further assess the validity of the large-scale convergence of T(can?), we used the isotope approach to perform calculation of T(can?) for independent ?(18) O(wc) data sets that have broad coverage of climates. For the boreal-to-subtropical data sets, we found that the deviation of T(can?) from the growing season temperature systemically increases with the decreasing mean annual temperature. Across the whole data sets we calculated a mean T(can?) of 19.48°C and an SD of 2.05°C, while for the tropical data set, the mean T(can?) was 26.40 ± 1.03°C, significantly higher than the boreal-to-subtropical mean. Our study thus offers independent isotopic support for the concept that boreal-to-subtropical trees display conserved T(can?) near 20°C. The isotopic analysis cannot distinguish between the possibility that leaf temperatures are generally elevated above ambient air temperatures in cooler environments and the possibility that leaf temperature equals air temperature, whereas the leaf/air temperature at which photosynthesis occurs has a weighted average of near 20°C in cooler environments. Future work will separate these potential explanations. PMID:21899555

  17. Flipped Classroom versus Traditional Textbook Instruction: Assessing Accuracy and Mental Effort at Different Levels of Mathematical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Kristina V.

    2015-01-01

    Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and…

  18. Climatic Conditions in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Simon M.; Howes, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an overview of research on the ways in which classroom thermal environment, lighting conditions, ion state, and electromagnetic and air pollution affect learning and the performance of students and teachers. (SJL)

  19. Death in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    Discusses adolescents and their experiences with death. Considers a variety of novels dealing with the issue of death that can help students cope with death in their own lives. Suggests using books about death in the classroom. (HB)

  20. For the Classroom: Scrimshaw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are described for practicing the art of scrimshaw in the classroom. Several materials are suggested for use. These include beef soup bones, old piano keys, nails, sandpaper, and lampblack or charcoal. (SA)

  1. The Classroom Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbickas, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

  2. Software for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballenger, Marcus

    1992-01-01

    Reviews three computer programs for the classroom: (1) Kid Pix, a graphics program; (2) GROUPwriter, for online conferencing for students in third grade and above; and (3) Just Grandma and Me, an interactive version of a Mercer Mayer story. (LB)

  3. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the behavior, housing, care, diet, and feeding of painted turtles. Also suggests several classroom activities and provides guidelines related to long-term captivity and human disease prevention. (DH)

  4. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  5. Toys in The Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Jerry L.; Sarquis, Arlyne M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of chemical concepts can be easily illustrated in a more friendly way to children by using toys as teaching tools in the classroom. Some of the examples illustrated are shrinking toys, drinking birds and hand boiler.

  6. Critters in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

  7. Removal of a Student on a Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Prescription in an Open Classroom Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Irene

    Described by the teacher is the removal of a 10-year-old hyperactive boy from drug therapy (Ritalin). The setting, open classroom, and the involvement of four regular classroom teachers and a progressive teacher employing behavior modification in a small group setting are thought to be related to the boy's academic and behavioral progress. The boy…

  8. Solar Powered Classroom

    ScienceCinema

    none

    2013-06-27

    A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

  9. Solar Powered Classroom

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-13

    A group of fourth graders in Durham, North Carolina, are showing America the way to a clean energy future. They are installing solar panels on their classroom roof for a project that goes above and beyond a normal day in school. From researching solar panel installation, to generating funds for the project via Kickstarter, these are students who put their plans into action. Their accomplishments go beyond the classroom and stress the importance of getting people of all ages involved in renewable energy.

  10. Variation in Children's Classroom Engagement Throughout a Day in Preschool: Relations to Classroom and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Williford, Amanda P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in preschool children's positive and negative engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks, and how that variability was related to both classroom activity settings (e.g., teacher-structured time, outdoor time, transitions) and child factors (age, gender). Participants were 283 socioeconomically and…

  11. Bringing Technology into High School Physics Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2005-04-01

    In an effort to help high school physics teachers bring technology into their classrooms, we at JSU have been offering professional development to secondary education teachers. This effort is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind (NCLB) grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, serving high school physics teachers in Northeast Alabama. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. To achieve IMPACTSEED's goals, we have forged a functional collaboration with school districts from about ten counties. This collaboration is aimed at achieving a double aim: (a) to make physics and chemistry understandable and fun to learn within a hands-on, inquiry-based setting; (b) to overcome the fear- factor for physics and chemistry among students. Through a two-week long summer institute, a series of weekend technology workshops, and onsite support, we have been providing year-round support to the physics/chemistry teachers in this area. This outreach initiative has helped provide our students with a physics/chemistry education that enjoys a great deal of continuity and consistency from high school to college.

  12. Building the PHARAOH framework using scenario-based design: a set of pandemic decision-making scenarios for continuity of operations in a large municipal public health agency.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Blaine; Demiris, George

    2010-08-01

    Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP) is actions taken before, during and after a disaster to maintain the delivery of an organization's essential services. The application of COOP in public health is necessary to save lives and protect population health when disaster strikes. However, COOP decision-making and COOP decision support technology are under-explored in the public health domain. This work approaches the problem of designing a COOP decision support system for a large municipal public health agency using scenario-based design. Through a series of meetings and informal interviews, we developed a set of 12 scenarios of use for public health decision-making roles during a pandemic. These scenarios were validated as reliable, useful and acceptable by professional public health COOP planners. The results of this work show scenario-based design can be a powerful tool in designing decision support systems for public health leadership information needs during a crisis. PMID:20703929

  13. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (?38°C) at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/?L. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/?L for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%), indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162) compared to P. falciparum (36/118). The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and PCR positive P. falciparum, but failed to detect 12/13 microscopy and PCR positive P. vivax infections. Conclusion Asymptomatic malaria infections and infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities are highly prevalent in Temotu province where malaria transmission is low. This presents a challenge for elimination since the large proportion of the parasite reservoir will not be detected by standard active and passive case detection. Therefore effective mass screening and treatment campaigns will most likely need more sensitive assays such as a field deployable molecular based assay. PMID:20822506

  14. Integrated QSPR models to predict the soil sorption coefficient for a large diverse set of compounds by using different modeling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yonghua; Liu, Jining; Wang, Meixia; Shi, Lili; Yao, Xiaojun; Gramatica, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The soil sorption coefficient (Koc) is a key physicochemical parameter to assess the environmental risk of organic compounds. To predict soil sorption coefficient in a more effective and economical way, here, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed based on a large diverse dataset including 964 non-ionic organic compounds. Multiple linear regression (MLR), local lazy regression (LLR) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) were utilized to develop QSPR models based on the four most relevant theoretical molecular descriptors selected by genetic algorithms-variable subset selection (GA-VSS) procedure. The QSPR development strictly followed the OECD principles for QSPR model validation, thus great attentions were paid to internal and external validations, applicability domain and mechanistic interpretation. The obtained results indicate that the LS-SVM model performed better than the MLR and the LLR models. For best LS-SVM model, the correlation coefficients (R2) for the training set was 0.913 and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for the prediction set was 0.917. The root-mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.330 and 0.426, respectively. The results of internal and external validations together with applicability domain analysis indicate that the QSPR models proposed in our work are predictive and could provide a useful tool for prediction soil sorption coefficient of new compounds.

  15. In silico log P prediction for a large data set with support vector machines, radial basis neural networks and multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Feng

    2009-08-01

    Oil/water partition coefficient (log P) is one of the key points for lead compound to be drug. In silico log P models based solely on chemical structures have become an important part of modern drug discovery. Here, we report support vector machines, radial basis function neural networks, and multiple linear regression methods to investigate the correlation between partition coefficient and physico-chemical descriptors for a large data set of compounds. The correlation coefficient r(2) between experimental and predicted log P for training and test sets by support vector machines, radial basis function neural networks, and multiple linear regression is 0.92, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. The results show that non-linear support vector machines derives statistical models that have better prediction ability than those of radial basis function neural networks and multiple linear regression methods. This indicates that support vector machines can be used as an alternative modeling tool for quantitative structure-property/activity relationships studies. PMID:19549084

  16. Household malaria knowledge and its association with bednet ownership in settings without large–scale distribution programs: Evidence from rural Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Krezanoski, Paul J.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Comfort, Alison B.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide–treated bednets are effective at preventing malaria. This study focuses on household–level factors that are associated with bednet ownership in a rural area of Madagascar which had not been a recipient of large–scale ITN distribution. Methods Data were gathered on individual and household characteristics, malaria knowledge, household assets and bednet ownership. Principal components analysis was used to construct both a wealth index based on household assets and a malaria knowledge index based on responses to questions about malaria. Bivariate and multivariate regressions were used to determine predictors of household bednet ownership and malaria knowledge. Results Forty–seven of 560 households (8.4%) owned a bednet. In multivariate analysis, higher level of malaria knowledge among household members was the only variable significantly associated with bednet ownership (odds ratio 3.72, P?setting of limited supply of affordable bednets, malaria knowledge was associated with an increased probability of household bednet ownership. Further studies should determine how such malaria knowledge evolves and if malaria–specific education programs could help overcome the barriers to bednet ownership among at–risk households living outside the reach of large–scale bednet distribution programs. PMID:24976960

  17. Teachers' Practical Knowledge about Classroom Management in Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Tartwijk, Jan; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; Wubbels, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Creating a positive working atmosphere in the classroom is the first concern of many student and beginning teachers in secondary education. Teaching in multicultural classrooms provides additional challenges for these teachers. This study identified shared practical knowledge about classroom management strategies of teachers who were successful in…

  18. Expert Secondary Inclusive Classroom Management 

    E-print Network

    Montague, Marcia

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the management practices of expert secondary general education teachers in inclusive classrooms. Specifically, expert teachers of classrooms who included students with severe cognitive...

  19. Teacher Survival in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Reese

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the problem of discipline in the classroom, classroom violence, and how students and teachers can protect themselves from attack or harm. Also provides 5 tips for the teacher who is the victim of an assault. (Author/RK)

  20. Sherlock Holmes in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faia, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-day classroom activity combining criminal investigations and scientific skills, especially observation skills. Provides detailed classroom procedures with an illustration of eight basic fingerprint patterns and a classification chart. (YP)

  1. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  2. Citizen Science in the Classroom: Perils and Promise of the New Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, T.; Dirksen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Classroom citizen science projects invite students to generate, curate, post, query, and analyze data, publishing and discussing results in potentially large collaborative contexts. The new web offers a rich palette of such projects for any STEM educator to select from or create. This easy access to citizen science in the classroom is full of both promise and peril for science education. By offering examples of classroom citizen science projects in particle physics, earth and environmental sciences, each supported by a common mashup of technologies available to ordinary users, we will illustrate something of the promise of these projects for science education, and point to some of the challenges and failure modes--the peril--raised by easy access and particularly easy publication of data. How one sensibly responds to this promise and peril depends on how one views the goals of science (or more broadly, STEM) education: either as the equipping of individual students with STEM knowledge and skills so as to empower them for future options, or as the issuing of effective invitations into STEM communities. Building on the claim that these are complementary perspectives, both of value, we will provide an example of a classroom citizen science project analyzed from both perspectives. The BOSCO classroom-to-classroom water source mapping project provides students both in Northern Uganda and in South Dakota a collaborative platform for analyzing and responding to local water quality concerns. Students gather water quality data, use Google Forms embedded in a project wiki to enter data in a spreadsheet, which then automatically (through Mapalist, a free web service) gets posted to a Google Map, itself embedded in the project wiki. Using these technologies, data is thus collected and posted for analysis in a collaborative environment: the stage is set for classroom citizen science. In the context of this project we will address the question of how teachers can take advantage of the new web to encourage students to become creative problem-solvers in online collaborative contexts without looking past the foundation of careful preparation and the standards of reliability associated with publication in the STEM disciplines.

  3. GALAXY Classroom: Television for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graumann, Peter

    1994-01-01

    An interactive learning service for elementary grades, "GALAXY Classroom," offers enrichment opportunities to classrooms. Students communicate via fax in response to questions posed in satellite transmitted segments. The primary market for "GALAXY Classroom" is the at-risk student. Sidebars describe costs and current offerings. (SLW)

  4. Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

  5. The Keys to Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    States that teacher attitude, organization, and communication are three elements that enable music teachers to manage their classrooms successfully. Discusses each management component and addresses the issue of helping future teachers develop their classroom management skills. Includes a bibliography of resources for classroom management. (CMK)

  6. Sound Advice on Classroom Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of acoustic standards in classroom design, presenting an interview with the Acoustical Society of America's (ASA's) standards manager which focuses on reasons for the new ASA standards, the standards document (which was written for K-12 classroom but applies to college classrooms), the need to avoid echo and be able to…

  7. The Development of the Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS): A Large-Scale Data Sharing Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Lutomski, Jennifer E.; Baars, Maria A. E.; Schalk, Bianca W. M.; Boter, Han; Buurman, Bianca M.; den Elzen, Wendy P. J.; Jansen, Aaltje P. D.; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Steunenberg, Bas; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Melis, René J. F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport commissioned the National Care for the Elderly Programme. While numerous research projects in older persons’ health care were to be conducted under this national agenda, the Programme further advocated the development of The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS) which would be integrated into all funded research protocols. In this context, we describe TOPICS data sharing initiative (www.topics-mds.eu). Materials and Methods A working group drafted TOPICS-MDS prototype, which was subsequently approved by a multidisciplinary panel. Using instruments validated for older populations, information was collected on demographics, morbidity, quality of life, functional limitations, mental health, social functioning and health service utilisation. For informal caregivers, information was collected on demographics, hours of informal care and quality of life (including subjective care-related burden). Results Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 41 research projects contributed data to TOPICS-MDS, resulting in preliminary data available for 32,310 older persons and 3,940 informal caregivers. The majority of studies sampled were from primary care settings and inclusion criteria differed across studies. Discussion TOPICS-MDS is a public data repository which contains essential data to better understand health challenges experienced by older persons and informal caregivers. Such findings are relevant for countries where increasing health-related expenditure has necessitated the evaluation of contemporary health care delivery. Although open sharing of data can be difficult to achieve in practice, proactively addressing issues of data protection, conflicting data analysis requests and funding limitations during TOPICS-MDS developmental phase has fostered a data sharing culture. To date, TOPICS-MDS has been successfully incorporated into 41 research projects, thus supporting the feasibility of constructing a large (>30,000 observations), standardised dataset pooled from various study protocols with different sampling frameworks. This unique implementation strategy improves efficiency and facilitates individual-level data meta-analysis. PMID:24324716

  8. Principles and Enactment of Rapid Collaborative Knowledge Building in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Patton, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors discuss the notion of Rapid Collaborative Knowledge Building (RCKB) in classroom settings. RCKB seeks to harness the collective intelligence of groups to learn faster, envision new possibilities, and to reveal latent knowledge in a dynamic live setting. It is characterized by the notion of rapid cycles of knowledge building activities…

  9. The L-Shaped Classroom: A Pattern for Promoting Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    There has been little analysis of how the "L" Shape design pattern might influence learning as well as be incorporated into the design of new school facilities. This article: (1) re-examines the "Fat L" (Dyck, 1994) Classroom as a design pattern which supports a range of activity settings; (2) defines activity settings; (3) describes the "Fat L"…

  10. Abhishek Sharma and Kenneth D. Forbus. (2013). Automatic Extraction of Efficient Axiom Sets from Large Knowledge Bases. Proceedings of AAAI: Twenty-Seventh Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Bellevue, WA

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    representation choices play a crucial role in determining the hardness of problems. Work in SAT solving is movingAbhishek Sharma and Kenneth D. Forbus. (2013). Automatic Extraction of Efficient Axiom Sets from, Bellevue, WA Automatic Extraction of Efficient Axiom Sets from Large Knowledge Bases Abhishek Sharma1

  11. Preparation of a set of expression-ready clones of mammalian long cDNAs encoding large proteins by the ORF trap cloning method.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Saito, Kenji; Yamakawa, Hisashi; Kikuno, Reiko F; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Reiko; Okazaki, Noriko; Koga, Hisashi; Nagase, Takahiro; Ohara, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    Although we have so far identified and sequenced >2000 human long cDNAs, known as KIAA cDNAs, half of them have yet to be functionally annotated. Expression-ready cDNA clones derived from these genes, where the open reading frame (ORF) of the gene of interest is placed under the control of an appropriate promoter, are critical for functional characterization of these gene products. In this study, we attempted to systematically convert original cDNA clones to expression-ready forms for native and fusion proteins. For this purpose, we developed a new method for ORF cloning based on a homologous recombination in Escherichia coli to avoid laborious manipulations and artificial introduction of mutations in ORF. Using 1589 putative full-length ORFs (from 1002 KIAA genes, 119 human known genes and 468 mouse genes) with an average size of 2.8 kb, we successfully prepared expression plasmids for 1463 native proteins and for 1343 fusion proteins by this method. The resultant expression-ready clones were examined using an in vitro transcription/translation system followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by transient expression of GFP-fusion proteins in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. This set of expression-ready clones of long cDNAs encoding large proteins would open a new route to experimentally analyze their functions on a proteomic scale, since unavailability of expression-ready clones for mammalian large proteins has been a major obstacle to the functional analysis of these cDNAs. PMID:16769688

  12. Absence of linkage of phonological coding dyslexia to chromosome 6p23-p21.3 in a large family data set.

    PubMed Central

    Field, L L; Kaplan, B J

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a locus predisposing to specific reading disability (dyslexia) resides on chromosome 6p23-p21.3. We investigated 79 families having at least two siblings affected with phonological coding dyslexia, the most common form of reading disability (617 people genotyped, 294 affected), and we tested for linkage with the genetic markers reported to be linked to dyslexia in those studies. No evidence for linkage was found by LOD score analysis or affected-sib-pair methods. However, using the affected-pedigree-member (APM) method, we detected significant evidence for linkage and/or association with some markers when we used published allele frequencies with weighting of rarer alleles. APM results were not significant when we used marker allele frequencies estimated from parents. Furthermore, results were not significant with the more robust SIMIBD method using either published or parental marker frequencies. Finally, family-based association analysis using the AFBAC program showed no evidence for association with any marker. We conclude that the APM method should be used only with extreme caution, because it appears to have generated false-positive results. In summary, using a large data set with high power to detect linkage, we were unable to find evidence for linkage or association between phonological coding dyslexia and chromosome 6p markers. PMID:9792873

  13. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimating the Sampling-Related Uncertainty of Satellite Rainfall Averages Based on a Large Radar Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Bell, Thomas L.; Steiner, Matthias; Zhang, Yu; Wood, Eric F.

    2002-01-01

    The uncertainty of rainfall estimated from averages of discrete samples collected by a satellite is assessed using a multi-year radar data set covering a large portion of the United States. The sampling-related uncertainty of rainfall estimates is evaluated for all combinations of 100 km, 200 km, and 500 km space domains, 1 day, 5 day, and 30 day rainfall accumulations, and regular sampling time intervals of 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 8 h, and 12 h. These extensive analyses are combined to characterize the sampling uncertainty as a function of space and time domain, sampling frequency, and rainfall characteristics by means of a simple scaling law. Moreover, it is shown that both parametric and non-parametric statistical techniques of estimating the sampling uncertainty produce comparable results. Sampling uncertainty estimates, however, do depend on the choice of technique for obtaining them. They can also vary considerably from case to case, reflecting the great variability of natural rainfall, and should therefore be expressed in probabilistic terms. Rainfall calibration errors are shown to affect comparison of results obtained by studies based on data from different climate regions and/or observation platforms.

  14. Implementing the Synchronous Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary describes an action research project conducted by selected staff at the Northern Valley Regional High School District in New Jersey. The project focused on the idea of developing a synchronous classroom to provide world language learning opportunities to students. Relevant research is provided as are ideas regarding logistics and…

  15. "Frankenstein" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veidemanis, Gladys V.

    1986-01-01

    Presents five reasons for classroom study of Mary Shelley's gothic work: (1)intriguing style and subject matter, brevity and novelty; (2)narrative versatility; (3)representation of the Romantic Era in English literature; (4)female authorship; (5)significance of the central theme of "scientific aims pursued in reckless disregard of human…

  16. Classroom Contexts for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…

  17. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  18. Inquiry in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohl, Christina

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) As schools scramble to restructure in the hope of thwarting failure, administrators often appropriate money for outside experts who counsel on professional development as well as outside magic-pill programs for student achievement. High-stakes testing remains the arbiter. Perhaps the use of the best practice of inquiry, or classroom

  19. Fluency in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie R., Ed.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers two distinct approaches to oral reading instruction that can easily be incorporated into primary-grade literacy curricula. It enables teachers to go beyond the conventional "round-robin" approach by providing strong instructional support and using challenging texts. Grounded in research and classroom experience, the book explains…

  20. Classroom on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfreesboro City Schools, TN.

    Designed for 3- and 4-year-old disadvantaged children and their parents, a mobile unit consisting of a renovated school bus turned classroom is described which travels to three areas daily for a 2-hour period. The program for children is designed primarily for developmental skills--visual, sensory, auditory, and cognitive. Activities emphasize…

  1. Classroom Idea-Sparkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieff, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents four Idea-Sparkers that were submitted by Jason McKinney, a graduate student at Southern Mississippi University and a 1st-grade teacher at Pisgah Elementary in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. First is entitled, "Raceway in the Classroom." This activity can help increase children's fluency and ability to identify numerous sight…

  2. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  3. In the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Fourteen conference papers on classroom techniques for second language teaching are presented, including: "Cooperative Learning at the Post-Secondary Level in Japan" (Steve McGuire, Patricia Thornton, David Kluge); "Shared Inquiry Fosters Critical Thinking Skills in EFL Students" (Carol Browning, Jerold Halvorsen, Denise Ahlquist); "Story Grammar:…

  4. Flipping the Classroom Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    I received many emails following the first column on flipping the classroom. Many of my local colleagues also approached me at our physics alliance, Physics Northwest. Teachers are very interested in this new pedagogy. As I result, I wanted to share some more videos to inspire you.

  5. Photography in Pink Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Liz

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

  6. Positive Classroom Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conoley, Jane Close

    1988-01-01

    Educational environments that reduce the likelihood of acting out and promote positive cognitive, social, and emotional development are useful not only to behavior disordered youngsters, but to all students. Forces that facilitate and inhibit the establishment of positive classroom ecologies are outlined, and components of effective instruction…

  7. The Environmental Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald E.; Vinton, Dennis A.

    Two modern crises--in education and ecology--can both be alleviated by adopting an "environmental classroom"; that is, by moving from the traditional schoolroom to closer contact with the world outside. The first part of the volume examines traditional approaches to education and them moves step by step to innovative ones, such as using the urban…

  8. Windows into Art Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    An editorial by Kit Grauer introduces this collection of articles which establish that there is no such thing as a simple definition of art education even within one culture, and that people's views can be reflected by art educators across the world. The first article, "A Window on Three Singapore Art Classrooms" (Jane Chia; John Matthews; Paul…

  9. Philosophy in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Matthew; And Others

    This handbook for educators and parents discusses the need to include philosophy in the elementary classroom. The authors point out that as a question-raising discipline, philosophy is appropriate to guide children's natural inquisitiveness through the educational process. It encourages intellectual resourcefulness and flexibility which can enable…

  10. Classroom Teacher's Idea Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campanella, Alfred J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Offers three activities for middle school classrooms. Activity 1 uses a newspaper reporter exercise to demonstrate two viewpoints of the U.S. Civil War. Activity 2 develops geographic awareness of direction and distance on a sphere through study of the great circle route. Activity 3 provides associative learning clues and mnemonic devices for…

  11. The Cultivated Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, Rosalind

    1983-01-01

    Teachers who follow this monthly schedule for starting and cultivating plants in their classrooms can look forward to blooms and greenery throughout the year. Advice on choosing plants, making cuttings, forcing bulbs, rooting sweet potatoes and pineapples, and holding a Mother's Day plant sale is included. (PP)

  12. Caring as Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Chrystal S.; Thomas, Adrian T.

    2009-01-01

    When planning for the new school year, K-2 teachers might consider the benefits of creating a caring classroom. Caring has the potential to not only encourage thoughtful social studies practice, but to also enhance it. The best K-2 teachers also recognize the importance of caring in the development of responsible citizens. Such teachers plan and…

  13. Classroom Teacher's Idea Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Norv; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Offers activities for high school and middle school classrooms. First activity deals with war crimes by projecting fictitious Soviet fighting in Afghanistan into the story of William Calley in Vietnam. Second activity uses the Underground Railroad during the U.S. Civil War in an interdisciplinary approach. Third activity is a self-discovery…

  14. Elementary Classroom Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how elementary classroom Web sites support children's literacy. From a sociocultural perspective of literacy and a transformative stance toward the integration of literacy and technology, and building on explorations of new literacies, I discuss opportunities provided by the Internet that can support…

  15. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  16. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  17. Leading Classroom Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gloriana; DeJarnette, Anna F.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse is a valuable teaching and learning tool. Discussions allow students to improve their communication and reasoning skills in mathematics and help teachers assess students' understanding of mathematical ideas. To get the greatest benefit from discussion, teachers must elicit student thinking, listen carefully to their ideas,…

  18. Robots in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

  19. Research for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlewski, Julie, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Current research upholds the significance of formative assessments in the classroom. Formative assessments are relevant to theory and practice; they offer positive possibilities with respect to both policy and pedagogy. At the policy level, formative assessments offer a means to minimize the negative effects of highstakes testing. The culture of…

  20. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

  1. Barcode Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes applications of bar coding technology that will help teachers to organize and energize their classrooms. Explains how bar codes--the black-and-white lines used for identification--are read and produced. Educational applications include their use in testing, equipment inventory, specimen identification, time keeping in experiments,…

  2. Formation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Fred; Jacobsen, Douglas; Jacobsen, Rhonda Hustedt; Thatamanil, John J.; Porterfield, Amanda; Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    What is the relationship between the academic knowledge of the guild and the formation of students in the classroom? This Forum gathers four essays originally presented at a Special Topics Session at the 2009 conference of the American Academy of Religion (Atlanta, Georgia), with a brief introductory essay by Fred Glennon explaining the genesis of…

  3. The Structured Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the organisation of the remedial classroom. The data were collected from observations and semi-structured interviews with 10 teachers in remedial classes for children seen and treated as having concentration deficits. The teachers use primarily compensatory language that places the deficits in the pupils.…

  4. Creating a Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom system that was built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State University in Boone, NC. In the hope that other educators might find his department's experience useful, this author, David Domermuth (the department's coordinator of manufacturing) describes the system,…

  5. Creating a Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a description of an affordable, smart classroom built for the Technology Department at Appalachian State university. The system consists of three basic components: a home theater combo, a tablet PC, and a digital projector, costing a total of $7,300, or $8,800 if a podium, screen, and projector mount are purchased. The…

  6. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  7. The Community of Family Circles (CFC) algorithm: a new inversion approach to obtaining self-consitent 4D thermal histories from large, spatially distributed thermochronological data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most significant advances in interpreting thermochronological data is arguably our ability to extract information about the rate and trajectory of cooling over a range of temperatures, rather than having to rely on the veracity of the simplification of assuming a single closure temperature specified by a rate of monotonic cooling. Modern thermochronometry data, such as apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He analysis, are particularly good examples of data amenable to this treatment as acceptably well calibrated kinetic models now exist for both systems. With ever larger data sets of this type being generated over ever larger areas the prospect of inverting very large amounts of such data distributed spatially over large areas offers new possibilities for constraining the thermal and erosional histories over length scales approximating whole orogens and sub-continents. The challenge though is in how to properly deal with joint inversion of multiple samples in a self-consistent manner while also utilising all the available information contained in the data. We describe a new approach to this problem, called the Community of Family Circles (CFC) algorithm, which extracts information from spatially distributed apatite fission track ages (AFT) and track length distributions (TLD). The method is based on the rationale that the 3D geothermal field of the crust varies smoothly through space and time because of the efficiency of thermal diffusion. Our approach consists of seeking groups of spatially adjacent samples, or families, within a given circular radius for which a common thermal history is appropriate. The temperature offsets between individual time-temperature paths are determined relative to a low-pass filtered topographic surface, whose shape is assumed to mimic the shape of the isotherms in the partial annealing zone. This enables a single common thermal history to be shared, or interpolated, between the family members while still honouring the individual samples temperature offset requirements. The geothermal gradient can be either treated as a parameter in the inversion scheme or evaluated when local vertical profile or heat flow measurements are available. As data for each sample is inverted several times with different subsets, or as a member of different families, we then extract the subset with the lowest misfit and assign that sample to its respective ''family'' whose optimum time-temperature path is subsequently assigned to the sample. We thus obtain a set of thermal histories (one for each sample) which can then be interpolated to obtain exhumation rates or maximum temperature maps. We demonstrate our approach on a variety of synthetic datasets, generated for different geomorphologies and sampling densities, using the 3D thermal Pecube code in order to test the resolution and limits of the method. The approach is then applied to a 600 by 600 km area in northern Namibia where an extensive apatite fission track dataset including ages and track length distributions is available. We finally discuss extension of the technique to multiple thermochronometers. We also discuss possible future modifications and strategies for improving the flexibility and computational efficiency and effectiveness of the method.

  8. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  9. Effective Classroom Management and Instruction: An Exploration of Models. Executive Summary of Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evertson, Carolyn M.; And Others

    A summary is presented of the final report, "Effective Classroom Management and Instruction: An Exploration of Models." The final report presents a set of linked investigations of the effects of training teachers in effective classroom management practices in a series of school-based workshops. Four purposes were addressed by the study: (1) to…

  10. When Social Identities Collide: Commentary on "Gender in the Management Education Classroom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This commentary to "Gender in the Management Education Classroom" (Bilimoria, O'Neil, Hopkins, & Murphy, 2010) employs social identity and self-categorization theory to analyze the incident described in the article. In any MBA classroom, students are dealing with multiple group memberships. Similar to workplace settings, when the focus is on…

  11. Can You Hear Me Now? Assessing Students' Classroom Communication Preferences via a Telephone Conference Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, Sharon G.

    2012-01-01

    Telephone conference presentation delivery was compared to face-to-face classroom delivery in an undergraduate business course setting to assess whether concern over presenting in front of the class and/or gender impacted presentation mode preference. After completing a classroom exercise, students (n = 102) were surveyed and asked to compare…

  12. An Effective Approach to Developing Function-Based Interventions in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Ferro, Jolenea B.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unique features of early childhood classrooms, teachers routinely modify the social and physical environment to support children with mild to moderate challenges. Yet despite their access to behavioral consultants, school-based prekindergarten programs are more likely to expel young children from their classroom settings compared with…

  13. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Gallo, Glenna L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, Kara A.; Davey, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task…

  14. Mechanizing People and Pedagogy: Establishing Social Presence in the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the affordances of using Voki avatars to create a sense of social presence in an asynchronous online writing classroom setting. Digital media afford online educators the opportunity to harness different technologies and new ways of being in a digital classroom that can enhance student engagement in ways similar to yet…

  15. Is Positive Feedback a Forgotten Classroom Practice? Findings and Implications for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouls, Katie; Mathur, Sarup R.; Upreti, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Although using higher rates of positive to negative feedback is one best practice often recommended to teachers, particularly when it comes to students experiencing behavioral problems in classroom settings, research on the use of positive feedback in classroom teaching practice has revealed inconsistent results. Research has documented…

  16. The Physical Placement of Classroom Technology and Its Influences on Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondeur, J.; De Bruyne, E.; Van Den Driessche, M.; McKenney, S.; Zandvliet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain deeper insights into how technology restructures the classroom as a spatial setting and how the positioning of these technologies can be associated with educational practices. The research includes a photographic and schematic representation of 115 classrooms in 12 primary schools in Belgium, resulting in a…

  17. Validating Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Mainstream Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Jennifer L.; Groves, Emily A.; Reynish, Lisa C.; Francis, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support the use of trial-based functional analyses, particularly in classroom settings. However, there currently are no evaluations of this procedure with typically developing children. Furthermore, it is possible that refinements may be needed to adapt trial-based analyses to mainstream classrooms. This study was…

  18. Evaluation of the Utility of a Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis in Early Intervention Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Paden, Amber; Dickes, Nitasha

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a discrete-trial functional analysis implemented by regular classroom staff in a classroom setting. The results suggest that the discrete-trial functional analysis identified a social function for each participant and may require fewer staff than standard functional analysis procedures.

  19. Sociology of the Prison Classroom: Marginalized Identities and Sociological Imaginations behind Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrotta, Kylie L.; Thompson, Gretchen H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use sociology of the college classroom to analyze their experiences as feminists teaching sociology courses in the "unconventional setting" of prison. Reflective writing was used to chronicle experiences in the classes. They apply the concepts of doing gender, interaction order, and emotion work to the prison classroom. Based on their…

  20. Creating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere: Teachers' Use of Effective Praise and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Snyder, Angela; Al-Hendawi, Maha; Vo, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Creating a positive and engaging classroom atmosphere is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage children's learning and prevent problem behaviors from occurring. Teachers' responses to children's appropriate and problem behavior can help set the tone of the classroom environment. Creating positive interactions between a…